Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, December 15, 1837, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated December 15, 1837 Page 1
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Biwii&iMiiiiiiiiiiniir"T-rr"Mi mil iiiiTtrMraMg)ajaAUulJiji;Ju-'iiu.J'!'XJWiai'-'ujil gj cfi j tt jui'Jal"j'liWiiAt'wjaLijiitiiJuij'm.jWBMiiiiuiiauu,i;jiiiljJjj-j mx.timmr.ttim. . ijjij. ii-iiUii--JiiiLa....i-ju- NOT THE CJLOHY O F O S A 11 ) HUT T II K WRM'AltU Ol K O M U. BY 61. R. STACY. KB BAY, DBORMB1I351 15, TOSv. XI No. T 4 MESSAGE. Fellow citizens of the Setiate, and House uf Itcprrscntritircs; IVc have reason to renew the expression of our devout gratitude to the Giv- u of am. Good for his benign protection. Our omiiiiry presents on every side tliu evidences of th.it riutitimiutJ favor, i under whose auspices it Ims gradually risen from a fow feeble mid dependent Colonies to n pro-t. porous ifcpoworful Confederacy. Wo nrc blessed with domestic tranquility, and all the elements of national prosperity. The pestilence which inva. ding, for a time sonic flourishing portions of the; Union, intcrputed the general prevalence of uii. natural health, has happily been limited in extent, and arrested in its fatal career. The industry and produce of our citizens are gradually relicv ing tliem from the pecuniary embarrassments un. dor which portions of them have laboured ; judi. cious legislation, and the natural and boundless resources of the country, havo offered wise and 'timely aid to the prir.itc enterprise; and the no. tivity always characteristic of our people lias al ready, in a great degree, resumed its usual and i profitable channel. The condition of our foreign relations has not materially changed since he last annunl mcs. sage of my predecessor. Wo remain at pc.ico with all nations ; and no efforts on my part, con. sistcntcnt with the preservation of our rights and the honor of the Country, shall be spared to main tain a position so consonant to our institutions. Wo have faithfully sustained the foreign policy with winch the United states, under the gui mice of their first President took their stand in the family of nations that of regula ting their intercourse with other powers by th'1 approved principles of pri ato lifo ; asking nn l according equal rights and equal privileges, ten dering nnd demanding justice in all cases; ad. vancing their own, nnd discussing the preten sions of others, with candor, directness, and s n. cerity ; ap,ea'ing at all times to reason, but nov. or yield ing to hrce, or seeking to acquire my thing! Cor themscV, s by its exercise. A ligid adherence to this policy has lef' this Government w 'h scarce a claim upon its jus tticii. for injuries arising fji nets committed by iplex. vprc ly he po lo re tny hay itl.e of op ht lint 0- Lot tllB tir nit llH, let- II lit Bus I iiiiiiiiiH Hiy Hi n y t fu 1 of ler jRiut Huro 'ith Hirts jH of Bhc ch I Hral (fHhis di. )th d, ho Hxe Hr to Lnal B of preservation in future of those amicable and libor ul operations which havo so long and so unintor. ruptedly existed between the two countries. On the few Htibji'cls under discussion between us, an early and just decision is confidently anticipated. A correspondence has been opened with the government of Austria, for the establishment of diplomatic relations, in conformity with tho wish, es of Congress, us indicated by nil appropriation act ol tho session of 18M7, and arrangements made for the purpose, which will duly be carried into effect. With Austria and 'russin, and with the Slates (i T 1 In- rii.rm.in milium, nriw rniiiniiainir with llw. hutci oumercial intercourse is gradually ex'ru w nil benefit to a who are encuired in it. Civil war yet rages in Spain, producing in. lene sull'ering to its own people, and to other nations inconvenience nnd regret. Our citizens ' who have i laims upon that country will be pre judiced for a time for the condition of ity Treasu ry, the inevitable consequence ol long continued nnd eJilmii-Uing internal warj. The lust instal ment of llio interest of Hiu debt due nnilnr the convention with tlietjueen of Spain has not been paid, and similar failures may bo expected to happen, until a portion of tho resources of her kimidnm can bo devoted td'tho extinguishment of its foreign debt. Having received satisfactory evidence that discriminating tonnage duties were charged up. on the vessels of tho United States in tho ports of I'oitugal, a proclamation was issued on the X I tli day of October last, in compliance with the net of May 2.r, 1S32, declaring that fact; and the duties on forcimi tonnage which wore levied upon Portuguese vessels in tho United States, previously to the passage of that act, are accord, ingly revived. The act of July 4, 183G, suspending tho dis criminating duties upon tho produce of Portu gal imported into this country in Portuguese ves sels, was passed upon the application of that government, through its representative here, un der the belief that no similar discrimination ex istcdiii Portugal to the prejudice of the United States. I regret to state that such duties are now exacted in that countryupon tho cargoes of Aincng.in vessels; iv. as tho act relcrrcd to vests no discretion in the Kzccutivc, it is for Congress to determine upon tho expediency of fu i tht; r legislation on tho subject. Against these discriminations, affecting tho vessels of this country und their cargoes, seasonable remon strance was made, and notice was given to the Portuguese Government that unless they should be discontented, tho adoption of countervailing measures on tho part of tho United States would become necessary ; but the reply of that Gov eminent received at the Department ol State tcrouuh our Charge d"A flairs at Lisbon, in the month of September last ; afforded no ground to hope for the abandonment of u system so little in harniuny with the trcatnicntshowu to tho vessels of Portugal and their cargoes in the ports of this country, and so contrary to the expectations wo had a right to entertain. With Holland, Sweden, Denmark, Naples, and Uelgium,a friendly intercourse has been un intcrruptly maintained. H'lth the Government of the Ottoman Porte nnd its dvpcnilennicn oo tho coast of the Medi terranean peace and good will are carefully cul tivated, and have been fostered by such good officers ns the relative distance and tho condi. tion of tlioso countries would permit. Our commerce with Greece is carried on un. der tho laws of the two Governments, rccipro. cally beneficial to tho navigating interests of both ; and I have reason to look lorward to the adoption of other measures which will be moro extensively and permanently advanta. gcotis. Copies of the treaties concluded with the Governments of Shun nnd Muscatarc transmit, ted for tho information of congress, tho ratifica tions having been received, nnd the treaties made public since tho close of the last annual session. Already haue wo reason to congratu late ourselves on the prospect of considerable commercial benefit ; x. wo have, besides, receiv ed from the Sultan of Muscat prompt cvi denco of bis desiro to cultivate the most friendly feelings, by liberal acts toward one of (our vessels, bestowed in a maimer ns to require on our part a grateful acknowledg. mem. Our commerce with tho islands of Cuba nnd Porto Kico still labors under heavy restrictions, the only cll'ect of an adherence to them will bo to benefit the navigation of other countries, at the expense both ol the United States and Spain. Tho independent nations of this continent have, ever since they emerged from the colo. nial state, experienced s vero trials in tho r pro. cress to the permanent establishment of liberal poll ticul institutions. Their unsettled condition not only interrupts their own advances lo pros, ponty, but has often seriously injuied the other powers id the world. The claims of our citi. oiiiZ"ns upon Peru, Chili, U.-azil, tho Argentine Republic, tho Govornmon'.s formed out of the re. publics of Columbia, ami Mexico, are still pond, ing, although many ol t'icin hnvu been present, ed for examination more than twenty years. New Grenada, Venezuela, and I'quador, have recent. ly formed a convention for the purposo of ascer tain ii ; anil adjusting i hums upon tho Republic ol (' d .,.1 im, Irom wlrch it is earnestly hoped our cilize.is will, ero long, receive full compi.ii. satton for tho injuries originally inllicted upon them, and for tho delay in ulfording it. An advantageous treaty commerce litis been concluded by tho United .Viutcs with tho Peru. Holivun Confederation, which wants only tho ratification of that Government. The nniL'rcss of a subsequent negociulion for tho settlement of likely to produce delays ri tin: bettleiiR-nt of our demands on thesu powers. Tho aggravating circunirtauces connected with our cluims upon Mexico, and a Atiricty of events touching tho honor anil integrity ol our Government, led my predecessor lo make, at tho second session of tho lost Congress, u special re. commendation of tho course to bo pursued to ob tain a speedy and final satisfaction of the injuries complained of by this Government and by our citizens, He recommended a final demand uf redress, with a contingent authority to tho Kxo cutivo to muku reprisals, if that demand should he made in vain. Prom the proceedings of Con. grobs on that recommendation, It appeared that the opinion of both branch us of tho Legisla. luturo coincided with that of the executive, that nny inndo of redress known to the law of nations mightjustifiubly bo used. It was obvious, too, that Congress believed, with the President, that another demand should ho made in order to givo iiudcuitblo nnd satisfactory proof of our desiro to nvoid oxtreuiotics with n neighboring powtr but that thoro was indisposition to vest a dit-cre-sionary 'luthority in tho Kxocutivo to take ro. dress, should it unfortunately be either denied or unreasonably delayed by the Mexican Govern- ment. So soon as tho necessary documents Jie I were prepared, uftor entering upon the duties of my office, n special niosscnger was sent to iIcx. ico, to make n final demand ofredrens, with tho documents required by tho provisions of our Iron ty. Tho demand was made on tho 20th of July last. Tho reply, which bears date the iJ'Jth of the same month, contains assurances of a desire, on tho part of that (Jovottninont, to give a prompt nnd explicit answer rcspo ting each of the coin, plaints, but that the examination oftliom would necessarily bo deliberate ; that In this 'oxamina. tion, it would be guided by the principles of pub lie law and tho obligation of treaties that nothing should bo left undone that might lead to the most speedy and equitable adjustment of our demands j n'l that i'4 determination, in respect to each u Rimini no eoinmunieatun tnruugu me iucx- ican Minister here Sineo that time, an envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plcnipoirul try has been accredited to this Government by tb.r il'the Mexican Republic, ile brought with him assurances of a sincere de fin.' that the pending differences between the two Governments should bo terminated in a manner satis fusry to both. IIo was recoived with ro. ciprocal nssurunccs ; nnd n hope was entertained that his mission would lyid ton spoc'y, satisfac tory, and final adjustment uf till existing subjects of complaint. A sincere believer in the wisdom of tho pacific policy by which the United States have always been governed in their intercourse with foreign nations, it was my particular desire, from the proximity of the Mexican Republic, and woll known occurences on our frontier to bo in. striimental in obviating all existing difficulties with that Government, and in restoring to tho in. torcoursc between the two Republics, that liberal nnd friendly character by which they should al ways be distinguished. I regret, thereforo, the more deeply to have found in the recent commit, mentions of that Government, so little reason to hope that any future efforts of mine for the uccom plishment of those desirablo objects would be successful. Although the larger number, and many of mem, aggravated cases of personal wrongs, linve been now for years before tho Mexican Govern ment, nnd some of ihe causes of national com plaint, and those of the most offensive chnracter, admitted of immediate, simple, and satisfactory replies, it is only within a few days past that any specific communication in answer to our last demand made five mouths ago, has been rccoivon from the Mexican Minister, liy the report of the Secretary of statu, herewith presented, and the accompanying documents, it will he seen, that for not one of our public complaints has satisfaction been given or offered ; that but one of tho cases of personal wrong has been avor. ably considered ; and that but four cases of both descriptions, out of all those fotmorly pre sented, nnd earnestly pressed, have ns yet been decided upon by the Mexican Government. Not perceiving in what manner any of the powers given to the Evecutive alone could he farther usefully employed in bringing this un. fortunate controversy to a satisfactory tormina, tion, tho subject was by my predecessor refer, red to Congress as one calling for its iuterposi. tion. In accordance with the clearly understood wishes of the legislature, another and formal demand for satisfaction has been made upon tho .Mexican Government, with what success the documents now communicated will show. On a careful and deliberate examination of their contents, and considering the spirit manifested by tho Mexican government, it has become my painful duty to return the subject, as it now stands, to whom it bclungs, to decide upon the time, the modo and the measuro ol redress, Whatever may be your decision, it shall be faith, fully executed, confident that it will be character ized by that moderation and jurticu which will, I trust, under all circumstances govern the coun cils of our country. The balance in the Treasury on the first day of January, 16117, was forty.fiumillionsnino htm. drcd and sixty-eight thousand five hundred and twer.ty.three dollars. The receipts during the present year from all sources, including the amount of Treasury notes issued, are estimated at twenty.threo millions four hundred and ninety nine thousand nine hundred and eighty-one dol lars, constituting an nggragnte of sixty-n'me mil. lions four hundred and sixty-eight thousand five hundred and four dollars. Of this amount, about thirty-five millions two hundred and eighty, one thous mil three hundred and sixty one dol. lars will havo been expended at the end of the year on appropriations made by congress ; and the residue, amounting to thirty-four millions one hundred and nighiy.se en thousand one hundrod and forty. three dollars, will bo tlm nominal balance in tho Treasury on tho first of January next. Hut ol that sum, only ono million diuhty.fivo thousand four hundred and ninu.ctght dollars is considered as immediately available for and applicable to, public purposes. Those portions of it which will be for s-otnc timu una vailable, consist chiefly of sums deposited with tho Slates, and due from the former deposito bank.-. The details upon this subject will be found in tho annual report of tho Secretary of the Treasury, I lie auionnt of 1 reasury notes, which it will he necessary to issue during the year on account of those funds being unavailable, w II, it is supposed, not exceed four and a half millions. It seemed pioper, in the condition of tho country, to have tho ostimatcs on all subjects mado as low as practicable Tho Departments wore, therefore, duMrcd to prepare their cstt. m ties accordingly; and I nm happy to find that they have been able in gridualu them on so ceo. uoiuicnl a scale. In the groat and often unex. pucted fluctuations to which the revenue is sub jected, it is not fossili'i) to compute the recoipts beforehand with irroat certainly ; hut should they not differ usseutially from present anticipations, anil should the appropriations not much exceed tho estimates, no difficulty seems likely to hap pen in defraying the current expenses with pronitiludo and fidelity. Notwithstanding the great embarrasmcnis which have recently occurred in commercial affairs, and the liberal indulgence which, in consequence of those cmburrusmcuts, has been extended to both tho merchants anil the banks, it is gratifying to bo able to anticipate that tho Treasury notes, which huvc been issued during tho present year, will ho redeemed, and that the resources of the Treasury, without any resort to loans or increased taxes, will prove ntuplo for dofrayingall charges imposed on it during 1833. The report of tho Secretary of tho Treasury will afford you a moro iiiimilo exposition of nil matters connected with the administration of the finances during tho current year; a period which, for the amount of public moneys disbur sed und deposited with tho Stntcs, us well as the financial difficulties encountered und overcome, has fow parallels in our history. Your attention was, ut the lust session, invited to the necessity of additional legislative provis. ions in respect to the collection, safe keeping, and transfer of tho public inonoB. No law hav. ing been then matured, and not understanding the proceedings of Congress as intended to be final, it bocomos my duty again to bring tho subject to your notice On that occasion, throe modes of performing this branch of the public service wore presented for consideration. These were: tho creation of a national bank ; the revival, with modih'ea. lions, of tho depositc system established by the

act of the 2,'ld of June, lSDfi, permitting the use of tho public moneys by the banks, and the dis continuance of the uso of such institutions for tho purposes referred to, with suitable, provisions for their accomplishment through tho agency of public ofliccrs, Considering tho opinion of both houses of Congress on the two first propositions as expressed in tho navigaiivc, in which I entire, ly occur, it is unnecessary fornio again to recur to them. In respect to the last, you havo had an opiwrtunity since your adjournment, not only to test still further tho expediency of tho measure, by the continued practical operation of ouch parts of it as are now in force, but also to (Its. cover wlnt should ever bu sought for and re. gardod with the utmost deference the opinions and wishes of the people. Tho nation will is the supremo law of tho Ropublic, and, on nil subjects within tho limits of his constitutional powers, should bo faithfully obeyed by the public servant. Sineo the niciiiro in qnobtion wan submitted to your consideration, most of you have enjoyed the advantage of personal commit, ideation with your constituent!. For ono Stato only has an election been held for the Federal Government, but the eaily day at which it took place, deprives tho measure under consideration of much of the support it might otherwise have derived from tlm result. Locnl elections for State ollicers have, however, been held in sever al States, at which the expediency of tho plan proposed by the Executive have been moiu or less discussed. You will, I am confident, yield to their results the respect duo to every cxprcs. siou of the public voice. Desiring, however, to arrive attruthand a just view of the subject in all its bearing, you will at tho samo timercmcin. bcr, that nucstions of far deeper and more im mediate Iccal interest, than tho fiscal plans of the National Treasury, were involved in thoso elcc. tions. Above nil, we cannot overlook the stri king fact, that thoro were at tho time in tlioso States more than one hundred and sixty millions of bank capital of which largo portions were subject to actual forfeiture other large portions upheld only by special and limited legislative indulgeucies and most of it, if not all, to a greater or less extent, dependent for a continu ance of its corporate existence upon the will of the htatc Legislatures to bo then chosen. Ap prised of this circumstance, you will judge, whether it is not most probable that the peculiar condition of that vast interest in those respects, the extent to which it had been spread though all the ramifications of society, its direct connexion with tho then pending elections, and the feelings it was calculated to infuse into the canvass, have exercised a far greater influence over tho result than any which could possible be produced by a conflict m opinion in respect to a question in the administration of the General Government, more remote and far Icsj important in its bearings upnnthat interest. I have found no reason to change my own o. pinion us to the expediency of adoptlngiho sys tem proposed, boinir perfectly satisfied that there will lie neither stability nor safety, cither in tho Iiscnl allairs 01 Hie OOVunmicnt, or in itiu pe ciimary transactions of individuals and corpora tions, so long as a connexion exists between them, which like the past, oilers such strong in. duccmciits to makotliem the subjects of political agitation. Indeed, I am more than ever con vinced of the danners to which the free and un- biased exercise of political opinion, the inly sure loundation ami sale. guard ol republican gov eminent would bo exposed to nny lurther in crease of tho already over-grown inllueneo of corporate authoiiiii's. I cannot, therefore, con sisicntly with my views of duty, advise a renew al ofa connection which circumstances has dis solved. The discontinuance of the use of state Hanks for fiscal purposes oucht not to be regarded as a measure of hostility towards those institutions. Hanks, properly, established arid conducted, arc highly useful to the bus ness ol the country, and will doubtless continue to exist in the slates, so lung as they conform to their laws, and arc found tube safo and beneficial. How they should be created, what privileges they should enjoy under what responsibilities thrsy should net, and to what restrictions they should bo Mibjuct, are questions which, ns I observed on a previous occasion, belong to the States to decide. Upon their rights, or the e.veercis-e of them, the General Government can have no motive to em crunch. Its duly toward them is well perform' ed, when it refrains from legitlating for their special benefit because such legislation would violate tho spirit of tho Constitution, and be un just in other interests; when it takes nu steps to impair their usefulness, but so manages its own affair as to make it the interest of those institutions to strengthen and improvo their con. diiion for the securities and welfaro of the cum. iiumiiy at large. They havo no right to insist on a connection with tho Federal Government, nor on tho use of the public money for their own benefit. The object of the measuro undor considera tion is, to avoid for tho future ncomptilsory con nexion oftlds kind. It proposes to place the gen eral Government, i-i regard to the essential points or the collection, safckeeping.-t transfer of the P' b'le money, in a situation which shall relievo it f tuinalldependence on tho will of irresponsible in dividiials or corporations; to withdraw those moneys from the uses of private trade, and eon lido them to agents constitutionally selected and controlled by law ; to abstain from improper in. torfcrcncc with the industry of tho people, and withhold inducements to improvident dealings on tho part of individuals ; to givo stability to the concerns ot tno i reasury to preserve tho tnoas. urcs of tho Government from tho unavoidable reproaches that flow from such a ronnrction, and that tho banks themselves from the injurious of. fects of a supposed participation in tho political conflicts of the day, from which they will other, wise find it dillicultto escape. Thoso nrc my views upon this important sub. jeet, formed after careful reflection, and with no desiro but to nrrivont what is most likely to pro. tnoio me puunc uitoiest. They tiro now, ns they were before, submitted with unfeigned delorcncc for tho opinions of others. It was hardly to bo hoped thai changes so important, on a subject so interesting, could bo made without producing n sorious diversity of opinion; but bo Fug ns thoso conflicting views arokept above tho inlln. once of individual ur local interests; so long ns they pursue only the general good, and aro dis. cusjod with moderation ami cundor, such diver sity is u benefit, not mi injury, lfu minority of Congress noes tho public welfare in a different light ; and moro especially if they should bo tutt. isfiod that the measure proposed would not bo acceptable to tho people ; I shall look to their witdom to substitute such as may be moro con. ducivo to tho one, und more satisfactory to tho othes. In any event they may confidently rely on my heorty co.optrotien lo th fullett cxten', which my views of the Constitution and my I sense ofditty will permit. It is obviously important to this branch of the public service, and to tho business nnd quiet of the country, that tho whole subicct shou d in some way bo settled and regulated by law ; and if possible, nt your present session. Uosidcs the plans cbovo referred to, I am not aware that any ono has been suggested, except thnt of keeping tho ' public money in tho state Hanks in special depos itc. This plan is, to some extent, in accordance with tho practice of the Government, and with the present arrangement of tho Treasury Do partrnent; which, except, perhaps, during the operation of the lato deposito act, has always been allowed, even during tho existence of a national Hank, to make a temporary use of th o State Hanks, in particular places for the safe keeping of portions of tho revenue. This dis. crcttonary power might bo continued, if Con. gross deem it desirable, whatever general sys. tetn b'j adopted. So long ns tho connection is voluntary, wo need perhaps anticipate I'qw of those diliicultics, and littlo ol that dependence, on tho banks, which must attend every such connection when compulsory in itu nature, and when so arranged as to ma'c the banks a fixed part of tho machinery of Government. It is undoubtedly m tho power of Congress so to rcgttlato and guard it as to prevent tho public money from being npplied to the use, or intcrmm- glu with tho nll'aiis, of individuals, Thus ar. ranged, although it would not give to the Govern, ment that entire control over its own funds which I desiro to secure to it by the plan I havo propos ed, it would, it must be admitted, in n great do. grce, accomplish one ol the objects which has rc commended that plan to my judgement the scp arution of the fiscal concerns of the Government from those of individuals or corporations. With tlicso observations, 1 recom mend, the whole mutter to your dispas sionate rejection, confidently hoping that some conclusion may bu readied by your deliberations, which, on tliCTuio hand, shall ive safety and stability to the fiscal operations of the fiovcrnment, and be consistent, on the other, with the genius of our institutions, anil with the interests and wishes of tho great mass of our con stituents. It was my hope that nothing would oc cur to make necessary, on this occasion, any allusion to tho lato National Bank. There aro circumstances, however, con nected with the present state of its affairs, that bear so directly on the character of tho Government and the. wellare of the citizen, thnt I should not feel myself ex cused in neglecting to notice them. The charter which terminated its banking privileges ol the fourth of March, lti3G, continued its corporate powets two years more, for the sole purpose of closing its allairs, with authority "to use the corpo rate name, style and capacity for the purpnsn of suit for the final settlement and liquidation uf thu tillaiis ;.iid acts of the corporation, ami of the sale and disposition of their estate, real, personal ami mixed, but for no other purpose or in any other maimer whatsoever." Just he mic the bankinir puvilcges censed, its effects were tinnsferod by tho bank to a new Stato institution the recently incor porated, in trii't, for tho discharge of the debts and the settlement of its allinrH. These provision-, with occasional enact ments in behalf of special interests deem ed entitled to I he favor of the government have in their execution, produced results as beneficial upon the whole as could reasonable be expected in a matter so vast, so complicated and so exciting. Upwards of seventy millions of acres hive been sold, the greater part of which is believed to have been purchased for actual settlement. The population of the now Slates and Teiritoiies cieated out of tho public domain, increased between 1U00 mill 1030, from less than sixty thousand, to tipwauld of two million three hundred thousand souls, constituting at the latter period about ouc-lifth of the whole people of the United Sta'cs. The increase since cannot bo accurately known, but the whole may now bo safely estimated at o ver three & a half millions of souls compo sing 9 States, the representatives of which constitute above oncthird of tho Senate, undone-sixth of the House of Representa tives of tho United States. Thus has been formed a body of free and independent landholders, with a rapi dity unequalled in the histoiy of mankind and this great result has been produced without leaving any thing for future ad-' justmcnt between tho Government and its citizens. Tho system under which so much has been accomplished cannot bu intrineically bad and with occasional mortification to correct abuses and adapt it to the charges of circumstances, may, think be safely trusted lor the future.' There is, in the management of such ex tensive interests, much virtue in stability, and although great and obvious improve nieits should not bo declined, ch.'ini'ci should never bo madu without tho full est examination and tho clearest demonstra tion of their practical untiliiy. In tho history of tho past, we havo an assuranco that this safo rulo of action will not bo departed from in relation to tho public lands nor is it believed that any necessity exists lor interfering with tho fundamental principles of tho system or that thu public mind oven in thu now Slates, is desirous of any radical altera tions. On (he contrary tho general disposition appears to be to make such modifications and additions only us will tho mote effectually carry out thu original policy of filling our now' states and ter ritories with an industrious and indepen dent population. The modification most peisovoringly pressed upon Congress, which has occup.t oil so much of its time for years past, anil will probably do so forti long titno to come, if not sooner satisfactorily adjusted is a reduction in the cost of such portions of tho public lands as arc ascertained to bcunsaloable at the rate now established by law nnd a graduation, according to their relative value, of tho prices at which they may hereafter bo sold; It is worthy of consideration whether justice may not be done to every interest in this inattor and a vexed question set at rest perhaps forever, by a reasonable compromise of corilltcting opinions. Hitherto, after be ing offered at public salc,lands have been disposed of atone uniform price whatever diffeiencc tliarc might he in their intrinsic; value. The leading considerations urged in favor of the measure referred to arc that in almost all thu laud districts, and par ticularly in thoso in which the lands havo been long surveyed and exposed to sale, there aro still remaining numerous and largo tracts of every gradatnn of value from tho Government prieo downwards ; that these lauds will not be purchased at the Government price so long as better can be conveniently obtained for the same amount : that there aro large tracts which even tho improvements of tho adjacent lands will never raise to that price ; and that llic present uniform price combined with thoir irregular value, oporates to prevent a desirable compactness of set tlement in the new States, and to retard the full development of that wise policy on which our land system is founded, to tho injury not only of the several States where the lands lie,but of the United States as a whole. The remedy proposed has been a reduction of prices according to the length of time tho lands have been in maikcl, without reference to any other circum stances. The certainty that the efilux of time would not always in such cases, and perhaps not even generally, furnish a true criterion of value, and the probability that persons residing in tho vicinity, as the period for the reduction of prices ap proached, would postpone purchases they would otherwise make, for the purposo of availing themselves of the lower prico with other considerations ofa similar character, havo hitherto ben successfully urged to defeat tho graduation upon time. Amy not all reasonable desires upon this subject be satisfied without encoun tering any of these objects ? All will con cede the abstract principle that the prico of the public lands should be propor tioned to their relative value, so far as that can be accomplished without deper tni!i from the rule heretofore observed, requiring fixed prices to ca-es ofpnv entries. The difficulty of the subject sec us to lio in tho mode of ascertaining what that value is. Would not the safest be that which has been adopted by rnanv of the States as the basis of taxation an equal valuation of lands, and classification of them into different rates ? Would it not be practicable and expedient to cause the relative value of the public lands in the old districts which havo brcn for a certain length of time in market, to bo appraisctl and classed into two or moro rates below tho present minimum price by the ofliccrs now employed in this branch of the public service, or in any other modo deemed preferable, and to "make those prices permanent, if upor the coming in of tho report they shall prove satisfactory to Congress ? Cannot all the objects of graduation be accomplished in this way, and tho objec tions which Iium! hitherto been urged a gamst it avoided ? It would seem to mo that such astep. witli a restriction oft. sales to limited quantities, and for actual improvement, would bo free from nil just exception. I5y the full exposition of the value of the lands thus furnished and extensively promulgated, persons living at a distance would be informed of their true condition, and enabled to enter into competition with thoso residing in the vicinity ; the means of acquiring an independent home would bo brought within tho reach of ma ny who aro unable to purchase at present prices ; the population of tho new States would bo made moro compact, nnd large tracts would be sold which would otheV. wise remain on hand ; not only would tho land bo brought within the means of a large number of purchasers, but manv persons possessed of greater means would bo content to settlo on a larger quantity of the poorer lands, rather than emigrate further west in puisuit ofa smaller quan tity of better lands. Such measuro would also seem to bo more consistent with thu policy of the oxisting laus tha. of converting thu public domain irj'.o cultivated farms owned by their occupatft ;. That policy is not best promoted by sending emigration up tho almost inter minablo streams of tho west, to occupy in groups tho bcsit spots of land, leaving im monsa wastes behind them, and enlarging the frontier beyond tho mcai3 of the gov ernment to nCord it adequate protection ; but in encouraging it to occupy, with reas onable deuseuess, tho territory over which it advances, ami find its best Venc in