lrnndvnlludndto.it would bo important I iriauy ailiiuuu tut m i nnil fir oil it nil In (O tllO State. It, seems to mo most evident thai mo two branches of labor ore quite incompatible, nml that to avoid annoying embarrassment nnd certain di-appointim-nt, tliuy must be maduto devolve upon dilforunt individuals. Furtlicrinore, to iinuro harinoiiy, rcspnii Ability nnd efficiency, ench Eurvcy must be placed in the charge of one individual, to whom nil others employed in it must bo pubordinatc. and all persons so employed must be selected, or fully opproved by him. .In estimating the amount of force nnd time necessary to perform the geological survey, several distinct considerations must not be overlooked. 1st. If a comparison bo made between this stale and nny other district of equal sizo in the norlhorn states. I believe that tho event will show that the geological characteristics am more numer ous and peculiar in this region than in nny other selected as ubove proposed. 2. This region has been so little examined that it would call for more investigation to deter mine its geology thnn any other of equal size in New England even supposing it to be in no ways peculiar. Geologically speaking, it is almost a new field. Again, considering in the 3d place the usages and fiscal resources of the state, it is no', to bo supposed that as grent an expenditure, even in comparison with its size, will be incurred in this enterprise by Vermont, ns haB been incurred by some of the states of the Union; but at the same time the work must be carried to a certain degree of com pletcncss, or the results will be so general and vague as to do but little in promoting tho wealth or the credit of the 6tate. 4. Whether the work had better bo done aa rapidly as practicable, or occupy a longer time, of course calling for a less annual expenditure, is nlso a consideration to be had in view j but that need not occupv any attention in this place. If that considera tion be laid aside, I think the following mode of proceeding most desirable. A commission bning given by proper authority to an individual to proceed with the survev. I would have him associate with himself nnothcr, deemed his enual in nbilitv and fidelity, and who in case of the providen tial interruption of the labors of the prin cipal, would be expected to succeed him in the charge. To tlte.-o two let there be joined two competent assistants. They migiu ue young men, so far acquainted with the subject that they could render direct aid in investigation, and whose opin ions would be worthy of some attention in doubtful points, and who could be safely trusted to do some things, as selecting specimens, making occasional reexamina tions, &c. To these must be added two able bodied, trusty nod capable laborers, to assist in the packing and transportation of minerals, tho conveying of the means of flubsistence nnd the performance of other necessary offices. These six persons would bo divided into two parties of three each. Tho survey would t litis proceed in two sep. aratc districts, in conformity to a plan decided upon ofter duo consultation. The principal and his associate would frequently interchange views and information as to tho region each one would be specially charged with, and if need should arise, they would examine some portions together. After proper intervals, at the close of the season if not before, coch would become, by means of a full personal communication of their observations, fully possessed of the views of the other, and belter prepared to proceed in the work afterwards. The labor of collecting proper specimens would be constantly going on, boxes of them being assembled at the most convenient points to be transported thence to a general place of deposit, after the labors of the field were over for each year. Aftor weighing the subject in my mind as care ful ns I am able, I have come to the con clusion, and I am confirmed in my opinion by that of nn experienced geologist now in & public employment of this kind, that with this force tho survey can bo completed in two years. What then ought to be the annual expenditure ? Taking into consideration the great responsibility and labor of tho employment, nnd the unavoidable hardships to which the persons engnged in it must bo subjected during nearly or quite six months of the year, while they must be no less closely occupied for the remaining part of it, in preparation of specimens for their final disposition and in elaborating their reports; considering moreover, that besides the great expense inevitably attendant on so much travelling in the summer season, it can hardly fail to be the case that the principal and his associate must incur some extra expense for visiting, in the winter season, collections and persons out of the state, for elucidating important and doubtful particulars, I think that the annuel sal ary of tho principal ought not to be less than fifteen hundred dollars, that of his associate fourteen hundred dollars, and that of the two associates, each eight hundred dollars. Besides these salaries there should be allowed to the principal and his associ ate, four hundred dollars each for the pay of the laborer and his support, for the transportation of specimens and other inci dental expenses. The nllowance of this sum for that purpose would bo much pre ferable to having them keep an exact ac. counl of expenditures for such purposes; 6uch account to be audited and paid after wards. Such an account would unavoida bly contain so many unusual, ond nut easily understood items, that its settlement would bo likely to lead to unpleasant feelings in all concerned. The estimated annual expenditure will therefore sloml thus : For salary of (lie principal geologist 1,500 " associate do 1 ,100 " i wo ussistniits l,d00 turn allowed fur charges SOO $5,300 Fnr the estimated two years' service in all 10,600. Should it be deemed advisable- to distri bute tho labor ond expense orer four years, Instead of two, I should estimate tho annual exnense as follows s For salary of (lie principal geologist $1,000 " his assistant gOO nllowance for charges .JOO For the estimated four years, the' total eo inn WOIIIU IH! KIU,UUU, The difloroncc of two hundred dollars in the total results is loo small a part of tho whole, to hovo it opornto os n reason for n..,nnn. , i,of .nnllinitin nrornrnnrn to the oilier. A desire to havo tho work speedily accomplished, would cause a deci sion in favor of tlio former : n wish to make thu annual expense less considerable, would bo mot by choosing the Inllcr. In proceeding to give somo opinions respecting the time necessary to execute a tuDOizrapiucal survey, and Hie expense of so doing, I must first remark that, from the naiuru oi ino cosiness, more uncertainly must rest upon my opinions in this, than in tho former ease. I have bestowed much reflection nnd considerable research on the subject, and have not in every particular relied wholly on my own judgment ; still It is impossible for me, (nnd 1 think it would be to any one.) to speak with full confidence on the subject in its whole extent. I will aim, however, so to limit my estimates of the extant of the work and tho means for its accomplishment up to thote limits, that no very serious difference shall be found between my results and thoso winch the actual tnnl shall produce. The fust thins to bo taken into the account, is the kind and cost of the instru uients to be used. It is to bu kept in view, that they must be, all of them, the most perfect possible of their kind. The most costly instrument would bo n large Theodolite. It must bo made with express reference to the work in question, nnd must be competent to mark truly, till' ferencus in ancles as small ns one second of, a degree. Considering its size nnd neces sary peculiarities and perfection, I fjiiilt it unwise to estimate its cost at less lafin one thuusaud dollars. Besides this, tlierc will be needed a smaller instrument of (he same name nnd use, marking as small differences as five or ten seconds of a degree, to serve for preliminary examinations, in order to determine where it will be best to lay tri angles, place signals, &c. saving both time and expense, from its greater purtnbloncss, and risk of damage to the large instrument, an amount far exceeding the cost of the smaller. This would cost shout three hundred and fifty dollars. A telescope level fur running a base lino lines of veri fication, and some other purposes, at a cost (with its necessary appendages) of two liundrcd dollars. In order to establish the longitude of cnirio una point Willi grent precision, a transit instrument, furnished wilh a proper support, would be indispen sable. This ought lo be, nt tho least, four or fotir and a half feet in length; it would be better still if it were six feel long. Tho cost would be, I suppose, about six hundred dollars. The instrument would be needful also in determining the base line. As a necessary means lor lixuig one longitude as named above, there would be wanted on nstronomical clock, costing three hundred and fifty or four hundred dollars. There ought to be procured also, lo aid in trans ferring the longitude from one place lo another, to time signals in certain cases, tSic. at least three chronometers. The cost of tho three would be, I suppose, seven hundred and fifty dollars. There must be procured a standard scale, most accurately compared with the most perfect standard in London or Paris, having official certifi cates ot sucn comparison, with proper apparatus lor transferring its graduation to other instruments. Indeed, to insure all confidence, it would be belter to get one from Paris, and another from London, and have the two subjected to a rigid compari. son by the individual charged with the survey. I can speak with less confidence of the cost of these instruments, tlinn in the most of the preceding cases. From thu best means of information within my reach. I place the cost of standards at five hundred dollars. In addition to these, there would be needed instruments, for actual measurement of the base lino, and sundry other small articles which cannot well bo enumerated. All these, I think, would not cost more than twelve hundred and fifty dollars. The estimate of instruments will there fore be as follows : 1 large Theodolite 1,000 1 Smaller do 350 1 Telescope level, &c. 200 1 Transit, 4 1-2 feet in length, 600 1 Astronomical clock 350 3 Chronometers 750 2 Standard scales with means for comparison 500 Measuring apparatus, and sundry small articles, say 1,250 g5,000 At all events, I cannot beliovo this csti mate to be amiss in any point, so as to affect materially the total expenditure. In the selection of a suitable person to execute the survey, and the deciding what amount of pay he is to receive, I think no regard should be had to the remuneration often made to persons who ore employed in different parts of the union, in surveying lands, directing rail road and canal con structions, or in any of the labors which commonly are made to devolve on civil engineers. I must not be understood as undervaluing their attainments, which may be admitted to be fully adequate to their requisite duties; and as to the value of their services, they who employ them, must be considered as the proper judges. Bui I should fail in my duty in this place, if I did not express most emphatically my conviction, thnt as a class (I do not neces sarily include in my rcmnrk every individ uul) they aro altogether incompetent to this undertaking. It is a work of far high- or order than uny which they linvo ever lo do with. It demands a standard of accu racy, n knowledge- of the difficulties in tho wny ol nttnining to thu rcqpisito precision and of the means by which these may be mu6t successfully overcome ; and in fine, an acquaintance with the obstruct sciences nnd their applications to (ho laws of physi. cat nature, winch arc In r ntinvo tlicir reach. I would not have it supposed, however, that, inasmuch as civil engineers often receive from three thousad dollars to twice or thrice that sum, per annum, for their services, the persons who may bo charged with this work, onu of immeasurably greater responsibility than any of those under tho charge of the former, arc lo rc ceivo a greater sum than thov do. On the contrary, I should propose one much less. There is no occasion hero to inquire into tlio lanes or uiimncss ui tlio luct, that thoso persons whoso labors aro expected to result in an immediate pecuniary benefit to a few, usually receive larger pay than (llicy do, whoso works, though a thousand fnlil tniirn limipficin to t 10 WOr d. ore leflS obvioushi nroductive of profit. It is eufli cient for the present purpose that such is the case. Whoever takes tho proposed charge upon Mini must do innucnceu oy outer and higher motives than tho pecuniary re ward. His views ol l no impnrtanco oi mo work to tho future benefit and honor of his country, and the gratification which ho will rcceivu in tlio execution oi so grcai on undertaking, must bo the chief reward of his toil and responsibility. His responsi bility will be much greater than that of the geologist ; but his latiguca nnd present expenses will uo mucii less, wore u not npcossnrv to consult the most riuid econo my, I should place tho salary of ench of them higher than I uo, nnd should niso propose to havo the individual charged with tho topographical survey accompanied with an associate equally competent to the work ns he himself might ho. Not deem ing that absolutely essential, I do not take it "into the account. He must have, how ever, with him nt oil times a very compc. tent assistant. I plncu the annual salary of the principal at fifteen hundred dollars, and that of his assistant, at nine hundred dollars. Tho labor of subordinates can not well bo placed on the same convenient footing ns in the geological survey. During a largo part of the lime, even in the tunimcr I suppose- none would be absolutely reeded At other times not onlv one nersoa, but several persons would bo wanted for short neriods. In some canes mechanic' work of different kinds would be called for, and occasional charges for materials would arise. It cannot be eMimntcd with much nrccisitin. therefore, what expense would come under this head. I think it would be necessary to leave such expenses to bo nniil for as they should occur, settling the account at appropriate times in the usual method. I see no grounds for estimating the average yearly charge (though it would bo probably creator the first year ond less in subsequent ones) at more than six hun dred dollars. Uniorscen causes might in crease tho amount somewhat. In estimating the lime necessary for the work, I look no farther than tho establish. incut of I ho base line and the first set of points and lines, extending from the north to the south part of the state. I make this limitation for two reasons. The first is that when this has been done, the great work may be said lo have been accomplished in a good degree, though it should never bo taken up again; inasmuch as these points nnd lines, can be made use of by ordinary means, lor settling boundaries ol towns the position of mountains, &c. with more than usual precision in any part, or in all parts of the state. In the second place, in tho determination of these points and lines, it would be easy to ascertain, with little or no increase of expense, what points and lines should be taken next, if it was desired to carry the exact survey farther. When that had been ascertained, an estimate of lime and money wanted for any future pro gress, could be made with all reasonable exactness; and till then, all estimates must be little more than bare conjecture, deser vint; of no confidence. I estimate that one year would bo occu pied, by the individual charged with the work, in procuring the necessary instru ments, (some of which could probably be made in this country, under his inspection, though the major part of them would of necessity be ordered from European artists of the highest reputation,) in malting some examinations of the shape of the country in reference to the object in view, and instituting somo needful experimental in vestigations. He could bo most profitably occupied in this way, nor would a year be less than sufficient to procure the instruments wan ted. Probably the great Theodolite could not be obtained in so short a time. The secoid year, ho and his assistant would probably be able to establish the base line, and to determine by trial with the small Theodolite, where- the work should bo laid; fix some permanent marks, and gel things in readiness for the observations with the frrcat Theodolite. I 6ee no reason for doubling that the work could be completed the third year. So fur as my knowledge of the state extends, I think the work could bo carried forward, in all respects (unless with regard to thu base line) with greater rapidity than in any other state in the Union. Tho estimate of expense will then stand thus : Salary of the engineer for 3 years $4,500 " for assistont 2 years " 1,000 For contingent expenses 1.200 For instruments 5,000 Total For geological survey Cost of executing both surveys Add for printing tho two reports g 1 2,500 10,000 .23,300 1,700 25,000 Tho foregoing estimate may seem to in dividuals, who have bestowed little thought on tho subjects that are concerned in it, to amount to a very large sum. But to them who nrc qualified to form adequate opinions on the matter, and who have bestowed that ntteniion to it which its importance de mands, I am confident that it will appear a very moderate sum, compared wilh I he magnitude of the work proposed, nml their incalculable advantage to the Mate, if properly executed. It is not proper for me to occupy time in enlarging upon thu topic, viz: the benefits which will accrue to thu citizens of Vermont from theso surveys, yet I cannot let it pass without one or two brief remarks. Many states of the union aro turning their attention with earnestness to similar surveys, nnd some of them who have al ready incurred considerable expanse- in ma king and publishing geological examina tions of their territory, havo found such a
manifest advantango from matin" their own citizens acquainted with the treasures beneath the surlaco of their soil, and from furnisning inducements for others to join in tlio participation of them, that thev uro in curring additional charges in making more critical explorations, Multitudes of our citizens ore leaving, year aftor year, Ibis state, to settle themselves in what they suppose- to bo more favored parts of tho union. There can be doubt in tho mind of any competent judge, that n correct cxhi bltiun of the true state of the case will do much to dispol this delusion, and show our community that when they arc led by one or two inducements standing in a strong and deceitful light, to forsako the green hills of their forefathers for thu prairie soils of the west, thov nru leavitiL' behind ten fold greater and tnoro numerous advantages, calculated lo moke themselves nnd their posterity, prosperous, virtuous nnd happy. If the benefits of an accurate topograph ical survey aro not so obvious to the minds of nil, they aro none tho less real. The impnrtanco of such a work in fixing ever lusting points of reference, for all future divisions of the state into cither greater small portions, and the consequent saving of contention about disputed boundaries, the precision wlnch.it will give, in fine, to every kind of geSlrraphical determination. cannot ue too ntgv!tliought ot. Uut this is lar from belnjHho only consideration which ought to liflrweishl in the minds of I hem who arc fonecido on tho measure. The durable reputation of the state is too deeply concerned in it to be overlooked in its consideration. In this respect, it is not saying too much to assert, that no le gislative act could be passed, which would bo more deeply engraven in history, than the one which should lead to the execution of tho work in oiieslion ; for the moment it is completed, the state become one of tlio few great centres in the scientific world and is connected with thoso of Europu nnd Asia, in a relation which can never be bro ken up, nil tho solid foundations of the earth change their places. It is not easy to behevo that, wilie people of this state arc to be benefited in so important decrees by the accomplii-hment of both of those ob. jects, they would willingly hesitate in the execution of them when the entire expense, unless the preceding estimates are greatly too low, would not exceed an uverage of ten cents for each inhabitant of il ; the expense being, morovcr, distributed over several years. On tho subject of the expense proposed, particularly for the geological survey, I wish to add a few words lo what has al ready been said. I have not any informa lion at hand as to the amount both of time and money already expended in such a work by nnv other slate, save in one case, that of Massachusetts. In reference to that I have only in view, information given in the report of Prof. E. Hitchcock, who was employed in making the geological survey of that slate. Ho occupied but a little more than three years in making the required examination and Ins work exhibits an amount of valua ble information, which is most creditable to his abilities and industry. But lest a;iv one should infer that Vermont, being a smaller state than Massachusetts, oughUlo need a less time for its examination, Stead of greater, us I have proposed. I think-it pro per to note one or two important differcn ccs in the t wo cases There have been for manv years a considerable number of sci entific gentlemen, residing in the state of Massachusetts, making local examinations and connecting their results, and these re sults have been still more enriched by the labors ol many other persons in the adja cent slates. All this body of information was directly aynilablo to that gentleman references to which appear in almost every part of his report, and in his own case says "had 1 not, previous to receiving my com mission, travelled nearly as far, and obtain ed nearly as much information relative to the geology of the state, as since that pen od, my report could hardly have been tol crable. if it is so now. As it is, I can re gard it only as the commencement of the work of exploring our rocks and minerals It should bu noted that so important have his past labors been deemed, that he is now occupied under a new commission in carry ing the investigation to a farther extent. In the case uf this state, tficre is almns a total want of these sources of information to which he had such ready access, and which saved him so large an amount of la bor. So little has been done in this way in Vermont that it is almost entirely a new field. In regard to the expenses of his work, up to the making of Ins report, and before its publication, he informs us in his intro duction that the sum paid for making the survey, preparing specimens, c. was only two thousand and thirty dollars. This may seem surprisingly small, compared with the time and labor thnl must iiavc been expen ded, nnd no less so when compared with the sum in the preceding estimate. I was informed by a gentleman who was concerned in tho measure, that the tiro thousand and thirty dollars covered barely the expense incurred, independent of any remuneration whatever for tho labors of Mr. II. ; that in fact he did the work for nothing. This statement of the cae will remove I lie surprise which any une may experience nt first on hearing the small amount of expense paid out in that instance. I have not felt that I should be justified by that example in leaving out of my estimate's n moderate compensation to whoever might bo employed in making a geological survey of this 6tatc. In rcga:d to tho best mode of proceeding in case i'. should be decided lo have either or both of tho proposed surveys entered upon, 1 uog leave to make one or two sug. gestions. It does not appear to mn possi ble, considering thu shurt tune that thu legislature of this state is customarily in session, that any law authorizing the works, could contain liio names of the individuals who nro to bo employed in thuir execution. Were that to bo the cafe, if proper selec tions should be made, it must be considered the result of chance, rather than of that impartial and discreet inquiry and careful aeiiuct niton, which so important a matter demands. The most that could bo pru dently done, would be to pass a law author izing the works, and designating an indi vidual or individuals, by whom commissions arc to be issued to suitable perrons of their selection, such limitations as to expenditure being made- as the logislaturo should judge proper. Should tlio legislature determine to make- tho geological survey and omit entering upon tho topographical survey, there could no very serious question arise nn lo the annual appropriation needed. That would bo easily determined upon bv a regard to tho probable- total amount of the cost, and whether that had belter bu distributed about equally on toj or four years, as already mentioned. Should they decide to proceed with the topographical, nnd neglect the geological suivey, the most convenient distribution would bo probably in this wise : five thousand dollars for tho first year, four thousand five hundred for the second, nnd three thousand fnr the third yenr. Should it be determined to proceed with them both at onco, it would doubtless be thought best to carry the gco. logical survey through four years instead ofiwnonly. In that case, n convenient distribution of the funds would be, eight thousand dollars Tor the first year, seven thousand fur the second, six thousand for the third, and from three to four thousand in the fourth year. In any way of arrang ing the business, annual statements should bo made by those employed, of the progress made in their respective duties, though a complete report could not bo expected, in cither case, till the work should be finished. All which is respectfully submitted. GEO V. BENEDICT. Burlington, Sept. 30, 1037. FRIDAY MORN ING, OCTOBER 5. SIKVEY OF THIS STATE. At the October session of the legislature of this state 1030, in pursuance of a reso lution introduced by one of the Senators from the county of Bennington, tho Gov ernor was requested to tako measures to ascertain the expense of a geological ond topographical survey of this state. His excellency, in pursuance of this request, addressed letters to several scientific gen tlemen and received onswets which were submitted to the legislature at tlicir last session, and ordered lo be printed, for the information of the people. Prof. Benedict, of the University of Vermont, entered into the subject extensively, and made a very elaborate report to the Governor, in which an estimate is rnade of the cost of the Survey. We to day publish Prof. Bene dict's letter, nnd recommend it to the nlten lion of our readers. Other States around us, 6ome of them long since, have caused a survey of their territory, and the result, in somo cases has developed rich treasures in tho bowels of the earth, before unknown to man. IMPRISONMENT FOR DEBT. As the legislature is about to assemble, we hope the people will not fail to remind their representatives of their pledges ex press or implied on the subject of impris onment for debt. The time has come public sentiment, right reason, justice, all j demand that this foul enactment be erased from the statute book ; and we cannot but hope that the very few who have doubts as to the policy of the measure, will refrain from any further attempt to embarrass or delay it. Let '.he first day's journal bear' witness to a bill of one section, simply abol ishing imprisonment ; but lot there be no proviso to it, no provision for the collection of debts, tho punishment of frauds, &c. If found necessary at all, let this bo the subject of n separate enactment. This is the ground the true friends of tho measure ought to take, and consent to no comprom isc. A bill containing six lines, is amply sufficient. For one, we insist upon the measure; and our advice to those who may vote against it would be, never to think of returning to their constituents for they will have none. Mtr.iTAnY. Our town will be enlivened to-day and to-morrow by the presence of the officers, non-commissioned officers nnd musicians of Col. Thomas' regiment, for the purpose of a military drill. As this is the first assemblage of the regiment under the new act, it will be looked to with some interest. Wo ought to have mentioned last week that Mnj, Langshore iias been promoted to the office of Lt. Colonel, and R. N. Flack, of this place, elected Major. CONCEKT. Mr. Edilor I wish Ihroush you to call the at icntionof the public lo the concert of Mr. Molt, this evening. I perceive from tlio programme some very fine pieces are lo be pet formed, which partic ularly deserve the ntteniion of all admit ers and judges of musical composition, and some of which have never been performed here. Invitation a la Valse, Overltne lo Saigino and Ilando, fiom Tan credt, are exlteiuely fine. I am told by those who have heard it, that " Vermont Militia March," a pleasing composition, exhibiting much skill nnd knowledge in the composer. As the officers of the Regiment are to be in town, Its hoped lltey will compliment llio composer by attendance. Our own village offers us in this concert an innocent, rational, and improving public amusement, which may refine lite lasie, while it satisfies llio thirst of nature for llie new and pleasing what the moralist is ever seeking for. It afford us also an opporlu nily 10 encourage genius, unil aid in his profession nl pursuits n man, who has done much and can do more union,' us, to clevalo llio standard of imli vidttal and public taste, in ono of lite most delight ful of the fine arts. Il is lo bo hoped that we shall do ourselves honor by liberal palronse, CANADA. The determination of Lord Durham to vacate the Government of tho Canadas, has created in that country, as might have been expected, llio greatest excitement. This determination was communicated by his Lordship, in answer lo an address of delegates from the Provinces of Nova Sco tia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, and would bo formally announced on receipt of despatches from England, officially advising him of the determination of Parliament. The Legislature assembles at Montpolier on Thursday next. Walton will givo a full and fair account or the doings in his Daily Journal. Prico only gl. Better subscribe. Election in Pennsylvania next Mondoy. Look out, Tories ! COMMUNICATION. Mr. Stacv I tun right glad dial tlie subject of imprisonment for debt lias, become ofl.iie u .nliipc of closn mid Tearless investigation, not only will, tliote who wrile for the I'icss, lint with I lie prima ry assemblies of die people, tun! if the lesoluliom adopted in many places at these meeting nlTurd any index of public opinion on llic subject, tho voice of cotitiiiiiniiy is decidedly in favor of abol ition;; lltal lemnani of u barbarous age. I do not however now refer lo this subject for llio pur po.'o of emeriti'' inlo n lengthy discussion iliereon. since your roiiepondenl A. 11. lias licated llio sub jeel in n able, ami I think, ronvincing in. inner. (ii uiai ii wonm tm worse man tautology lor an indifleicnt wriier like myself lo go over llie ground iiuain. 11 ut since there seems In lie nn iinwillinw. tin llio part of many lliat llie proposed amend ment in our civil code respecting I lie fulfilment of conn ads should operate lo lite immediate nbiogn.- urn ui mis unwise anu unjust power ol the creilnor over llie debtor, I feel that I cannot remain silent without offmng n woul or two on tlie subject. I think sir, if the dictates nfic-ason, humanity, and linpaihal justice me lo have their proper weight in inducing nml luingiiig about the abolition of hn piisonmenl foi dehl, ihey if quite, and lli.it peiemp. lorily, that the person of the honest unfortunate debtor should be wilhout leserve exempted from Imprisonment. It is not so easy to show what reasons tlicic are why imprisonment for debt should not be nbolWied on nil contracts now existing, u3 well -is debts that may hereafter be contracted, lli.u would not weigh with equal force against abol. i-hing the practice of imprisoning the delinquent debtor, as has usually been done. I would ask those who me so feaiful of llie consequence? of exempting llie honest debtor from his liability to bo put injail on debts now due, when do lltey eupposo llie body of llie poor man who hapaen.i lo owe a few dollars, will ever be freed from llie iron grasp of rigid rreditors, if we are lo humor llie whims of those who trust people in trade, who beg for a lit tle while longer and a little while longer in which ihey can put the screws on ihose who owe lliem nnd are not able lo pay 1 Is there not reason lo fear that should we wait till mm Ii are ready for llie propo'ed refonn in our civil code, the lime will bo far distant when the clesiicd amendment will bo brought iiboni 1 The same reasons which lie ngaiust lliL-perpetuation of the bat barons custom of imprisoning a man because he is unable lo pay, hold equally eliong ag,iin-t imprisonment for debt on contract now due. If the humming n poor man in n prison because he owes what he has not the means lo pay, be wrong al all, it is wrong al together, and the sooner our legislatois repeal tho odious clause in our statute books, the sooner and mote faithfully will they do their duty. It appears to me that llie objection lo making llie law retro spective, cannot be sustained with show of plausi bility without first assuming it ai a principle that in all contracts now exi.-ling, llie debtor has agreed wilh the creditor to jield his libeiiy.and submit lo be plared in jail in case of failuie lo pay. Wheth er this be the amoui'i of the contract now pending against llio-e who owe, I am not sure, but this I will say, I never so understood mv creditors, and was I so to be infoimed I never would again suffer my name to hi enteied on the merchant's ledger ns a debtor. To conclude mv return ks. I nrotest agaiiist iiualifying any bill having for its object llio abolifhing impiisonment fir debt, in the wav soma would have it. Let the fraudulent be imnhlir-il. but in llie name of benevolence, humanity and righicouiiess,suner not the unfortunate honest poor man lo be :i moment longer subject to be deprived of liberty lo gratify the rapacity of unfeeling credu A FHIKND TO THE POOR. JIuntington, Sept. 1S33. For the Free Press; ToS J Sweet lady, when I left thee in thy how'r, And falt'iing turned to breaihe a last farewell, uen my son itauii was geiulv piessed in mine, And nn my heart, thi voice like music fell. Think not lh.it heait was rold bceatii tlM pow'r , iiiiugii Hgu; my worn, tiipyuui nut lalselv shine, Like sunlight beaim above a troubled sea ; For in tho-e daik impassioned i-yes of thine, 1 load the tittlh, the changeless truth of heart, That ever seemed lliy lovhest charm lo me Chaim thai rli.i 1 1 lie, when jouih and beauty part; And grow but brighter us thy years decline. I begged a "comer in thy memory," And if thy heart is tender ns tliiite eye, And full of love as is thy voice's lone, Thoii'h not refuse the light, jet precious boon. Oh make me theie a calm, sequestered grot, Deep in thy spirit's holiest tecess, VVh-ie thou dust hide thy saddest, purest lean; Then turn when thou art lonely, to the spot, And waiid'ring s'er ihe waste "of vanished years, Think thou of him who "names ihee but to bless, s. A. K. DIL D On the 20lh September, at I he residence of hist daughter, in Colehesier, Mr. Jnmes O'itryon, aged 70 years. I'limeis in the State of New'York uro requested to notice the ubove. Astronomical Lectures. Z THOMPSON proposes to give a course of lectures on Astronomy at the Court House in this villnge, to com mence on Friday next, (tho 12th inst. at 7 o'clock in the evening. The course will consist of at least twelve lectures, nnd the subjects will be illustrated by diagrams and other apparatus. Terms gl for the course. Tickets may bo had at tho Post Oflico. and at the IJookstorcs of Messrs. Goodrich and HickoJ. Uurlmgtnn, Oct. 5, lf530 HAY FOR SALE. nMHU subscribers offer for sale 12 tons J- of HAY, of good quality, abiul ono mtlo from Bex Meeting House. Also, 10 tons of Hay, of good quality, on tho Shelburn road, three miles from this vil lnge. This hay will be sold low, and is worthy the notice of persons wishing lo purchase nml drnw it themselves. Also, 300 bushels of O A T S, at i heir store. HICKOK &. CAT LIN. Burlington, 2d October, 1838. Jonathan G. Stewart's Estate. WE the subscribers having been ap pointed by tho Hon. Probato Court for thu District of Grand Isle, commission, ors to receive, examine all claims and de mand of all persons against the estate of Jonathan G. Stewart, late of South Hero, in said district, deceased, represented insol. vent, nnd all claims and demands exhibited in offset thereto, and six months from tho 22d day ofAuguat, A. D. 1030, being al lowed by said Court for that purpose wo .1 l... . I. .!... ll.nl 11' P will liieifiuit; nuifujr iiuum attend to tho business of our appointment ot Hector Adams's office,' in said South Hero, on the first Tuesday of February, A. D. 1039, from 10 o'clock, A. M. till four o'clock, P. M. Given under our hands, at said South Hero, thia22d day ofScpt. A. D. 1030. CALVIN FLETCHER, DAVID COHDIN.