Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, January 3, 1840, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated January 3, 1840 Page 1
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) 6 Q Si NOT THE G L O It Y OF C JE S A It T T 11 E WELFARE OF HOME. FKIBAY, TANliAR.Y 3, 1840. BY II. B. STACY- VOL. XIII No. 654 Tur.'nAY. Dec. !M. At 12 o'clock this Prmnlniii oftlic United States delivered to both House of Con gress l lip. following MESSAGE. Fellow Citiztns if the Senate, nnd House of Representatives : 1 regret rhnt 1 cannot on this occasion congratulate you Hint the past year hue been mc of unalloyed prosperity. The tnvnEPf f fiffi o'"1 dicaec havo painfully i.fllictcd otherwise flourishing portions of our country, and serious embarrassments yot dcronge the trade of many of our cities, 'lint, notwithstanding these adverse circum Monccs, that general prosperity which hos been heretofore bo bountifully bestowed upon ushy the Author oi'ull pond, t-tiH con tinues to call for our warmest gratitude. Especially have wo reason lo rejoice in tho exuberant harvests which have lavish ly recompensed well directed industry, nnd given to it that sure reward which is vainly sought in visionary speculations. I cannot indeed view without peculiar i-atisfactioii the evidence afforded by the nasi season of tin; benefits that spnn from Hie steady devotion of tin? husband. man to In? honorable pursuit. io mean of individual comfort is more certain, and no source of national prosperity is so sute Nothing can compensate a people for a de pendence upon others lor the bread tlie.y eat : and that cheerful obuiidaucu on which the happiness of every one so much depends is lo bo looked lor nowhere wuli t-ucn sure reliance as in the industry ol the ugri culmnsi ii (id the. bounties ol the earth. With foreign countries our relations ex hibit the same fuvorublc tispeci which wa presented in my last n n nun I message, and ufl'nrd co t in cd proot of the wisdom & ol the- pacihc, jusi and Vorhrn ring policy tiilnpt cd by the first AduiMiistiotinu of the Fed crnl government, and pursued by lis sue cvs-urs, The extraordinary powers vested initio bv nn net ol Congress, lor the de. fence of the country in nn emergency considered so far probable as lo requite that the Kxeciitive should possess ample means to meet it, huvu not been exerted. They hove, therefore, been uttended with no oilier result Ihnn to increase, by I he confidence I bus reposed in me, my nblign. I ion? to inn i ti t h in . with religions exactness the cordial principles that govern our in tercourse with other tuitions. Happily, in our pending quo-lions with great lintain. out of which tins unusual grant of authority urose, uuiliiug has occurred to require lie -xeruuu; anil as it is about to return to thetained the same leehng. and have probably 1 .uirllullirfi I Irllril llinl 11 1 k fill lift, llPPPSKl. i prevented excesses that must have been ty ttiuy cull l.ir Us exercise by Ihem or its' dulegaimn lo uuuilier department ol the yovuriiwiiuk For the teitlement of fortheasteru bnundarv. I he prnposil iTnT promised by GraJixjlf1iiio fur a commission of'cxplnra tiu'n.XHtfcirvey, hur been received, and a cournejlfiij-JCt, including also a provision for n certain and final adjustment ot the limits in dispute, is now belore Hie British Government for Uf consideialiuii. A just regard to the delicate t,tnle of ihisquestion end a proper respect lor the natural impa Hence ol Maine, not less than a conviction that the negotiation has been alreody pro tracted longer than is prudent on the part of either government, have led me to be lieve that the present lavorable moment should ui. no account be buffered to pass without putting the question Jorever at rest. I led confident thai the government of her llriiunie Majesty will luke ihosauie view ol tin ciibjeci, a 1 am persuaded i' is governed by uetires equally strong and sincere, lor the auncaulj lermiualiuu ofthe controversy. To the intrinsic difficulties of questions ol boundary liner., especially llioeu described in regmns unoccupied and but partially known, is to be added in iur country the embarrassment necessarily arising out ot our Cuiistuutiou, by which the General government is made the organ ol negotia ting, and dieiding upon the particular in terests of I ho stales on whose Ironliers these lines are lo be traced. To avoid another controversy m which a stale gov ernment might rightfully claim to have her wishes consulted, previously lo the conclusion uf the cunveutiounl arrange, tueiils concerning her right uf jurisdiction or territory, 1 have ihuuglit u necessary to call the intention nl the Guvurnineut of Grtut Britain to another portion ol our conterminous dominion, ol whichlhu divi ion mill remains to bu adjusted. I refer lo the line irom the euttaneu uf Lake So no nor lo the must N Western point of the Lake of the Woods, stipulations for the setilettii'iit of which are lo be found in i ho 71 h article lu the treaty ot Ghent. The commissioners appointed under thai article by the two governments having differed in I heir opinions, madu separate reports, ac cording to its stipulations, upon the points uf disagreement, and these differences ure now lo be submitted to the arbitration of fcotr.e friendly sovereign or statu. The dis puted points should be settled and Hie line designated before the Territorial Govern ineul, of which it is one of the boundaries, takes its place in the Union as a stale; and 1 rely upon iho cordiul co-operation of the British Government to effect this. There is every reason to believe that dislurbances like theso which lately agita. ted tho neighboring British Province, will not again prove the sources of border con. teution, or interpose obstacles to the con tinuancu of that good understanding which it is the mutual interest of Great Bri'aiu ond the Uniled Slates to preserve und maintain. , , Within the provinces themselves trap, quilily is restored, and on our Irontier, that misguided sympathy in fovnrofwhal woe deemed to bo o general effort in be half of popular rights, and which, in some instances, mislcl a few ol our more ine. pericncud citizens, has subsided into a falioiml convictmn strongly opposed to ull uiicriiindtlling with the internal atlntrs ol nuf neighbor. Tho people of the Uniled V'niCB teel ns it in Hoped tney always win n warm solicitude for the success of n'l who "ff sincerely endeavoring to improve the poniicnl conililion of mankind. 1 Ins gen rnii3 feeling they cherish towards the mod "imsiii nations; and it was natural there. lort, that it should be awakened with mure than cominun warmth in behalf ol t heir immediate neighbors. But it docs not belmig to their character, as o cummii- nny, lo seek the gratification ol uiosc 'Cengs jn acts which violato their duty ns cili2ens, endanger the peace of their coun try, and lend lo bring upon it the slain ot vmatcu faith towards foreign nations. If, zealous lo confer benefits on others, t'lcjjuppear for a moment to lose sight of iie permanent obligation imposed upon iieiv ns citizen", they arc sejdouii-long tiisUfd. From all the information I receive tntiitm.-dio some extent, by personal ob solatitn, I am satisfied that no one can row hojo to cngago in such enterprises wijhout eicountermg public indignation, in nddliii lo Iho severest penalties of lie! law. Itecttit information also leads mo lo lidie thit the emigrants from her Majesty's IV ivintes, who have sought refuge within or boundaries, ure disposed to become p-eceable residents, and to ubsiuiu Irom aLnlleinpts to endanger the peaco of that ci uilrv which has afforded them an nssy hoi. On a review of the occurrences on lilli sdes of the line, it is satisfactory to rijleei that in ulmost eveiy complaint ujauis. our country, the nffijnce may be tuced to cniigrants Irom the Provinces v 10 have niugnt refuge hero. In tho lew nUances in which they were aided by cili. a!n ol the United States, the acts ol these nisguuled men were only in direct con travention of the laws, and well known tfishes of their own Government, but met Villi the decided disapprobation of the ample of the United State?. J I regret to stale iho appearance of a lifiereut spirit among her Majesty's sub. eels in the Canadas. The sentiments of fostihty to our people and institutions, ihich have been so frequently expressed here, nnd the disregard of our rights vhtch have been niiiiiiiested on some oc ;asious, have, I am sorry lo say, been ap plauded alid uiicuii raged Ijy (lie people, and even by some uf the subordinate local au thorities, of tin; Provinces, 'llieclnet of h - cers in Canada fortunatelv have not enter ''"'"I " the eeace of Hie two countries. I look lurward anxiously lo a period when nil i h-1 rmi.u jiim,.- ivi.,.1. u. K,--.. out uf t hits condition ot our affairs, and which have been made the subjects of com plaint ond ruinous-trance by the two gov ernments respectively, shull be fully ex amined, and the proper satisfaction given where it is due from either side. Net lung has occured lo disturb tint liar- moiiy of nur inlercnerse with Austria, Uclpum. Denmark. France. Naples, Pur tunal, Prussia, Russia, or Sweden. The internal btale of Spam has sensibly im proved, and u well grounded hope exists that the return ol peace will restore to tin people of that country their former pro. perity, und enable t lie Government to fulfil till its obligations at home and abroad. Tho government uf Portugal, 1 have tin: satisfaction lo state, has paid in (nil the eleventh and last instalment due lo our citizens for the claims embraced to the settlement mado with It un the third ofment during the present year have I am March, 1337 I lay beforo you treaties of commerce negotiated with the Kings of Sardinia ant, of the Netherlands, the ratifications which have been exchanged since the ad, jnurnmcnt nl Congress. The liberal prin ciples ol incse treaties will recommit! ihem to youf. approbation. 1 lint will Sardinia is the first treaty of common formed by that kingdom, and it will I trust answer the expectations of the pres ent sovereign, by aiding the developeiient of the resources of Ins country, and sliuu j luting the enterprise of his people, ''hut with the Neljerlauds happily terminals a lung existing subject uf dispute, anf re moves irom ijir lulure commercial pier course all apjrebensiou of embarrassment. The King ollhe Netherlands his alio, in father illustttion of his charac.er fir jus. H:e, and of jus desire to remove every ctute ol disiftislaclioii, made cytipciiea it)iior an jmertcan vessel capped in ,1809 by a Flench privateor, anujearned ililol Curacod where the procerus were appropriated o tho use uf the colrny. then, ajtd for a shod time after, under lie domin ion of Ilollan. The death i( tho lato Sultan hat prndtced no ilteralioun uur relations wilt Turkey. Our newly appointed Mui'sler llesitltrit has reached 'Coiisiuntinuple, nnd I have received assutances from the preie.it Rultr that the obligations of our treaty aid thosi of friendship will be fulfilled by himself in ihe same spirit that actuated his ilustriutis lamer. I regret to be obliged lo inform you that no convention for tho seiibjnieni of iho claims of our citizons upon Mexicj has yet been ratine, by the Govermnom of that country. 1 he firet convention formed lor that purpose was not presented by ihe Piesidunt of Mexico fur the upprubatinn of its Congress, Irom u belief that iho Kim' ol Prussia, the arbitrator in caso of dun0. greenient in tho joint commission to bu appointed by the United States und Mr. vi. co, would not consent to luku upiiri hnnielf that friendly uflice. Attliuuirh Hot Piitimlu satisfied with Ihe course pursued by Mexi co, I full no hesitation in receiving m ihu most conciliating spirit the explanation offered, and also cheerfully consented to u new convention, in order to arrange th0 payment proposed, to be made to our cili- zens, in a maunur which, while equally just to them, was deemed lees onerous nntl inconvenient to the Mexican Government. Relying confidently upon tho intentions of that Government, Mr Ellis wns directed lo repair lo Mexico, and diplomatic inter, cnurso hns been resumed between the iwu countries. The new convention has, he informs us been recently submitrd by the President of that Republic toils Congress, under circumstanced which promise, a speedy ratification, a result which I cannot allow myself to doubt. Instructions have been given to the Commissioner of tho United States under our Convention with Texas, for the da marcat ion of the line which separates us from thai Republic. The Commissioners of both Governments met in New Orleans in August latt. The joint commission was nrgani.ed, and adjourned lo convene at tfra-mfrre-place b'ri theTwclflh of Oclober. It is presumed to be now in the performance of its duties. Tho . now Government of Texas has shown its desire lo cultivate friendly rela lions with us, by ii prompt rcparntiin for injuries complained of in tho case ol the two vessels; of the United States. With Central America a convention has been concluded for the renewal of Us for mer treaty with the United Stales. This was not ratified before the departure ol our lute Charire. d'Affaircs from that country, and tin; copy brought by him was not re ceived before the adjournment ofthe Sen ate at the last session. In the mean while, the period limited for the exchange of rati fications having expired. I deemed it expo dtent, in consequence of the death ofthe Uharge d Afnnres. to send a special agent to Central America, to close the ntTuiis of nur mission there, and to arrange with the Government an extension of the lime for he exchange of ratifications. The commission created by the. Slates which formerly composed the Republic of Colombia for adjusting Iho claims against that Government, ban, by a very unexpec ted construction of the treaty under which it nets, decided that no provision whs made lor those claims of citizens ofthe United Stales which orose from captures by Colombian privateers, and wereadjudg ed against the claimants in the judicial in. buna Is. This'dccisiou wil! compel the U. Suites to apply to tho several Governmenis lormerly uniled, for redress. With ull these New Grenada, Venezuela, and Ecuador, a perfectly good understanding xils. Our treaty with Venezuela is fa 1 1 1 1 1 u 1 1 v carried into execution, and thai country, in the enjoyment of tranquility, is gradually advnncing in prosperity under the guidance of its present distinguished I'.t-oijc,,,, GcuufHi racz. wuif r;ctidor. a liberal commercial convention Iiuh Ihlelv been concluded, which will he transmitted lo the Senate at an early day. i.u on; ureai American fjinpiro of Brazd our relations continue unchanged, as does our friendly intercourse with the other governments of South America the Argentine Republic, and the Republics of Uruguay, Chili, Peru, and Bolivia. The dissolution ofthe Peru Bolivian confedera tion may occasion some temporary incon- violence lo our citizens in thai quarter, OJi i no outigations on the new Govern iipnts which have arisen out of that Con bderati lo ob-erv its treaty slipula. ions, will no doubt be soon understood and it is presumed that no indisposition will exist lo fulfil those which it cuntructod with the U. Stales The financial operations of tho govern happy to say, been very succnssful. The dilhculties under which Iho Treasury Do pariment bus labored, from known defects in the existing laws mlative to tho safe keeping of the public monies, a"ravated by the suspension of specio payments by several df tho banks holding public depos. ites, or indebted to public officers for notes received in payment of public dues, hnvn been surmounted to a very gratilyieg ex tent. The largo current expenditures havu been punctually met, and the faith of the Government in all its pecuniary con. cerns has been scrupulously maintained. The nineteen millions nf Treasury rtole authorized by the aci of Congress uf Ilia7, and the modification? thereof, with a view lo the indulgence- of merchants on ilteir duty bonds, und of the deposito banks in the payment of public moneys held oyihcm have been so punctually redeemed ai to leavo less than ihe original leu millions outstanding at uny otto time, nnd tho whole amount unredeemed now fall Khun of three millions. Of these the chief pur. lion is not due till next year, and the whole would have been already extinguished could the Treasury hove realized Ihe pay. mcnto duo to it from the banks. If those due Irom luein during the next year shall bu punctually made, and if Cnng'csi shall keep the appropriations within Ihuesliiuates there is every reason to believj that all the outstanding Treasury not.'-) can be redeemed, und tho ordinary expenses de. frayed, withuut imposing on thopcuplu any additional burthen, either of leans or in creased taxes. To avoid this, and lo keep tie cxpemli tires within reasonable bounds, is a duty, stcuud only in importance to Hut preserva tion of our national character and the pro. lee ton of our citizens hi their civil ami polrical rights. The creaticu, in tune of poauj, of a dubt likely io Income pernm nuiil,!, an evil fur which theru is no eqmv alunt The rapidity with which many of the Sales! are apparently approaching In mis ciiiuuioii, admonishes us of our own duiie.1, m n manner too imprcssivu lo be disrega-ded. One. not the least important, is to kep the Federal Government always in a cordiliou to discharge with eusu and viffor, is highest functions, should their exercisobu required by any audden con. juncture jf public affairs-tt condition in wuicli wo are always exposed, and which inn occur when ills least expected. To! tliwend, il is imlispeiHnble that UH finances should be ttiiiriimiuel'ed, nntl its resources, ns far as practicable, unincumbered. No

circtiinsiance could present greater nbsla. clJL- in the accomplishment of these vitally titiportantio'jjecls, than tho creation or an oiietotH ni'iotml debt. Our own oxperi. mice anil klsn that uf other nations, have demonstrated the unavoidable and fearful intilllV Vtll which n nuhtin ilnht in increased, yhen the government has once s irrcndereditsclf to the ruinous practice uf supplying lit supposed necessities by new liaus. 1 he struggle, therefore, on our art, lo bd successful, must be made nt the threshold, lo make our efforts effective, icvero econony Is necessary. 1 his H ttio urest provisitn for tho national weltare ; and it is at tin same time, Ihe best prescr. varjvo of th'i principles on Which our irisilltu'inns rest, '" Siniplicity antf ecniioiny in tho affairs nf.Slate have never failed to chasten and iiiugorate Republican princi. p!es, while thc'u have been ns surely snu- verled by natirnnl prodigality, under what. ever speciou8pretcxls it may have been introduced oiUnslcred. Theso considerations cannot bo lost upon a people who hove never been iimltoutivo to the effect of policy upon tho institutions they have created for themselves j but ot mo present moment i heir lorcH is aug meiited by ihe necessity which n decrens ing revenue must impuso. The check' lately given io importations if nMicle subject to duties, the derangcmelts) in Ihe operations nl internal trade, and especially the reduction gradually taking place in our tnrtti ol duties, all tend lo essen our receipts, indeed it is probable; I lint the diminution resulting from the last cause alone, will not fall short of livi millions of dollars in the year KM",, as tie filial re duction of ull duties to twetty per cent I lieu lakes filed. Ihu while revenue then accruing Irom thecustoiM. and from Ihe sales public, if nnt more, will itniloiibt edlv bu wanted to delray lau necessary expenses of the coveriuneit under the iuojI prudent aduiinislraliiii of affairs, These are circuin-lnuces tint impose Ihe necessity of rigid econurny, ind require its Prompt nnd constant exurcue. With the L'gwlaluro rast tho power and duly of so adjusting the public expenditure as to pro mom this mil. By ihe ptovisions of the ConsiiiutKUi, it is only in consequence ol appropriations made by law, thai money can he iiruwo from the Treasury ; no siimce has occurred since 'hejesiablishinenl ol the government, nt winch Iho Lxecu live thouirli a component part of the L"gis!alive power, has interposed objection in an appropriation bill on the sole around of "Is extravagance. His duly in tins respect has been lullillrd by requesting such appropriations only as ihe public service may lie reasonaliiy expectru to require. -In ihe present earnest direction of the public mind towards this subject, bnlh the Executive and tho Legislature hov.' evidence of Ihe strict responsibility U w'lnch they will be held ; and while I am coiircious of my own unxinm efforts to perform with fidelity this portion of my public funciinns, n is o soii'aclion tome to be dblu to count on a cord al coupeiation from you, At the lime I entered iimn my present duties, our ordinary dub. iriemonts with Oiit including those on account of ihe'pub' lit! debt. Ihe pu-t uflice, am the trust funds in chargn nl' the (ioverntient hail been latgely increased by approinalioti-'f r tho removal ol Ihe Indians lor epellliio Indian hostilities, and for other h; w urgent expen se! which grew out of an o'erflnwiig trea sury. Independent of the redemliuii ol the public debt und trusts, tho gnss ex peadtlurr's nf sventeeti und eighteen mil limn in I U3t and ion.'), by thesn causes.! swelled to twenty nine mtllons in 11131) : anil iho appropriations for 1)37, trade pre viously to the 4tli of Murtji, ca.ised the expenditure, to rise In lli very large amount of ihiriy three mi llnis- We were enabled during ihu year 11311, notwith standing tin; continuance ( nur Indian embarrassments somewhat t reduce this amount : ami l hut for ihe present yeai ll!20, will not in ail pnbiibilily. ex ceed "G millions, or six uiiiliuis less than it was hist year Wnhii det'rtninatioii so far as depends un mo to cuainuu this re dii'iilon, I havo directed ihe j.-i unites for HMO to be stibj tcled tuhe Everest scru tiny and to bu limited In Ihu j,aasjulu re quirements to the public sis vice. They will hi found less than die eiienditurei uf 11139 by over five millions of ddl.trs. The precautionary measiirea.vhicli will be reooiirnended by thu Secritary of the Treasury to protect (faithfully the public credit unless the floctualioinund contin gencies to which our receipts anil expen ditures are exposed, and eiircially in a commercial crisis like thu present, are commended to your early attention. On a former occasion your attention wot invited to various considerations m favor of u pru etnplinn law in behalf of the set tlers un thu public lauds ; and aho of a law graduating thu prices fur such lauds as had had long been 111 the market untold in consequence nf their inferior quality. Th execution of the Act which was pas-eed nil luu first subject has been all ended with huppivtl consequences, 111 quieting titles, anil securing improvements to the indus trious; and it has also, lo u very great ex tent frimi Or frauds which wuru practised under previous pre-emption laws, (t has at ihe same litne, us was anticipated, con tribultd liberally during tho present yeur of the receipts of t ho Treasury. The uassuL'O uf 11 graduation law, with the guards before recommended, would also, I am persuaded, add considerably to thu revenue fur several yeurs, and prove in other rutpects lustuud benclieial Your eaily oiiiBideratiuu of thn subject if. ihurefuru once more earnestly icquesled Hie prcccul condition of tliodclcncw our principal seaports anil nav,y yards, as represented by tin? accoinponying report ol the S' Crelary of War, colls for Iho ear ly and serious attention ot Uongress ; anil, as cnnneciitiL' itself intimately with .this subject I cannot recommend too strongly lo your consideration the plan submiuieu uy that officer for thu organization ot the null tia of the Uniled States; In conformity with the expressed wishes of Congress, an allempl won made In the spring to tcrininalu the Florida war by ne gotiation, It is to bo regretted that ihese humane intentions, should have been trus- (rated, und that the effort to bring these unhappy difficulties to n satisfactory con clusion should havo failed, But, after en tering into solemn engagements, wild the Commanding Ueuerol, the Indians, with out any provocation, recommenced their acls of treachery and nui'dor. Tho re newal ot hostilities in that Territory ren tiers it necessary that I should recommend to your favorable consideration the plan which will bu subnniled to you by the Secretary of War. 111 order In enable that department to cunduct them lo a success ful issue. (laving had an opportunity of personally inspecting a pottion of llielroops during the last summer it gives ma pleasure 10 bear testimony lo iho success of the effort to improve their discipline, by keeping them together in as large bodies as the nature ol our service will permit. I recommend, therefore, that commodious and permanent barracks be constructed at the several pusis lU'stgn-itpil by Iho Secretary of War. Notwithstanding tho high state of their discipline and excellent police, the evils result ing to 1 he service Irom the deficien cy of company officers, were vry apparent and I recommend that the staff officers be permanently separated from Ihe line. The navy has been iifpl'iilly and honnrn ably employed 111 protecting Ihe rights and properly of our citizens, wherever (he condition of affairs seemed to require its presence- With the exception of uno in stance where an ouroge, accompanied by murder, was committed on a vessel of the United States while engaged in a lawful commerce, nothing is known to impede or molest the enterprise ol our citizens on that element where iiis so signally displayed. On learning this daring act of piracy, Commodore Reed proceeded immediately to the spot, and receiving no satisfaction either in Ihe surrender of the murderers or Ihe restoration of the plundered property. intHcted severe and merited chastisement on the barbarianu. It will bo seen, by the report nf tho Sec re'ary ofthe Navy, respecting Ihu disposi. lion ofourli;)s ifwnr ihu it h-.j heeii deemed necessary 10 station a compe tent force 011 the coast of Africa, lo pro vent a fraudulent use of our fhg by for eigners. Recent esperieuco has shown that the provisions 111 nur existing laws, which re. lalo In the sale and transfer of American vessels while abroad, are extremely defec. live. Advantage has been taken of these defects, lo give to vessels wholly bcloniin" to foreigner?, and navigating the ocean, an apparent American ownership. This char ucier has been so well simulated as to affird litem comparative security in pros editing the slave trade, 0 traffic cmpholi call y denounced 111 our statute, regarded with adherence by our citizens, and of which ihe effectual suppression is nowhere more sincerely desired than in the United Slates. 1 hese r.irciitii-tatieed make proper lo recommend your early attention a cireful revtsiun of those laws, so that. without impeding the freedom and I'd I cttie of our navigation, or impairing an nnpo tant branch ot industry connected with it, the integrity and honor of our 11 jt may carolully preserved. Information derived from our Consul ut ilavanna, showinr the necessity ol this, was communicated lo a committee ofthe Senutc, near the close o Ihe last session, but Ion late, as it appeared to be acted upon. It will be brought, to your notice by t.he proper department, with additional communications' from other sources. Thu latest accounts from tho Exploring hxpedilion represents il as proceeding sue ccssfully in its objects, and promising ro suits no less useful to trade and navigation than to science The extent nf post roads covered by mail lervice mi Die tirst ol July last, was about 133 999 miles, and the rate ot annual trans. pnrtatioii upon them 31 -180,073 miles. Thu number of post offices 011 that day was t welre thousand peven huudred and eighty, ami on the thirtieth ultimo, thiiteen Ihous. ami and twenty eight. I'he revenue ol tho nost offico denart- ment for iho year ending with the 30rli of Juno last, was four millions, four hundred and seventy-six thousand, six hundred and ihirly-oight dollars, exhibiting an increase over the precediog year nf two hundred and forty one thousand, five hundred and sixty dollars. Tho engagements and lis. btlities of iho department for the same pa. riod, are lour million, six hundred and twenty. four Uiousand, 0110 hundred and seventeen dollars, The excess of liabilities ever tho reve nue fur tho last tiro years, has been met out of iho surplus which had previously I accumulated. The cash on hand on thu I3ih nil, mo, was about $107,701 95, and the current incomo of thu department va ries vary little from the ralo of current ex penditures. Most of iho service suspend ed last year has been reslored, and most of the new routes established by tho act of thu 7th July, I33U, have linen set in opeta. tion at an annual cost of 4130 003, Not withstanding the pccuniaiy d'llicullies of the country, Hie revenue uf the department appears to be increasing; and unless it bu seriously chocked by the recent suspension of payment by su ni.iny bunks, it will be able not only lo maintain Ihu present mail oIlatTVico, bet m a jlwil tuuu tu e.vcnd 11 It is ttratifvitiL' to witness the promptitude und fidelity with which llio ngeins of ihu department in general perform their pub lic duties. Some difficulties have arisen in relation to contracts for the transportation nf mails by mil road and steamboat companies. It appears that Ihe maximum of compena. tion provided by congress for ihu trnns portutinti of malls upon niilroarls is not sufficient to induce some uf Hie companies) to convey them at such hours as are r r qui red for the accommodation ofthe public Il is one of thn most important duiies of iho general Government to provide and maintain for the uso of tho people of Iho slates the best practicable mail establish ment. I n arrive at Hint end it is indis pensable that the post office department shall be enabled In control the honrs nt which the malls shall be carried over rail roads 09 it now does over all other roads. Should serious inconveniences ariso from tho inadequacy ofthe compensation now provided by law, or from unreasonable ness in the demands made by any of thu rail roatl companies, ihu subject is of such generol importance as lo require tho un mediate attention nt congress, In relation to steamboat lines, Ihe most efficient remedy is obvious, and has been snggesied by the postmaster general. The war and navy departments alreadv employ steamboats in their service, ami although it is by no means desirable that the government should undertake the transportation nf freioht or passengers as a business, there can be no reasonable ob jection Id running boat?, temporarily. whenever it may bu necessary to put down attempts at extortion, to be discontinued as 60011 as leasouoble contracts can bo made. The surigcFtinns of tho postmaster rren. eral relative lulro inadrqoacy of tho legal allowance to witnesses in case of prosecu tions for mail depredations, merit yonr serious consideration. The safely ol tho mails requires that such prosecutions shall bo efficient, and justice to tho citizen whose time is rt quired to be given to the public. demands nut only that his expenses shall be paid, but that he shall receive a reason, able compensation. 1 he reports from the wnr, tia'vy, and post office departments), will acenmpany this communication, ond one from tho treasury department will bo presented lo congress in a lew days. From a report inad. in December of last year, by Ihe Secretary of S:ate, In the Senate, showing the trial docket of each of the circuit courts and iho number of miles each person hns to travel, in Iho nerferinini!' nl' Ins duties, a great Ine quality appears in tho amount of labor assigned to each judge. Thn number of terms to be held in each of the courts composing the ninth circuit, tho distoncen between Hie places at which they nt. and from ihencu to ihe seal of government, are represented lo bo such as to render it impossible for the judge to perforin in ra manner corresponding with public exige'n. cies, Ins term and circuit duties. A Tevi. sion, therefore of the present arrangement of tho circuits seems to be called for, and is recommended to your nniic. 1 think it pioperlociill your intention la ilm power assumed by territorial legiilatmes 10 autho rise the issue nf Imnds by rorpunue eompaiiie on the giMniiiiee of thn leniiorv. Cuiijiiesa ps.-ed law in IS3G, pinviding 1h.1t 'nn an of.i luiritorial legislaiiire iiicoiporiiliiig lnnk tliiuld have ilia force nf law until appioved by (Jungles ; bur aci.s uf n eiy exceptiniuble character, piriiuu-ly pas sed by ihe h-iji.slainie nf Florida, weie ruffeied n remain in force, by viilue of kIii'cIi h.inils may b is-ued lu 11 eiy laiae amount by ih.jse institution upon ihu faith of ihu leniiory. A le.-utiuum in tended 10 be a joint one, paused iho neii.uo l ihu same fessiuu, cpiessinr ihe tense of (Jungles that the laws 111 question ought mil to re.nani in force, imIcm amended in many material nspects ; but il failed in t lie house of lepiesentiilitcs fir want of lime, and the dashed iinieno'inenis li.ue mil been mado. The iiueiests invoked 111eofcte.il inipor lanre, and the subject deterus 011r early und caieful attention. The continued agitation of llie qiiMtinn rel.ilivn lo I lie best made uf keepinj; ami difliinsin dm public money, siill injuiiuiisly hAVcis the husmesn ofthe ruiiulij. The suspension ufs-jieeie pannem in 1837. icmleied the its'- uf di-p.isiie hank, us pieseiibed by the acls ofl836, 11 source inllit-r uf embarrassment than aid, und of necessity placed ihe custody of most of ihe public money afi'envardi collecied, in charge of the public, otlicers. Tha new secuniirs for its safely which ibis lequiied, eie a pi iiiciial cause of my roaveniiij 1111 extra, session of Confess, but in consequence of a di,a-(reein'-ni between ihe two hon.., neither ihen, nor 111 any Mili-riirni period, has iheie been anv legislation on the sul jei i. J'he effort made at iho last ses-ion to ohiaiii 1 he nudimiiy 0f Coiijieii to punish ihe ue of public money fur privale purpo ses, hs a ciime, n measure upended under oilier jmeriiineniri imh sinnal u.U:... i. successful from diversities uf upiimin in' that body, iioitviihslaiidiiiL' thu nnxielv dnulul r,,i, i, ; ,,. Hlfoid ever practicable seemity. Tw ,ejul of (his is mill lo leave 1 lie nimody of ihe publio mo ney willlullt llluse S.lfesil.ilih wJurl, Ii .i lieen fur several ) ears oaniesily desned by the executive, and, as a remedy is only m be found in the uciiuii of the If "islamic, it inipases on me iho duly of " 1 . .- ,u "" 1,18 propnety nl passing 11 law, providing lor ihe safe keeping uf llie public moneys, ami especially m usk that iia use for pii- vaie purposes ny any olticers entrusted widi il, may Imdeelaied lo bo 11 felony, punishable with penal lies piopoiiiuurd 10 thu magniiudo 01 the offence. I'heso ciiciunstanccs, added to known defects hi the existiii" hms, and unusual deiiiimenipMi ;.. ,t... geiieial operations of nude, h ive during iho last on co )e. irs, 111111:11 uici eiiseii ilm ililltciiliics attend, ant on the-colleciiun, krepin und dinbiirsemeiii of ihu ieenue, and called fonh eoiiespoudini exer tions fiuin ihosu having ihem in chaige. HaiioiU ll.ese hae been eiitceosful beyond rxpectal iun. Un sums hae been cuHemed ami di.burreil bv iho several departments with unexpected vIicmiiU ueis and eu.e j iran-leis have been leadily made 16' every pan uf the Uniun, howevtr distant ; tho de. ....,u. u uue 1 i,ir less man inishi MV0 been anticipated, fioui thu iibsi ueu ol iidtouaic Iriral .eslra.nls : su.ro the ..nice. i of .he e.t.ry ,m, ul oflica deparimems vveio charged with the cu. lody of must ol tho public monejs received bv ihem, Ihe. a have been collected i.v.sis imlbun of dollars, nnd. rxcl,h.M .he c.uo of iho late col lector of New o,k, tho as.eSaie atuouat oflo.sis sustained 111 llm colleeliou caunol, it isbelie.ed. exceed m.y ihonsand dolla,,. Th d,f,lCa,iti of the late culltctur al 1h.1t city, nf ,,u txlri.l UM 'ciiiuumaiicrs vf ulin.li conjrerj h.u been fully in-