Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, March 3, 1837, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated March 3, 1837 Page 1
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II 111 Ill MMMM'IMMJLIUI Htttmnif II i. I "11 11 1 J ill'H WHU1I t,Mn.MWWMIWlili'WWrTCT Trn rrm i i 1 1 i-rn hi i i ii n iT-rarrmrrmtririi nmiiiimwi in i m imum mmmm finiLiiMMwuim,, in u.nu nj N O T T H V, C. 1, O It Y O V V At N A It : H If T T ft H W K I, I' A It I' U F II O M 12. BY fffl". U2. ST ACT, FRBSUAY, MAKCl-fl. 3,1837. 'YOB. X"No. 506 Fioni I lie Holland Humid. VARIATION OF Til 14 MAGNKTIC To J. Johnson, Dsn.., Surveyor General of the State of Vcimont. Silt : Alilimi(li I hive nni ilio honor ofa )cr noinil acquaintance. I netoilliclt'ss tjl"" ihe librily of mldie-sing joii on llic siibjccl of tlio magnetic vaii.ilion. r-otiiPlliuig like ten eiiis Hiirc. I iiddiesscil a comiuiiuic.il ion In 1'iof, II w.r., then of Midillcbnr) (,'nllpnp. siiiiiiiLr ilic cxnediinirv of adopting a nanse ol'rxiie. ononis In iifcei lain lliuline anatinn of the Magnetic. Nft'illp, llnonali lliu .Slnlo of or- IllOllt. Till' CHIIIse plOIO-Cll PPt'lllPlI III meet his eatirrs appioli.ilinn and In-(.hp my I'MU'i- pilldicily in ihu JlidiHcliiiiy papcis and thu A Hi my Airik, lint us In; It'll llii' ollcuc alionl that til milling lurllicrlian'piicilon llio Milijuci and it u otild term to ho 11 in.lllti alinust IntlilK ituqlrru l I)' fin level's in lliisume, unlit illist Inn il high hnpni lance lo community at laise. " 1'lial ii is dcsirahlo thai observation tint.l.l Ou mnnally in.iip, no onu r.an doubt ; in.ittniicli as llm Imiiinl.ifirH ol laniN me usually described iifcnidin In tin- cmirse indipalrd bytliu'needlo, nnd iln'ientc i.n inle liy vthieh its vaiiaiinn can be n.-cciiaini'd for any lntcn.il of limn, nrroiiling to which mine- bound uies can hp icir.iced vv lien tin1 lanil in.iihs limn been nblilcra led." 'Ihu iho ccnpui .man of .-'nnewiis nnd .Mathematicians, to n.eci lam fintn time lo limo anil til diffuieni pi ues, llio lino dccl.n.ilion of lliu .tlnj;. let IC Nri'dle, is Ion iibuoiis In iiipnie illusll alion. The Dlipniiinin.i ol the in.wnpt has I'm in. my oca- tin tcs pnj.igi'il llii' allpnliiin nf plliUis.iplieis, not incielf horn ihe nhfcm il in which il is inwilicd, tint llm iinppoit.incco'-llic jnbj.'ci, 1' would seem, hottrter, that no one lias as pl united to any wry f.iti.-r.ictniy coin lu.-iini, ns lo llm c.iiic, lint is gen erally coiuVdi'd that It las hid in ihueaitli, and tiear'liii' poles. It U aim dl-i:ouiod that n fun s iderahlc. aflinily dors cms!, hiiwccii ill" clectiic .Hid lliu tn.ncuc. powciK- ol in wh.il ni.innrr cli'Ctnoiiy act! in iiioiincini; inutjiii'ii-ni, U not I i - lincily known. Tito power and acting pimnplo of lltB Aia'iiPl ronliiHii's to In' one of tlin-B hidden imsleiiLVnl nalnii' ihal ilclii'i ihu J.ineiiy of tin' m"ut naiunii.'ii;' si nni'. iNo Inpnthei'H h,u :i jet hccii fiainiMl, ih.it h.ii in nn i.itnnui or pity !.i.niliii'.il iii.iiiiii'i-, ni'CiMinii'd lor all tin; ,il ions propel lira ol' Magnetic: IidiIip-". Thu needle i (leei- ihe nniition of licin in a dc leciinn liiiin rtniiih In ioiih;ljnl thuu aie urea 'i in il r.ni-i' r ipalil.' ol ilei anain;' lhi- iliicclion. Inn at. , li..uewr, in in im.iii.iI Ki.uo, doe mil pmr.iirc iln i lieei, n n ennip.i.-s in.iy liu used to aiH.ini.iu men in inm inim rf. il i.- hdII hniiun in every f nr or, that ihe ni.tij net m needle ilm-i mil nla.- point ili.o nnith, and Hi, il Hie v.n i iiiimi is ih ilet enl mil nnlv in iliU'.ienl places, lint ,il i In-Mine pluee al ilifleiiMil penuil- nf nine ; ami is llm same lo all magnum: huilics at thu imp pi. ice. It u.nild he foif!i;n fmm my prosenl design lo niliMiiii .in I'lneiilaiiiia of he ean.-es llnl pindaci; llie.e inj-iei iimh ipialilie- ol' tiio ill quelle needle, or i' i'ii In ipinii! tlu in my iheinies lli.it lime hcen nih'aneed, n spin in.; lln inn ie.Ho snhjeei. Ilalh, Kelpei, lOlilei, and milintoiH niliers nl i. iiinri! IP 'vMil ilale, lime each aiH.one.l ilid'i'ienl llipmies and ii. i w n ill fl'i lent i nidi i-1 1 n -. ih in I In: can-o of lliu.-o ii I ' i .tel I o linilie.-, I he Hi si ili-i mei v of I In: .n iniimi of Iip needle w.is in the ve.ii ..'J2, liy ( 'iiIiiiiiImk on In- (h-i nv- .1 i mi tin Milij-cl u.i- e iief P'V -t 'i . 1 1. -tt .i ul tlinioajli. Ij iiuesllMied .11 I.oimIhi, wli he laii.itmn .i- I'limd lo liu 1 1 de'. 50 mm. K. and in 1020, 1ml Ii ih'. K. In Kilil. ii was ! i1".'. 5 in. ; Inn in ihe leal lfiCGtl -cdlcu.H ih-r..i pr. i to point line '.Noilh. Iiilheieni l(i7J,ih die no ieil li di :J0 ill W. ; in lt.U'J, II .i- Ii ih'S. A- I i'e .i- JaiHiary IS2I. the vaiiainm ua- -1 dej;. - ni. West. At I'.ll is, ihe needle pninled due .N.alli in (j75 nhonl nine U'.us l.ner than London; and al i m ' i II 1 1 neai lv ihe .uiif lime. Ihedeelin.iminof Hie iieeilie i" f'limd lo lie m Ihe West, ihioiuli all Kmopo, Afiica, and somu pails of Asi i ; hut hi -nine places much jjrp.ilci than at oihci--. In Sp, Ii.ili , (iieece, and ihe rtVslitnp.nl? of Aliie.i.it isless-hnt adi..ncin-ca-tti.nil mio A-i i il diminishes, and enlnely ihs appeal s in China. l'Ui, and Japan, lleynnd Ihoso lesions i-.iniwatd, tin: deehn.ilion heeiiines UasI, and ,'nrs on incie.i-ins in 'hi diicclmn alone the noihern pails of the r.mifie In the tiesiein enasl nf America, and it fomiiine-lo ihciea-u until it .ii. .,..,, .,. n.nid.!. lii.iil. &c. Il H iiiuilani- eil. Iniueicr. thai the declin.ilnm inner e iN 15 de,;. i. n or nenr the L(iianir ; hat In ailianems Minds ihn ooles. Ihe v.u i.i'inn U f.nnd lo ineie in fiO anil SO de. C.ml. lln-s h.H slated in Ins 0Mlge-, 111.11 III limn, nimni - i -i...i. . nnlioii iMimio than 100 deg. m l.u. "5 tic. iS. and W, Ion. 102. Anolher f-mprisir.s cptalily disco-. ernbhi in the masnetic nceiile, i.s Us inclination or ii that i-', lliu inasni.'lie poner produces! a double effect on nil needles. Tins, as ell as the deehiiaiion, desei ips In hu eieiy iiheiu e.nefullv nh-eiicd ;iml iioleil. Al London iho iiichnaimn is now aliont 03 tU'l. In 1S03, Mr. llnnilioh linni I the incliaa inn of ihe needhial l'.ei liu lo he (,!) ilea. .")". m. In Jnlt IS20 ftlrSaliiimoh-erieil the inclmaiiun nl .Melun Is land. N. Lat. 75 des., W. Lun. 110 dej. ami found il to he SS des -111 in. 5 t-pc. I would now (haw jour attcmiun to pnme ob-er- vations I hal l.nu liecn made ill ihe DMtR ol M ilia liiai n.io neen in.ino in umi.i - , a part of which 1 leeched fiom a highly ru led, (ail now departed hii-inl, (Ur. Sam'i. IllOllt , pnpc.te WILLIAMS, Irom wliom I olraiuen imicn lamauiu insliuctiou, as in thu abne science. In the jear 17S5, at .Monucid ihe needle was found to decline 8 (leg. 21 in. W ; lull at Quebec, the fame time 12 des. 50 m , and in 170 I, hut 12 dcg.20m. In ihev'ar 17b.), tho i.iiiiiinn was 7 dfs.40 m. W. at the miiih hue of this .Slale. Al Miiisiii'll.iy in 1S23, l lie m edln .n ied S des. 50 n. hi the tear l ifu me iieeiiiiaiiuu iv.i .) ney. uu il. eel ai i nil II. in, i , .inn in u deg.lO in. Al liullaiul in ihe unr 17S9, lliu lull- (k-g 10 in., in 1S23 5 ih-. -10 in. and m lb.i.i, 5110'. III. al Ulil iiusioii lliu iieenn.ilioii n. ob'e'Micd lo he 7 ilea, 'M in W. in the jear 17!JH ; and W'i the ) ear 1S26, Inn 0 des .15 m. A I Hiimdua in lsliO, ihe needle Mined to the U'esl 5 des 20 m J and l8!'0, hut -1 des '0 m. Al rillsfield, lliu dc clinal'on was (i des 5 in W. in Oi l. 1S25 ; in 1830, hut 5ldes -10 m and in 1830, 5 des '-0 m. I'uil. Kifhel-, calculated ihu ileeliii.Uinn of ihe needlii nl Nniv Alaifii in lS20.al ! des 23 in 25 see U'., and was lT;'ms lo lliu line inn ill nl ihu rale nf 2 mill. ules4.' tecum!, annuall) ; bin limn my nun obser vation I I limlthu aininal laiiatiun fonmihins near thiee titiautes, l''roii Ihu ahoie impel feet view, il is no tiny sur nris'ili',' ill. it so much litigation has aiisen in con t,eriiciii(e of suivejB beius made al dilTeient peiiod of linio, niih lillle or no atteniioii lo thu annual varialio.i ; and until enmo pcrniaiieul uiuiliod is adopted thai shall m.ihu it ilmiluty ol eieiy pr.ic lirinL' ttaveior to iisceilain fiom e.ii to year in thu vicinity of his piaetice, Ihe liuu lari.ilioa ol llm iicedlu a,d to caicfully imie ii in eiery enh-eqiicnt siiney, uffcrent coulees will be urn and litigation ...'.II ..on I mi.. Mr Dfwiti. oli.-eivfd,,"lhat in years past, a inle had beet pierCiibcd fur oblaiu'ms an npioxiinalu incridim, supposed sullicient for common puipurcs, i... t id o. Ln i lu. iliipction of ih'i nole olar, when U isi thasame lerlical linu uilh I'spdon, called ylo't thai is llm first f far in llm tail of lliu (neat Hear This ruin (lm i-nys) ''ls once eoneci , inn it is mre than a eeiiltiry pat i n'mco that, lh inter. al '-iween llm Iiimi when lliesn hio stars aie in thoanio irmcil and lliu limu when the polo Hiir i , the inendian, Inn been Gradually incrcaiiiL'. cotini of the greater nimu.il incie.iso ol the .itrp.i .imnfl bono Cellir.lll.lll IIIUI Ol illiaio. " . ' .. .. ...1 1. ...mi cy, calotilalioiiH initsi ho iiiutli! for thu timo wrnluii nl m n.in liiia-. tind by vttrinti mi vlioit it is adopted Tliomclhnd tnol in ( j thorn onclt ofwlintti littb' fiirtiir;(l lilff own atiiniijr islrtiiioincrs, in order lo eslnblish U i hypnllii'M.s, niiil tln;ri'oii ttiaili; Ins catcula tmu meridian line, (is s'lveii;) the lalitnilo u'.n?, but I hud and ub-iorviitioii lias proved Urn phico, and Iho iorlli Pole dislniicu of tlioi.i... ,.nr,, ,,r ii,,,,., . North Star (remtircdHlic aii"lo of tlto creates Azitnutli. Tint l.'ttitndii may ho taken frotn our map, tlto norlli polar distiineo may bo calculated or laken from the niitilical Alnta nae. I''iotn tltesii you will I'md iho polu nl;i r'n rcatosl Azimuth, thus as thu cosine of llm latitude of thu place is to radius, so is llm sine of lliu Norlli pole star to llm lino ol'its jrreat. est Azimuth, Tim time when llm polo Mar will he at its greatest A.imulli on any given day, is tlittn I'outid -subtract thu riahl nsci'it" tion of lliu sun from the right asccntlon of the star. This will j-ivo tlto timo when il transits llm meridian. Various methods have been instituted to ascertain a ttuu meridian, and Iho annual variation, of tho uiacnetii! needle. The most simple is, by iiteasuritie; the analo rwrmetl hnlivu"ii thu maglietiu meridian ami n loiio; lino formed by the pole star, when on the mcritJinii. Jiulaslho pole star is duo north hut twicu in 2d hours, and remains but a few seconds in thai directional is recoiimionded Hi.il tho vaiialiun he takun and calculated at Us de'din ilion, or greatest elongation, as it allords sulhi.ieul lime for observation is made, and the Iblldiviiifr proposition may ho insti. tilled, as the cosine of thu latitude is lo ra dius, .so is Ihu cosine of llm declination lo tho sum of'olong.Uioii. IJIinil's lahle is founded on tlto above prop osition. In e.vammg them, you will thai in lliu year li'05, in latitude d'j dog. 30 m. the elongation of the polo star is found to be 'J dog. i!0m. 51 sec. In l!.57, I Unci it to he 2 deg. 7 ni.il.sec. In calculating up to 1!M0. for thu diH'creul latitudes I malm following result : Lai. Jim, 18.17, Jan. lSilll. 1 - d. 00 in. '2 d 5 in 52 s 2d 5 m 20 s 1-Jd. 50 lit. 2d 7 m 2s 2d (J in .'! 1 s l.'Jd. 00 m. 2d V, in 8 s 2d 7 in -Us Lat. Jan- 11JIJD. Jan, It! 10. I'.'d. 00m. 2d 5 m 2d d m :U s lid. 50m. 2d 0 in 7s 2d 5 m 4! s Idd. 00m. 2d7tnlCs yd Gin 50s Tlto above is supposed to bo nearly correct ; hut it is leeominuiided lo every mtveyor to inalio his own tjlcnlatinns and observations, and al Ihu timo the io!e star n'ull hu in Us (.'reatu-t elongation, as being tho most correct method, liui still, tho-e who have no! a trail Ml, and other means observation, the following Will l'ivc a tolerable true meridian. as Aliolli, and U.iinina Cassiopeax transit the meridian al nearly ihu same niomeiil, the one above t.nd lliu othur below the poles if then the line hu truly observed m which they appear, in the Mime vertical, that line will nearly be lliu meridian-. and the diU'ereuco between iho changes nl' thu right a-euiMon of the two stars, will not oi-unlially e fleet the rulo. May and Juno Is recommended an iho must I'avorahln timo for observation in lliu latter case Ocluber for Kit: former. It is possible, ind very probable that some ivrtior would hu very thanUful for corieulitm. Yours respectfully, KliiVll. Oil ILL) . I'UUlield, Vl. .January, ldJ". To Unr.'n. Child Esq. Pill-field, Vl. )v., Sin: -I Hiis day received llm ltul. hind l.'iald of thu I'llli iiikI. containino your ohsurval nuts addressed lo myself, on the subject of thu variations til'ilm iMagnet. ic Noi-'dlu, and to prove to you, though an entire stranger, thiH. I have1 not been un mindful ul' the subject, I have requested tlio Kdil'T ol the Uurliiigton Frco l'rcss to rc publili what was prepared by inu and pub lished in thu (irccn Mountain Itepo.-ilory in lliu year Ili32. I also Impo thai ovcry Editor in the State will publish il fur thu benefit of tho community. 1 would Imro remark In Mr. Child thai 1 have carefully examined his production, and am highly gratified with llic interest he takes in the bubject, that I urn acquaint ed with r.ll ihu methods fur making a me ridian which ho lias pointed out, and also wiih other inuiliodf. which may be more foiivfiimtit in practice, and not les true in theory but winch would not form a proper subject fur the columns of a news paper. John .Toii.nsO.n, Surveyor General. Burlington, Vermont, Feb. 17, IUU7. 1'ioni llic (iicen Mountain llepnsitory. ntMAUKs upon 'nip. nntr.cTiov and usn or TI!i; MAG MIOTIC NLKULi:. Mr Editor, Having noticed your invitation in the October number of the Repo-'ilory, I take the liberty of sendingyou a few observa itous on the subject ol llic variations m the direction ot the magnetic needle, at dilil-r cut places, since that phenomenon was I'n st discovrnd. When or by whom magnetism wna first discovered and brought into use, is not certainly known. It was evidently in use as a guide al sea as early as a. d. 1 150. The fir.-t writer of nolu on this Mibject wns Doctor Cilburt, who wrote about Ihe year 1000, since which it lias been it sub ject of much investigation, ll is not my object in this paper to enter an inio uie biihjecl of preparing magnets, but to show in home degree now lar, unit in wnai man ner, the magnetic nuedlu may hu rulicd on as ii guidu either by sea or land. Il is evident Irom thu uilormation, now lo be obtained, that for a considerable tunc uftur thu magnetic noudlu was Used as a guide, it was supposed lo range iliolf ex aeily with the meridian, or due north and south; but niter it bucumu in more general and extended use, it was found to vary from ; liu Iruu meridian and on turlhur ux aiiuuaiiuu, it was louiid to vury dillerunlly in different places, and on yet further lu vestiulioii it was found that thu variation was not stationary in thu samu place. The first record wu have of thu variation is given, by Ferdinand, son of Columbus who htntes' that Ins father discovered a variation A.D. 149. In attempting tonccount lor tho Uillerent .. !... , 11111 co 1 cu vunuiiuua, imiw " .- Among llicsi' who hnvrj nttninptcd t" form a theory, from which to calculate not only to prcJi'iil, but till future variations throughout the (Holm, may he considered Doctor Ilooku and Doctor llalley, who both published their lucubrations in :1m seventeenth century. The Initur of whom, nficr procuring tin result of (ibi'rvnl loiisi made in different parN of the world, formed a variation chart winch wiih iiiteiidi'd as n guide in mariners ! this, with others' of tlto Mime kind, went nut of thu I'ontiniii'd and unexpected va rial ions'. Aiti'iiiplrJ were I lien made to account for ilies-i; ciiitiuucd mid unequal vnrintiotis. To tin t his. various tnnguotie points worn tuippospd to e.vt-jt, both in the northern and souihurn lK'tiiisihcre?, at cer ium distances' from the poles. Seme of lhe--o points were supposed to bn fixed in tin' curlli and snine in Ihe heavens. Their attractions, repulsions, and prcpciidernnees were all considered with regard to locn. lion and distance, anil from these data theories have been deduced rind enlonki lions made thereon for future variations, all nf winch have turned out equally falla cious. This had led tuu tn believe, that if the Author of the universe has intended thai we should know the caue, ei'liur of altrniioii of the magnetic needle, or ol Us inuliifarious, continual, and irregular varia l itiini and changes; the lime has not yet arrived for its ilevelopoinent. We must therelore content ourselves with such inforinaimii as wu are permitted tn obtain, and rallier marvel thai man lias acquired so much, than that more yet re mains which he may, or may mil under -.land : and though on the subject, untie cun-idorai ion, there are many things winch are inv-'erion-, vet enough is known to answer all pratic.il purposes. Thu n-ur i ion will he further illustrated hereafter. At pro-cut 1 will give it list nf some ol the variations which have been observed at dill'iTcnt times and different places. In order In tin-', it must be noted that when lliu north point nf the needle points In the east nf due uori h, it is called eiis 'eru variation, and when it points lo Ihe west, of due north, il is called western vnriitiuu; and when 1 1 to needle exactly coincides with the line meridian it is then said to h; at Zero, or lo have, no varini .on. In givm-: n lirt. nf variations. I will begin with li'iiidon, which is situated in latitude. ,"! degrees " I minute i. and Ion gi i'.?r':,"7ii iC.' i.i'i"v'.'i?7i."",V ,frotn ll uil ' v.'u'have of the nb-erved variational this place, is in a.d. 10UO. nt which lime the variation was 1 I degrees 15 minutes H. in lCI2.it was 0 degress D. in 1C.M it was .1 don-rees 5 minutes H. in 1057 il wa al Zero, in lG72 ilwas 2 degrees 00 min utes V. in 1 7-23 it was 14 degrees 17 min utes W. in 1717 it was 17 degrees dO iniu-utc-s V. in 17i:0 it was 22 degrees -11 nun tiles W. and in 1703 It was 2-1 degress 30 minutes W. making I he difference in the ..etnni nfi hi iniiL'tiei u: needle Jo degrees minutes in 213 yoars. At ''an, latitude !!! degrees 50 inintil N and longitude 2 degrees 2U minutes . tl ob-erved variation commences A. i. 1550 and was then !! degrees h. in 1 GOO it was at. Zero, in 1 fi!J7 it was 2 degrees 2 minutes W. in 17G0 it was IS degrees 20 minutes V. and in ItiOl it was 22 degrees 20 minutes W. making a difference of 30 deorees 20 minu'es tn 25d years. Al Dublin, latitude 53 degree- 22 iniu. utes N. longitudo 0 dfgre.es 17 iiiiiintes V. the observed variation commences a.d. 1G57 and was then at Zero. In 1791 il it was 27 degrees 23 minutes W. making a difference of 27 degrees 23 minutes in 13d years. At the south point of Africa, latitude 31 deorees 53 ontniiesS. longitude 20 degrees 10 minutes K. thu magnene needle was al Zero in IG00. in 1002 U was II degrees W. m 1700 it was 0 degrees W. in 1701 n was 21 degrees 32 tiiinules W .being a va riatmii of 1 degrees 32 minutes in 1D1 ycar3. Attlie island nf St. Helena, latitude 15 degrees 55 minutes S. longitude 5 degrees 5 runtimes E. in I GOO it was !! degrees E. . , a... ur ... ("ii Ill lll'J ll WHS l HOg. CO u ,i ,v.,s, 13 degrees 15 tninu-es . , ,1794 it asj 10 degrees 10 unnn.es W I e nig variation . of 24 decree-: 0 minutes in 194 years. I ni-ii. t . , i A, ( pe Cuniirii, neing he : sniuh par. ni,doos.a.., l,VU.,d; g ees o0 ,ni i -, utes i. niiiginiiii- ii iic-itt..iii.iiiuwu. in 1020 i he variation was 14 degrees 20 minutes W. ill 17110 it was 7 degrees 30 ,,,m"t0H iM I175,' r , , v ' lb is 1 1 1 1 1 n c e 1 1 1 r i w s ihwhole imigh.K.r lnlnu;s W and u. MO . va nl r o x - j j ,() lnvtilL,rnI, rymg on v lo ""' " ' ' J1 r; ! hiw.s, s .he eo.isequc.ice. in the course nd 14 degrees 5 minutes in UG years next I nho M ,, previous. , nniiual caliiinuy and slander take thu placu

At Cape Horn, lat ludu :: degrees 53 1 . J nnilesk longitude 07,1 egrees 2, minutes -f it is con.mued in the W. in 1003 he l.yi1w as long as either party is able to nay ,0 m.nm.'H 1', n , 7, I wa; .24 leg ro, , 2. - o ( u ()f m,mil0S '" ,'G17- r IZ UZ- V 1 1' property and reputation, if not nf Ins minutes E. and in I i95 it was 23 degrees h. j ' i i From all these observations it appears i" , i i thai although the needle vanes so much) I bnvo now eoiiiniented on the original ,i,.., ,,.,7 ,, -M.ni.rnil diflernnee iii vn -' surveys n ml iiiadesouiu observations on rialinn for the space of 112 years. a i,.,, tl,.. e.m.t nf fliinn. Coro.i. Turin r ami Kain-ebalka. tin var'aiion has noli i i Ui, ,.,.r " ,,r 'i ili.irr.uw mill nni nilnv nlni. less': some al Zero, and some on one Mile of the meridian am! some ,i,, The "reatesi variations have been obser- veil in The voyages made In near tho Arctic ol,, The variation there continued lo increase ...oil in Homo insinnees it wus 110 de-'rees to that the north end ot !lo tiecdlu look direction 20 degrees suuth of a line drawn east and west. 1 ,1 M.wii, America, ihoii.rh few obsorvu lions liavo been inadu, yet eiiouh is kuown lo ascerlatn that the suinu titicerlainly pre vails here im elsewhere. Al llnrvnnl University Minute nl Cam bridge in the Male of Massachusetts', lati tude 42 degrees 23 iniiiutes N. longitude 71 degrees I) miniues V.Hoino observations have hen made, hut with what degree of accuracy 1 rim not inlorineil, '.he result ol which is as billow. In 1702. the variation was !) decrees W. in 1747 it was ' degrees W. in 1751 it was 7 degrees 20 minutest W. in 17G3 it wns 7 degrees 14 minutes V. in 1772 it was 7 degrees W. in 170 2 it was 0 degrees 40 minutes W. which shews n dif ference of only 2 degrees 14 minutes in liO years. In the overland voyage of Mir Alexander McKcuzio to the month of McKenzie's Ri ver in 17119, in latitude 70 degrees N. lon gitude 135 degrees V. the variation was 30 degree D. At ten in Uaftiiis 1'r.y latitude 52 degrees N. longitude 52 degrees V. the varialiot, was 40 degrees 11 inintiios V. and in laii tilde GO degrees i. rnd nearly the same long Hide, it was 52 ihgrues V. The monument at the source of I he Riv er Si Croix, on the line between the Slate of Mjitie and the Urilish province of New 1'ruiiFWick. is in laiilude 45 degrees 53 minutes N. longitude 07 fi.l west. In the years 1017 and I0U1, John Johnson, princi pal strveyor on the part of Ihe United Slates, iindur the 5th article of the treaty of Client, inn Iho lino due north lo 4(1 de grees north latitude, which line divides the Slate of Maine from the said province ol New lirnu.-wiek, The variation of the needle al the menu, mont in 11117 was 14 degrees west, and at 4!! degrees north latitude, in l!il!l, it was 17 degrees 45 mi tittles W., and lliu mend, lati was nearly ninfotin. In Vermont. n no meridian has been kept up for any considerable length of time, it is not to he expected that n very purlieu, lar knowledge ol the variation of ihe needle could have been obtained. Il is however supposed thai frotn ihe south west to the north east comers of the state Ihu needle will now range variously from six lo ten (forces of west variation. Al the University of Vermont at !ur lingion at the present time, Ihe variation is 0 degrees 20 minutes west, and com paring Ihu needle now v.th foiiic well known lines which were run .soon after the Revolutionary War, (he course of which lines, by ihe needle have been ascer tained al several limes stnee !lu f..!lnu i.iir ,.lt .r.is mutinied. Thai is, in 1705. the variation was 0 degrees 35 uiitiuies wes'. in 1005, it was 5 degrees 35 minutes west Wimi 1032, it was 0 degrees 20 minutes probably commenced as enrly as a.d. 1750, and perhaps before that period. The town and lot lines were mostly run in the south and cast parts of Ihu siaiu before, the Rev oliilUitiary War, and some surveys bordering on the lake were probably com menced during the same time. Soon after the close of Ihe Revolutionary War the remaining town lines were mostly run, and as early as 1010, the towns in this slate were nearly all divided into lots. This business, which was sixty, or siven ty years in progress, was performed by ihe Use nf the magnet ic needle, without any reference to the variation during claps j oil time. The instruments made u-e ot were gcncrrjly, and perhaps tmavoitlatiiy, of an inferior quality, incurred and incon venient in ll.eir construction, and frequent ly in bad repair, and those who used them except ma lew instances. were incompetent wanting in information both in theory and practice a-i well as in a knowledge of proper instruments, or of keeping them in due repair. The country being now, lands cheap, and labor and provisions dear, induced Ihu owners of lands to have their business done in the cheapest way, and the want of any test or blaudard of examination, either of men or instruments, caused lliose to bu employed, who in most cases, were totally incompetent, and their instruments unsuit able. The consequence of this stale of things is what might be expected. Lines consul ercd and intended to be parallel, frequently vaiy from one to four or five degrees, and crooks and curves tire frequently to be found in lines, which can only be at tribuU'd tn the causes before stated. I,., si ml ml 1 ,.,,, ml ,,, l. ,,!' t be ; m Vire(, , jn , .. . same vieiiutv. lu coiisom e ee o this if- ' ( , (,ornors , toad of being a sure direction by which renew the lost touiidarv in Us original place, will lead tea vorv different result I the consequences, of their irregularity. - ' Hurvevs However, continue io nu mane, mid must so continue as long as Ihe righ of iinuiortv is nek no w Icdged law, and biisi ! ness iiiinsiiclions shall coulinue: and unless they are made in a more correct maiuier i haii bus heretofore been and now is ii-ual. j tbc.y will surely continue to bu onu of the most fruitful i-ouices ul law-suits within our cniiiiiry. unr laws rcquiru iniu uie legislating ' MiaM annually elect a s.irveor general, a1 mid that the county court, in each county stmu appmni eouiuy surveyors It is not However, requireu uiai Kiev hotilil I line - i any scientific acquirements, or prnclicul knowkilgo in tliuir business, or inmrumenia Miilablo to perform Mich business with ae curacy. And hem let ine observe, and it is n la mentable fuel, that in general tlu-.-e i no knowledge in the appointing power, of the proper qualification;) of the persons appoint ed are not with in 1I13 requirement of ihe law, tin d connequrutly do not legally make any part of the question. The lew ebb to v.'lneh this buiness has- been suffered lo fall, has nearly excluded from il nil 'science, mid consequently ap pniniiuoiits il'mado at all under our present system, must he made from such materials as nre in be had, The consequence i thai surveyors nre appointed who have no knowledge of geometry, trigonometry or inenstirai ion, and Hint in all eases of lands hounding on waters, and where they coiiM-it of many sides of different lenglhi, such men. with such iiis-truineius as r hey usually poises, would not generally approach so near Iho trti'h as lo help a guess. Lands have now become valuable and arc becoming inoru so, & instances arc dni ly occurring where 1 ha difference between the estimated quantity by surveys made in tho usual way, and the real quantity by n true estimate would amount to innrij than enough to purchase a good jet of instru ments nnd eases are pot wanting where the difference 111 a single ea-e would a mount to sufficient lo furnish the said in sirumunls, and educate a youiirf man for tho hiisino-sof surveying- Amu her evil, which nries Com t ho want of a proper knowledge of the business ts that many, who nre eilher totally ignorant, or have a very imperfect knowledge nf sitr vevs. in attempting to make descrtpl ion? in deeds and otherwise, make them tm tin perfect and in many eases erroneous, linu they becntnu fruitful sources of law mi u. Many deeds are taken front surveys long since made, and Ihe courses given" ns 111 uie original survey, when thu variiniuii nf the needle during 1 ho elapsed lime hut ween the making ol the survey, and the deed, may have oceaMoimd a difference! of varia tion of two or three degrees. And agroe ablo to our present mode of doing busuiers. deeds should be governed by Mirvov.5 made at the time of iheir dale. This in many in-tances would make it quite different from tiio intention of the parties, itnd ho who happens lo have the advantage is generally much disposed in '"i-l 11. Ouf-cuMjwliii.il is of 1 nis kind and o great consequence, is now within mv knowledge. When we view ihes-e evils 'as they first ari-e before he cousejjitonces bepi'i,!,, the seeds of of the most iiivetteraie law suits known to our courts of justice Having pointed out a few' only nf the many defect? in our pre-enl and p"n-.t moth oil of doing business, I next, proceed in state what f con-ider would oppernie in some dcL'rcc to correct the existing' evil. I say. in sotnu degree, for it u an evil winch can only ho remedied by s'ow de grees, and which may never receive n final cure. The method I propose is tint the survey, or general be selected from among tlniM known lo bo fully competent. To be fur. nislied at the expense of the statu with suitable intrutnenls. A sufficient inimbar of deputy purveyors to be opotnted 10 each county, who u a prerequisite shall pass-a good examination ui Gomneiry, Trigonomitry. Mensuration. kiinintigu.ar .Surveying, and the applcn 111.11 to practice nf all the rules required in land sinveymg. They shall also bo ca pablc nf drawing and ma'kinir maps nf sur veys in good style, and regular and proper descipttons of all surveys in proper and appropriate language. They shall pro vide themselves wuh good und correct in si ruinenis which shall also bo subject to examination, and they shnll be approved uy 1 tie county court for the enmity 111 which they reside, as of good moral char acier and regular habits. lu one or mnru places in each county a meridian should ho made by true celestial I'bsorvitimn-', and purpotua'ed by suitable permanent monuments. Unci) compass u- sed in surveying should be rectified to Ihe true meridian in the county where 11 is .or Hie ililj. reuce hot ween the true mil magn.'iie meridian carefully observed (l ii... oil in all surveys and descriptions in deed- throughout, this stale. All surveys made in this way can alwnvs be traced with certainly nl auv limu Imre :il'or, becaus.! the angle from tiie meridian will always bo known, and can bo deter mined wuh equal ease whatever may be the difference of variation. The expense to tho slaie in purchasim: instruments nnd forming ineridinus would be much less than has been paid 111 a single lawsuit which has grown out of Iho want of Mich regu'alions. Should an arrangement n Tt his kind take pine" it would induce a sufficient number 01 young men to prepare theiniolves for ih bu-iiiesv'ind surveys officially inadu after neb an organization shall havu been eft'ee. ted. will be entitled lo, and ree-ivu lb. puuiiu couoeiico 1 insieaii ot which, ns 11 now h, surveys protended to be ofiicial are frequently nothing more thuu ofiicial 1111 posit ions. Many other advantages will nrri-o with out any expense (o tne state, 'i'lm t.uino henries which aro applicable to land sur- eing, inrin tiio basis nt niuny ul lliu 1110-1. important tnecliain'cul professions, j Uud-on fur 90 mile on the ic, fell in sev aud oxienil to all Ihu principles ongiiiee;- enil tunes near Caldwell's Landine- and nig; and I might further add, their useiil ness extends to till the busines4 of life. It. would also give a favorable impulse to school.- because theories would be followed up to their practical utility, and tlm stu dent would reali,0 the value of Irs studios. One betii r asked, why he married so i ih. a wile nu-wutd, ol a I nib wc tiiouhi Jchoosu llio least. Fiom the N, V. Tiaiecript. A ROMANCE IN REAL. LIKE. Some of Ihe c'Uy watchman on Wednes day night iipprrdicnde d a very poor, but clean, and rather interesl ing looking young woman, named Riley, who J 1 n for sotno time pnM, led a most abandoned life, nnd ohtninei! her livelihood by walking Iho public nl reel n. The justice, beforu whom she we. o.NHiiiinod at'an early hour the fol lowing innriiiiig, determined' to rfford her an opportunity, ' nf avoiding a committal to the peinleiiiiary, ni a vagrant, ntul there fore sent her 10 the eiiy Dridewell, to eco if die could procure bail for her future good behaviour. Throughout the wholu of Tu"diiy, a ninti was looking about the Po lice Office, mid the prison, who i-aid she was Ins wife, nliliotigb Ins statement was al the lime disbelieved ; and it was suppos. rd he wns cue of those wretches', who arc conmnted to live on the wages of iniquity, procured by Ihe other sex. It is however now apparent thnl he was really her hus band. Hi-i anxiety lo pmcuru her libera lion from eoftody. nppnar d great in the extreme, ait hutigli nil his efforts proved un availing, ns when Thursday night arrived, Him was Mill an inmate nf Ilridowell, which itppofirs from what, lias since occurred, tn have preyed on his mind very keenly. At about n'cliiek on Thursday night, tho poor fellow went in the outsnin of Ihe I'ris. on, and by tupping nl the window of this cell in which the was confined, awoke ber from her -deep. He then told her of tho nn-ery he lelt ni her being a prisoner, and at his being unable to procure her libera tion; and 1 hat he could not live to bear tlio disgrace, he hud two phials of laudnum, with one of which he said he intended lo destroy liim-a If. and gave ihj 01 bur 10 her : accompanied by a wi-h that she would at Ihe same time, put an end to her own exis. Icnce, by similar means, she however was unwillinirto do as he desired her, and by ev ery means she possessed, importuned him not to commit so rash and I'ttal an act. The scene 01 this moment, we must leave In Ihe render's imagination ; we will not nlH'iilPl in describe it, but only state that in thu midst of her cries, prayers and en treaties, he drunk ihe conients ofthe phial he net! reserved for himsel. Thus was it her late tn nee her husband deliberately de stroy Inn self, in a manner, and under cir-oiim-i iitices. which her situation compelled her quietly to witne, but. which she could not prevent. Tim quantity of laudnum the wretched man had swallowed produced im mediate death, as before she could procure: ns-tnnce, he wn-- a corpse. Justice Lotin-do.-, yesterday held an inquest on the body, Since ihe above was written, wc have ascertained the following particulars. The nnme of ih- d-rea-ed v.';t-- John Murphy al. ins Ri'ey, alia-- Valentine, abas Ox Tom. It appears hu wn- well known to the Police ns n dwrpputnblu character, who obtained Ins living bv pilfering about the markets. He re-ided ni she Five Poinis, and is now suppo'od 10 have commuted suicide from n lear that his wife, who knows some of his rni.-deeds. would (now that, she was in pris on.) be tempted to disclose thorn. Upon Ins pprson was found about four dollars in moii'V. and two counterfeit ten dollars, on a Charleston Dank which had 110 cashiers signature attached to them. A pair of cu. rums constructed spectacles which were no doubt ii-a'd for the purpose- of disguise, was also found noon luin. Thu woman is now discharged from cu-tody. F uiai the Philadelphia Public Ledger. THE BITTER IMT. A person who wore 11 suit of homespun clot bus, slopped into a house in this city, on some besui"s.s, where several ladies and getu li'inen wre assembled in an inner rouiii. One ofthe company remarked, (in a low lone. 1 hough sufficiently loud to be ovoi beard by Ihe stranger,) thai a coun tryman was in wailing, and agreed to make some fun ; tin billowing diuloguu ensued: You're Irom Ihe country, I suppose." 'Yees. I'm from the country.' 'Well, sir, whai do you until; of tho city?' It's got a lamel sight 'o houses in it.' 1 1 xpert there is 11 great many ladies wheru you e inio from." 'Ob yees, a woundy sight, jist for nl! the world like tle'in there' poinling to the la dto. 'And yon are quite a bow among them, un doubt ?' 'Yuen. I hows 'em to mcctin' and about.' 'May be iln gentleman will take a glass of wine,' said one of the company. 'Tiiauk'o, 'dont care if I do.' 'Dm yon must drink a toa-t.' 'I em - toast, what aunt D.'bby mikes but as lo drinkiu' it, I ii ver seed the like Oh, you iiiosi drink their hcallli." Wr all my heart. Whal was' the surprise of the company to hear the stranger speak clearly as fol lows : Ladies and jreutlemcn, permit, me to wish you health and heppinoss. with every other bles.-hig this earth can afford, and ad vise you to bear in mind that wu are often deceived bv appearances. Ymi mistook , mu. bv iv dress, for a country booby, 1 I from Urn same e.iiise, thought these men to 'he geiuleiiHii i the deception is mutual. I wnli you a goon evening.' Moue or Su i.g Lu'K on tiik Icn A i irenileinon uiieniptuiir to travel down ibn cnine near perishing, when he ingeniously bethought himself of rolling Ins body soniu filiueu roih m whero tho ice was hard enough 10 bear him, by which means Ins life was saved. The pereu-sion ofthe feet 111 walko'ir, 1 1 eourse, strikes the ico after 1 1 he manlier u: a namm r, ami wuh nn in creased ID HU. Ill urn therefore cntnnnroil 1 with tiio pr. -nro of tlu extended smnnih Uurfncc of thu body ui a rolling movemnnt. oiuor to pracucu una mio im