NOT THE GLORY OF CASAll HUT THE WELFARE OF ROME. BY II. B. STACY. FD5II5AY, ,AftEJAS2Y 17, 1840. VOI,. XITI No.65G 'wMmiwii'" mwa iMUWIWI STANZAS. On visiting a tccnc cf childhood. ' I came lo il.o ph'n- ol my l.iill. nn.l said "The friend (,r niv ..wli, l"n nre llie) 1 nn-1 cclm nnseied Wlirie me they LonK years li.nl cl.ipffd "-e ' enzrdmi Hie s-rcne, Iiit It m v f.uiO til inl.r.l in ll- li flint"!. ''I i!"'''';1! The n ' l,ri '' " " lm"1, 11,1 W'' ",r" Uy ihf f iitn of ilii! Hii-.il" in llii! l)l"i"ii "I I'" "Mif. t llio'i ofllin f. lends who li.nl loiimM "hli me ill''"1! When ilm -I uiih fo li'tie, mill lln- fliueis- n I in; A II M'.iliru-il, mill hiii'Ihii-.I In innn H.rn mnl nt', And Fiimt! in (lie mill silent uimili nf the "line . t llimiulil nf llio cippm bmk lhat cilflfd mound. Willi wilil-fi'iurif, Willi tucel-bi ior, ami egl-mlme. 1 it.inV.-lii nl'lle. iier. im sliilt-M nml tn 1 t t. As the f.it-i- of llie. tky mi u blue milliner nighl. And I llimiSlii of the trees under which uc h id eiiiiyt tl, ... i r 'Oflhe IhimiI leafy Imiiglm with ilieir coolness ol Aiid'uinpcd ilmi'sli iliffistiirtl Mime loUn in find. Of llie ii.itnesiind llie ciMing' iniiii!-s'dm' ihciiml. All ewer I li.mii iiPil ihe M-rne In hflin'd. !?...!, I c ,i., I .!.: Ik tin- IVrlinsH nfnM, Ami I ilt-i-im-d ih-il un.iln I'll mv 'i' flmttltl cxploie, Tin icfniie, till- li.iuul, lilt? liljuuiii ir nii- ! 5Twn ii tli nun, im! -i mUm in- I nice emi'd I i'-w (lr.h.. m.iiw tli.ii I tinnl. nl llie lues ili.n I knew! I .1... it,.. .Ii .ilniia nf 111, III III 111.' ll.lUllill!! Ilf li '- Like n inlc lli.il i Intd-lli-v li.nl v .-lied nw.iy ! And utrilinttiili llie Inne I 'ner llml tmouir-itil :t"n; Win mine i In 11 in i I y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . mmi- s.nl in M l-mlL'i Kim-., i li.. lit. iti ili.H li.nl ni sllt'il d u.nlil'd ilmt Il.nl nil llt-d In. in iis IwiiK" 'Ii l.iH "I '1"" g"'i'! 1 t :i 1 1 - o 1 1 nml 'lie mni ill fume home to my lie ill Behold Iiiih nfr.uili nil llie a limes- demil ! Our isimei .lie li,..ele." ijiii lin- I'm " s-l'-ntii, Our fluff Inn n ucd and mil life Inn n tlieiim I Thru Oh! !t ii4 limit let nur tnnsneci iil'me 'I'.. .r,.,,,. iIk.i ...in r.nli. mil. In iimIiiis llml eudlilC To elm iff . in !ilrf'.in", llml iiimupli Mihlimu O'er llie liliylnini; "I tli.inue. mid I lie i ti ins ol nine GOV. SEsVAltD'S MESSAGE. Tins if n tlucimiciil alike woMliy nf I lie dipt ttiguishcl mil hor, mid the ji r - a 1 State over whose destinies lie has been called In preside. Clear in its statements, conc'ti Five in its arguments, nervous iitid rlnqneiti in ilf language, llie mc-sngn command the approval nf friends, and disarms llir criiieiMii? of fp.". Af a slnlo pajicr, H is iiiiportniit and iiiternslin" ; ns a lilerary prodnr.iuin il is ctia ' o arid olecanl ; roat clmrt of political principles-, il is oc curatn, impart ml and invaluably. Cniiinii'iicins wild a brief refcruncQ to tlio difasterp' wlncli have flialiun l he credtl and cnp;led lliu energies of our country Inr thn past sensnn, llie tneFrarjo prnceed lo tlm detail of the financial condition ol 1 he Slate at the clto of the fiscal year In the miction nml full dniie?. there hn been an increase over tlmsc ol liie prrced inT venr of 11G3 C33 OG. In the canal revenues, there has been a pimilar aup incntnt inn, ainoiinlin to glG5,".0'.I 15. I the cliarncs for repair?, eiiueriiiieiidi'ticf collect ions. &c. there lia been a savint tiince lart year of 102.337 73. The- pults arc in the lnjrol ileuree catif.ictory phowinp; they do nn addition lo llie n ontiep of the ptate, from increase of toll anil dii'ics nnd diminution of ordmnrv e.- ponseF, equil lo T5'fiur hundred nnd thir lv one thousand r.nc hundrid and ninety two dollars and ninety -six cents ! Such are the first (runs nf "the cannli und Whig management." The capital of the common school fund is l,97f),0G9 of the literature fund 5,ICl-cf the bank fund gt! 1 0,1120; and there is due In the Mate its share of the fourth instalment of the U. S. deposit fund amounting to $1,330,173, There are in the state prisons at Auburn nnd King-Sin;; 1,470 convicN. The rip;, grcgnto e.spen-'ffi for the lart fircal year ninouni to jJISo.l'il, and the earuinM diiring llie b.iino period, to 33 3G4 Certain defects in the, present bytem of prison discipline nn; pointed out, and iliese, as well as llio condition of our county jails, it is proposed to reform. The different infliiuiions fur the educa tion nf the blind, nnd the dear.md dumb nnd the various tcminuncs nnd cnlleei" wlncli derive nssistnnco Irom the treasury of the stnto. nre in turn alluded to, and commended lo the vigilant and discrimina ting care of the legi-laltire. The great cause of education finds an rleqneut advo cate in t lie Chief Mngistrateol'N Ynk;nnd among other improvements, Gov. Seward recommends the establishment of schools in which the children ol foreigners may be instructed by teachers speaking the same longnngo and professing the same fuilh. The i m nl number of the militia is staled to bo 100.103, Mime 2 000 less than wen returned laPt year, ond the Governor urget upon the legislature llio propriety of their bringing llio subject of I ho militia before Congress, to tlio end that tho reform so necessary, and eo genenlly called (or, moy be speedily accomplished. if!! Tlio subject ol jiidiei.il Itelnrtn is nexi adverted lo, nnd commended with great oarnestnrB? to the immediate attention of thn legislature. This is followed by n brief recital of the recent Manor difficulties in the county of Albany; and the hope is expressed that tome measure may be ndop ted. which, without t ho violation of con tracts, or injustice to either parly will Miiiilnln the tenures on the rlnnor, In thofii! which nre more accordant with the principles of republican government, nnd more conducive to the genernl prosperity, and I he p' lice nnd harmony ol society. J'lic demand nl the Executive of Virginia upon the Governor of New York for the ehvery of three persons, citizens of Nev s fugitives from jn-ticu is next Ituded to, the reasons ol Governor Sew rd's rr'iMil succinctly stated, arid the correspondence to which i1 gave rise, sub united lo the legislature. We quote the cote as stn'ed. "A 'i quisition was made upon me in ulv InM, bv i he Executive nl Virginia, for he ih-livery of three peiftiiw, as liininv s mil iiiftice. charged with linving leloiii- oii-lv flnleu a negro slave in that t-lale. I eeltneil to comp'y with the ri qiii-ll inn. nn tl e ground llml Hie riht I" demand anil !!. nbligntii'ii !n surrender tonit ive- trmu i-tice b I ween sovereign and indepeiiil nt naiioos. if lb fined by lln; law of rn i . include onlv llioso eases in which llie act ciiii-iiiiiiing Hie ytlenee cna'geo, rec. no Z 'tl a- crimes bv the universal n ws of nil civil. '."d countries; thai tin object of the provi-ioo e"iiinincil in tin cniiftitiilinn ol Hie United ales, nuiiiori zmg ihe di mund and fiirrender of logti ive.- ihari-ed wiih treoMUi, lehuiy, or oilier enme, ua to recognize and eslablnh the principle nl'lhe law ol iinlinns in the miitii I relniion-nl Hie stales o iiidepeiiiieni qmil nnd sovereign coiiimunii ies ; thni the nets cliurgeil upon llie persons ui'inannei were nut rectiL'ii'zed ns criminal bv tin laws of tins Mate or by llie universal law of nil civihzed count ries : nnd that const-. nneotlv Hie case did not lull within tin n'oviHuii ol the constitiiliou ol I lie united Stales. The Governor of Virginia, in his last annual message, reterred me Minjeci he consideration of the legislature of that r-iaie, and declared that mv const ruci ion ot the conitiiniion ol the United htat could not be nrntncrccd in or submitted in lt! iiiMimI I hut il il wore nllnweil In lirrval mid no relief could he ob'nii ed ngnim- what he desinnnted a fliyrnnl invasion n the riuhtsof Vircjintn, either bv an nnn'iid iiieut n'f the coostttuiion of the Uuiiei S ates, or bv the action of ihe legislature nl Virginia, it might uitimaieiy becm the important du'y of Virginia to appeal Irom the cancelled nbligaiioiH ol the tioiinl compact, is orifjinal righls, and the law ol sell preservation. I confess my surprise that it shoii'd nnv part nl the Union he regarded n new and finrtling doctrine thm the consti i til ion a I power nf the Executive of any other state to di maud the piureiider of n citizen ol this suite to be earned to the former and I ried for an offence committed there, h limited In cni-c- in which the of lenee chnrged is rneogniz- il e.rnuinal by ihe sintiile laws nf this t-liite. by the com mon law. or by the univerr-nl laws of mnn liinil. Nor can I wiihliold the expression of -tneere regret that n construction of the ci ostitutinn manifci-tly necessary to main tain the foveretgnly of Hits state and the personal rights ol her citizens, should he regarded by the Executive of Virginia as jiii-ufying in any contingency u menace ol ceccssiun frn."ihe Union. THE CURRENCY. The condition of the Currency occupies the next lew paragraphs in the message Tho conduct of ihe federal government, in neglecting its proper functions, is justly and severely censured ; nnd the duty en joined upon the State Legislature, of ma. the evils of our domestic currency the subject of speedy and effictual reform. Our lellow citizens in vnriovs parts ol the stale will very ju-tly call your alien- to the condition ol ihe eurrencv. Wo are n commercial people, we me rendered mi by the local inn ol our country, .its physical lormatinii, Us variety ot climate and pro due' ions, cud its internal coiiiiiuiiiieai Ions by land and water; by the nperauoii n republican institutions and i nuiii laws; liy nur wants; by our resources; ov our enter prise ; by the mutual coiiliileuce arising Irom moral ami intellectual cultivation; by the intercourse existing ninnng I he citizens, nf thn several stales, and by our relations with foreign nations. The federal govern infill has heretofore encouraged cominerci by entering into commercial trenties, by the e-tnblishment ol n unvy, bv the reduc Hon of imposts, nnd by Ihe improvement ol rivers and hnrhnrs on our lakes as well a on i In; seihoaril. The legislatures ofthe several stales have seconded this policy by iiicrcssing the lacihties lor trade. I he proiniitioii of cnminerco ill nil its branches. nffoids ihe most rflVciunl encouragement to agriculture and iniiiiulaeiures, becniHi coiuiiieiee is unlv mi exchange ol proline Hon! The wnnts of one region nre supplied by the lubur ol niioilier, and thus tho in diisiry of nil is rewarded, Our internal commerce knows no political or geogrnpht cnl ImeB, i pervades every region, seek ing and exchanging llie surplus product ions ul every department of industry. To effect this change, a currency or medium is in dispensable, nod it should every where i have tho highest uniformity of value. A iiii.vmI euirenc, eoiiipo-eu ol com nun paper redeemable in coin, has unavoidably resulted fruin the condition ofonr count ry. nml our intercourse with foreign nations.! 'hat such a eurrencv is I'm r belter than one rxehisvely metallic, is proved by con Unfiling the general prosperity of the conn nes in which it is employed with the con dtlion of those which use only the precious metals. Hut it i nttc-uded by tho disad vantage nf n liability to expansion beyord the legitimate wnuls of t rade, .anil mer er to prevent such expansion as tar ns possible, and mitigate their evils, il inns' siibf'Ciei) In regulation. Il is a cense quoiKV nl the mile peiiiloni, action or ine gishiiures ol the several stales, t lint i he piper money isMied under their authority inii-l, in Ihe ubsene.e ol adequate rtgnin- tii be iim qual in si entity nnd cnnverli- bint v. nnd thai the amount issued must be dispnportinued to the exigences fluid.-. Ilerelnfnro 'lie lederal gnvern- meiit'ha- di-c'iarged the responsibility ol neb regulation, but lor sometime past Congress litis made no provision fur thai purpose, nml the currency of the count ry has L'een supplied by paper money issued tinder the nntliority ol twenty six d lTerenl states, hi mnouiiis limited by other wnu's than those nl trade, and regulated by other considerations ihnn tlmse which regard the t'eiieuil interests "I the whole country. The exchange of productions between dis'ant parts nt the country is bnrtlieued with iiinioiis expense-, and the prompt 'llicliotinf deb's is rendered itiipos-lble nlomiil commerce has -nff -r- d a check. mil derangement W lelt in every d part iiinni nl business. ,, , -pi-u-es, lo-se. mil sacrifices resulting from Ihe cnibar as-ui-'iits nf trade, full iilinnalely upon hose engagetl in irndiic'ive iiiilustry, nnd cnu-e a depreciation in I he value ol inimr, ot the fruits ol the earth and of the sin itself. In the present instance, the evil have been aggravated by a long and seven ilermigein-'iit in nur foreign commerce. As if I ho neglect of its appropriate and iinpor I rim fiiiieti'ins were not enough, the leder al goverurneiil has c.ont rihuied to ineienst the g'Miernl emharra'snieiit. by uimiilesl ing il peisevenng hn-lllltv In Ihe tnsl II lit tun nf i In- sUile-, nnd hns ilirlurhed the genera citifidence bv ellorts to iiHroiluce a iiio'tulic eurrencv. The inirodiiciion of such cn'reiicv is itnprnclicable. and would be iinjiit it it were practicable, becnii-e t woiiiii require our cuiz' us, in nn; uu-i of neces-ny or riiliqtin'e motive, to reduc i he value nf labor and propert v In the tie precinled standard nf a specie ctreii'niioii To the people of ibis state, and all who resnri to her "real cimuicrctal market tin measures adopted bv t lie general govern mem in c.irry tins nr,'.p-oi nun t-iitt, i,u, be-n productive of uniuiiigaied evil trust therefore that those niea-orrs will r ceive no support from us: but that whalev er influence the sanction of the legislature mav have will bn exerted in favor ot a poll cv that shall iiniuodiulolv restore the pros pertly ol the Union. E X E CUTI VE IN FLU E N C E The action ofthe Federal Goverhiimnt always important, has within a few year past excited unusual interest. Under th uniform system of policy maintained from the foundation ot the novernmenl. our country enjoyed n career of pro-perity rrupted only In briel intervals in wine thai policy was eonnieincleil by circoin Unices nri-ing mil ol llie vin'alion of our rights by belligerent humpenii nations Tlio country has experienced n grenl change within the lasl three years. A pres-ure is felt in all its interests and throughout Us whole extent, and every effort to rise has been followed by greater pressioo. Ihe lederal Executive, in Ins recent comuuiincnt ton to Congress, extends no hope of relief from these eviif, but urges the adoption of inea-nre?, the very tli-cu-sion of which hns product d only the tnosl disastrous ooihi quence-. We are an itultisi rioiiseconomical, (.plight. onod.nud virtuous people. Our pro-pent) is hindered by no hereditary inequalities nl political rights or social condition. We have enjoyed peace and tranquility (or twenty iive year--. If then there ho any virtue in forms of guycniinctit. ours ought, if well ndiuinislerWI, to secure national prosperity ami geueial coiileiilmenl and happiness. The power and inlliieuco of Mm Executive Department ol the Federal Government nn- greally increa-ed. and the history of that go eminent, for ihehist lew yi a's, exhibits n constant h' niggle on the part of ihe Exenit tve m control tho opin ions nf the representatives ofthe people. His nppenU Irom their decisions have been tried by popular elections for Ihe first, second, and ihird time. In such trials Un representative has to contend singly and unaided agamsi tin; combined influence mid patronage ol the government. Not cunt em willi the already over-liiiduwing powers ol the National Government, thn President has arraigned before Congress thn tiistiln Hons of the States and the Stntc them selves, nnd has discussed their domestic concerns with ns great freedom ns if they were responsible lo the Federal Govern ment, nnd were not sovereign in the con duct ol their municipal affinrs. Those in novations fonn-b a new demonstration of tho error of thofo who, at the iiilopl mo of the Coii-tiliiiioii, supposed the Federal (lover uni'iil loo nils'. ible, nnd the power and influence of the Executive Department too l.nnied. The I tine seems to have ar rived, when Ihe nilnptmu of measures to rest rniu the increasing power nl ihe hx er.tinvo and maintain tun necessary inde pendence uf the Stales should no longer be delayed. Among such measures none would bo more sale, more elleclual, or more in harmony with democratic pnnci pics than amendments of thn Constitution of the United States, which should vest in financial officers of government, nutl limn tenure of 'residential ulficu tu a single srm. I N T E RNAL 1MPROVEM E NTS. The nio'sngo then enters upon the brond eld of ititcri.nl Improvements. 'I o llie disensiion of this subject, indeed, so inter- sting in its origin, so importnnt in its progress so vast in ils consequences, nearly one half of the message is devoted. And
we venture to sny that nn cilizcn of New York can rise from the perusal of thn elo quent pasiges in which is chmnicioti tne history of the Internal Improvements of Ihnt State, without n glow of honest pride at the pitjture they prcent. Commencing with a lead exposition nf (be present linbil. 11104 ii the o'ate. nnd a liriot account ol he recklessness anil improvidence which characterized the early legislation on the object of the Erie Canal Enlargement, the mr'sage proceeds with the declaration, that pub'tc sentiment and the circumstances ofthe time) require ns to "retrench the expenditures upon our works of internal imprnvemert, and prosecute the system wilh inndcntion nnd economy" that "all of strck should be so limited that the lolercst on the whole debt ofthe slate mild nt no time exceed its surplus revc. lines;" nnu mar. "inn increase in tnesc ri venues should bo rcl cd upon for the ultimate extinguishment of the debt." Dm ho hope is r.iiiifideuily expressed that the Eeni-laiuro will be enabled to adopt ruch a plan of fiscal operations as will re-invig iirnin the nublic credit, and effectually ecurc the completion, without tinnccc-sn. ry delay, of the several importnnt work; heretofore commended to favorable consul oration. Having thus referred to the pros out condition and probable future, engage ments of the State, the Governor next en ters into n masterly and most eloquent defence of the great system of Internal Improvements The present crisis brs produced renewed opposition to the entire system. 11 boldly denounced as one nstituttonai, lor eiep to Ihe legitimate sphere of legislative nciioii, destructive of the lib-'rties ol the people, and ruinous to their welfare. Th rfiieeious iheerv promulgated. Ilin' the duration ol national exi-teuce I divisible into -leriods corrc-pntiiiing with generation of men, and lhat the State has at no lime a rinht to oodertake the construction ol work which will have n charge upon n -tibsi oitenl generation. Il is a necu'saiv consequence nf these principles, lhat the entire system must tie nuantinneti, nnu mm i be nb'-ii'ntions assumed in its prosecution mav bo cast oft by subsequent general ton The-o principles hnv" been fondly avowed and have tended to impair the confidence of mankind in the integrity and good faith of the people ofthis state, but they derive on support frnm our In-lory . Reason and experience tench that every human society has a continuous identity, so-eeptibie of indefinite prolongation, and incapable ol division, l lie cit'Z"n nl every slnle lonls as ii has been well said, that alihougli mor I nl himself he is pari ol n community that may, and be hopes will, be perpetual. He is conscious that every important measure of "overumenl in which he may be engaged is in some degreo the result ot causes ante nor lo bis own existence, and may be pro due.live not only of consequences imuiedi ately all' cung htmsell and Ins cnnlemjinra nes. but. of others pervading the wholi jinin. nnd distant as its dissolution. The dailv labori ol hie, nllhoiigh stimulated hy immediate necessity, are curereo ny mo cancelation nf distant good. Ihe gener on- efforts of public benefactors, by whose inventions, in-lruetinn- mid achievement our rnce has been rai-ed from the savar condition through every imperfect social stale In the freedom nnd dignity ol sell rrovi'riimeut. have always been directed niiieeis more remote than those "t imuiedi j . , . i ..i ale or personal advantage, ueoevuie desires lor the welfare of ilimo who shall -ucceed us produce nni only individual and domestic exertion, but social ticlioti everv form adapted lo relievo the necessi lies or proinolu the welliire ol uiuiikiuu Animated by such impulses, and aroui: in Mir-li efforts with reference to dislnot tierioils'men seem to approximate here inwards the diL'iiHV of charactei lo which Mm men is destined in n future state. The sii-cenlibilitv to such impulses and th power nl nuking such effirts nre amouii the strongest proof, that such n slate awaits ns. The human heart knows lew on.sions sironnnr or mure universal than the desire lo bo reiii'Miibered when shall have ceased to exist, nod it estimates ii... i-n I ifuninhv the lapse of time through which that fnmo may endure, and ihe portion of Ihe earth it may pervade Toe motives and nch'iovmonu of the rev iiiniionarv inn. knew nn such miserable liiniiiils ns 1ho.se now prescribed- On onliiionl liiileoendenco was sought Otlll oh t lined nut alone for those who achieved il, nor fur one generation only, nor tor a narrow cycle of years, nor fur any period l.nt fur nil .reiioralioll alld for nil tllllO Our republican institutions were designed m i iu.tr r.iiiiulni ioo not nlunc for three mil lions of American people, but for us and for as many millions as shall in an limn riso on nod demand their protection, ino cu in r nn lm tlenrivod of that protcclton bocnusuho was not of tho generation by Cotigtcsa tho appointment of the chie f vv hicli it was guaranteed, and no disloyal uzen cnti cxetie his delinquency bv pleading a limitation of allegiance. In Ihe ent struggle for Independence the in quiry was not. raised, whni generation shall sustain I he expense ofthe confl cl ? nring the period ofnlmosM sixty years oc copied in paying Ihe debt winch was in curred, no citizen questioned its justice. he principle ol Internal Improvement do rives its existence from the generous im pulses ofthe Revolutionary nge. It re- ids the future wel'nre, prosperity, nnd happiness ol tlio people. I's agency is erywhere lr.lt to bo snhilnrv in encour aging emigration and ihu settlement and improvement of new Innds. in miguientiitg national wealth, in promoting agriculture, commerce, iiinnufnctures. nnd llie diffusion knowledge, nnd in strengthening the nils ol our mil mnal union. It is recited the Declaration of Independence as one 'he wrongs committed by the King of nglanil, Hint lie had endeavored to pre nt the population of these states, nnd for that purpose had obstructed the laws for naturalization ul loreigoers, bad re sell to pass others to coco-rage their mi gration hither, and had rai-ed the condi tions nf new appropriations nf lands. The atherol his country had none of the modern scepticism when in his first iiie. sage tu congress ho recommended a facili tation of the intercourse between distant parts of the country by a due attention to I he post ofiice nutl post-roads. The popu latum ol the United btates was confined ir almost I wo centuries in the Atlantic co.Ti, but the mighty mind of Washington perceived that n region lar more extended, itile. and salubrious, lay beyond the but-1 dors of the thirteen slates: lhat inasmuch as the sovereignty nf the Uniun was ills nbutcd among the cultivators ofthe earth the political power of the Government would find a centre in that region: that if the natural barriers between that region and the cast should remain unchanged, thn west would at no distant period cast (T its union with the maritime Stales, but that if those barriers could be surmounted by roads aod pierced by canals, connecting inland navigation ol lakes and rivers wilh tide water, the wealth nnd population of '.he whole country would be vastly in creased, and the Slates be bound in an indi-soluble union of interest nod affection. Imbued with these sentiments, lie slopped not in bis farewell address to discuss or lo recommend his favorite policy, but boldly predicted, as a certain event, that progres sive improvement of interior communica tion by land and water, the auspicious re sults of winch ere only jiist beginning to be realized. It is a tact os interot-ling it is instructive, that the solicitude of the Father nl Ins country knew no resl after in.-actitovinent or her imicpctu.'cnco, Out passed directly from the cares of the great Iniggle to the greater and even more glorious work of strengthening the Union of the Slaws, and perpetuating their lib In 1703, immediately alter Ihe close of the war, hn proceeded op the tlithcnlt navigation of the Mohawk to F-irt Stauwix now the site of the town ol Rome, ond crossed to Wood creek which empties into Oneida lake and affords an imperfect com inimical ton with Luke Ontario, I lie blu and pntriotic sentiment inspired by his ob'errattons were thus expressed 1'akiog a contemplative nnd extensive view of the vast inland navigntir.o of the United Slates, I could not but be struck with the iiiimonse diffusion nml nnportanc of it. and svith the goodness of that Prov idoncc who bud dealt his favors to us with so profuse a hand. Would lo God we may have the wisdom to improve them ! I he connection of Lake Ontario with the lln1 son by perfect canals, instead of the difii cull and obstructed navigation ofthe mo hawk mnl Wood Creole, the mingling o Ihe waters of Lake Erie with those ol the same noble river by means of a canal, the conversion ot Fort Stanwi:: into the centre of a coii-tellaiioo of cities and villages, wilh all the cunseqiienl benfits of these improve menls, reflect additional glory upon the fame of Washington, nnd prove thni the efforts nf tins Stale in fulfilment of his no' hie aspiration have been crowned wilh the blessing of that Great Being tn whom II was addressed. His contemporary, Jeffjr sou, one ofthe most sagacious of American statesmen, as well ns one of the most ar dent votaries of liberty, pronounced roads, canals, and rivers lo bn great foundations of naltiinal prosperity nod union, mid rec ommended to congress the policy nf npply. ing the surplus revcnues'nri-ing finm im posts upon luxuries nod from the sa'c of the public lands to the great purposes ol public education, the improvement of the navigiiiinnof rivers, the construction of roads nnd canals, and such other objects .of public improvement as it might bo deem ed proper to ndd to the constitutional entr uierntion of federal powers ; operations by which, as he well remarked, new channels of commitment inn would bo opened be t ween the Slates, the hues of their sepnrn lion would disappear, their interests would be identified, and their union ccmen ted by new mid indissoluble lies. It is worthy of remark, that none of tho distinguished founders of American liber ty stopped to calculate the question of revenue when they recommended tins cir lightened policy, designed lo incrcaso the prosperity and cement the union of llie Simes. The distinction between Internal Improvements and measures of public de fence, upon the ground that the former cannot as rightfully be carried on with the revenues of I lm State or llio use of its credit as the latter, is a refinement of mod' eru times. The statesmen of the Revolu' linn evidently regarded free intcrcnmmir nicotiun as one of tho means of national defence. Had it been then understood, as is now asserted, that Internal Improve mcnt is it departure from tho legitimate power of government, the opposition of ibe British king to emigration mid his rinsing the conditions of new appropriations nf Innds, would have found no rcprubm ion in the Declaration of Independence, ond tho improvement of roads and rivers at the public expense would riot subeqienily have obi nmed nn equal place with the pro motion of education in Ihe executive re ommcntlntions nl Washington nml JeflVr sun, No such obsurdity was then coticeiv i d as ihe prnpo-itioii that while a nation may employ its revenues nml credit in car' rymg on war, in suppressing sedition, and tu punishing crime, it cotmni employ tho same means to nvctt the calamities of war. provide for (he public security, prevent sedition, improve the public murals, and increase tho general happiness. But how unimportant is the increase in the revenues of t be Govcrnment.compared with the extensive commercial, ngricultu rnl nnd polit ten I results affect ing llie nn eial condition of the people of Hits State. The nnvigablo waters of the State, open in direct commerce with the city of New York in 1017, scarcely exceeded ihreo hundred miles in length. Il is less than forty yenrs since Quebec was generally regarded as the destined mart of Ihe north, em regions of this State, and Batlimoro and New-Orleans confidently anticipated the trnde ol our southwestern frontier. The commerce of the State has now it A wharves on the shores of her lakes, rivers, mid bays, along an extent of twelve hun dred miles, lo which must be ntlded four hundred miles of canals in other States, and three thousand miles of lake coast accessi ble through nur artificial channels. By means of these improvements, the advanta ges of navigable communication wilh the city of New York have been distributed over a territory of twenty-five thousand qoarc miles, equal to one half, of the sur face of ihe State, and already sustaining more than one half of its population. Their effect in equalizing the local advantages of he (intercut portions of the btate is proved by the facts that the average population per square mile ofthe regions thus opened to commercial intercourse is forty-eight. while lhat of the regions not thus accom modated is only seven. Buffi lo nnd Os' wegn, Biogbamton and Elmirn, which na tore seemed to have rxcluded from com inercc with New York, now enjoy greater facilities of access than Utiea did before the canals were made: and Chicago, thousand miles distant, exchanges her pro duct ions for the merchandise of the same city at less expense and with less delay than Oswego could have done at tho same period. The whcot of Chautatique cnunty on the bonier of the State, displace ttial stoolc on th" shores of the Hudson; and Orange and Dutchess cheerfully relinquish Us culture lor the more profitable agricul ture required to furnish ihe daily supplies ol a gieai city. Lumber frnm Tompkins and Chemung, and ship timber from Grand sond, Fupp'y the wnnts of the city of New York. Iron from the banks of ihe Au Sable is exchanged for ihe Salt if Onondaga. The gvpom of Madison and Cayuga fertilizes the fields of Pennsylvania and the coal of that Slate is moving to supply the place of Hie forests of the West. Rail roads have immeasurably in creased the facilities of intercourse and ex podiled the transmission of intelligence Political influence and power nre distri buted among the cultivators of the earth, and our State, from no inferior position, has risen rapidly lo iinqiic-tinncd ascen dency in the Union. The clouds which so often rise over the commercial cities of Europe cannot cast a permanent gloom over tho prosperity of a Slate, which, ac. cording lo the sentiment ol Jefferson, has wisely secured herself by Ihe improvement of roads, canals, rives, education nnd the ullier great foundations of national pros perity and union. A people, thus enriched will not abandon the system to which they owe their wealth, because the ngeuts by whiim it has been cmtducted may have erred or been unfaithful ; nor will tnev be stopped in their career by obstacles which lime must diminish and enterprise will overcome The prudence, moderation, and economy which are now recommen ded. will only reinvigoraie our energies and confirm our nbil ty to prosecute Hits sys tem until every pari of the Slate shall en joy its iiiestiinublo odvanlnges. PUBLIC LANDS. The Federal Government holds in trust for the States almost allmusond million nf ncres of land, the valued of which, at the lowest government price, is one dollar ond twenty five cents per acre. This im mense domain, Ihe property of the stales, was ceded by them lo the general govern ment, as their trustee, for their common interest and benefit. In 1790, Congress very properly pledged the avails of the pub lic lands for tho payment of tho nalmnal debt. That debt has been discharged. The revenues which the federal govern, mem derives from imposts should be suffi cient fur all its expenses and that gov ernment hns no legitimate riht to use proceeds of Ihe public lauds. Tho uum which hos been received into the federal treasury from tho sales of public land exceeds fifty millions of dollars. A bill passed both houses of Congress making a distribution of these proceeds, but was lost for wont nf executive approval. Tho proportion of these avails which equitably lielongs lo this slnle, would enable her to prosecute, without delay, all the public works already undertaken, and to assume others in which her citizens have enga. gcd. Her interest in tho immeneo domain would enable her to extend her improve ments until no dwelling; within her borders shall bo distant moro than fifteen mile from moans nf rapid communication. She may, thorefore, with peculiar justice, demand a division ofthese revenues nd a paitition ofthe oalional domain.