Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, February 3, 1837, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated February 3, 1837 Page 1
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NOT THE GLOItY O P C M S A It ; BUT THE WELFARE O F It O M E. BY M. B. STACY. FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 3, 1837. VOL,. X No. 502 MARY'S ADDRESS TO WILLIAM. I vmir lovlnj furollipnrt tlll nm, Lhely, spihjluly, niiinly V ; For li'Joc slioiild ever kill, Tlion ninysl die, my love'y Will. Cut fIioiiIiI rlmiuc lo kill lliee, Willi lli. it IM woo the liai'k' Willy; My heart in noiv unit cer will, lie linked toiliinc, my li. uniform- Dill. My Imo hii. I mull tnn'st finely nil e , Willi love fur mo tuv g.illanl Hilly. Slimilil all forsake IM love ihcn plill, Will, Willimn, Willy, Hilly, liill. WILLIAM'S ANSWKR I O MARY. CIicpiTuI, rhrrry check 'd "nil rlinry, Mild, majestic, modi-iM Mary Vuid i.f n ile mill fiee A (mi Tolly, Peaceful, prudent, pretty I'olly 'G.ijcr ilian llic gnvrfi doll, Is my mnileM maiden Moll 'Ch.itigelf? na ill' uuf.iidiiig licdly, If my minilful, niirilifid Molly, The moon, llio Mars, or In illiant Snl. Air tinitnlit comi.ucd in line, my Poll. Adieu! I'e i-hoi nnhneV lnt vollcv, 4 Mmy, Molly, Moll,' Poll, I'olty. AGItlC U LT U rTlP RO SP ERITY. Never, since the first eel I 'onw.'nt of llic country, worn farmers in circumstances .-n easy nnd prosperous as al the present limo ; nnd if they arc not paying nfi' their debts, improving their lauds and building nnd 'making provision for liic education nnd set. tlement of their children, it is because tiiey nro indolent, inattentive to their uf fairs. It is true some crops in some parts of llic country, have been less abundani thai: in former years, j nut othois have been more so, and it is behoved, taking the whole into consideration. I he fruits of I hi' earth have nnt fallen much short of its nv eragc annual increase : and ns lor prices of all kind? of agricultural production, ihcy ore unprecedented 'n mir history. With out detailing pre.-i nt prices, it niay safely be i-tntcd, thai farmer's prnduce, especially urticles indispensable to I Ji upholding ol life, has advanced at least filly per com. within the last eighteen months : and it is lair to infer that their lands have advanced in the same ratio for real estate, like Blocks, rises and I'u IN in m.nket with the amount of Ihe income it yields, or with good management may be 'undo to yield, its cultivator. If tins be so. it follows that fvery farmer is nctunlly worihnt least fii"i per cent, more than he was a year and a half ago, nnd more Ilian he may suppose! Iiimclf to bo worth at the present time. Though the cnuscs ivhirii have protlu- ced this astonishing advance in the prices of furmer.s produce, while those of the manufacturer have remained nonrly station, nry, inav be concealed from Ins view : yet hu may rest assured they are of such a na ture as to warrant him in increased exer tions in the cultivation of bis farm, and the product of such fruits of the "earth as arc necessary hi sustain life. While the .present disposition to exchange the labors of the field for those of Ihe workshop the factory and the learned profess:! us enntin ucs while the present mania for the con struction of canals, tail roads and other public works rages and while the pres- cnt tide of foreign population Hows in up on us, the present disproportion between production and consumption will exist nm! .prevent a material reduction in present ,priccp. Though agnctiliure is unques tionably the most profitable business which lis pursued under existing circumstances, yet many farmers are complaining about hard times. They claim that the present high prices nffoul tlii'iii ti) laeilities for the -acquisition of wealth, and assign as n prui. cipal reason Ihe high price of labor but they forget that their labor is on important part of their capital, and that as it ndvan ces in value their capital is increased in amount. Phis remark, n is true, is inon peculiarly applicable to practical farmers men who labor with their nun hands, and Mich arc ordinarily the mily men who ac cumulate wealth by agiienlinre. A3 ingnty ns we e-timate the prnles-ton .of an agriculturist, and as prolilab'u as we believe the business in be at the present time, wo would advise no man to engage in it whose hands ure too delicate to hau .die a hoc without gloves. To insure the farmer success lie must labor more or les with his own hnnds, and be capable of judging whether his wink is well or il done, lie must nlso know whether In ihired help pet form (hat amount of labor which they arc in duly bound In rend him, nnd whether the results of it will leave him n profit after their wages arc tie ducted, Gentlemen who have acquired fortunes by commercial nnd prnfe-sional Dustnese, ami who mnv be disposed to re tire lo rurnl life, will find much amusement in agriculture ; but they must not be di appointed if they find but little profit. The profiils of a farm arc in proportion lo the amount ot labor bestowed upon it; nnd the farmer who performs it principally with Ins own hands and those of Ins lainily generally grows richer and richer; while the nno whose nanus arc loo tender lo en dure the rays of the sun, and whoso chil dren nro ton good to work, almost invaria bly grows poorer and poorer. Buckwheat Cakes. Ab this is a season, say thn Philadelphia Pcnnsvlvanian. for long speeches, long documents, and buckwheat cakos, and us the. latter nro q'jilo as impor tant and certainly moro agreeable, than either -of the, others, wo subjoin u rccipio for tho imaking thcroof cakos, not documents or pcechcs which is given in a lalu number of tho llaltimoro uazotlo. Thai paper savs, on tho authority of ono who has tried the exper. imcnt, that il makes decidedly bottor cakce with half tho trouble necessary in tho usual mode of raising them willi yeast. "To thioo pints of buckwheat flour mixed inlo a batter, add ono tea spoonful of catbo. nate of boda, dissolved in water, and ono ditto oftartaric acid, dissolved in bko man ner first apply the carbonato, blir tho bailor well, and then put in tho acid thus the uio ofyeast iscnliroly supcrcded, and cakes 'ns light ns a fetbor, aro ensured. Ono great ad vantage is, that the baiter is ready for ba king us soon ns it is made." PROCESS "OP MAKING BEET SU GAR. Tho attention of the public having been some time drawn lo the manufacture of su. gar from the beet anil having repeatedly recommended its cultivation to farmers as a profitable crop, wo have felt ourselves un dcr an obligation to give llicin trie dclailsof the process by which it is extracted. We have, therefore, examined the best author ties on the subject, and consulted several gentlemen of some practical knowledge nnd experience in the business, and the result ofour investigation is" that Ihe process is ultogel her more simple and less expensive ilian has generally bean supposed, In de scribing tho various processes in the man. iilaclun'. we buvc carefully avoided Ihe use of chemical terms, and substituted lan guage which we hope will bo understood by every rrndor. There arc severol varieties of the beet winch yield sugar, but the Stlesian beet is recommended as the best and most produ. live. This beet will come lo maturity in all parts of the .United States, up to the 43th degree of latitude. '1,'he soil most congenial lo its growth is a light sandy loam, of good depth, and if free from stones Ihe belter. Probably no country in the world is heller adapted to the growth of ihts rool than the alluvial meadows on the Connecticut nnd other rivers of New Eng land. The cultivation, however, need not be confined to vallies, as in most of the bill towns, lands may bo found well adapted to Us growth. The hind is prepared for the seed by deep ploughing and pulverizing the surface. This is best accomplished by ploughing in the full and leaving the laud id furrows through the winter. In tho spring the land should he cross ploughed nnd harrowed, and, if the soil be light, it will he prepared to receive the seed. The seed may be sown as early as the season will ndtntt. broad cast, or in drills ; but ul innately ihe plants should be from 12 to 18 inches apart. They should be ImcJ and kept free of weeds at tho second hoeing they should be thinned out nnd but one plant loll in the lull the surplus plants may be transplanted to vacant places in the field. In the extraction of the sugar, llic beets must first bo cleaned by wa-hing or scrap ing with a knile, and caro be taken that all decayed parts be cut oft' They must then be passed through the rasper anil bo reduced to a pulp the finer they nre ras pd the better, as it facilitates expressing the juice. The pulp mut then be put into cloth bags and have the juice pressed out by n screw press. In France they use the hydraudlic press, bui a cider, or other pros', will answer ihe purpose, and bo attended with much less expense. As deconposi lion commences soon after ibeboel is oul o the ground, and progresscsrupidly, no time should bo lost in converting them into sugar After the juice is expressed, and before it is converted inlo sugar, il must undergo lour distinct and different processes. I. Del't-cation. '2, Evaporation. 3 Clarifica Hon. -1. Concentration. Defecation. Tho composition of the beet juice docs not differ cs-cntiallj from that of the cane it combines with the saccharine matter small quantities of malic or acetic acid, wax and mucilage, which must be extrac ted before evaporation is commenced. The first piocess. therefore, is to purify thojuice, which mtiil b; done by neutralizing the ncid, decomposing the wax nnd congnla- ling the mucilage, and hence is called de fecation. All Ibis may be done by hentiug and mixing with it the milk ul lime in about l he proportion of 1G grains irny weight to the gallon. 1 he milk ol lime is prepared bv slaking quick lime with hot water, and reducing il to the consistence of cream Tho-juice inn! bn heated to about 1G0 do. r ahrcnheit, nnd Ihe milk ol lime poured intii it and thoroughly mixed by tirrtng wi'h a stick. Alter it is intimate ly mixed, the stirring must be stopped nnd the mixture fullered to resl for n short lime. Il must then be heated to the boil ing point, winch will throw the impurities upon ihosiirfacu in the form of scum, when the boiling must be stopped. When the j ii icu has become clear it must be drawn uf) Iroin below, by means of a cock, or the scum must be skimmed off from the top caro being taken tn either case to effect n complete separation. KVAI'OnATION. The next process in the minufacltiro is to dissipate I ho water, which is done by boiling away," us it is commonly called but in technical language, evaporation. If in llic process of defecation an excess ol lime has been used il should be extracted This may be dnnu by a mixture of sulphu rtc acid nnd water, in the proportion uf one ol the lormnr to forty four of llic latter This mixture, put in contact with the lime causes an effervescence, by which the lime is thrown oil' and (he cessation of which is a sure evidenco that the time is neutralised Some manufacturers 6ny that a small por lion oi lime should be allowed to remain and others that tho whole should be ncu Utilized. Ah practical men differ on tin point, sve may safely conclude it is not very material. The juice is boiled down till it is redu ced to about one fifth or ono sixth of ils original quantity. For this purpose pans or Kettles may be used ; but it will bo seen that those vessels which present the great est surface tn tho fire, and give the least depth to thejuino, will best facilitate cvap oration. As the water evaporates, flasky substances will separate from thojuice nnd collect in a while foam on thu Eurfaco, which must be skimmed off ns it appears. To promote their separation, Ihe boiling is commenced with a mnderato fire, which is subsequently increaicd as they disappear. iSomclimcH tho whim nr R ,caien n-- idle blood, is ndded for thu samo purpose During the boiling the juice will rise in frolli and flow over thu top of llio pan, un. less prevented by occasionally throwing in n smell quantity of eume fntty substance. Butler is commonly used, but tallow, lard, &c. will nnswor the snme purpose. It not only causes nn immediate subsidence but hastens evaporation. Cl-AIUFICATION. After being defecated and evaporated, the juice is ycl in a degree impure, and t lie object of the next process is to sepcrate it from its remaining impurities, and hence is called clarification. This consists in filter ing it through animal churcoal grnnulatcd burnt bunes broken to grain". and is per formed in the following mariner. Tubs, or vats in the form of those used for leaching ashes fire made of wood or metal, and fur nished with a cock inserted near the bot tom. The size uf the vols is immaterial ; but those of the following dimensions will be found most convenient 2 feet b inches deep 1 foot 0 inches in diameter at the top nnd 1 1 inches at the bottom. They may be four sided or round ; but those mndu of staves and hooped with iron hoops we should think the cheapest, and on some accounts the best. A 6trniner slnnding on legs, nnd covered with coarse cloth, must first be placed in the bottom of thu vat and filled with the charcoal about 100 pouuds will bo neces sary for a vat of the above dimensions. The charcoal must Ihcn bo cevcrcd with another strainer nnd cloth, and the vat filled with evaporated juice, or, as it is then called, sirup. After standing long enough to leach through the charcoal, the cock must be turned and the sirup be slowly drawn off, and the vat ro-litled as fast as it is emptied. The charcoal must be changed twice a day; but il may be washed and re burnt, nnd, thus prepared, it will answer for another filtration. This may be re peatcd until il is consumed. Concentration. The next process is to solidify the sirup and hence is called concentration. To accomplish this il must be again evaporat ed until it is brought into a proper slate for chrystalizaiiun. As il is important that evaporation should cease as soon as it arrives ot this point. Chaptul gives the fol lowing rules fur ascertaining the fact. "I, Plunge a hkimmer into thu boiling sirup, and upon withdrawing it pass thu thumb of the right hand over ils surface, mould the sirup which adheres lo the thumb Iwpen I lint nnd I lo foru-flngor, till ihe tcni- poralure be the same as that of tho skin- then separate the thumb and finger sud uuni u inc uoiung ue not compioicu, no thread will be formed between Ihe two: if there be n filament Ihe boiling is well ad vanced; and the process is completed as oon after as the filament breaks short, and the upper part, having the sonn-trnnspa roncy ol born, curls itsell into a spiral --2 I he second mode ol judging ot the complc. t ion ol the process is by observing the time when the sirup ceases to moisten thu sides of the boiler, and then blowing fur. cibly into a skimmer which has just been mtnersed in it if bubbles escape through i he holes uf the skimmer which ascend into the air in the same manner as snap bub bles dc, thu liquor 13 considered to be sufficiently boiled." When thn concentration arrives at this point tl o sirup inns', be taken from tho boiler and poured into large pans, for the pur pose of cooling. The puns must be placed in the air and the sirup occasionally stirred durring the process of cooling, which will be completed in about two hours. On ex amination, tho bottom and sides uf the pan will bo found covered with a thick bed of cbrystals, having but lit L lo consistence; the surliice ol the sirup, a crust will also be formed. To promote chrystalization or, as it is more pioperly called, graining. a linn bed of brown sugarts sometimes put upon the bottom ot tho cooling pan in order lu make n nucleus about which (he chryetnlized matter may gather. After llio sirup is cooled und chrystnl- ized, or grained, all (hat remains is to sep. nratu the sugar from the molasses, nnd it is fit for domestic consumption or market. l o ellect this sopcrotion moulds, ns ihcy nre called, must be prepared in the form of dutecnling vats, with the lower end drawn to a point as to leave a hole ofthrec fourths of an inch in diameter. These may be iiindo of wood, metal or earthen ware, nnd their capacity may bo regulated according to the convenience of tho manufacturer. Those used in the sugar facturies in Franco usuallv are large enough lo contain five or six galluns. They ore ulso used in the re fining process. Before using t hum. if of wood, they must be soaked several bonis in water, nnd dried a short time before they are filled with sirup. Thus prepared, and with a curl; in Ihe holu nt the point, they must be filled, or nearly filled, with dim talizcd sirup, nnd secured in an upright no silion, over a pan or tub of sufficient size to receive the quantity of molosses it nun tains. After slnnding from 12 to 3G hours, according to circumstances, (ho cork withdrawn and the molasses permitted to drain off. It will nl first drain off rapidly; but soon cense to flow in any considerable qtinntily. To hasten it separation from the sugar, which takes place slowly, the mass mut bo pierced with an iron spear, by thrusting it into the hole nl thu point, which will givu it vent und cnuso it to drain off. This operation must be repealed as often ns is necessary, and until all the molasses is extracted. After having remained long enough (o have (ho molasses run off, the sugar is du Inched from Ihe sides of the mould with a knife, the moulds are set on the floor in a reversed position and led fur two or three bouts when, by lifting from the floor and giving it a shake, the loaf will separate from Ihe mould by furco of its own weight. The head of 1 he loaf will retain n degreo of moisture and a portion of molasses, and, - - ),. .hnuld cut offand thrown into thojuice intended for the next clarifi

cation. The molasses, also, when a suffi cient quantity is un hand, should be again concentrated in order In obtain nil the chryslallizablc sugar It contains. By the loregotng processes the beet is converted into brown sugar, tho kind which is con sumed in the largest quantities in most families. In (be tnnntifactvro of loaf, or lump, sugar there is another process called refining," but being foreign to our present purpose we omit it. HOW TO TAKE COLD. "Boiler be nut of llic world than out of tho fashion," it sometimes said; and not a few whom we meet with, appear to believe the maxim Innr Colds are very much in fashion itowa-days: we find few people who nro fo unfashionable as to bo entirely without them. Yet there are n few who seldom suffer. Perhaps they were educa ted wrong. I will therefore mention n met bud by which nearly every individuol may be so trained ns to tnke cold readily. Let him be kept, during the first years of his life, in n very warm room, without ever going out of it. Let htm wear a cap during the first months, and be tightly ban. dagcil. Let no water touch him except what is quite warm, nor even then with out a little spirit or 6omc other drug mixed with it, and never, in any event, wash an thing but his hands. Let him be dressed constantly in flannel, even in mid-summer. Let htm sleep in n feather bed with his pa. rents; nnd see lhat his head and face are completely covered ; nnd bo sure to let him sleep, always wbcro both a fire and a lamp are burning. When he is a little older, and begins tn take solid food, sec that his food is ns hot ns he can swallow it. Do not let him go into tho monstrous habit of eating cold food. True ho will naturally prefer it, but never mind lhat. Both children nnd adults prefer many tilings that are bad for them, iliSFaid; and is not thw a sufficient rca son fur you? Let his drink also be hot, and gently aromatic :f possible. Or at nil events let ilbu a of a kind which iscnlcula- ted to induce free perspiration, such as lea. coffee, chocolate, or warmed toddy. See that he goes out but little, nnd if at all, lhat he h well wrapped in flannel. You must got him a rocking horse, &c. that he may prefer to play in the bouse. Do you nut know that if he goes out ho will ine vitably be sunburnt.' A drop or two of ram tuny also '"'" or lie may gel un nanus into cold water; or perhaps we! his feet. If lie goes to school, or to church, you should by ail means get up horses anil n narrincro lor hnn mul xhniiM be well protected from the nir. A he advances through childhood, if you find that n constitution, naturally 6trong. resists, violently, ail your efforts, still do not be discouraged. Persevere in your course. Remember that the husbandman hath long patience, and waiteth for the early and latter rain to bring forth the ap propriate fruits of iiis labor. You cun hardly expect to sow to-day and reap to morrow. Above all, do not lay aside the flannel, the hot food, the hut drink, or the feather bead; and do not suffer him to wash in cild water. I f you perceive indications of success if your child begins to snufllu occasionally, lo havered eyes, or a little deafness; if Ins skin leols dry and hot, and Ins breath is feverish you have now an opnorunilv of doing vour work much faster than ever before Do not call a physician anybody can doctor for a cold. Do not diminish his lood; "stuff u cold," you know. Make htm eat ull you can; and if his nppelttc tails increase it with something gently bit tor. You can cheat him lo take bitters tor once, uy disguising mem in sugar or something of the kind. Plv him well with hot stimulating drinks, of which hot toddy is tho best; bul common (en. or even sage tea, will answer. Only contrive to heat hisf.ystcm nil you can occasionally induce a profuse perspiration. Above all, guard against anything which favors a moderate and cqwit perspiration, nnd against ulMi ue ncu and cool water, lor ihese inighl throw off the cold immediately ; nnd what then would become of your skill at curing ? Hisrony of tiif. Earth. The earth itself relates its own history. No hisloran ovor composed such a narruli.o of extraordinary events, or depicted ibnm in such intelligible characters. Tho geological history or tho earth tells os lhatlbcio was a poriod when there was not a living being upon tho surface of the glnbj. Tho primary rocks liave not yet been found to contain a single fossil, or any vestigo f animal life. Tho first forms of lifo that wero placed upon tho habiltblo globn seems to havo bocn of tho inoslsimplo kind ; and successive generations of those grew up and polished, lived and died, bufuro Doings ol moro complicated slructuro wero introduced. The scale of being commenced willi simple living fibre or lubu like tho pol ypi, with an i7iborent tenacity of life, that docs not holong lo organizations with moro instruments of sense, moro complexity of structure, or moro extent of powers, Lichens mosses and ferns, appear to havo been a. mong llio first specimens of vegoUblu exis tencc. Tlio different strata of llio earth aro vast pages to the ecological history of an- cieiit and unnumbered days, which exhibit tho rccreinonu ol extinct species ol animated beings, lhat successively inhabited tho earth and the ocean ; of which wo know that thoy have been, bul coated to ho. Wbolo gcuoia lions of beings lhat once wore, have perished without leaving any progony;ar.d tho only memorials which thoy havo loft of themselves aro in llietr (onus or skeletons that have been prosrved in tho ancient stratifications ol llio globe. Fellows' Jietigtonof the Um verse. Tho candles you sold mo last, wero very bad,' said ouutt, to a tallow chandler. Indued, sir, I am vury sorry fur lhat. Yes nir, do you know thoy burned to the middle, und would burn no longer!' 'Good heaven, vou surnrtso mo ! what sir did thoy go out! 'No sir, no, they burned shorter.' DANIEL WEBSTER'S PROTEST. AOAINbT THE EXPUNGING! mOCESS. Tho debalo having closed, and the question being nbout to be taken, Mr WEBSTER roso and addressed the Senate as follows: Mr President: Upon the truth and jus tico of the original resolution of the Senate, and upon llic nutliorily of the Senate to pass the resolution, I hnd nn opurlunlty to express my opinions nt a subsequent period, when llio President's protest wns before us Those opinions remain altogether unchun. gcd. And now, hnd tho Constitution secured the privilege of entering a on the journal, I should not say one word on this occasion; although if whnt is now propo sed shall be accomplished, I know not what would have been llic value of such a pro vision, however formally or carfully it might have been inserted in tho body of that in strumcnt. Bul as there is no such constitutional privilege. I can only effect my purpose by thus addressing the Senate ; nnd 1 rise therefore to mnko that PROTEST in this manner, in the lace of the Senate, nnd in the face of the country, which I cannot present in any other from. I speak in my own behalf and in behalf of my colleague; we both speak ns Sena tors from the State of Massachusetts, nnd as such we solemnly prutbst ogains this whole proceeding. Ve deny Hint Senators from other Slates have any power or authority to expunge any vote or voles which we have given here, and which we have recorded, agree ably to the express provision of the Con stitution We have a high personal interest, and the Stntc whose representative we are, has also n high interest in the entire prcservn lion of every part and parcel of thu record uf our conduct, ns members of the Senate. I his record the Constitution solemnly declares shall be kepi; but the resolution belore the senate declares that tins record shall be expunged. Whether subterfuge nnd evasion, nnd as it appears (o us, the degrading mockery of drawing black lines upon thu journal, shall or shall not leave our names nnd our votes legible, when this violation of the record shall have been completed, still the term to expunge,' nnd the terms 'to keep,' when applied to a record import .ideas exactly contradiction ; as much so ns llic terms 'to preserve' nnd the terms 'to destroy.' A ioniil ...I, ioIi ia yiwrwjfi7, e nnt n m cord which is kept, any more thnn a record which is destroyed can bo n record winch is preserved. The part expunged is no Ion ger part ot i lie record; it has no longer a legal existence, it cannot be certified a part of the proceeding of the Senate for any purpose of proof or evidence The object of the provision in ihe consti. till ion, ns we think, most obviously is, that tho proceedings of tho Senate shall bo pre. servcu, in writing, nol lor the present onlv not until published otsfy, because a copy of ine prmieu journal is nol regular legal evi dence; but preserved indefinilly; prcsorv. cd, as other records nre preserved, till dcs. troved by lime or accident. Every ono must see that mailers of the highest importance depend on tho peiuiau ent preservation uf the journals of the two Houses, what but tho ournals show that bill haye been regularly passed into laws, through ihe several sluges; what but the tournal shows who are members, or who i President, or Speaker, or Secretary, or UlerK ot the body." What bul the journal contains ine prnoi, necessary lor iheiustih catiun of those who act under our authority, and who, without the power of producing sticti proot, must stand ns trcsspassers.' What but tho journals show who is appuin '.cd, nnd who reiectcd, bv ns, on thu Pres ident's nominntion; or who ie acquitted, or who convicted, in trials on impeachment? lu short, is there, at nnv time, nnv other re gular nnd legal proof of any net done by ihe senate than ihe )ournal itsell? I he idea, therefore, that the Senate is bound to preserve its journal only until it i published, nnd then may nltei, mutilate, or destroy it at pleasure, appears to us ono of the most extraordinary sentiments ever ad vanccd. We arc deeply grateful to thoso friends who have shown, with so much clearness, that all the precedents relied on to justify or to excuso this proceeding, are cither not lo the purpose, or, from the limes and cir cumstances at and under which they hap pened, are no wuy entitled to respect in n free government, existing under a written constitution. Bul; for ourselves, we stand nn ihe plain words of lhat constitution it self. A thousand precedents elsewhere made, whether nncient nr modern, can net Iher rescind, nor control, nor explain away these words. The words are, that "each House shall keep a journal of ils proceedings." No gloss, un ingenuity, no speciuus tutcrprcta Hon, and much less can any lair or jusl reasoning reconcile the process of cxpung with the plain moaning ol thrsc words, lu the satisfaction of the common sense and honest understanding of mankind. If tho Senate may now expunge ono part of the journal uf n former session, it may with equal nutliorily, expunge nnother part, or tho whole. It may expungu the entire record of any one session, or uf nil sessions. 11 seems to us to be inconceivable how any man can regard such n power, and its exercise at pleasure, as consistent with tho injunction uf (ho Constitution. It can make nn diflerencc what is the complete ness or incompleteness ol thu net of nx ponging or by whnt means dune ; whether by erasure, obliteration or defacement; il by defacement, 08 hero proposed, whether one word or many words are written nn tho face of tho record; whether Itttlo ink is shed on tho pnpor; or whether annv part or tho whole ortho original written jour nal may yet by possibility bo traced t II tho act done bo nn act to expunge, lo blot out, to ohlitoralo, to erase tho record, thou I the record is expunned, blotted out, oblit ' crated and erased. And mutilation and l tcration violato the record as much as oblit eration or erasure. A record subsequently altered, is not the original record. Il no longer gives a just account of tho proceed ingsoftho Senate. It Is no longor true. It is in short no journal of the real and actual proceedings of the Senalo, such an the Constitution soys each House shall keep. Tho constitution, thcrpfurc, is in our deliberate jugement. viulated by this pro ceeding, in the most plain and open manner. Tho Constitution moreover provides that tho yeas and nays, on any question, shall at tho request of one fifth of tho mcmbera present, be entered on the journal. This prnvission most manifestly gives a personal right to those member who may demand it to the cutry nnd prcservntion ot their votes on tho record of the proceedings of tho body, not for one day or one year only, but for nil time. There the yens nnd nnys aro lo stand forever permanent and lasting proof of the manner in which members have voted on great and important ques tions before them. But it is now insisted that Iho votes of ihe members, taken by yeas and nays, snd thus entered on the journal, os matter of riget, may still be expunged so thnl, that, which it requires more than four fifths; of the Senators to prevent from being put on the journal, may nevertheless be struck oft nnd erased, the next moment, or ot ony neriod afterwards, bv the will of a mora majority; or. if this be not admitted, then the absurdity is adopted of maintaining, that this provision of ihe Conttitutiun is fulfilled by merely preserving tne yeas ana nays on tho journal, nfler having expung ed and oblituraled the very resolution, or ihe very question, on which they wero given, and to which alone they refer ; leav ing the yeas and nays thus a mere li6t or names, connected with no subject, no ques tion, no vote. Wo put it to tho Impartial judgment of mankind, if this proceeding bo not, in this respect also, directly anu pai pnbly inconsistent with ihe Constitution. Wo protest, in the most solemn manner. that, other Senators have no authority, to deprive us ofour personal rights, secured to us by the constitution, either by expun ging, or obliterating, or oeincing, ma record of our votes, duly entered by yeas nnd nays, or by expunging and obliterating tho resolutions or questions on which those votes werg given nnd recorded. we nave seen, wuu ueup uuu unnom pain, the legislature of respectable states instructing ilia Senators ot those states to vole lor and support tins violation of tho journal of the Senate ; and this pain is in finitely increased by our full belief, and ciitirc'cunviuiion, that most, if not all those proceedings of slates had their origin in promptings from Washington ; that they have been urgently requested and insisted on as being necessary to tho accomplish, moot of the intended purpose ; and that it is nothing else but the influence and power of the executive branch of this government which has brought the legislature of so many of the free states of ibis Union to quit the sphere of their ordinary dutiesr-for tho purpose of cooperating 60 to accomplish a measure, in our judgment, so unconstitu tional, so derogatory lo ihe character of the Senate, and marked will) so broad an empression of compliance with power. But this resolution is to pass. We ex pect it. Thai cause which has been power ful enough to influence so many state legis latures, will show itself powerful enough, especially with such aids, lo securo tho passage of tho resolution here. We make up our minds lo behold lha spcctaclo which is to ensue. Wo cullcct oursolvcs to look on, in si lence, while a scene is exhibited which, if wo did nut regard it as a ruthless violation of a sacred instrument, would appear to us to bo litlle elevated above the character of a contemptible farce. This scene we shall behold, and hundreds uf American citizens, as many as may crowd into these lobbies and galleries, will behold it also : with what feelings I do not undertake to tay, But we protest, we most solemnly rno test, against the substance and against the manner of bis proceeding, ogainst its proceeding, ogainst its object, against its form, and ogain-t its effect. Wo tell you lhat you hove no right to mar or mutil&to tho record of our votes given here, and ro- corded according to the constitution; Wo tell vou that vou may an well erase tho yeas and nays on any other question or on all questions and resolutions, na on tins; wo tell you that you have just ns much right (o falsifiy the record, by so altering it as to make us oppear lu have voted on any question, os we did nol vote, as you havo to erase a record, anu mai:e mat pago a blank, in which our votes, us they were actually given and recorded, now stand. Tho ono nroccedtng. as it appears to us, is as much a fnlsificat ion of the record as tho other. Having mado this PROTEST our duty is performed, Wo rescue our own names, character, and honor from oil participation in this matter: and whatever the way ward character of the times, tho headlong and plunging spirit of party devotion, or love of powor, tuny bavu been able lo bring obnut elsewhere, wo desire to thank Gotfthat they have not, ns yet, overcomo thu lovu uf Liberty, fidelity lo truo rcpub lican principles, nnd n sacred rogard for the Constitution, in that Stale whoso vill wns drneched to n mire, by tho first and best blood of llic Revolution. Massachusetts, as yet, has not been con. quered: nnd winio wo nave uiu uunur m hold seats Here ns nor aenoiurn, wo nan never consent to a sacrifice cither of her bta nr our own : wo shall never fail to opposo what wo rognrd as a plain nnd open violation oil he uoiisiiiuuuu oi inu country and wo should havo thought ourselves wholly unworthy of her il wo hnd not with ull the solemnity and earnetnass in nur nower. protestsd seatnst the adop tion of the resolution now before the 8' aio.