Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, February 3, 1837, Page 2

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated February 3, 1837 Page 2
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HEM ARKS OF MR. CO 11 WIN, cn rtir pinancb nr.i'onT. AVIipii this wa3 FoUled, to make il bind in.f nnJ irrevocable till WAi, I lie patliM insetted inllio third section of the bill I tliuir solemn declaration to llmt client. Tlio miction referred In rends as follows : "dud be il further enacted, Thai until tin' thirtieth day of June, ouo lliotisatd cghi htindrod ai.it fony-lwc, tin- duties imposed by existing laws as niodiliod by this no shall remain and enntinuu lo be collected." Gould your Itmgnogo furnish word3 more emphatically expressive of a declaration by Congress lliut no clinttgu was to bo made in this branch of yntir avenue system Ull June, 1012? Did you then expect your People to place no" iclianco on what you thus 6oleinly proclaimed as your dotorniina lion? No: vou did not expect the Ameri can People to i real you as hollow hearted kna cs atlonuilii'T to impose on their ere- iliiliiv. Tin s-olo oliiccl of nroclaimiii ' to t hem the unalterable character of the law of lb'33 was to quiet the fearful agitation that then every where prevailed, and ive stability lo that interest the maniitaciu liii" interest, which w is most to be nflec ted by vour uo's. What, sir. wc.ru the happy, i ho glorious i IVlcIs ol thai c m' promise? The day before that law recm ved tlio Pre-idonl's approval wag overcast Willi the gathering el. .ml ol civil war, il.ep nin.'', Fiuiindiii'', tiiul blackening every h-mr The "round on which wo sloud seemed to heave and quake with the first throes of n convulsion, that was to rend in frngmonts the last Republic i u rarlh; at this fearful moment an overruling Providence revealed the instruments ol its wiil in the person of one man, whoso virtues would have illus trated the luijjiit ot annals of recorded time, lie prodnci d this real measure ol concord, and the siioeecdir.g morning daw ned upon the American horizon without a spot ; the tun of mat day looUeu uown and beheld us a tranquil and united People Arc we prepared now to break the bond? of peace, and renew the war? I have said you have the power to do so, but I deny vour riixht. 1 do nrt measure luat right by the standard of law in a municpa court. 1 cannot cunctivo any idea morr ridiculous or contemptible than thai which finds no standard ! moral or political duties' and rialita for a Christian, a private gon- tleinan, or a statesman, except that which is applicable to a content before a justice's court, or a nhi pr'tu.i jury. No, Mr, 1 ap peal to a law in the b'uom uf man, prior nnd paramount to this. 1 appeal to tin South, where I know that law will be obey ed, and wlu.ro I know I do not appeal in vain. I invoke its characteristic chivalry I call for that sentiment of manly prid which is its offspring. I summon lo my aid thai sensitive honor which leels "a Main like a wound," which abhors deception, am shudders at violated ran h. Will that .South which I am sure I have liuiy described loin in tins otJluus infraction ol its own treaty, and units in tins miserable war up on the laboring ihuti.-aml.s who have oonfi ded in its securities a war not waged with open force and clroiig baud a war nol wa (jed lo avenue in.-uiud lienor, but to re cover the dilieronce between tivo and ten cents dutv upon a vard of cotton goods Your approach to tins battle Is not hnuMki) bv the trumpet's voice: no, you are take the proposed bill, and l'o on a titau radin'' expidilion, by v. ay of reprisal. Vou are to steal into the d.wulltng ol the poor, and boldly captuie a mechanics dinner! Y'ou are to inarch into the collage of the widow, and fearles-iy conli-cato the break fact uf a factory girl, for the benefit of the planting and grain growing Slates of this uiighiyfltepublic ! Such are the motives for thiswar, and such are to be the troph ies of its victories. How little do they who have presented such arguments, as these, in this report, know of the character of the People of the South and Went ! They vain, lv imagine that the h:gh. minded sons of the South have drunk of the fatal cup of the sorecicss, and, like the companions of Ulysses, 'Lost their uptight th ipe, And downward li;ll m o tin- gruvulling swine." Tlio great grain growing Stales of the West are informed, in (his report, that thoy may reclaim n pari of the tribute which, il is told them, they have been paying with out equivalent, if ihey will agree io lliis bill. Let mo tell tho gun'tleuiaii that tho West must first bo satisfied tiny aro free in lion or to obey thu call. The hardy race that has subdued the forests of the West, and in their green youth have constructed mini umcnls of their enterprise that shall sur vivo t'no Pvramids, is not likoly, from mero. ly fcordid motives, to join in inflicling reat evil on an v portion of our conunou country. The fearless pioneers of the West, whose cars aro ns familiar with the iliuip crack of the Indian's rille, and his wdd war whoop at midnight, as nro those of your city dandies, with the dulcet notes of the Harp and Piano, they, sir, arc not the men toad upon sclli.-h calculations and sinister inducements. They hold their rights by law, and they believe that com puds, oxpiessul or implied, arising from individual engagements or public law, are to be kept and defended with their lives, il need be, not to bo broken at will, or regar ded as llie proper sport of legislative ca price. Mr. Fipoo-kcr, wo have heard much ol Into that is new to us, if nol alarming, op this subject of legislative compact. From authorities of no mean consideration, wo have heard it boldly preached, that theva lidiiy of a compact ntieii'g out of law is an exploded pat minx, Il is represented as u relic of "old times," and wo aro told that il is inconsistent with tho liberties of the People. The liberlioj of iho People! It was to establish "tho liberties of the Poo. pie" thai Riibespierro and his infamous as Miciatcs preuched this same doctrine to the deluded and Irantie populace ol Franco. Li tho American Government now to ndopl this creed of political Inith ? (low long is il Eir.ce wu were about to wage war with France, for refusing to fulfil a treaty which, in the language of our Constitution, was nothing mora than Wie supreme law n'lhul land" For this wo woro ready to launch our thunders upon 'ho seas, ami arm our whole population for tho contest on tho land. Wu required Iho proud monarch of the most warlike mil ion of modern times lo humble himself befora tho oflended ma jesty of "public law." It is for a supposed violation of "public law" that your armies I hno been alternately hunting n'tor, and flying before, the fiercu Occola, for a whole ' year',' through the lagoons mid hammocks I or Florida, it is noi io on supposed mm P. .i,l,.. thus ne.thnr. call bo broui'lit to dis regard like obligations, whether contracted .byoxpross or implied compact, with ita own citizens. 1 hone, fir, I shall bo pardoned lor dwel ling, it nny be, somewhat too long upon this topic. I must now call tho attention of tho House lor a few moments to what 1 deem a singular phenomenon in our histo ry, ns set loith in the report on your inuie. Il is said dial the planting and grain grow ing Suites) have, since 1 7U0, paid to the manufacturers of thi. country abnit three hundred and fifty millions of dollars, Mr which thev have received no equivalent. Sir, if thin bo true, i.inco tlio Israelites were required by the Egyptian tyrant, to makn bucks without htraw, there is no parr.lkd to such monstrous oppression. I have already staled that I will not pre tend to quote the precise language of the report. I nut sure it is slated mat, minus on imported articles to tho amount of six Hundred and eighty two millions ot uouars, b-i.-id. s thirty million.) for its collection, l.ovo been paid since the year 1709. It is a'so staled in tho report, lhat mure than one hnlCnl thh uirirrcxnlc had been levied on protected articles, t he wnolu pcope ol iho report labors lo prove mat tins uuiy on protected nrticks is a grievom and oppres. mvu lax on consumption, lor which no equivalent is received in return. Louncc ted wilh those po-ilions, the au'.hur of the report endeavors to show lhat the planting ami irraiu crowing porlions oi the Union were, and are, the consumers, and the few Northern manufacturing Slates the prndu cm of the protected articles; that tiie for iner are tho payers, and the latter the re envors of the dutiis; which dulies are represented as a mere bounty lo the labor of the North, for which the Sootli and West never have breti, and, in I he nature o ilni'ir, never can bi, iciinburscd. Sir, I shall not no.v trouble the House, or friend-, who put forward Ibis fjet as a tntfh proved by figures and tabular statement wilh anv at L'UPieut opposed lo it, but 1 must be allowed to advert to it as a V tern man with feelings of prido. At tho ami? tini", 1 loii-t, in common v. ill) others labor under miiiio doubts of the fjet aeser ted, arming out of the kuo'.' n history ol the list twenty or thirty years. II Iho West and Southwest have paid their due proportion of this unjust and un remunerated tax of three hundred and fifty millions within the last iorty years, while at the same time, they have, aa the world knows, conquered the savages who posses sed Iho whole Western and Southwestern territory, cleared iho thick forests which overshadowed it j in short, if thai portion of the Untied Slates ha--, in less than half a century, as all admit, readied a point ol impioveuient in wealth and arts which oth or tunes and People required ages to achieve, then, I say, I may with pride and confidence clnlletigo I he whole world with in the period of authentic hlnorv, to p iral lul tl.o sv .nJurr.ll Pcui.lu oliiuli 1 II II vc mo honor, in part, to represent. JjiU, Mr. Speaker, sober reality and stub born facts compel me lo repress ihts cxul- tiil tun ni nor Inneied snnerinnl y m.i.ll compels me lo doubt who' her truth place in so far above common mortality as lliis rerun t hii done. Fuels, known facts. those unaecommoiiaiiiig uiiol;?, io.ii roio so many beautiful inventions of lerlile and ingenous minds, aro constantly thrusting themselves before, and in lliG way ol, the figured and nhiloiopliv of the geiTllem.ui who has la bored in Ibis report to push by tlieui, mid drive over iliem, to reach his lavorito con elusions. Vou will ob-orve, Mr. Speaker that wo aril told ol the "treasuries othe It:. ii t Kim! ol tho uuiicu ft'atos, iii'o which i Ins enormous tribute of three bun dred and fifty millions has been poured. In the same connexion you fieri r of the "nnncelv establishments" that have been I'n'pd un and Mi.-laiued by it. Tho "prnce the Northern rea'ed up an lv oMabHslnneiits" aro in mannl'acluring Stales. The princes," whom the tribute is paid are the People this happy, favored region. Where, sir, aro tlio poor oppressed tributaries;, accor ding lo this report? Why, sir, in lhat sinking, ruined, wasted wilderness, the West 1 ! The author of this report, under the in fluenco of a loo fervid imagination, has spumed tlio shackles, and broken through the eiiibarra.-isineiUs arising from facts con nected with the scheme of Ins theory. lie represents iho Northern manufacturing Slates as another imperial Rome, seated on herseen lulls, rioting in tho luxuries ot the despoih d and impoverished South, her trea-unes nursling witli the enormous wraith poured into them from ihu ravaged and desolated provinces ol tlio West. Manufacturing is pictured as the wand ol Midas, turning everything il touches into gold, while it would seem tint growing gram, and plaining cotton, brought only luxation witlioui equivalent, poverty and tinreqii ted toil. Sir, if all this were true, what would follow? The Poopiu uf this country, however they may bo excelled by other natiuiis in tlio walks of letters anil the polite tins, are known to bo bhrowod and well-'uilorinod touching their own pc. cuniary iniurcsis. Such a Poopiu would bu fouiid rushing into the uiaiiiifucl urmg (list nets, to reap harvests of wenhh, and its way thro1 llicico of tlio Northern lakes, I and bursting over tho mountains- Ull the roads and rivers are literally choked wilh Its masses. Whore aro ihu.su colonists go ing? To tho west, lo raise1 grain and bo taxed! To the Smlhwest, lo grow' cotton, and become poor ! Such is Iho reasoning of the report. Now, I beg to km.v whether it is nol taxing our good nature quite to far to ask us to believe, and act upon, ingenious theories, and long columns of figures, standing, ns ihey d ), opposud to facts, admitted, known, anil understood bv every man in this Union over twenty one voarsofage. To coiou lo llio conclusion al which Iho report, has arrived, we are n. nnired to adm'H lhat iniiiH blind to anil careless of Ins own personal advantage. Nay, more, the uu'hors ot thu report ro quire yon to deny to our American race the common instinct of all annual creation. The philosophy of this report leachus thai man shuns ease, and ddstr-'s loll; mat n hates ple.i-mro, and loves piin : that ho oi chews wealth, and courts piverty. thai he Hies trom power, and socks subjection. Ml Hits tumble of contradictions wu aro re. quired to admit us sell evident iruilis, sun ply to explain existing lacU in a way tin to contradict lliis erudite trciliso on trade and finance. Relbro I take leave of the su'ijuct, I wish to notices a few other dihiculties which op pose the consideration of this I). II at this tunc, uno which spring troio a soii'cu Uiai will nol be dt-regarded by the nnjortty ol this IIou-c. It will bo f-oen thai llie bill proposes a reduction of our incoin- within tho next eighteen months, of s-'ven millions A very considerable poniou of l Ins reduc tion falls on the receipts ol tho present year. I lie quest mil 1 ask here is this; Can the I'reasnry bear t nis curtailment of its resour ces now : l'o answer this, I appeal to an authority which for these last two years Ins never been (mentioned or doubled uy the gentleman who present this bill to llie House. I allude to ihu annual report ol tho Secretary of the Treasury, made un the Gth of December last. The reciipls into iho Treasury, from a.l sources, (luring K!37, are p.stun.ited al l, 000,000 dollars-. I quote llie very language of the report. Genilem in will find I nm right, by rolerrence to Document lNo. - ot tins session page After enumerating tho various sources, (such as cisterns, public land, iSic ) from which this amount is tier ivul, the Secretary proceeds lo compute ho amount of expenditures for loo present year. I slull give his own language, Irom the same document, pane 5: I'liu L'xpciiilitiiiT-i fur all ahicds. oidiiiury and cxtiaiiiilin.o v, in 1S37, iiinludin ' lliu cumins-ill of only frl, 000,000 fur tisu.it bxcl-sjcs hi nppiopi in-Hun-'', lipjuml die e.Miiu.oe.-;, ,ih- cniiipiileil nl (Od.bJl, piovnled llie uiicxpnncle.l iippiopii.illnn il die end uf this and tlx; next c.ir miuin about equal. Here gentlemen will see that, instead oi reducing lite revenue duwii lo the wants ol the Government, our income, from all sour ces, in l,'t37, falls short of our i:xpMidit tiros as estimated, nearly S 5,000,000. It the Secretary is right, (and will the geu'lemen of the nnjority ho so h dd m to say he iJ wioog.-j iiic. ii. uir.ri uliouUI lie lo in crease the taxes, to raise tile revenue up .. the actual wants of the Government. And sir. if il were not for the five millions, which aro k'-ot io reserve for vi r inrdion rv dero.)tids on the 'I'reasnry by llie Deposile bill of hist year, according to the calcula tions ol Mr Woodbury, we shou'd be com pelled now to increase the duties on foreign mercliaudinu dining tho present year, or borrow money lo meet the demands on the Treasury. Let us t-uo what the Secretary further says on page o of the siine report. I again quote his own words. "From these calculations it will bo seen lhat, if the outstanding appropriations un expended at ihu close of U!37 be as lirge as nl the close of I U3G , and the other ex pemlitiires should agree with Iho itbove cs- iiunles, they would exceed the ooinputt d revenue accruing from all sources nearly (j,J,000,000. or tuifiicienl to absorb more than half of that part of the pre-uiit. surplus which is nol to bo deposited with the sev eral Slates. Hut if these outstanding ap propriations at llie close of 1 1137 Should be much loss than those in I liJO, as is prob. able; or, should the accruing receipts be much larger than the estimates, a call will become in ci'.-.-ary for a portion of the sur plus deposited with iho Slates, though n will not piobably become necessary, except in ono of ihoio events." lo the extract I have read, llie Secretary ha.) quite distinctly told us thai the probab ility is, we shall not only absorb all tho au uruing revenue, and the five millions not deposited wilh the Stales, by the expendit ures of 1UJ7. bill thai the Slates will h. called on to repay a portion of the money ih-po-iied with them, lo meet the wants of the Government during Ihu present you How, sir. does the policy of reducing the revenue, as proposed in this bill, agree wi ll tins .state of things? Pass the bill, sir, and in eighteen mouths, it h said, you will sav in Iho pockets of !h" People seven million which would otherwise bo drawn from mom by the laws now in force.' A id, in the souio time, if you p ace any confidence in the Secretary ol the Treasury, you will be .compelled to lake from the Peiplo of tho Stales (who arc lo have Iho use of the mo ney deposited with them) ait eqi.il amount, I if not more. What, a miserable piec of bungling jugglery would this he! Vou simply lake seven millions out uf one pock el of the People and pul il iiilu tho other, and gravely toll thorn you have saved to '.onsidorcd II conclusivo cvidonco of oJacnlial I vulgarity ; It was proof wilh Ilium that a man had not soon " good society," if ho presumed lo question the propriety ol any requisition coining from lhat high and responsible source Ho prevalent woro theso opiuioni, that I four I have Honiultinos yielded my assonl to ap. pronriations rnorelv to preserve my character or "gentility" wilh Iho "haul Ion," who composed the majority hurc, as they do in tho committee, ol which 1 um a member. How is il then, thai wo aro now lo dismiss all rogaid to tho Miggoslious uf this officer ? lias nol tho I'rosidonl eortthuil to you that ho has discharged his duty with great ability and groat fidulily ? Do wo not hear his friends ovjry where extolling him lo tho skies for a prodigy of financial wisdom ? Did not tho President select him for his irro.il and coin probcus'ivo knowleifiro of lhat most ouriiloxinir of all soicttco political economy ; for his l.ugo add accurate acquaintance wilh tho channels of trade and tho s ntrcos of nation al wealth ? Surely no ouo of the majority will doiiut this ! iNoiv, sir, wh u respect is paid to his opinions, his 'olileial opinion,'' by tlio bill and report on your tiblo i rruu,it can. not hu denied, for the President has said il is so ; that ho has discharged his duly wilh fi dulily. Is it not unkind, then, in his own friends, "ministering servants of tho" Ways and Means lo trait his labors with such cruel indiflorencu? rfeo him day and night, watch, ing tho various currur.ls of tradu, that bring wualili to tho People, ami revenue lo Iho Treasury: sacrificing his caro and health lo those thoughts which w.istu tho ruariow and consume iho brain ;'' ye.tr aftur voar donying himself, with stoio.il fortitude. Iho gaieties of this most refined and fasliionublu city, brood ill! with ceaseless and anxious cate over tho Treasury, if nol iho treasure ; ho nils like "sad I'tomellieiH fastened I o hi) rock.'' And no v sir, as if they were determined lhat this Ti tan ofiho Treasury should le.th.o the fato ol his prototype of old, his ancient friends, il scorns, by some magical change, turn tormcn. tors, and aro prepared lo ihriisi liieir vuliuro beaks into his liver, and, with remorseless voracity, devour his fiosh, without over tor- ininatiii' his pain. Sir. to drop figure, and speak in plain prosaic Knglish, Ibis bill asks you to treat every opinion of iho present Sees rotary as sin pid nonsense, and lakt as infal lible truth the conjectures of this report in their stead. 1 ask iho friends of the Secrota ryiflhcyaro prepared for litis; ifiwt, they will vote with me to postpone the lull linns of law faithfully observed I He 'peculation, notwithstanding llie late dent Ii

speaks lumiliarly ot q "principles ' on I of llie United States UuiiU, the report con- which the coinpromiso act was passed. Whal d ies he mean by the "principles ' ol that act ? Nothing elu than these mutual stipulations by the great contending par ties lo lltul compact, providing lor a stable fixed rale of duties, which should remain. us the act itself expresses it, till J-.tue. 1042. Tho bill disregards iho "principles" or lather violates and destroys tho princi ples on which the compromise act was passed. Tlio report, instead of anticipat ing a reduction of revenue, by the laws now in force, goes about facilitating that reduction by legislating in a way contrary to the whole tenor of the President's optn ion which I have quoted. Sir, I cull on the cliiirman of the Ways and Means to say when, before now, he has ventured on a system of policy not approved by the 'speech from th) throne;" I Osk him why he did nut bring forward this bill last year, when every possible expedient wa resorted lo, to gel rid of a surplus, which was about to go to Hits Stales, as it did go under a law so odioii3 to the Prince Regent who is to mount the throne iho -1th of llie comui'r Alarch? A bill r during llie rev cnuc llieu would have saved the trouble and dangers of a deposite with llie Stales. That was the tune, ifevor, to havo urged lis passage. Since the surplus has gone to the States, no reason exists for reduc tion. Do nol gentlemen sco that a most uncharitable view miy plausibly be taken ol their course? 11 will be said, tha thu President had forbidden you to disturl; the compromise, and nt that time had a year of his reign remaiiiini'. in which hi power of reward and punishment could bt exerted, you I hen dare not incur !m d pleasure; but now, when only six week' of that reign are left, to bo spool in the Ian guor of convalescence, or it may be tin agony of pain, you may treat the opinions of your old chief with contempt, relying on tho sure protection ot the Executive elect On the chairman of the Ways and Means (whom, if I may not number among my mends, cannot call my loo,) 1 fear il may no said that Ins eye has been .-o duv.zlei by the glitter of expected ojrolioU, under the new reign, that In: his lost sight of all lid it ho remembered that tho Secretary of regard for the principles and authority of that which is now almost numbered with tho past. 'High-ri achiag Ilticku g'lam grows circumspect." What a sinking exhibition is hero of Ihu emptiness and vanity of earthly renuwit and nrjre human power ! Hut yesterday, and like the I mighty lirsl (Jicsar, "tho word of Andrew against Hie o poor as lo do Inm reverence " Deserted by all liN old and I'lithful followers, abandoned by those adoring crowds of self styled dotimcr.its I alone, an obscure and derided nrist"Cnit, from I ho far Vrest, as our nomenclature has it, I alone stand by the desolntu old man, vindicating his opinions, and stem ming, is I best can, that torrent of con tempt poured out by Ins own former friends which is likely to pursue and overwhelm him in his relreal from the scene of his glory. How are wo to account fur this singu'iu o....nt ? sJmMilur indeed il is. apparently but really what was to be looked for. Po' lilicians that belong to what I may ileinnii ioale, for the sake of distinction, The school of idolatry, do not worship the sotting, but ulways the rising sun. No sooner, ihere fore, do we see the level beams of the re tiring hero's setting orb. begin io melt into the twilight, than, as we might exp-et. the thick crowds torn wisfullv lo a Uuhiuui and iho Treasury, whose views aro dianietrioaly opposed to Iho passage of any looking to a io. duclion ofthe revenue, has given his opinions only .1 mouth ago. Surely he has not chang ed ull his notions respecting our probable re ceipts in 1U37, since ho published his last report. I should bo glad if my colleague, .Mr. imti2R,(. who torn us mo oilier uay -i o i j,.,c!;m,u illicit have slood inn laieiy uecn oeiituu uio curiam, ; wouiu W()ri(i ... i 1QW .il)OI1,, iiiiorui us wuinner, amongst oiuur iiucuiiis sccrals, h: had heard anything of a total chango of the Secretary's opinions on ibis subjeo , within the lasl few weeks. Mr. Speaker, if the gentlemen who havo brought forward this measiiie havo emanci pated themselves from all respect for tho opinions and recommendations of your chief of finance a respect hi rderiug hcrlofuro on absolute subinision to his will, a li'.tlo atton tiiui to documents emanating from a quarter still more vcucialcd, will exhibit them in au altitude of still more o.valled independence. Thev are, however, (if I may ho paidoned a conjociuio- u....i.,riiulle.) scarcely enlillod to a po-iilion su enviable as th.il ol'sel-relying and self resolved fteedoin of aclion. Soino- 3-r.l . ..( Mwll..,l...o.J u,.l.-...ily for puor humanity, mingles in Um composi. lion of iho purest motives and slains tho'glo. ry of the most sublime achievements. Tho committee havo, I fear, betrayed something too much of a quality, or, lo (-peak phronolo gically,an organ, of cotubativeness. Thoy have not only spurned all the trammels of precedent, and despised all iho opinions of uncertain dawn in an opposite quarter of wallow nt monopolies thai drained every other portion of tho Union to swell their accumulation Such u People would bo 1 1 hem seven millions of nriiiey by ihu pro- once ami 1 ucss. Sir, thu People ofthe S ates tiro not. found to shun, as a hind of pcotile death, the ngrinulturol region, where not h ing awaited them hut taxation, and conse quent poverty. Sir, I regret that fact ami the I r nl lis) of iii-lory compel mo to spoil thu beautiful theories and exact calculations of this admiruhlu report ; hut, sir, truth, how ever unwelcome, will bu found, nt last, the sulbst guide, in wandering through the lab. yrinlhs of nicculntion and theory. What, sir, is lite fact ? Why, for thirty yeurt, n,u tidu of emigration has been Vow this very laud of wealth, nod not lu it. The exodus has been from tho land of promise, to thu house of bondage. The shrewd Yankees have been Hying from wealth, and ease, and iiiouoply, in their own country, to this very oppressed gram ui:d cotton raising re gion ol llie West, booking taxation, oppres sioii, mid wuui ! For llicsu hist three years, ns every American (except the authors of this report) well knows, population from the Northern Slates has been ploughing to be thus deceived. L it tlictn look lo this measure and ils sure results. U U design ud to bring about a statu of things, which will compel a call on llmm fur tho surplus revenue depo-ited wilh them, and which I um happy to heu their Legislatures ure using to the general advantage of their const il ileitis. Hut it is possible tha friends of tho Secreta ry will tell mi) his conjectures and calculations are not lo ha relied on. Shall I roceivo that answer from the goulliiuioii composing tho ma. jority here? Whose itulhoi ity is it that is thus lu bo contemned Tho vorv man whoso bo- hosts liuvo been laws to the G'omuiilloo of ays and Means ovor sinco I havo had tho honor to ho ono of Ilium. Sir. I have observed thai il has been thought by that cnnniiitloo, not only unwise, but even contumacious, lac lions, rebellious, to oppose any demand, or to doubt any view lakon by the Soerotury of tho luiuauijr. ...ly, sir, i imvo iiiougni boinu limes that hit Ineuils un lhat eoitnniltce tho Sociutary of thu Treasury, but determined lhat paradox should, in themselves at least, have tho moiil of originality. Thoy havo sut at naught, uay, scorned the solemn injunc tions of Iho President himself. Thus, they may bo said lo stand ' alone in their glory. Sir, we havo heaid much ofiGencr.il Jackson's itstem of admiuislralion. Many meaning is lo bo attached lu this word ''system," which can stand against tho arbitrary dictation of party. il will bo admilid Ih.U it implies a plan which comprehends an Older of proceeding by piinciplcs extending over the limo, at least of a presidential term, lu litis view, wo can at once sco how groal principles aro as true and tippphcablc in practicu in l!!Ji as they wctc in lO'JO. This being admitted, let us soo how Iho li ll and report now before us haniioui.o wilh the doctrines on the same subject, expres st'd in strong and earnest advice to Congress, in tho President's message a year ago. 1 quote tho en lire passage front tho message of 1I!3G: "t'limilil Coiijics in.ilvc new itiiupri.ilimis, in Ciiiif.ii'inily with the c-luu.ilcs ulneli will he submitted hum the proper ik-p.u Intents, nmuiiniin tu ii Ijoii t lueniy-l'iiiu- million-!, still the ai.iil.ible surplus, nl llif close nf tlio next je.u-.alu-r ileiliieiin .ill iiuexpen.leil iijiprojii i.iiiuns, will piubably not lie k-ss lh. in fix m i 1 1 ioi is. I'Ii'm nn can, in my judgment, lie now usefully applied tu proposed inipinveiiKMits in our navy yards, and lo new ita liun il wuiks, wliieh it i u nut entiiiiciaied in the piesi'itl estimates, or to the mure rapid rompleliou of those ulie.nly liegiui, Kulier would he cuiiiii. union, il and useful, .mil winilil lender uoiiei'es-.iiy any attempt, in our picscnl pei'uliar coiiliuoii, to divide lie; unplm leienur.iir tu i etloe.o il nny fast er tli. in will be effeeied by the exisiiiii lius. In maivi cve.it, rn the annuiit reiwrt from llie Stc- return ofthe TrttMtru will i liter mo ilctils showing the probability of same decrease in llie revenue during llie next seven iears, una n very cxnxiilerablc deduction in IS 12, it is not rcvomendublc that Congress should undertake to modify the nrcienl tariff, so us to disturb the principles on which the compromise act runs passed. I'.ixitinu on shiiiii iifllii! .uncles of gen eral - 1 1 1 s u in j t ion, wiiu'ii me nut tu eutiipclttiiiu wilh our own piniluiuiuiii, may bu, no doubt, so ilinniiislied ns to liv-en, tn suiue exieol, lite suittcu uf lliis leieiiue; and tlio s.iinu object e.m nljo be assisted by more liberal prut issiun for lliu subjects uf public defence, nliirh, in the pi ('sunt siiueolour piosp.irily mill ueilili, nny bu expected to enqao jour itlieiiiiiiu. If, however, sutiijying all the demands which can arise from these sources, the unexpended balance, in the Trruiuru should still continue lo increase, it would lie better to bear mith the evil until Ihe zreut change con cmptiitcd in our tauff lawt have occuntd, and shall cnuole uitoicvne the y,tem with thai core and eiteum'peiwion width tiie due io so ilcltcuie anil laipoiumt a lUbjcai,' Iloru gentlemen will perceive that the bill and report nro nt war with the Presr dent's opinion solemnly expressed en the samo subject. .Mark, however, the terms employed to designate the act ul'lll'dd ; ho calls it Iho compromise act. As he auiicipatcsu considerable reduction in our revenue during the next seven years, mid especially in llMj.ho warns ns "nol to dis turb lite principles on winch the comprom he net of Kt3.J was passed." Spoken like a man sensible of tho obligations of legisla tive and public faith! Sentiments worthy the Chief Magistrate of a nation governed by law, whoso duty il is to see the obliga tin. heavens. With characteristic fitful noss it now shoots a gleam of faint light above the borix o, anil anon wiihduiws it from the sight. At Inst "half concealed, half disclosed," it rises no the world, and hither ihu multitudes repair to "worship ami adore." Thus, anil thus only, can we ncc-tint. sir, for those ccccutiic movements and strange contradictions which crowd them selves into the annuls ofthe little and great aspirants after the perishable honors of this world; and this In. I wu uro to receive its tiie first ofloring upon the ulinrs erected to our ricio divinity. Il is m this way our new sovereign will signal. ze the beginning Ins reign. IIu will destroy, in tlio iir s,t year, 1500 millions of properly, all fnr lhu good ot Ins loving snujecis, and, with the blessing of God. which may lie tno.-i rea-on. ably expected lo attend so beneficent a work, proceeding at this rate, he will sue ceed, in Ins reign of four years, in destroy ing twelve hundred millions of the nation's properly. Thus will our excellent demo cratic Government enable our People t feel the force of lhat consoling declaration of scripture. "Blessed are the pour." Mr Speaker, I should bo happv to spare myself the pain which il always gives me lo recur to former transactions in a way likely lo excite uiiplea-aui feelltugs; but 1 have the mislortuuo to differ wtih the m i jority of it committee of which I am n member: I nm, therefore, compelled tu self defence to give everv reason in niv power for the course my conscience impels me to pursue. Phe House are already apprized that th bill on iho table presupposes a surplus of revenue as certain to uccrtio within tft next eighteen months. I hu uxi.-tencu ol this surplus is tho evil ihu bid is inteudei to prevent. Whether this opprchouded surplus will accrue, is mailer nf opinion. I wish, then, to present another, and only ouo other document, lo show the rolianse placed upon the opinions nf that very ma jority of the Ways and Means, who now require us, on the faith of I heir opinion ami conjecture merely, to pass this hill. Matty gentlemen will rem tuber lhat various pro', jecls for iho disposition of tho surplus reve nue were referred lo this same committee, composed of the tamo persons hist yeur which now compose it. On the Ut of July. 1 1130, just before tho close of the last ses sion, utitl only about six mouths ago, n ru port was made, from which I propose to read and extract. It will be seen by this extract, whot were the opinions of the cmiuuiltcu then, ns to any surplus which might possibly come into' the Treasury, and also their prognostics us to the proba bility ol'siich un event happening at all. Alter disposing of a vniiely of topics and reviewing our past history as usual, coin pi nning with becoming indignation of bud currency in England and America, and de ploring the existence of an evil spirit of chutes ns follow- ' Our revenue from cititoin and public lands after 111,17, it nut likdy to execid Ihe expenditures oj Government. It is, therefore important that wh'ilcver surplus ice may have in Ihe mean' time, whether dipodted wilh the local banks or in the Slate 'J rtasuries, as is proposd after the first of January next, should be pr served lo u uppliul, lo the crlraordinary purposes, ice 'ai-e been compelled to provide for during litis teuton, ana lor similar expenditures, wliieh in the nrct cut stale uj Jnitim relations, may again br.iumi; necessary. On ihu balance in tho 1 rcatury on tlio isi oi January uexl, ana tho revenue which may bo received in 1837, tliero will be chargee in addition to iho cur rent expenditures of thai year, and all extraor dinary demands lltal may occur probably near lilleeil millions iur appropriations auiuorizcu at presotil session, making ihe claims upon the Treasury in Iho next year greater than in the presold, while the revenue uf 1837 will bo considerably loss than that of 1030, and leaving tho surplus at tho close of that year murh diminished. .-Jj our income will not probably then cxcied our can en t expenditures, we must rely entirely upon what surplus we may have lo defray all ixpenses which may be come mcessanj in extinguishing Indian titles lo lands, removing the tribes beyond the Missis sippi, and for other objects of expenditure of an extraordinary character!' I b'gthe House to noiico with whal ora color giavpy the prophets then uttered their predict ions. "Our rcvr.nuc from cus, loins and public lands, after lf!37, is nol Zi'A'c. to exceed Ihe expenditure:! of Government." We ire th"ii kindly, but still peremtorily admonished to husband our surplus, if ony, to meet those exigencies which every wise and con-idcra'e man should o I ways bo pre pared to expect in human concerns. Again: at thu close we tiro thus addressed : ',.2s our income will nil probably then exceed oiir I'.urrenl expenditures, wo must rely entirely upon what surplus we may have to defray all ihu expenses which may become ncces sar in extinguishing Indian titles to land," iSic". Sic. So spike the prophets G months sine'!. A nd now. up j'linps the Chairman of ihe Ways and .Means, modest as Morn ing when she eyes the youthful Pl.ojbus," and full of the same inspiration that burned j tn thu bosom of the seer in July last, and in the same solemn prophetic tones, ho lolls ' ns our income will exceed our expenditures-. I Now we are adtnoni-hed not to hu-baud any surplus we may havo, but to reduce) ihe revenue by seven millions, in the next year mid a half, so that no surplus whatev er shall remain. S.r, when I see with what ruthless hand the committee has loin to pieces every shred of character for either ability or fide lily of the Secretary of the Treasury, and h ,v wilh the sumo destructivu appetcrcy I hev have I ram pled down the authority of the 'President himself, and lastly, when I see wilh what ridiculous gravity them two reports of the same committee, differing ou y -ix tn niths in their ages-, contradict each other, I hope the gentlemen will par don the degrading analogy, but really I can think of nothing like then) but the celebra ted "r. it- ol Kilkenny ;" they have at last literally swallowed each ether, htr. I havo dune with this siib'p ci. I know I have de tained ihe House already too long; for tins I inn.-: I iod nu apology in the fact I lutt I hnil not the oi .n distiiot thought of addressing the Ho'i-e on this subject, till the aflernoo t ofye.-terday. Without further time for nr. raugement ol topics 1 could not hope lo preserve thai order which is so favorable to brevity as well us perspicuity. L t mo again implore the House to put this subject at once at rest. Ihe worsl evil that can come is ti surplus of n few millions, nnd even tins ihe highest otlicor in the Govern men' connected with your tinanci.il system lolls you is impossible. 15ut if il should oc cur, send it as you have done before, to tho S'aics, where il can be Used as well us kept. If this surplus is an evil, in that way you can rid yourselves of it as easily as (he shipwrecked aposlle shook off the serpent thiU fastened upon his hand. At all events, let your People rest one year from your miserable experiments. Lot your former blunders teach you some caution. In your attempt lo bring about a gold currency you have fl loded the laud with bank notes. In destroying the United States Dank monop oiy y. ni have raised up u greater monopoly in public lands. Now you are to try Ihu experiment ol breaking down what arecal led in tins r-port the "princely establish ments of Ihe North." Sir, yon will not, cannot, ot h-a-t now. ell'iot this last and ,11 ist eruel experiment. led us Mien put lots bill (j lietly lo sleep somewhere; let il re.-t in peace nil lltdi; then, perhaps, it ii. ly reappear amongst us under other au Sj'.icos, an I wi'h betitr claims to our rc-r.nrd. Washing ros, Jan. lilj tiener.il S.inl.i Aim bid lefi us nune suddenly than liu appealed .ttuoii us. Vesierd ij-be leceited an iniiin.itiuu that u United -jt.iles te.sel lyinj; nt Noifulk, his pass.iRO in nliirli bad been pieiioiislv arranged, was ready to piureed to ea.x with liiin'iimiiedi.ilely. lie lie I'nidinaly was ciinsir.iiiie.1 to foiro thu in range inenl wliieh bail hern made for bis pail icip.it ion in the lio'pit.ilitius nl tin; l-'xeculm: to-day, and lo make an ou-iiiiii; t isil in lieu of tak'uij-" u dinner with lite beads uf llie I'xeculive L)ep.u intents, lie went ufflhis niniiiing by llie cans lo Baltimore, depaitiu;, ns he eiitcicd the city, in lite most pri tuie ill-inner. Few of oils citizen saw the Mexi can dm in j Ills stay lien, The reeling which lie hid excited in llie public breast nainst him by lib) lie.iclitiiei and ciiieliies was siifiicienl, in ibis in. stance, whit sutue exceptions, lo overpower that eiiiiusity which tempts us into so many nets of in. iloroium ami absuiiliiy. The Lion ami his keep, crs It ie (-one without lf.it ing m ich of an impics siun behind ibeni. Geneial S-.iiila Anna isdescri bod us n lino liii.kiii! iit-ui with a lottiiid reunite n.iiieo, black pieteing eyes, ii sharp nose, unit u "ouil li. no of intellect, which bo can use if be plea ses, so as to make himself an nj-reealilo companion. I lejoice that be lefi the eitv without liawni.' ex- piTicnmi nny oiuraeoiis treatment, uul tins i en liiely attributable lo lite pierauliuna wliieh wcio taken tu keep him otn of lite mblio view. .Air. (iriiudj-ollVied in.il.iy ihu customary reso lution lo uppuiiil a comniillce to settle tho mode of couiiling tho oihs for President nnd Vice l'rei. dent, tfaiiikedlh.it llio resolution thotilil bo at once adopted, but .Mr. Clny inleipofed nn objec linn, in the I'oiin of u iripic;! thai it might lie un. lil looiiurrniv, in oulcr incite liini lime to prepara an iiiupiidmeiil. Tlio i.iicmeniB which liao gnnn .ibro.nl thai public ilncers were inenibeia of the electoral cullre, a fact which, if established, would, according to llio Coii.tiiulioii; (a document, t0 be ure, of ciy lillle consideration and authority in lliesti d.tysi rcliiler liieir totes illrcil. me. no ilmiht. ni llie bottom uf ibis iiiowiueiil of .Mr. Clay, whom llllienilllinilt lll-iv tin ill llm Ji.im, nl nn inairi.xitnn lo ihu rommiiiee in cmpiire into iho legality of iiictr tutct. lie will probably gno Ins viewi to morrow, when be offers his iimeiidiiiciit to llie rc nlulioii, Mr. (ii unity c.iine up lo him tifier llio resolution was laid out, nnd I presume, was in formed of his pi)ipe.-c,