VOL I n E 53. NEW SERIES. THE BEDFORD GAZETTE IS PUBLISHED EVF.RV FRIDAY MORNING, BY MEYERS & BEN FORD, At the following terms, to wit: $1.50 per annum, CASH, in advance. $2.00 " " it" paid within the year. $2.50 " it not paid within the year. CT?°"No subscription taken lor less than six months. [Gz""Nio paper discontinued until all arrearages are paid, unless at the opt inn of the publishers, it has been decided by the Lotted States Courts, that the stoppage of a newspaper without the payment of ar rearages, is prima fact' evidence ol fraud and is a criminal offence. CF""The courts have decided that persons are ac countable for the subscription price of new-papers, if they take them from the po-t office, whether they subscribe tor them, or not. sel cc t }3 oet rd. vVvV T ■ - THE MODERN BELLE. The daughter sits in the parlor, And rocks on her easy chair, She is dressed in silks and satins, And jewels are in her hair: She inks, and giggles, and simpers And -irripers, and giggle*, and winks; And though -tie talk* but little, it's vastly more than she thinks. ller father goes clad in ru-ets— All dirty and seedy at that ; Ilis coat is out at the elbow, And he wears a shocking bad hat. He is hoarding and saving his dollars, So carefully, day by day. While she on her whims and fancies. 1 squandering them all awav. fsiie lies in bed of a morning, Until the hour of noon, 1 hen comes down snapping and snarling, Because she's called too soon, ller hair is silli in papers. Her cheeks still dahbled with paint— Remains of last night's blushes Before she attempted to taint. Her feet are so very little. Her hands o very white. Her jewels so very heavy, And her head so very light ; Her color is aiatle of cosmetics— -1 hough this she'll never own; Her bQdy is mostly cotton, And her heart is wholly stone. She falls in love with a fellow Who swells with a foreign air ; lie marries her lor her money, She marries him lor his hair — tine of the very best matches; Both are well mated in life; She'* got a fool for a hu-band. And tie's got a fool for a wife. 11l t s c c 11 an c o us. jFrom Diekejis* Household Words.] DEBTOR ISO CREDITOR. I suppose we are ail burn with a mission. Those who do not find one ready-made to their hands- are never happy until they have created one; and therefore it comes to the same thing in tlie end, whether we are b irti with a mis sion or without one. My mission has been to srive credit. lam the successor to the Ijte John Smirker. In whatever books of account my name stands, you will always find it on the right side, with a balance in my favor. Alv fa ther thought the best thing fie could do to settle me in life was to buy the good-will of the west end business of the fate John Smirker, with branches in both the great University cities ; established in seventeen hundred and fifty, and largely patronized by the aristocracy. I enter ed upon mv new sphere in a calm and dutiful manner : neither desponding nor enthusiastic. I am naturally of a. quiet and meditative turn of mind : given to inquiry, and, perhaps, rather quick in perceiving necessary reforms, though the last man in the world to have (he robust energv to carry them out. My predecessor, the late John Smirker, in giving over the long list of book-debts that my father had purchased, dilated very warmly upon the immense value of customers who quartered, Heaven knows what, tijion their shields, and never took less than five years' credit. "What is business," he inquired, "without hook-debts/ A thing without root, sir,— wholly without root. You have no hold upon your connexion. In fact, votf hare, no connexion. Without book-debts, <hev come to-day, and go to-morrow." | did not dispute I Lis position, for I never argue. He was the born tradesman, ami I acted upon this precepts, o' - ar me, what trouble he took to plant the rants that foliated and branched off onto every ramification of hook-debts! How he watered, and dibbled, and forced them ! Ho v lie nursed them up at compound interest, -tili th- right time came fur him (u Mi an obvi ous debtor with a post-obit, or to cot down a slippery one wth a summary judgment With what a hiarui <m;!e he would refuse the early tender of a green young debtor, fi>r fear that, once set free, he would transplant his custom to another establishment! What decoy-ducks tie let fly among rich young university and miliU- j rv noodles, to get them enticed to his shop ' Yet, when lie got them, and any of them did not pav which was nut often, (for old Smirker j had a keen scent, and seldom put his fashiona ble commission-agents upon a wrong* one,) how he raved at the looseness of the law ! Well, I cave at it too, sometimes, and with good rea son. For a man need not leave the world for the church or a monkish seclusion to Jearn patience and to mortify the passions, while the ranks of trade are open to him. Neither need a man who wishes to see the world, as it is called, and study his fellow-men, spend his money in travelling through Europe, and his nights in ! the streets, while the ranks of trade are open to him. Neither need a reflective law-reformer i reiire with Ins jionderous tomes to some eremit ical and inaccessible nook in the innermost of all Inner Temples, there to perfect principles I which, when forced upon the world, shall pro -1 mote the greatest happiness otthe gientest num ber, while the ranks of trade are open to him. i Christian recluse, student of the world, and ! ardent Benthamite, may all lake their places behind the glass of my counting-house-door, and ' find their lime not unprofilably expended. The greatest diliic tilly that I labor under is infants—slurdv infants. They bristle up in every other page of my costly ledger (costly, I call it, because it is nearly all I got lor my ten ■ thousand pounds;) they aie more costly under the head of Cambridge than London : and more j fruitful under the head o( Oxford than Cam i bridge. Physically they seem to he a very fine (airily of robust, responsible young men ; Jegal i ly they are held tube weak, and irresjioiisible idiots. \ isuallv they stand before me a> a i race cif palpable, moustached, solid giant*: but when I try to touch them with lite strong arm ! of the law, like the spectres of the Urorkeii they melt into thm air, and the strong arm id the j law becomes strangely paralvz-d. \oung I/ird Merthvr Tydvil is a fair aveiage specimen of (tie infant debtor. L-t him sit for Ins portrait under two phases,—out of court and in court. Out of court, then, he rides a find high-spirited horse, which he manages with the ease and grace ofati old patrician horseman. In the cricket-field he bats like a young IMcuM, and howls with the velocity of a catapult. On the river it is a sight to see hon pull the stroke oar against wind and tide ; and he is the reverse of contemptible when he puts on the gloves with a bargeman ofthe Cam. He wrestles and ! does the backfall better than any man in all Tllvna. His age is twenty years and nine months. His muscles are well set, and he looks older. He handles a skilful cue at the : billiard-table, and makes an occasional bet upon . horse-races with a good deal of judgment. In tellectually he seems to know pretty well what he is about. I don't think his name is across any accommodation bills, but what he has re ceived half the cash tor. As to the amusements and vices ofthe metropolis, lie i< one of the best judges of them in town, and acts as mentor to many other infants. His ta.*te in wine is considered good, and his verdict on the merits 1 of a new ballet-dancer is held to be final. In court. Lord Alerfhvr presents a very differ ent appearance. That coilar, which used to stand up with such unbending parchment-like stiffness, the admiration and envy of Piccadil ly, is now, in lire eyes of the law, turned down over each shoulder with infantine glace, and fastened with a ribbon of most becoming j simplicity. That Chesterfield, poncho, sack, outer-garment, coat, cloak, or whatever it is called, which had such a mature, distinguished, Tattersall, club-like air in Regent Street and H vde Park, is now, in the eyes of the law, converted into a juvenile pinafore, fastened ! round the waist with a schoolboy's belt, and conferring on its wearer the much-coveted gift of perpetual youth. That embroidered cigar j case—suspicions gift—filled with the choicest products of Havana, at costly prices, vanishes, in the eye of the law, or becomes transformed into a box of sweetmeats, provided bv the I thoughtful care of a mother or a sister. That i onvs-handled bamboo-cane, which taps the i neatest of boots on tiie lounge in Rotten Row, | is now, in tile eves of the law, a mere roundel | stick, or an implement used in guiding a hoop. Those rooms in Jermyn Street, decorated with pictures in the chastest taste, and littered ! with boxing-gloves, broker, pipes, and charn j pagne corks, are, in the eyes of the law, the j cradle of a child—a child who possesses a char ■ med life, invulnerable to the shafts of the hate : ful sheriff". Poor, young, innocent, .neglected infant nobleman—type of some hundreds of children that I find upon my books, or rather : the hooks ofthe late John Smirker, mv prede ; cessor—when I hear that thy aristocratic lather . Karl Merthvr Tvdvil, is in Italy with no I matter, I will not dwell upon the painful sub ject, and that the paternal acres are safelv lodged •it a dingv office in Lincoln's Inn Fields, I feel : a sense of pity for thee springing up in my | snobbish, tradesman's heart. 1 have fed thee, and f have clothed thee, and 1 look upon thee as my own. Even if the law did not throw its | protecting shield before thee, I would not touch a hair of thv patrician, infant head ; although thv ingratitude were ten times greater than it is. lam not unreasonable, and can make allow ance for the feelings of a boy whose ancestors were descended from the earliest .Normans ; I do not ask for positive atfection, but only for a ' slight diminution of contempt. Spoiled child of trade, and chosen one of law, let thy com mercial father know thy wants and wishes, and he is content. But Shadrach, junior, when you stand up in court, pleading infancy with all the childish grace of.in Israelite that knows no guile, I ain amused at so clever an adaptation of Christian customs, but I am astonished at the learned credulity of the Bench. It is true that your people have no registry of baptisiTi, and every thing, therefore, depends upon your own asser tion : hut I have known you so many years a bout town, I have watched your fully develop ed frame standing out prominently in most (da ces of public resort ; I have witnessed your intellectual keenness in (daces where keenness was no rare quality, that, in my eyes, your t>ack is beginning to bend, and your hair becoming silvered with gray* and I marvel much that a paternal law gathers you as a trusting, trusted innocent in the folds of its sheltering arms. There are many octogenarian debtors upon my books, or rather the books of the late John Smii ker, mv beloved Shadrach, who are more in need of legal protection than your youthful self. The next rose which the law has planted in the path of debt—the next thorn which it lias planted in the oath of credit —is the Statute of BEDFORD, PA., FRIDAY MORNING, JANUARY 15, 1858. Limitations. A man of untutored reasoning powers, whose faculties hail not been sharpen ed into an unnatural state of acuteoess by legal study, would suppose that the longer a debt stood unpaid, the more would the obligation fie increased. He would be astonished, there fine, t > find that ju*t at the moment when he was about to claim an old debt with interest, simple and compound, and was probably going to reproach the debtor with keeping out of the way so long that what he considered to be a moral ciiine was ati act ol well calculated thrift inhaving the fleet of annulling the claim according to act of parliament. It would be difficult to explain to such a man upon what principle an act was framed, that allowed every debtor to go free who contrived to keep out of the way of his creditor six years. The wonderful doctrine that the more you wiong a man in trade the inor e you may, being embodied in a statute having legal force, Is en couiaging to that large class that 1 call deb tors ; but i- not so encouraging to that other large, and very useful, tax-paying class that I call creditors. The inference is, that the Nate u ish'-s to cultivate the first at the expense of the second. Or perhaps, it is only a masked movement intended by discouraging the second to destroy the first? When the liigbt Honorable Loitl Had leave, K. C. 8., takes, a* a rule, from hi*- tradesman, five years' credit, he has only to stretch the period one year more to carry it into eternity. I certainly was delighted to find the Rever end Onsi'-n Bilk, Al. A., whom I—or lather the late John Smirker—had nursed thiough the different sla-res of fighting Oxonian, plucked undergraduate crammed, 15. A. down to the liv ing of St. Vitus-in-theFens, pleading "statute run,"' ami declining to pay lor the college extravagances which he had indulged in with such vigorous prodigality. Jt is a good sign when a man especially a clergyman—so far informs the eirors of his vouth as to turn his hack upon earlv dissipations, even to the extent of repudiating payment for them. If ever the protecting shield of legal mercy was righteously ♦•xtended over ;he prostrate firm of the suffering debtor, it is in the case of the Reverned Origen Bilk, Al. A. Me has suffered much from the ruthless hands of the importunate creditor, who insisted upon clothing hun with the riches! pur ple arirl the finest linen, feeding him with the daintiest viands, and nourishing him with the rarest wines, and who now would seek him out in the calm ec fusion of bin clerical hermi tage, and who—did not a considerate law most benevolently interfere—would destroy the un ruffled serenity of that meditative mind, which now dwells upon things that are higher than the tailor's hill which perishefh. The same tenderness to debtors who keep out of the way, distinguishes even some of the severest laws which have been the product of our recent legislation. The debtor is the dar ling of the law, and it cannot find it 111 its heart to deal harshlv with him. The new Bills of Exchange Act, which allows nr." the tyranny of a judgment in the short period of twelve days, supposing that my victim lias no valid plea or answer that he is not indebted to me, breaks down entirely ifrnv victim keep out ol the way for six clear months: and my thirst for vengeance is tantalized with the tortures of the old, tardy, and expensive mode of proceeding. It I apply for the more hum ble assistance of I lie County Court, I find I have stil! many weeks to wait before the pres sure of business will allow of mv obtaining a hearing. When my victim comes up and tells a plaintive story of his inability to pay in less than a given time of very bug duration, the judge, unbued with the proper spirit of the law, inclines his ear to the dictates of mercy, checks the eager tyranny of the heartless credi tor, and grants an order to pay in twelve easy instalments. When tne time for the first and second payment has long passed without my victim making any attempt to keep to his bond, T have then the option of procuring what is called a judgment summons, which, if lam fortunate enough to get it served per sonally upon my victim, within a certain time, will fix another remote day for a new trial, when my victim, will have to show cause why he failed in iiis contract. If the claim should lie under twenty pounds, and my victim be a single young man victim, residing in furnished lodgings, with no estate, properly so called, he has merely Jo state this fact to the willing ear of the court, and leave me, like a baffled tiger, how ling for my prey- If my victim thinks proper to set nail for the Cocos Islands, or some other land, w here creditors cease from troubling, and the debtor is at rest, I can watch him go on board his bounding bark, and, like Calypso, mourn for the departure of Jmy Ulysses ; but alas! I can do no more, for lie only owes me nineteen pounds nineteen shillings and eleven pence. Two pence more, and—shades of So ion and Lycurgus—l am avenged ! When I turn over the old unpaid bills of exchange of my predecessor, the late John Smirker, and find amongst them many under five pounds, I am reminded of an old act passed in the time of George the Third, and never yet repealed, that is a perfect tri umph of protective legislation. The bill of exchange the pride and glory of modern commerce—is looked upon as a modern lux ury intended only for the enjoyment of the wholesale trade, and only granted to the re tail undet rhe most praiseworthy precautions. Poor Smirker's bills, I need not say, are so much waste paper; for he had no idea of the requirements of the law tauching the imple ments he was dealing with. A bill of exchange, according to George the Third—l say accor ding to him, because he was anything but a royal nonentity in the state—if under five pounds, must not be drawn at a longer period than twenty-one days; it must he paid away on the same day as that on which it is drawn : its endorsement must set forth the name and address of the person to whom it is endorsed, and such endorsement, with every name upon
Freedom of Thought and Opinion. it but the acceptors, must bear the signature of an attesting witness ! If any one of these requirements is neglected, it is fatal to the validity of the instrument. When this cautious clause was perfected, the old king must have felt that although he had entrusted a dangerous squib in the hands of the small ignorant tra ders of the country, he had taken every pre caution to issue directions lor letting it off, so that the case might not burst and injure their fingers.-" Our present rulers must be of the same way of thinking, as they allow this clause to remain unexpunged from the statute-book, and deny the benefits of bills of exchange as proofs of debts and negotiable instruments, to all transactions under five pounds. Ibe next thing that troubles me is a linger ing remnant of feudality. The haughty baron of the nineteenth century does not despoil his humble retainer and tradesman, but he takes credit, which is nearly the same thing. If the haughty baron is a member of the roval house hold, the feudal element is increased. The haughty baron rides roughshod over all human feelings, and wears out patience of the most i endurable kind. The haughty baron keeps I me at bay to the very verge of the Statute ot! Limitations, and, in self-defence, lam obliged ! to have recourse to the law. The law informs me tha' I can do nothing without the written! sanction of lire lord steward of her Majesty's hourelnld. Igo to Buckingham Palace, and after tie usual delay and trouble, I obtain an intervew with an under-secretarv, who tells me tha my application for permission to sue must le made in writing, accompanied with full particulars of my claim: and he kindly j advis<-i me to make it upon folio foolscap, with i a iTiargn. I send in my claim upon the haugh- : ty baroi in the required form, and in a few days 1 rceive a reply from the lord steward, slating hat il the money be not paid within a I certain'iberal specified time fiom the date of : the ioii steward's communication, I have j the lorr steward's permission to take legal proceediigs against the hauglilv baton. It is amusng to find a royal palace converted i into a *anctuary for haughty but insolvent! barons. Jt is possible that i( the rude emissary i of the lasv was allowed free entrance to tire | sacred pvcincts of the household, the royal banquet i the evening would be graced with i at h ast ae gold stick in waiting less than the royal eye had whilome been accustomed to i look upon T b*lfPvr*th-anbe- bt-sl authorities on govern ment hdii that taxes are paid for protection to person aid property. I will admit that my person isfairly protected ; but it my heroic statesmai can spare a little time from those bnllant employments of ornamental govern ment— Ldiati annexations, colonial extensions, military :ampaigns, diplomatic subtleties, and foreign iga'ions—lor the tnore homely task of protecting my property, bv looking into the relationsol debtor and creditor, the successor of the late Jam Smirker, the next time the collec tor calls, rill pay his taxes with a more cheer ful cotintrtance. THKVOICEOF DEAD NATIONS Mr. Aljer in his recent celebrated oration, uttered til following impressive passage, which ought to t written on the statute books of every Statin the Union : "The dead nations whose giat skeletonsare now bleaching &, crum bling on te sands ol time, all died of sin. It was tlieircrirnes that dug their graves, and pushed tern in. Licentious luxury sapped the lountition strength, and rolled the live vir tue of oe—and it disappeared beneath the green pot of its own corruption. Brutal war made abusitiess of and carried in every direction drew upon another the combined wrath oftie world—and it was dashed upon the rock f its own barbarous force. Domestic enormous, trodden under foot and goad! to madness rose on another—and but ted iin the conflagration and slaughter of . its own pivocation. Infernal antipathies based jon sect difference, fed by selfish interest and laurjng debate finally exploded in the cjuarelsote parties of another—and hurled its dissever* fragments to ruin by the convulsive i eruptionjf its own wrong and hatred. Of all the migfy empires whose melancholy ghost now pacthe pallid margin of oblivion; not one ever sun but its own fail was through internal iniquityn some way or other. Shall the state ly shaded" republican America too go down to join the oleful company of crowded spectres, moving lere beneath to rise up at her coming witi tbeardonic mock "Art thou also as we 1" II ve uald avoid their doom of vengeance we mist nottread their path of guilt. THE DOOM OF THE WOULD What his change is to be we dare not even rijectup, but we see in the heavens themselves sue traces of destructive elements and some ilical ions of their power. The fragments of pnets—the descent of meteoric stones upon or globe—the wheeling comets welding their lse materials at the solar surface—the volca n eruption in our own statelite—the appear a:e of new stars, and the disappearance of oers—all foreshadow that impending con vsion to which the system, of the world doomed. Thus placed on a planet which is tse burned up, and under heavens which are toass away : thus resting, as it were, on the cieteries and dwelling upon the mansolenms ooriner worlds, let us learn lessons ot humility I a wisdom, if we have not already been taught 1 i:he school of revelation.— JVorth British j Jiiew. 'AKE DCE REST AND RECREATION.—I heard a gd husband at his book say, that to omit study S'P time of the year, made as much for the in cise of learning as to let the land lie fallow fgoine time maketh for the belter increase of ci. If the land be ploughed every year, the ci comelh up thin ; so those which never leave png on their books have oftentimes as thin irntion as other poor men — Rogtr .Ischam. NOTHING TO WEAR. 1 was an awful hot day, the sun set the night j before in a red nest, and hatched out the hottest day that ever caused an old fogy to "hist" a blue cotton "umbril"—the earth was parched | till the cracks could be used lor boot jacks, the grass wilted tike a toad in a snow storm, the flies were asleep under the toad stools, and j molasses was too lazy to run. I bad a cent in mv pocket, and the heat gave the Goddess of Liberty ujxm it a rush of blood to the head causing her to look as if she had the mumps on both sides, and a wart on her nose. It was some hot. I was silting upon a box marked IriangleG trying to keep the corners of my shirt collar from sli ding down into my hoots. The horn buttons of my coat had already melted and stopped up the hole of my night key. I felt so kinder flabbv that I believe you could have cut button holes in my ribs' and buttoned them to my toes. Things were kinder coming focus to me when along came a friend in a wagon. I call it a wa i gon, but it looked more like a four-wheeled hen | coop. It was drawn by two somethings; I i suppose they call them horses, but I never saw | more knife-handle material, and les* flesh, than were inside those two hides. I verily believe j that if they had sneezed they would have blown themselves out of their skins. My friend sings out, "Halloo Jack, you want to go a swim ming ? "Will a Butcher Boy eat dumplings j hard ? ' says I, and in 1 jumped. I found four other friends slowed away under the seat trying to keep shady, the driver brought down his stick upon the two hides very manv sever al times which sounded like a nigger beating a l carpet, and after considerable of an effort the apologies got started, and we had a lively ride. Ihe wheels hadn't been greased since Noah wore his first night cap, and they furnished us with some rich, I can't say rare music: while the Innd wheels were grinding "Dead March in Saul," the fore wheels were playing "'Jordan is a hard road to travel;" every time the wheels would go (lou-n into a rut, the nigli skeleton— who had the string hall would twitch his hind leg up giving us a jolt that would cause our chins to come into juxtaposition with the toes of our boots. I had just made up my mind to get out and walk ahead, when wr arrived at the sea shore, the paradise of long clams, & the Eden of Crabs. We had nothing to tie up so we tied to it—and down into the surf. We j all disrobed and—leaving our clothes in the j w agon, at a given signal dove into the "mul titudinous seas." I went undFfhead ind ears, cut my toe on a clam shell, and came up. I : spit out sundry pebble slones, scratched a number of the countless sands of the sea shore ont of my head, danced on one foot 'till I burst the bubbles in my ears, when I became aware that my comrades were shouting pretty lustily. I pushed the hair out of in)' eyes and w hat a sight for a nervous man ! I'll be darned if the animals didn't get scared at the splashing- in the water or else they had smelt an oat and they were on the home stretch with all our clothes. They rapidly disappeared from si<*ht old st ring halt's hind leg jerking against tht dash board at every •'turn." We were in an interesting condition. Five miles from home. I wish I was a canvass backed duck more than once that alter noon ; it was romantic but not very funny, we strayed in the water till our skins looked like patent isinglass, and the wa ter soaked through till we could ta.-te the salt, when we cut stick for a neighboring cornfield, and had just got fairly hid when down came two loads ofthe prettiest and sauciest hoarding school girls that ever wore bloomers. We were congratulating upon our escape, when we heard that rich Irish brogue : we heard the corn crash ing, and a voice crying, "Sake him! Sake him !" and had just time to climb a tree, when up rushed the most open countenanced bull-dog I ever saw, with a homely visaged Celtic gen tleman behind him. "Sure airit ye a pretty group of model artists up there, ye blackguards: ye was alter stealing gentleman's corn, was ye ?" The damsels were bathing close by us, and there was not a leaf on the tree, and we begged hard that the Irish gent would shut his mouth or the girls would see us; but 'twas no use, we hadn't a hot potato and we couldn't stop him ; and good Lord, the dear maidens saw us, and the way the water foamed for a second was a caution ; they didn't stand upon the order of their going but went at once. We told Pat our story and agreed to pay him to go up to town and get our clothes. "Divil a bit wiil f I do it," says he, "if one of ve will go to the house with a front door at the side I'll give him some of me own clothes, and he can take the r.ice walk himself, and to make sure he'll come back, I'll leave the dog to take care of ve," and leave him he did. The dog kept guard and lor three hours and a half we roosted in that nld tree, fighting the horse flies and mosquitoes. I got bit till there wasn't a fresh place to bite, and I looked like a two-legged nutmeg grater.— Every time we stirred, the dog would growl, and I didn't feel bad when Sam came back with the clothes. The anniversary of that day I always fast. It was wonderful to see how some young ladies blushed when we met them on the street after that and how sud denly a boy about my size became interested in the number of cracks in the pavement when he saw a hoop-skirt approaching in the din; distance. Smith and Jones, merchants, were rushing round just ten minutes before two o'clock rais ing funds, when going round the corner of Kilby street, Jones cam- in contact with Smith, knock ing him down. Smith was excited, and exclai med— "Do that again and I'll knock you into the middle ol next week." "Mv dear fellow," shouted Jones, "DO IT, and I'll give you a thousand dollars, for if I can jnlv get through till then without breaking, I'm safe.''— Boston Gazette. Raleigh Register announces the ud den death of James Aleban, Esq., a prominent ritizen of North Carolina. WHOLE !\(HBER 977 ft. SKILL IN EVERYTHING. The science of agriculture is made up of a whole group of sciences, whose theory and ap -1 plications the farmer must understand and practice, if he would be master of his profess ion. He must know something of Chemistry, to understand the treatment of the soil, and the composing and use of manures. He must un derstand Botany, to manage all the vegetables, grains and fruits which he grows. He needs Physiology and medicine, to treat his animals well in health and sickness. If he builds a house or barn, a knowledge of architecture will stand him in good stead. If he has a threshing machine, or mower, he needs some acquaintance with the principles of motive power. In the construction of drains, he must apply the prin ciples of Hydrostatics, and to some extent of Hydraulics too. We give these facts as ill ut rat ions of our meaning, not bv any means as exhausting what might properly be said on this matter. The truth is the farmer needs to be a bit of a genius in almost anything, if he would stand at the head of his profession. It was not our purpose, however, when we penned the heading of this article, tosav much on these grave thrrnes. It was an humbler top ic that tempted our pen. V\ e wish to exhort our readers to become well skilled in all the minor operations which the management of the farm and garden involves. What we mean, two examples will show : Mr. A. is a farmer, and nothing else. If a strap breaks in a harness, he sends two miles to have it mended. If a horse's leg is bruised, he will not treat it himself, but sends for a far rier. His bee-hives need repairing, and he hires a carpenter to do what a very little skill would enable him to do for himself. He can not even mend an old sled, or repair a broken backed rake, without foreign aid. He is a good farmer. He keeps his implements in good condition, too, but it is at a great expense. Mr. B. is another sort of a man. He is as good a farmer as Mr. A. But he is limber and elastic too. All the little jobs about the house he does himself, or teaches his boys to do. He can roof a house ; he can hoop a barrel, or he can dig and wall a well. He can build a shed, put a spoke into a wagon-wheel, graft or bud a fruit-tree, or make a new harness out of an old one, with an awl, waxed end, and a bit of leath er. If he attends a lair, he sees the po- u * in the improvements that are on exhibition, ie can apply many of them to his own work with out any further aid. We will go but little further. Our readers see what we are at. We hope they will them selves be, and bring up their sons to be, men who will have some skill in everything. Here are some reasons for this recommenda tion, which we will give at the risk of making this article a little longer : I. Almost every farmer will need this kind of skill. .Not one in a thousand will live so nrar a village where there are skilled mechan ics, as to be able to. use their aid at all time*. Fewer still will farm on so large a scale as to embrace all these trades in the force employed on their own grounds. He will need some skill himself. 2. Such skill renders its possessor more in dependent. The sense of such independence is a great comfort". Its exercise is sometimes a great advantage. 3. It saves a great amount of time and money- We knew a man who lost a whole dav's time and several dollars in money in the following way : A part of the harness was taken away. He had not enough tact and skill to repair "it with a piece of a rein or halter. It will develop talent in many persons, where it now slumbers useless and powerless. The exercises in mechanical skill furnished by the farm, has awakened the mind of many a who has ripened into a noble and skilful me chanic or aitist. But we have said enough. Give the boys and girls a good chance to cultivate their pow ers in a practical way. You can never predict what treasures you will find.— Ohio Farmer. DETERMINATION OF PURPOSE. The earnest man wins away for himself and earnestness and truth go together.— Never af fect to be other than you are, either richer or wiser. Never be ashamed to say, "I do not know;" men will then believe you when you say, - l I do know."—Never be ashamed to say, whether as applied to time or money, " I can not afford it," "I cannot afford to waste an hour in idleness, to which you invite me," "I cannot afford the guinea you ask me to throw away." Once establish yourself, and your mode of life, as what they really are, and vour toot is on solid ground, whether for the gradual step onware, or for the sudden spring over a precipice. From these maxims let us deduce another—learn to say "No," with decision. "Yes," with caution; "No," with decision whenever it implies a promise. A promise once given is a bond involable. A man is al ready of consequence in the world when it <s known that we can implicitly rely upon him. I have frequently seen, in life, a person prefer red to a long list of applicants, for some impor tant charge which lifts him at once into station and fortune, merely because he has this reput*- tion, that when he says he knows a thing he knows it, and when he says he will do a thing he will do it.—Muse, gentlemen, over these maxims; you will find it easy enough to prac tice them, for when you have added them to gether, the sum total looks very much like a Scotchman.— Sir E. Bulwer Lytton. new Treasury notes are to be issued in about one week. The Union says they are to be executed in the best style of American art. Neither act nor speak ill, though free from witnesses. Learn to stand more in two oftht self than of others. VOL 1, NO. 24.