NOT THE ULUHV OF OiGSAR HUT THE W E I, F ARE O F II O Al E HY H. B. STACY. THE I1IIU.K. This little bnnk IM rnilier own, 'I li.m nil ill" guld iiml iti'iiH, Tim I e'er In ninii.irrliV culTors shone, Tlmii nil their (ImJi iiu, Nay. were ilie sen one cryeolito. The pin ill n golden hull, Anil diamond nil I lie slai of nigtil. This bouk weic win ill l h e tit nil. ilnw baleful in uinliii ion's eye His bliind wrung ninil niii.'l gleam, When ilcnili'ii uplifted tiiinil is nigh, Ilia life it viinitliM dieiiiu I Then hear him vviili his gasping biealh For due inor iniiinent rune ! Fool ! ivihiIiIm llioustuy the arm of death ! Ask of ihy gold lo aavo ! No, nn I the snnl ne'er friuiul relief In glittering hnnid uf wealth ; Genu (Uzzle nut ihe ee of (jrief, Gold cimnul iiicliiitc health : But hern 11 btrwril halm appears To heal tho deepel wu ; Anil ho thai seeks ihia hunk ii tears, Ilia tears shall ceaie to flow. Here He who died nn Calvary' tree Until inniltfili ii pinmifii hleii ; "Ye heavy hiilen come in me, And I wi'l &he jon real. A bruised rccd I will not broak, A cuntrilo heart despise ; My burden's light, and all who lako My yoke shall win the s.kics." Yes, yes this little book is worth All elso to mortals given : For what are all tho joys of earth Compar'd lo joys of heaven ? Thin is the guide our Father gavo To lead lo realms of (lay ; A star whoso lustre jrilils ihopravc. 'The Light, llio Tiuth, thu Way."' Stray Leaf from the Journal of a Vale tudinarian. What shall I do to pass away llic hours, becomes a serious question to a person who has been pent up, for clays together, in a packet ship with a cabin sonic fifteen by twenty feet dimensions. You have read the latest works, arc tired of Joe Miller, and it is in vain that you hop, skip, and jump, through the pages of an old novel or much less con a sober useful work in search of something to interest. Reading has become too intellectual and requires an effort which pns5cngers,tcrined time-killers, from necessity, to whom the bare idea of thinking has become odious carefully eschew. Any other invention, chess, backgammon,cliiwlr.., .."j- f,-,.. that require, without having tho semblance of a necessity for exertion to play them, are in all such cases, pat to tho purpose. If these should fail, and what contrivances may not, try jesting, not wordy, for of course you cut jibes, tell stories, listen and laugh whenever an opportunity presents. Rut your real practical sailor jokes, not too severe, that would be spoiling a good thing, but slight ones, something that will unbend the rigidities of the countenance, stir up the risiblcs and make you laugh till your sides ache. Such a recipe pour passer Ic temps agrccablemcnt is invaluable. Enui or Blue Devils (alias Black Dog) could never livo with it, twould stille in its presence, or like Oil when put with water, would part company with it. But to profit by it, one must keep himself in the proper humour. Your still landsman aboard ship would never do. A gentle man who would hero look upon petty improprieties in tho same light as if com mitted ashore, would bo a pitiful piece of humanity indeed, a mere butt to throw darts at. He must drop his stiaviter in modo, and do as others do. If tho captain in his humour should cut a prank upon a fellow passenger, smile, and if it be a good joko don't let fear of giving offence pre vent a hearty enjoyment of it. If tho sport is'at your own oxpense, take it as Godsend and laugh at it, and at the first opportunity bo suro to pay your punster friend with a like commodity. By follow ing this plan of amusement in which the captain was a distinguished performer a passage of sixteen days from Connecticut was mado agreeable enough. Nov. 14th, and wo were before St. Croix. Hurricane is passed, tho weather has been favourable, that is there has been plenty of rain, and tho island, an assemblage of sugar loaf hills, immediately before us capped with mountain cabbago and covered with green fieds of sugar cano from summit to tho very water's edge, varied with numerous lines of tho cocoa and thibet trees, present anappcranco too beautiful for 11 northerner at this timo of tho year to conceive of. Tho change too from cold naked hills to tho fresh vegetation of tho tropics is liko suddenly passing from lato fall to early summer, tho difference of Juno and No vember and their corresponding airs and sceneries. The termination of the pas sago brings gladness to tho hearts of all, to the invalid it has been a sottrco of good, and tho sight of his temporary home, with its fields of rich verdure before him already raises hopes and bright thoughts for his future health, whoso correctness after landing, and the lazy, drowsy, dizzy feeling consequent to leaving tho vessel for terra firma over is to bo tested by the change from a sea faro or northern to a St. Crusian climato and its tropical productions. II E W A 11 D OF 1NDUST II Y. AN ANECDOTi: OP IVAN, OV RUSSIA. Tho czar-Ivan, who reigned over Rus sia about tho niiddlo of tho sixteenth con-; tury, frequently went out disguised, in order to discover tho opinion which tho people entertained of tho administration. One day, in a solitary walk, near Mos cow, ho entered a small village, and pre tending to bo overcome by fatigue, im plored relief from several of tho inhabit ants. His dress was ragged ; his appear ance mean; and what ought to have ex cited the compassion of the villagers, and insured his reception, was productive of refusal. Full of indignation at such treat ment, ho was just going to leave 'tho place, when ho perceived another hab itation to which ho had not applied for assistance. It was tho poorest cot tage 111 the village. 1 he Emperor hastened to this, and knocking at the door, a peasant opened it, and asked him what lie wanted. "I am almost dying with fatigue and hunger," answered the czar ; "can you give me a lodging for one night?" "Alas!" said tho peasant, ta king him by the hand, "you will liavc but poor fare here, you are come at a bad time. My wife is very ill, her cries will not let you sleep ; but como in ; you will at least be sheltered lrom tho cold ; and uch as we have you shall bo welcome to." The peasant then made tho czar enter a little room, full of children. In a cradle were two infants sleeping very soundly ; a little girl, three years old, was sleeping on a rag near tho cradle ; while her two sisters, tho one live years old, the other seven, were on their knees, crying and praying to God for their mother, who was in a room adjoining, and whoso pite ous plaints and groans were distinctly lii'.-inl. "Stay here." said tho peasant to the emperor; "I will go and get you something for your supper." Ho went out, and soon returned with some black bread, eggs, and honey. " You see all I can give you," said the peasant, " par take of it with mv children. I must go!t issist my wife." " Your charity your hospitality," said the czar, "must bring down blessings on your house. 1 am sure God will reward your goodness." "Pray to God, my good friend," replied the peasant ; " pray to God Almighty that she may have a safe delivery from all her sufferings, that is all I wish for." "And is that all you wish for, to make you hap py ?" "Happy; judge for yourself; 1 have five children, a dear wife who loves 1110, a father and mother, both in health and my labor is sufficient to support them all. "Do your lather and mother live with you ?" "Certainly ;they are in tho next room with my wife ? "But your cottage here is so very small." Tho peasant then went to his wife, who in an hour after happily presented him with a sou. Her husband, in a transport of joy, brought the child to tho czar. "Look," said he, "see what a fine, hearty child he is! may God preserve him as ho has done my others !" Tho czar sensibly aficcted by tho scene, took tho infant in his arms : "I know," said he, "from the physiognomy of this child, that ho will arrive, I am certain, at a great preferment." The peasant smiled at his prediction, and at that instant the two eldest girls came with their grandmother, to take him back. The little ones follow ed her ; and tho peasant lying down upon his straw, invited tho stranger to do tho same. In a few moments the was in a sound and peaceful sleep ; but tho czar, sitting up, looked around and contempla ted every thing with an eye of tenderness and emotion the sleeping children and the sleeping father. An undisturbed silence reigned in tho cottage. "What a calm? what a delightful tranquility!" said the emperor; "avarico and ambition suspicion and remorse, novcr enter. How sweet is tho sleep of innocenco !" In such reflections, and on such a bed, did the mighty emperor of tho Russians spend the night ! The peasant awoko at tho break of day, and his guest taking leave of him said, "I must return to Moscow, my friend I am acquainted there with a very benevolent man, to whom I shall take care to mention your huniano treat ment to me. I can prevail on him to stand godfather to your child. Proniiso 1110 that I may bo present at tho christen ing ; I will bo back in three hours at far thest." Tho peesant did not think much of this mighty promisojibut in good nature of heart, ho consonted, howover to thu stranger's request. Tho czar immediately took his loavo ; tho threo hours wero soon gone, and nobody appoared. The peasant, there fore, followed by his family, was prepar FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 1840. ing to carry his child to the church ; but as ho was leaving his cottage, ho heard on a sudden tho trampling of horses, nnd tho rattling of many coaches. lie looked out, and presently saw a multitude of horses, and a train of splendid carriages. He know tho imperial guards, and in stantly called his family to see tho emperor go by. They all ran out 111 a hurry, atid stood beforo the door. The horsemen and carriages soon formed a circular line, and at last tho state coach, halted directly opposite tho good peasant's door. Guards kept back tho crowd which tho hope of seeing their sovereign had collected together. Tho coach door was opened : the czard alighted, and advancing toward his host, thus addressed him : "I promised you a godfather ; I am come to fulfil my promise; give 1110 your child, and follow mo to the church." The path peasant stood like a statue ; now looking at tho emperor with tho mingled emotion of astonishment and joy, now observing his magnificent robes, and the costly jewels with which they wero adorned, and now turning to tho crowd of nobles that sur rounded him. In this profusion of pomp ho could not discover tho poor stranger who had lain all night with him on the straw. The emperor for some moments silently enjoyed his perplexity, and then addressed him thus : " Yesterday you performed the duties of humanity ; to-day I havo come to discharge the most delight ful duty of a sovereign, recompensing virtue. I shall not remove you from a situation to which you do so much honor, and the innocence and tranquility which I envy, but I will bestow upon you such things as may bo useful to you. You shall have numerous flocks, rich pastures, and a house to enable you to exercise the duties of hospitality with pleasure. Your new-born son shall be my ward, for you may remember, " continued tho emperor smiling, " that I promised ho would be fortunate. " Tho good peasant could not speak, but with tears of gratofel sensibi lity in his eyes, ho ran instantly to fetch his child, brought him to tho emperor, and laid him respectfully at his feet. This excellent sovereign was quite affect ed ; he took the child in his arms, and carried him to church, and after tho ce remony was over, unwilling to deprive him of his mother's nourishment, ho took him to tho cottago and ordered that he should be sent to him as soon as he should be weaned. The czar faithfully obser ved his engagement, caused the boy to bo educated in his palace ; provided amply for his future settlement in life, and con tinued ever after to heap favors upon tho virtuous pnasant and his family. P. C. Journal. From the New England Farmer. Science Applied lo Agriculture. Chemistry has been styled "the secret process of the matter, that from which the forms of things originate." It is a science as universal in its operations as the com bination of different simples in forming compound substances. Hence, the air wo breathe, tho earth we walk upon, the rain that coineth down from heaven and watereth the earth, the food wo eat and the raiment we put on in short, every thing, not only those which render our existence comfortable, but those which form its enjoyment, are tho result of its operations and subject to its laws. Even ourselves, " fearfully and wonderfully made," a curious compound of undefina ble enduring mind, and perishable, incon gruous matter, come within its sphere, and possess enough of its 'subtle agencies' 10 invito 1110 research 01 tlio most perse vering to an occupation for life. In fact, we live in a grand laboratory, where chemical action is continually going on, not in a single set of them, but in astu peudous whole, nnd where it will continue to go forward, until tho mass of matter on which it operates shall, by a grand explo sion, be thrown back to chaos. Mind truly may escape the catastrophe of ruin, ami tho clayey crucible in which it expe rienced its remodelling and assimilations ; but in all things elso the amalgamation must bo complete. Can it for a moment bo imagined that a science of so general operations and such visible effects, can bo unimportant to a farmer? Take his soils; they are tho result of a chemical combination of earths, say tho disintegrated parts of rocks and vegetable matter in a decayed or decaying condition. Now all rocks, as tho scien ces which claim moro particular kindred with them will determine, aro not composed of tho same material, consequently the eartlra which collect around them' must differ in proportion as tho sources from which they originate, and the early pro ductions of vegetation aro such as tho peculiar nature of tho earths most natural ly excites, and these possessed again of different constituents in their decay, both of leaves, and when the parent stalk has fulfilled its maturing process, form soils of varieties differing from those which aro tho effects of different circumstances. Thus a soil on which tho dark hemlock sheds its deop foliage, differs from that which sends tlio towering pino majestical ly high : that of tho niaplo differs ir uni the ash ; the oak from the elm, and so on. Soils in high regions havo usually less depth and contains a proportionably greater amount of earthly matter than those of lower territory, from tho fact that vegetable matter is easily brought down by the thaws of spring and rains of au tumn, and deposited in places which na ture seems to have provided for its recep tion. Those soils aro usually of the most fertile character, yet they must in some
degree, vary in proportion with tho mountains and forests whence they origin ate. Thus wo see the valley of ono river more fertile than than that of anothor-a circumstance which chemistry can obvlaig, by determining what tho lacking quality, is, nnd how it may bo provided, or iiitrd ducing plants adapted to that peculiar soil. Tho analysis of soils, sufficient to deter mine their productive finalities, is a vcrv simple process, and soon passed through. 111 orucr to perlorm it, the tanner need not be at the expense for an extensive apparatus, nor restrict his operations to drams and pennyweights. His business is ot a wholesale nature ; his observation can mark the changes of soil, and by ana lyzing a small portion of a particular one, the character of the whole is sufficiently determined for general purposes. 0011s wnicn in a state ot nature, arc sometimes of a character which renders them worthless, by a chemical process are rendered fertile. Take our swamps, winch are to he found m almost every town, some of which have bottoms as deep as western prairies, and "as rich as mud ;" yet in a state of nature they are almost as worthless as the desert of Sahara for agricultural purposes. How aro they to be made the most profitable of the farmer's domains? They must bo cleared and drained, to be sure ; but when all this is done there is yet one thing lacking, for they arc as barren as nn ash heap. What is "the one thing needful ?" We respond, not only to show that chem istry has a remedy, but also lo assure those who pretend that our State surveys aro useless operations, by giving an anecdote. Somewhere in Massachusetts, ( wo could tell where,) an old gentleman who had tilled the earth carefully and labo riously, until his " threescore years and ten " had nearly vanished, pointed the Commissioner of the geological survey to a piece of very deep rich muck land, and complained bitterly that with all his in dustry, ho could make it produce nothing but weeds. With his usual tact, tho Commissioner assured him the only reason why his labors were not requited, was that Ins land was too rich. " Too rich !" said the veteran farmer, " it can't be : wo wish to make our land as rich as possible, and labored incessantly to pro mote this object." Had he been acquaint ed with the beautiful operations of che mistry, how it applies itself to every part of the operations of agriculture, he might perhaps have saved himself much labor, and a rich harvest from his land through many years. More, by tho same labors ho might havo increased the value of his surrounding fields, by bartering from them their sterility ,and repaying load from tho rich deposito from his muck bed. This was all that was necessary to scatter fertility all around him simply to carry off this rich vegetable matter which had been accumulating for ages, and repla cing in its stead his sands or loam or whatever that savored of barrenness. Lauds from mismanagement may ac quire a diseased and sickly as well as an exhausted slate. They may become too sour, too bitter, or some other of the evils which bad management induces, may attack them. Then aro they like a diseased stomach, totally out of order. Usual applications will have no effect. They, like the sick man, must be dealt with according to tho disease. And hero we ask leave to introduce another anec dote, in support of our sentiment that chemistry is an important science for the farmer. Ono of that ancient and hon orable fraternity was ono day hoard to complain by a son then in college, that' such a piece of land produced but illectle" "Lime it," said tho son. "Limo it ! " said tho old man, " you,' when you have not done a day's work on tho farm in three years, come from college, and to repay your father's toil in our behalf, undertake to teach him how to farm it " "w'wo i7," said tho son "thu soil is too sour : an alkali will neutralize an acid, nnd your field will be productive." The father at length tried tho experiment, and saw a good effect, and so thoroughly was he convinced of the utility of this scienco in agriculture, that ho said his sons might all go to college to learn to bo farmers, if thoy all give ussurauco of similar acquire ments. Chemistry in ugriculturo applies itself in a thousand ways and produces a thous and good effects. Nature is a great workshop, where she is continually car rying forward her operations. Economy is a universal law in all her dominions. She forms nothing in vain, and where the pirposes of its formation are answered and i. moulders hack to decay, sho does not almit of tho least waste in all its parts. She ;arries out with the nicest precision, tho sdtitary injunction, "gather up the fraguents," tlmt nothing may bo lost. " Ileum what Is not available in one part of hir operations, is npplicd to another: and jo in her grand concerns", each fills a "part of tho stupendous whole." To imitate and ussisthcr in carrying this law into effect, is a part of tho service of the farmer, and in proportion as he does his duty, will his labors bo rewarded. But if he is remiss, if he allows his soils to remain sterile or suffers them to become exhausted if ho allows his manures to waste their richness on the atmosphere, or suffers thuin to be injudiciously applied to his lands if ho suffers any thing to waste uselessly away, which with duo care might benefit his soil, leanness will sot a landmark lo his possessions which his neighbor will not try to remove ; fa mine will enter his premises, and the horrors most likely seizo upon his mind. 3 W. B. S U B-T R E A S U It Y. Extracts from Mr. Clay's Speech CONDITION OP THE COUNTltV. Mr. President, it is no less the duty of the statesman than the physician lo as certain the exact state of the body to which he is to minister before he ventures to prescribe any healing remedy. It is with no pleasure, but with profound re gret, that I survey tho present condition of our country. I have rarely, I think nuver, known a period of such universal and intense distress. The general Gov ernment is in debt, and its existing reve nue is inadequate to meet its ordinary ex penditure. The States aro in debt, some of them largely in debt, insomuch that they have been compelled to resort to the ruinous expedient of contracting new loans to meet the interest upon prior loans ; and the People arc surrounded with difficulties, greatly embarrassed, and involved in debt. Whilst this is, unfor tunately, the general state of the country, the means of extinguishing this vast mass of debt are in constant diminution. Prop erty is falling in value all the great staples of the country are declining in price, and destined, 1 fear, to furtlA)' de cline. The certain tendency of this very measure is to reduce prices. The banks are rapidly decreasing the amount of their circulation. About one-half of them, ex tending from New-Jersey to the extreme Southwest, have suspended specie pay ments, presenting an image of a paralyt ic, ono moiety of whose body is stricken with palsy. The banks aro without a head ; mid, instead of union, concert and co-operation between them, we behold jealousy, distrust, and enmity. We havo no currency whatever possessing uniform value throughout the whole country. That which we have, consisting almost entirely of tho issues of hanks, is in a state of the utmost disorder, insomuch that it varies, in comparison with the spe cie standard, from par to fifty per cent, discount. Exchanges, too, are in the greatest possible confusion, not merely between distant parts of the Union, but between cities and places in the same neighborhood. That between our great commercial marts of New York and Phil adelphia, within live or six hours of each other, vacilating between seven and ten per cent. The products of our agricul tural industry are unable to find their way to market from the want of means in the hands of traders to purchase them, or from tho want of confidence in the sta bility of things. Many of our manufac tories stopped or stopping, especially in the important branch of woollens; and a vast accumulation of their fabrics on hand, owing to thedestruction of confidence and thu wretched state of exchange between different sections of the Union. nn: e wsi;. Such is thu uxexaggerated picture of our present condition. And amidst the dark and dense cloud that surrounds us, I perceive not one gleam of light. It gives mo nothing but pain to sketch the picture. But duty and truth require that existing diseases should bo fearlessly ex amined and probed to the bottom. We shall otherwise bo utterly incapable of conceiving or applying appropriate rem edies. If the present unhappy state of our country had been brought upon the People by their folly and extravagance, it ought to bo borno with fortitude, and without complaint, and without reproach. But it is my deliberate judgement that it has not been that tho People arcnot to blame and that the principal causes of existing embarrassments aro not to bo traced to them. Sir, it is not my purpose to wasto tho timo or excite the feelings of members of the Senate by dwelling long on what I supposed) be those causes. My ob ject is a belter, a higher, and moro accep table one to conside tho remedies pronos for the present exigency. Still, I shouldcd not fulfil my whole duly if I did not briefly say that, in my conscience, 1 believe- our pecuniary distresses have main ly sprung from the refusal to re-charter the late Bank of the United States ; tho removal of tho public dopositos from that institution ; tho multiplication of Statu banks' in consequence ; and tho Treasury stimulus given to thorn lo extend their op', orations; thu bungling manner in which tho law, depositing the surplus treasure with States, was executed ; the Treasu ry Circular ; and although last, perhaps not least, thu exercise of tho power of thu vote on tho bill for distributing, among VOL. XIII No. 662 the States, the nett proceeds of thu sale of tho public lands. tiii: m:.Mi:i)Y iu:ai:iiu:i). What, Mr. President, is needed, at tlm present crisis, to restore the prosperity of tho People? A sound local currency, mixed with a currency possessing uni form value throughout the whole country; a re-establishment of regular exchange between different parts of the Union ; and a revival of general confidence. The People want, in short, good government, at Washington ; the abandonment of rasli and ruinous experiments ; tho practico here of economy ; and the pursuit of tin safe lights of experience. Give us these; and thu growth of our population the en terprise of our People, and the abundance, variety and richness of the products of out soil nnd of our industry, with tho blessing of Providence, will carry us triumphant ly through all our complicated embar rassments. Deny these persevere in si mal-adniinistralion of government and it is in vain that tho bounties of Heaven aro profusely scattered around us. Ml!, van nwin.v. There is ono man and I lament to to say, from the current of events and progress of Executive and party power but one man, at present in the country who can bring relief to it, and bind up the bleeding wounds of the People. He, of all men in the nation, ought to feel as : parent should feel, most sensibly tho dis tresses and sufferings of his family. Bui, looking to his public course and his offi cial acts, 1 am constrained to say that he surveys unconcerned the wide spread ruin and bankruptcy and wretchedness before him, without emotion nnd withoti. sympathy. Whilst all the elements of destruction arc at work, and the storm is raging, the Chief Magistrate, standing in tlio midst of his unprotected fellow citi zens, on the distinguished position of hon or and confidence to which their suffrage have elevated him, deliberately wraps around himself the folds of his India rub ber cloak, and lift his umbrella over bis head, tells them, drenched and shiveriiu1 as they aro under tho beating rain and hail and snow falling upon them, that he means to take care of himself and official corps, and tint they are in habit of ex pecting too much from Government, and must look out for their own shelter, and security, and salvation. nn: ni:.Mi:i)V ritorosKi). And now idlow 111c to examiir!', and carefully and candidly consider, tin; re medy which this bill oilers to a sufi'ering People for the unparalleled distresses under which they aro writhing. I will first analyse and investigate it as its friends and advocates represent it. What is it. What is this measure, which has so long and so deeply agitated this count ry, under the various ill-nominations of Sub-Treasury Jndependent Treasury ,and Divorce of the States from Banks? What is it ? Let us define it truly and clearly. Its whole principlo consists in an exaction from the People of specie, in the payment of all their duties and dues to Govern ment, and the disbursement of spicie by the Government, in the payment of all salaries nnd of nil the creditors of the Government. This is its simple and entire principle. Divest the bill under consideration of all its drapery and par sphcrnalin, this is its naked, unvarnished, and unexaggerated principle, according to its own friends. This exclusive use of specie, in all receipts and payments if the Government, it its true, is not to ho instantaneously enforced ; but that is the direct and avowed aim and object of the measure, to be accomplished gradually, but in the short space of a little more than three years. The twenty-eight sections of the bill, with all its safes, and vault.-, and bars, and bolts, and receivers-general, and examiners, have nothing more, nor less in view than the exaction "of specie from the People, and subsequent distri bution of that specie among the officers of the Government and the" creditors of tho Government. It does not touch, nor profess to touch, the actual currency o; thu country. It leaves the local banks, where it found them, unreformed, uncon trolled, unchecked in all their operations. It is a narrow, selfish, heartless measure. It turns away from the People, and aban dons them to their hard and inexorable fate; leaving them exposed to all tho pernicious consequences of nn unsound currency, utterly irregular and disordered exchanges, and tho greatest derangement in all business. It is worse; it aggra vates and perpetuate the very evils which thu Government will not redress: for, by going into the market and creating a new and additional demand for specie, it cripples and disables the Statu banks, and renders them incapable of furnishing that relief to the Puoplo which a parental Government is bound to exert all its ener gies and powers to afford. The divorce of tho State from banks, of which its friends boast, is not the only separation which it makes it is a separation of the Government from tho constituency a disunion of thu interests of the servants of the People from tho interests of the People. This bill, then, is wholly in commensurate with thu evils under which the country is suffering. It leaves them not only altogether unprovided for, but aggravates them.