VOLOIE .18. NEW SERIES. THE BEDFORD GAZETTE IS PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY MORNING BY *SV 81. F. MEYERS, At the following terms, to wit : f! .50 per ancum, CAsn, in advance. 5f2.00 *< paid within the year. $2.50 tt a jf notpaid within the year. Subscription taken lor less thau six months. KF""No paper discontinued until all arrearages ire paid , unless at the option of the publisher, it tag been decided by the United Slates Courts that the stoppage of a newspaper without the payment ol arrearages, is prima facie evidence ot fraud and is a criminal offence. lX7*The courts have decided that persons are ac countable for the subscription price of newspa pers, ii tUej take them from the post othce, wheth er 'hey subscribe for them, or not. RATES OF CHARGES FOR ADVER TISING. Transient advertisements will be inserted at the rate of SI.OO per square of ten lines for three inser tions or less, but for every subsequent insertion, 2-5 cents per square will be charged in addition.— labia and figure work double price. Auditor's notices ten lines and under, SI.OO ; upwards often lines and under fifteen $1.50. Liberal reductions m .de to persons advertising by the year. ~FRtm\n MESSM Fellow Citizens of the Senile and House of Representatives : In the midst of unprecedented political trou bles, we have cause of great gratitude to God for unusual good health and most abundant har vests. You will not be surprised to learn that in the peculiar exigencies of the times our in tercourse with foreign nations ha* been attend ed with profound solicitude, chietly turning upon our own domestic affairs. A disloyal portion of the American people have during the whole year been engaged in an attempt to divide and destroy the Union. A nation which endures factious domestic divisions is exposed to disrespect abroad, and one party, if not both, is sure sooner or later to invoke foreign inter vention. Nations thus tempted to interfere are not always able to resist the counsels of seem ing expediency and ungenerous ambition, al though measures adopted tindeV such influences seldom fail to be unfortunate and injurious to those adopting them. The disloyal citizens of the United States, I who have offered the ruin of our country in re- j turn for the aid and cumtort which they have j invoked abroad, have received less patronage ! and encouragement than they probably expect ed. If it were jus', to suppose, as the insur gents have seemed to assume, that foreign na tion:, in ibis case, d'sturctfmr .. n:us and treaty obligations, would act solely and sel fishly for the most speedv restoration of com merce, including especially the acquisition of cotton, those nations appear, as yet, not to have seen their *vay to their object more directly or clearly through the destruction than through the preservation of the Union. If we could dare to believe that foreign nations are actuated by no higher principle than this I am quite sure a sound argument could be made to show them that they can reach their aim more readily and ea*ily bv aiding to crush this rebellion than by giving encouragement to it The principal le ver relied on by the insurgents for exciting for eign nations to hostility against us, as already intimated, is the embarrassment of commerce. Those nations, however, not improbably, saw from the first that it was the union which made as well our foreign as our domestic commerce. They can scarcely have failed to perceive that f!ie effort for disunion produces the existing dif ficulty, and 'hat one strong nation promises more durable and more extensive, valua ble and reliable commerce than can the same notion broken into hostile fragments. It is not my purpose to review our discussions with for eign states, because whatever might be their wishes or dispositions, the integrity of our coun try and the stability of Government mainly de pend, not upon them, but on the loyalty, virtue, patriotism and intelligence of the American people. The correspondence itself, with the usual reservations, is herewith submitted. I venture to hope that it will appear that we have practiced prudence and liberality towards for eign potvers. averting causes ol irritation, and with firmness maintaining our own rights and honor. Since, however, it is apparent that here as in every other state, foreign dangers neces sarily attend domestic difficulties I recommend that adequate and ample measures be adopted for maintaining the public defenses on every side. While under this general recommenda tion provision for delending our sea coast line already occurs to the mind, I also, in the same connection, ask the attention ot Congress to our great lakes and rivers. It is believed that some fortifications niyj depots of arms and munitions, wth harbor and navigation improvements, all at well selected points upon these, would be of great importance to the national defence and preservation. T ask attention to the views of the Secretary ot War expressed in his report upon the same general subject. I deem it of importance that j the loyal regions of East Tennessee and West- J ern North Carolina should be connected with j Kentucky and other faithful parts of the Union by railroad. I therefore recommend, as a mil itary measure, that Congress provide for the of such a road as speedily as pos sible. K-ntucky no doubt will co-opeiate, and through her Legislature make the most judicious selection ol a line. The northern terminus j muct connect with some existing railroad, and whether the route shall be from Lexington or j Nicholasville to the Cumberland Gap, or from j Lebanon to the Tennessee line in the direction of Knoxville, or on some still different line, can easily be determined. Kentucky and the gen eral government co-operating, the work can be completed in a very short time, and when done it will be not only cf vast present usefulness, ! but also a valuable permanent improvement, worth its cast in all the temporary future. Some treaties, designed chietly for the inter ests of commerce, and having no grave politi cal importance, have bepn negotiated and will be submitted to the Senate for their considera tion. Although we have failed to induce some of the commercial Powers to adopt desirable melioration of the rigor of maritime war. we have removed all obstructions from the way of this humane reform, except such as are merely of an accidental occurrence. I invite your attention to the correspondence between her Britannic Majesty's Minister, ac credited to this Government, and the Secretary of State, relative to the detention of the British ship Perthshire, in June last by the United Slate* steamer Massachusetts, for a supposed breach of blockade. As this detention was p< "casioneiJ by an obvious misapprehension of the facts, and as justice requires that we should commit no belligerant act not founded on strict right, as sanctioned by public law, I recommend that an appropriation be made to satisfy the reasonable demand of the owners of the vessel for her detention. I repeat the recommendation of mv prede cessor in his annua! message to Congress in De cember last, in regard to the disposition ol the surplus which will probably remain after satis fying the claims o! American citizens against China, pursuant to the awards of the commis sioners, under the act of the 3d of March, 1859. . 11, however, it should not be deemed advisable to carry that recommendation into effect, I , would suggest that a'uthority be given for in vesting the principal over the proceeds of the surplus referred to, in good securities, with a view to the satisfaction of such other just claims of our citizens against China as are not unlike ly to arise hereafter in the course of our exten sive trade with that Umpire. By the Act of the sth of August last, Con gress authorized the President to instruct the commanders of suitable vpssefs to defend them selves against and to capture pirates. This au thority has been exercised jn a single instance only. For the more effectual protection of our extensive and valuable commerce, in the East ern seas especially, it seems to me that it would a' c o be advisable to authorize the commanders of sailing vessels to recapturp any prizes which pirates may make of United States vessels and thpir cargoes, and the Consular Courts now es tablished oy law in Eastern countries to adju dicate the cases in event that this should not be objected to by the heal authorities. If any good reason prists why we should per severe longer in withholding our recognition of the independence and sovereignty of H.ayti and Liberia, fam unable to discern it unwil ling, hotvever, to inaugurate a novel policy in gress. I submit, for your consideration, the expedi ency of an appropriation for maintaining a charge-de-affairs near each of those new States. It does not admit of doubt that important com mercial advantages might he secured by favor able treaties wi.h them. The operations of the Treasury during the period which has elapsed since your adjourn ment have been conducted with signal success. The patriotism of the people has placed at the disposal ol the government the large means de manded by the public exigencies. Much of th? National Loan has been taken bv citizens of the industrial classes, whose confidence in their country's faith and zeal for their country's de liverance from present oeril have induced them to contribute to the support of the government the whole of their limited acquisitions. This fact imposes peculiar obligations to economy in disbursement and energy in action. The revenue from all sources for the finan cial year ending on the 30th of June, 1861, was eighty-six millions eight hundred and thir ty-five thousand nine hundred dollars and twen ty-seven cents, and the expenditures for the same period, including payments on account of the public debt, were eighty-four millions five hundred and seventy-eight thousand eight hun dred and thirty-four dollars and forty-seven cents, leaving a balance in the treasury on the Ist of July, of two million two hundred and fifty-seven thousand and sixty-five dollars and ' eighty cents. For tlie first quarter of the fi nancial year, enJing on the 30th of September JB6l, the receipts from all sources, including the balance of Ist of July, were one hundred and two million five hundred and nine dollars, and twenty seven cents, and the expenses nine tv-eight millions two hundred and thirty-nine thousand seven hundred and thirt.-three dol lars and nine cents, leaving a balance on the Ist of October, 1861, of four million two hun dred and ninety-two thousand seven hundred and seventy-six dollais and eighteen cents. Estimates for the remaining three quarters of the year, and for the financial year 1863, to gether with his views of ways and means for meeting the demands contemplated by them, will be submitted to Congress by the Secretary of the Treasury. It is gratifying to know th3t the expenditures made necessary by the rebel lion are not beyond the resources of the loyal people, and to believe that the same patriotism which has thus far sustained the government will continue to sustain it till peace and union shall again bless the land. I respectfully refer to the report of the Sec retary of War for information respecting the numerical strength of the army, and for recom mendations hav : rig in view an increase of its I efficiency and the well being of the various branches of the service entrusted to his care. It is gratifying to know that the patriotism of the people has proved equal to the occasion, and that the number of troops tendered greatly ex ceed the forces which Congress authorized me to call into the field. I refer with pleasn-e to those portions of his report which make allu sion to the credible degree of discipline al ready atlained by our troops, and to the excel lent sanitary condition of the entire army. The recommendation of the Secretary for an organization of the militia upon a uniform ba sis is a subject of vital importance to the future safety of the country and is commended to the ! serious attention of Congress. The large addi tion to the regular army, in connection with BEDFORD, PA., FRIDAY MORNING, DECEMBER, 13,1861 : the defection that has so considerably diminish ed the number ot its officers, gives peculiar im portance to his recommendation for increasing the corps of cadets to the greatest capacity of the military academy. By mere omission, I presume, Congress has failed to provide chap lains for hospitals occupied by volunteers. This subject was brought to my notice and I was in duced to draw up the form of a letter, one copy I which, properly addressed, has been deliv-r --ed to each of the persons, and at the dates re spectively named, and stated in a schedule con taining also the form of the letter marked A, aod herewith transmitted. These gentlemen, I Understand, entered upon the duties designated at the time respectively stated in the schedule, and have labored faithfully therein evei since, and therefore recommend that they be compen sated at the same rate as chaplains in the army, and further suggest that general piovision be made for chaplains to serve at hospitals as well as with regiments. The report of the Secreta-y ol the NavV piesents in detail the operations of that branch of the s-rvjee, the activity and energy which have characterized its administration, and the resui'3 of measures to increase its efficiency and power. Such have been the additions, by con struction and purchase, that it mav almost be said a navy has been created and brought into service since our difficulties commenced. Be sides blockading our extensive cost, squadrons j larger than ever before assembled under our flag have been put afloat, and performed deeds which have increased our r.3val renown. 1 would invite special attention to th<* re commendation of the Secretary for a more per- j feet organization of the navy, by introducing! addi.ional grades in the service. The present j organization is defective and unsatisfactory, and , the suggestions submitted bv the department j will, it is believed, if adopted, obviate the diffi- ; cutties alluded to ; promote harmony, and in- ! crease the efficiency of the navy. There are three vacancies on the bench of the Supreme Court, two by the decease of Jus ! ncs Daniel and McLean and one by thp resig- ! nation of Justice Campbell. I have so far for borne making nominations to fill these vacan cies, for reasons which I will now state. Two I of the outgoing Judges resided within the States ! now overrun bv revolt, so that if successo-s | were appointed in the same localities thev could ; not now serve upon their circuits, and many of j the most competent men there probably would i not take the personal hazard of accepting to ' serve even here npon the Supreme Bench. I j ments Northward, thus disabling myself from j doing justice to the South on the return of peace, ' although T may remark, that to transfer to the i North one which has heretofore been in the South, would not, with reference to territory and population, be unjust. During the long : and brilliant judicial career of Judge McL°an, j Ins circuit grew into an empire, although too large for any one Judge to give the courts there- j in more than a nominal attendance, arising in j population from one million four hundred and I seventy-five thousand and eighteen in 1830, to 1 ; six mil lions one hundred and fifty-one thousand ' four hundred and five in 1860. Besides this the country generally has outgrown our present 1 judiciary. -If uniformity was at all intended, the system requires that all the States shall be accomoda ted with Circuit Courts, attended bv Supreme Judges; while, in fact, Wisconsin, Minnesota, I lowa, Kansas, Florida, Texas, California and j Oregon have never had any such Courts. Nor ! can this well be remedied without a change of j the system, because the adding of Judges to the j Supreme Court, enough for the accommodation j of ali parts ot the country with Circuit Coots, i would create a Court altogether too numerous ! for a judicial body of any sort and the evil of i it is one which will increase as new States come j into the Union. Circuit Courts, too. are useful j or they are not useful. If useful, no State j should he denied them. If not useful, no State j ' should have them. Let them be provided for | all, or abolished as to all. Three modifications j occur to me, eith rof which. I think, would be j an improvement on our present system : Let ; the Supreme Court be of convenient number in j every event ; then Ist, let the whole country > he divided into Circuits of convenient size, the : Supreme Judges to serve in a number ot them j corresponding to their own number, and inde- | pendent Circuit Judges be provided for all the . rest ; or. secondly, let the Supreme Judges be i relieved from Circuit duties, and Circuit Judges , provided for all the Circuits; or, thirdly dis- j pens* with Circuit Courts altogether, leaving J the judicial function wholly fo the District j Courts and an independent Supreme Court. I respectfully reccommend to the consid-ra tion of Congress the. present condition of the statute laws with the hope that Congress will be able to find an easy remedy for many nfthe in- i conveiences and evils which constantly embar- j rass those engaged in the practical administra- I lion of tlym. Since the organization of the j government. Congress has enacted some five | thousand acts and joint resolutions, which will fill more than six thousand closely printed pa ges, and are scattered through rnanv volumes Many of the acts have been drawn in and with the sufficient caution, so that their provision are often obscure in themselves or in conflict j with each other, or at least so doubtful as to render it very difficult for even the best informed person fo ascertain precisely what the statute law really is. It seems to me very important that the statute laws should be made as plain and intelligible as possible, and be re duced to as small a compass as may consist with the fullness and precision of the will of the Legislature, and the perspicuity of its j language. This, well done, would, I think, j ! greatly facilitate the labors of those whose duty ! | it is to assist in the administration of the laws, j and would be a lasting benefiit to the people by j placing before them in a more accessible and j
i intelligible from the laws which so deeply con- j cern their interest and their duties. Tarn in- Freedom of Thought and Opinion. | formed by some whose opinions I*respect that ; ali the Acts ol Congress now in force, and of & permament and general nature, might be revised and rewritten so as to be embraced in one volume or at most two volumes of ordinary and convenient size, and I respectfully recom end to Congress to consider the subject, and if my suggestion be approved, to devise such plan as to their wisdom shall seem most proper for tfi attainment of the end proposed. One of unavoidable consequences of the present insur rection is the entire suppression in many places of all ordinary means of administering civil ju. ;■ * by the officers and rn the forms ot exis* ti; aw; this is the case in whole or in part in all ibe insurgent Stairs, and as our armies ad vance upon and take possession of parts of those States, the practical evil becomes more apparent. There are no courts nor officers to whom the cit izen ol other States may apply for the enforce ment of their lawful claims against citizens of the insurgent Slates, and there it a vast amount of debt constituting such claims, some have es timated it as fiizh as two hundred million dollars, due in a large part from insurgents in open rebellion to loval citizens who are even now making great sacrifice in the discharge of their patriotic duly to support the govern ment. Unr'er Ihese circumstances I have been ( urgently solicited to establish by military pow- ! er courts fo administer summary justice in such j cas-j. I thus far declined to do it, not because f bad any doubt that the -nrl proposed, the col lection of the debts, was just and rignt in itself, but because I have been unwilling to go beyond the pressure ol necessity in the unusual exer- j j else of powers: but the powers of Congress, ij j suppose, are equal to the anomalous occasion, ; and therefore I the whole matter to Con- | i grefs, with the hone that a plan mav be devised j : for 'he administration of justice in ali such parts of the insurgent states and territories as mav I under the control of this govpi nment, whether jby a voluntary return to allegiance and order, jor by the powet of our arms. This, however, to b-a temporary substitute, and to cease as soon !as the ordinary courts can be re-Ps-tablished in peaee. It is important that some more conve nient means should be provided, if possible, for the adjustment of claims against the govern ment especially in view of the increased num ber by reason of the war. It is as much the duty of government to do prompt justice against itsell in favor of citizens as'it is to administer the same between private individuals. The inv itigation and adjudication ot claims in their tanrvot i v h<?- gress will be more than*usually engaged for' some time to come with great National ques- j tions. It was intended bv the organization of the Court of Claims mainly to remove this branch of business from the halls of Congress, but while the Court ha* proved to he an effec tive and valuable means of investigation, it in a great decree fails to effect the object of its creation, for want of power to make if* judg ments final. Fully aware of the delicacy, not to say the danger of the subject I commend to your careful consideration, whether this power of making judgments final may not properly he given to the court, reserving the right of appeal on questions of iaw to the Supreme Court, with such provisions as experience may have shown to be necessary. I ask attention to the report of the Postmas ter General, the following being a summary statement of the condition of the Department, The revenue from all sources, during the fiscal vrar ending June 30, 1861, including the annu al permanent appropriation of seven hundred thousand dollais for the transportation of free mail matter, was nine million forty-nine thou sand two hundred and ninety-six dollars and forty cents, being about two per cent. less than the revenue for 1860. In the same time the expenditures were thirteen million six hundred and six thousand seven hundred and fifty nine dollars ar.d eleven cents, showing a decrease of more than eight per cent, as compared with those of the previous year and leaving an ex cess of expenditures over the revenue for the las! fiscal year ol four million five hundred and fifty-seven thousand four hundred and sixty-two dollars and seventy-one cents. The gross revenue for the year ending June 30th, 1863, is estimated at an increase of four per cent, on that of 1861, making six million six hundred and eighty-lhrep thousand dollars, lo which should be added the earning of the depart nent in carrying free matter, viz; seven hundred thou sand dollars, making nine million three hun dred and eighty-three thousand dollars. The total expenditures for 1863 are estimated at twelve million five hundred and twenty-eight thousand dollars, leaving an estimated deficien cy of three million one hundred and forty-five | thousand dollars, to be supplied from the Treas- j ury in addition to the permanent appropriation. The present in*urrection shows, I think, that the extension of this District across the Poto mac river at the time of establishing the Capi tal hpre was eminently wise, an consequently that the relinquishment of that portion of it which lies within the State of Virginia was un wise and dangerom. I submit for your con sideration the expediency of requiring the restoration of the original boundaries thereof, through negotiations with the State of Virgin ia. The report of the Secretary of the Interior, with the accompanying documents, exhibits the condition of the several branches of the public business pertaining to the Department. The depressing influence of the insurrection have been especially felt in the operations of the Patent and General Land Offices. The cash receipts from the sale of public lands dur ing the past year have exceeded Ihe expenses of our land svstem only about two hundred thousand dollars. The sales have been en tirely suspended in the Southern States, while the interruptions to the business of the coun | try, and the diversion of large numbers of men from labor to military service have obstructed settlements in the new States and Territories of the Northwest. The receipts of the Patent Office have de clined ia oine months about one hundred thousend dollars, rendering a large reduction 'of the force employed necssary to make it i self sustaining. The demand upon the Pen ! sion Office will be largely increased by the ! insurrection. Numerous applications for pen i sions, based upon the casualties of the existing j wir have already been made. There is rea j soon to believe that many who are now upon the pension roils and in receipt of the bounty of the government are in the ranks of the in surgent army, or giving them aid and comfort. The Secretary of the Interior has directed a suspension of the payment of the pendens of such persons upon proof of their disloyalty. I recommend that Congress authorize that officer to cause the names ot such persons to be strick en from the pension rolls. The relations of the government with the Indian tribes have been greatly disturbed by the insurrection, especi ally in the Southern superinfendency and in that of New Mexico.*—The Indian country South of Kansas is in the possession of insur gents from Texas and Arkansas. Agents of j the United States, appointed since tne 4-lti of j March for this superinfendency, have been un j able to reach their posts, while the most of those who were in office before that time have espoused the insurrectionary cstvse and assume to exercise the powers of agents, by virtue of commissions from the insurrectionists. It has been stated in the public press that a portion of ! thes-' Indians have been organized as a milita- ; !ry fore, and are attached to the army of t/:e , j insurgents-. Although the government has no j j official information upon this subject, letters j have been written to the commissioner of In- , dian Affairs, by several prominent chiefs, giv ing assurance of their loyalty to the United States, ami expressing a wish for the presence j of Federal troops to protect them. It is be lieved that upon the repossession of the coun- j try by the Federal forces, the Indians will j readily cease all hostile demonstrations and re- j surae their former relations to the government. > Agriculture, confessedly the largest inter- j e9t of the nation, has not a depart men; nor a i bureau, but a clerkship assigned to t in the j government. While it is fortunate that this great interest is so dependent in its nature as to not have demanded and extorted more from j the govei nraent, I respectfully ask Congress to ! consider whether something more cannot be i Annua*! reporis exhibiting fiie' condition 0!' our agriculture, commerce and manufactures j would pr< sent a fund ol information of great j practical value to the country. While I make no suggestion as to details, I venture the opin ion that an agricultural and statistical bureau ; might profitably be organized. The execution | of the laws for '.he suppression oi the African \ slave trade has been confined to tbe Depart- i mentof the Interior. It is asubj-ct ol gratula tion that the efforts which have been made for j the suppression of this inhuman traffic have , been recently attended with unusual success, j Five vessels being fitted out for the slave trade have been seized and condemned. Two mates of vessels eugaged in the trade and one person : in equipping a vessel as a slaver have been convicted and subjected to the penalty of fine and imprisonment, and one captain taken with a cargo of Africans on board his vessel has | been convicted of the highest grade of offence j under the laws, the punishment which is death. The territories of Colorado, Dakotab and Ne vada, created by the last Congress have been organized, and civil administration has been inaugurated therein, under auspices especially grtifying, when it is considered that the leav- : en ot treason was lound existing in some of i these new countries when the Federal officers arrived there. The abundant natural resour- ! ces of 'bese Territoiies, with the security and ; protection afforded by organized government, j will doubtless fnvite to them a large iminigra- i tion when peace shall restore the business ot i the country to its accustomed channels. I submit the resolutions of the Legislature of Colorado, which evidence the patriotic spirit of the people of the Territory. So far, the au thority of the United States has been upheld in all the Territories, as it is hoped it will be in ! future. 1 commend their interest and defence j to the enlightened and generous care of Con gress. I recommend to the favorable consider ation of Congress the interests ol the District of Columbia. The insurrection fias been the cause of much suffering and sacrifice to its in habitants, and as they have no representation in Congress, that body should not overlook their just claim upon the Government. At your late session a joint resolution was adopted, authorizing the President to take measures for facilitating a proper representation of the indus trial interests of the United States at the exhi bition ol the industry of all nations, to be hold- j en at London the year 1862. I regret to say I havp been unable lo give personal attention to this subject—a subject rrt once so interesting in itself and so extensively , and intimately connected with the material pros perity of the world. Through the Secretaries of Slate and of the Interior a plan or system has been devised and partly matured, and which will be laid before >ou. Under and by virtue of the act of Congress entitled "an act to confiscate property used for insurrec'ionary purposes"—approved August sth, 1861, the legal claims of certain persons to the labor and service of certain other persons have beeome forfeited and numbers of the latter, thus libera ted, are already dependent on the United States and must be provided for in some way. Besides this it is not irr.ossible that some of the States will pass similar enactments for I heir own benefits respectively, and byojieration of which persons of the same class will be thrown upon them for disposal. In such case I recom mend that Congress provide for accepting such j persons from such States, according to some t VI HOLE JVOIBER, 3983. s made of valuation in lieu pro lanto of direct j taxes or upon some other plan to be agreed on . with such states respectively, that such' pel sons, I on such acceptance by the general Govrrti i n,pn '> bt> al once declared free, and that in any event, steps be taken lor colonizing both class es, or the one first mentioned, if the other shall . not be brought into existence, at some place or . places in a climate congenial to them. It might be well to consider, whether the dree colored people alieady in the United States could not, so far as individuals may desire, be included in such colonization. "To carry out the plan of colonization may involve the acquiring of territory, and also the app: ,pria tion of money beyond that to be expanded iu the territorial acquisition. Having practiced the acquisition of territory lor n irly sixty years, ttie questions ot constitutional power to do so is no longer an open one. With us the power was questioned at first by Mr. Jefferson, who however, in the purchase of Lousiana, yielded his scruples on the plea of great ex pediency. If it be siid that the only legiti mate object of acq firing territory : s to furnish homes for white men, this measure effects that abject, for the emigration of colored men leaves additional room for white men remain ing or coming here. Mr. Jefferson, however, placed the importance of procuring Louisiana more on political and commercial grounds than procuring room for population. On the whole proposition, including the ap propriation ol money, with the acquisition of territory, does not the expendiency amount to I absolute necessity that without which the gov-* I ernment itseli cannot be prepetualed 1 The war continues. In considering the pol i icy to be adopted for suppressing the insurrec tion, I have been anxious and careful that the inevitable conflict for the purpose shall not de generate into a violent and remorseless revolu tionary struggle. I have, therelore. in every case, thought it proper to keep the integrity of . the union prominent as the primary object of the contest on our part, leaving all questions j which are notof vital military importance to j the more deliberate action of fh? Legislature. In the exercise of my best discretion, I have adhered to the blockade of ttie ports held by the insurgents instead of putting in force by pro clamation the law of Congres3 enacted at the late session for closing these ports. So also obeying the dictates of prudence, as well as the obligations of laws, instead of tF&nscendng, I' have adhered to the act of Congress to confis cate property used for insurrectionary DurDoses. proposed, its propriety will be duly consider ed. The Union must be preserved, and hence, all indispensible means must be employed. We should not be in haste to determine that radical and extreme measures, which may reach the loyal as well as the disloyal, are in dispensible. The inaugural address at the be ginning of the administration, and the message to Congress at the late special session, were both mainly devoted to the domestic controver sy out of which the insurrection and conse quent war have sprung. Nothing now occurs to add or substracl to or from the principles or general purposes stated and expressed in thoi documents. The last ray of hope for preser ving the Union peaceably expired with the as sault upon Fort Sumter, and a general review ol what has occurred since may not be unprof itable. What wa9 painfully uncertain then ia much better defined and more distinct, and the progress of events is plainly in the right di rection. The insurgents claimed a strong sup port from north of Mason and Hue, and. the friend of the Union were not free from ap prehension on that point. This however was soon settled definitely and on the r:ght side,. South of the line, noble little Delaware led off right from the first, Maryland was made to seem against the Union, and our soldiers were assailed, bridges were burned and railroads were torn up within her limits, and we were many days at one time without the ability to ; bring a single regiment over her soiliotne 1 capitol. Now her bridges a.id railroads ar9 repaired and open to the government. She already gives seven regiments to the cause of the Union, and none to the enemy, and her people, at a regular election, have so iained the cause ofthe Union by a larger majority and a larger vote than thev ever be tore gave to any candidate on any question. Kentucky, too, for some time in doubt, is now decidedly, and, I think, unchangeably ranged on the side of the Union. Missouri is compar atively quiet, and, I believe, cannot again be overrun by the insurrectionists. These three States, ol Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri, neither of which would promise a single sol dier at fiist, have now an aggregate of not less thalt foity thousand in the field for the Union, while of their citizens certainly not more thin a third of that number, and they of doubllul whereabouts and doubtful existence, are in arms against it. After a somewhat bloody struggle of months, Winter closes on the Un ion people of Western Virginia leaving them masters of their own country. An insurgent t force of about 1,500 for months dominating, the narrow peninsular region constituting the counties ot Accomac and Noithampton, and known as the eastern shore of Virginia, togeth er with some contiguous parts of Maryland, have laid down their arras, and the people there have renewed their allegiance and ac cepted the pro'ection of our old flag. This leaves no armed insurrectionists north of the Potomac, ror east of the Chesepeake. Also we have obtained a footing at each of the isola ted pmnts on the southern coast of Halteras, Port Royal, Tvbee Island, near Savannah, and Ship Island, and we likewise have some gen eral accounts of popular movements in be half of the Union in North Caiolina and Ten nessee. These ihings demonstrate that l|fr* cause of the Union is advancing steadily south ward. I Since vour last adjournment Gen. Scott 1 has retired iron, the head ot the army. Du- VOL. 5. NG. 19.