Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, June 12, 1840, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated June 12, 1840 Page 1
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N O T T II 13 5 li ) It Y ) V C XI H A H ; It TJ T T It 1 4 )Y 14 I. V U j () if m U. BY U. B. STA01T. MllLINGT ON, VE It MO NT, FRIDAY, JUNE 12, 1840. VOL. XlV....No. l. i"mrnrTrmi"Tjr i"n i t" GENERAL IIAUUISON'S LETTER TO BOLIVAR. Tirr. following letter was addressed to ilolivar by General Harrison, when Ambassador Extra ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States to the Republic of Colombia. It was suggested by the fear that liolivnr would yield to the exigencies of the times, and assume regal power, by converting the republican gov ernment of Colombia into a despotism. General Harrison immediately conceived the purpose of dissuading him from a design so inimical and fatal to the cause of l'cpublicanism. Hocota, September 27, 1?29. Sin, If there is nny thing in tho style, the matter, or the object of this letter, which is calculated to give offence to your Excellency, I am persuaded you will readily forgive it, when you reflect on the motive which induced me to write it. An old soldier could possess no feelings but those of the kindest clmrncler fnii-ririUniin who has sited so tmicli lustre on the pro fession of arms t nor can n citizen of the country of Washington cease to 'hat, m lloliynr. tho woiltl nii"Vit behold another instaiico ot tno ingtiesi iniiitaty nttainnicnts, united with the purest patriotism, and the greatest capacity for civil government. Such, sir, have been tho fond hopes, not only of the people of tho United States, but of the friends of liberty throughout the world. I will not say that your Excellency has formed projects to defeat these hopes. Hut there is no doubt that they have not only been formed, but arc, at this moment, in progress to maturity, and openly avowed by those who possess your entire confidence. 1 will not attribute to these men impure motives! but can they be disinterested advisers' Arc they not the very persons who will jjain most by the proposed channel who will, indeed, gain all that is to be gained, without fin nishing any part of the equivalent? That that, the price of their future wealth and honours, is to be furnished exclu sively by yourself? And'of what does it consistl Vour great character. Such a one, that, if a man were wise, nnd possessed of the cinnire of tho Ca-sars, m its best days, he would give all to obtain. Au you picparcd to make this sacrifice, for such an object I 1 am persuaded that those who advocate these measures, have never dared to induce you to adopt them, by any argument founded on vour personal interests; and thnt, to succeed, it would he necessary to convince vnu that no other course remained to save the country from the evils of anarchy. This is the question, then, to be examined. Docs the history of this country, since theadoption nf ilin i cinstiiiiiiiiii. rcallvcxhihit iineimivocal evidence that the people arc unfit to ho free 7 is the exploded opinion ot a European puiiosopucr, ot me last age that "in tho new hemisphere man is a degraded being1 to be renewed, and siintmrtcd bv the example of Co lombial The proofs should, indeed, be strong., to ' in duce an American to adopt an opinion so humiliating. Keeling nlwavs a deip interest in the success of the revolutions in the late Spanish Ameriea, 1 have never been an inattentive observer of events pending, and posterior to the achievement of its independence. In these events, I search in vain for a single fact to show tlinl. in riiihiniliin nt least, the state of society is 1111- nnited to the adoption of a free trovcrnuicnt. Will it be said that a frcu government did exist, but, being found inadequate, to the objects for which it hud been inc.;., ,!,.,) it ins been snnerscded hv one of a diOereiit character, with the concurrence of a majority of the people! It is tho most difficult thing in the world for mo to nchevo that a people in the possession ni incir nguo ns freemen, would ever be willing to surrender them und submit themselves to the will of a master. If any such instances nre on record, the power thus trans ferred has been ill a moment of extreme public dan irer. and then limited to a very short period. I do not think that it is bv anv means certain, that the majority of the French people favoured the elevation of N'nnoleon to the throne of Franco. Ilul. if it were, how different were the circumstances of that country from those of Colombia, wnen the constitution oi dieutn wns overthrown I At the period of the eleva tion of Napoleon to the firt coneil'itc, nil the powers or l-.uropc were tneopen or secret enemies u e ranee civil war racd within her border : tho heieihtai king possessed many partisans in every proviyee; the people, continually betrayed by the factions which murdered anu succecoco cacu oiner, nan lnniioui : portion of their ferocity, and every town and villagi witnessed the indiscriminate slaughter of both men nnd women, of all parties and principles. Docs the history of Columbia, since tho expulsion of the Spa niards present anv Parallel to these scenes I Iler fion tiers have been never seriously menaced ; no civil war raped ; not a partisan of the former government was to he found in the whole extent of her territory ; no factions contended with each other for the possession orpuWC . " t no execu 1 1 vu C- v-77..Y rfi treu iiuj uj i uiuic liands of those to whom it had been committed by tlie people, in a fair election. In fact, no people ever passed from under the yoke of a despotic government to the enjoyment of entire freedom, with less disposi tion to abuse their newly acquired power, than those of Colombia. They submitted, indeed, to a conti nuance of some of tho most arbitrary and unjust fea tures which distinguished the former government. If there was any disposition, on the part of tho great mass of tho people, to ellect any change in the exist ing order of things ; if the Colombians act fiom tho same motives and upon the same principles which povcrn mankind elsewhere, and in cM ago, they would have desired to take front the government a purl of the power, which, in their incxpuiencc, they bail confined to it. The monopoly ol eci tain articles of ncricultural produce, and the oppressive duty of the Alcavala, might have hem tolerated, iinlil ihe last of their tyrants were driven from the country, nut when neaco was restored, when not olio enemy ro- niniiicd wilhin its holders, it iniuht reasonably have been supposed that the people, would have desired to nbolish these remains ot nitmrnry government, aim substitute tor tliein sonic tax more equal aim accor. limit with rennhlic.m principles. On the contrary, it is pretended that they had become enamoured wit i tlieso lies pone measures, aim suuei- rmsteil with tho freedom thev did en in v. that thev were more than willing to commit their destinies to the uncontrolled will of your Excellency. Ect incis ure you, s'ir, that these assertions will gain no crolit with the present generation, or with posh rity. i ley will demund the facts which had induced n people, bv no means defieientin intelligence, so soon to abandm the principles for which they had so gallantly fougtt, nnd tamely surrender that liberty which hud been oi- tained at the expense of so much blood. And whit facts can be produced? It cannot be said tint life nul property were nut as well protected under the rcpin , lican government, ns they have ever been ; nor tint tnerc cxisieu any opposition to mo eonsnitinon an laws, too strong for the ordinary powers of the go, eminent to put down, If the insurrection of General Paez, in Veneyiich is adduced, I would ask, by what means was he t iluccd to obedience ; v our Excellency, the I.. 't.iu upon this declaration. Tho promised hour of tran quillity will never nrrivc. If events tended In produce it, they would bo counteracted by the government itself. It was tho strong remark of a former Presi dent of tho Tinted States, that. "Sooner will the lover he contented with the first smiles of his niistic.'is, than a government cease to endeavour to prt serve and ex tend its poweis." With whatever leluctanco your Excellency may commence, the career i with whate ver disposition to abandon it, when tho, objects for which it was commenced have been obtained when once fairly entered, you will bo borne along by the irresistible foice of pride, habit of command, anil, indeed, of self-preservation, and it will bo impossible to recede, Hut. it is said, that it u for the benefit of the people that the proposed change is to bo made t and that by your talents and inllucnce, alone, aided by unlimitul power, tho ambitious chiefs in the thlletent depart ments arc to be restrained, and the integrity of tho re public preserved. I have said, and I most sincerely believe, that, from the state into which the country lias been brought, that you itlouc can preserve it from tho horrors of anarch1. Hut I cannot conceive that iitivi'vlraordinarv powers are necessary. Thn atltho- lity to see that the Jaws are executed : to cull out the strength of the country to enforce their execution, is nil that is required, nnd is what is possessed by the Chief .Magistrate of the United Slates, and of ev -ry other ripulilio i nnd is what was conhclfd to ine ex ecutive, by tho constitution ofCiicuta. Would your talents or vour energies bo impaired in the council, or your inlhu nee lessened, when acting na the head of a republic ' I propose, to examine, very briefly, theresults which are likely to flow from the proposed change of gov ernment : 1st, in relation to the country ; and, m, to vourse II. persona v. Js the liannui litv ol tlie conn try to be seemed bv it '? Isil possible for your Excel lencvto believe, that when the mask has been thrown oil, and the people discover that a despotic govern- submit to it ! Will thev forcet the pass-word which. like the cross of fire, was the signal for rallying toop- ose their lornier tyrants mil the virgins, at vour lidding, cease toehant the songs of liberty, whicli so latch' animated the voulh to victory ? Was tho pa triotic blood ol Colombia all expended in the newts ol Vargas, Uayaca, anil ( arcuolio J I lie schools may cease to cnlorec upon their mini s the ovo ol country. diawn from the examples of Cato and the I'ruti, liar- mourns nno jinsiogiton s oui, tne Glorious example oi pniiiunu iicvoiion, exiuoiieu m your own, j iiiciciuiii, win supply incir piacc. icpeim on n. sir, uiai tne moment wricit shall announce tho continuance ol ar 10WC-in your hands, will bo the commence' mcnt of eomitotiiins which will require nil your talent and energies lo suppress, ton may succeed, the lisciplined army., at your disposal, may bo too pow-' i fill for an unaritd. 'undisciplined, nnd scattered no palatum : hut one i,iisucccss'ul ellort will not content them, anil vour leehii'ts wi ho ctema v rackci bv bent'' obliged to make war upon those who have brcn accustomed lo call you their father, nnd to invoke passings on your ncad, and lor no cause hut ther ad herence to pimeiplcs which you yourself had taught them to legard more than their lives. If by thcMroiig rovcrment which the advocates of the proposed change so strenuously lccommend, one without responsibility is intended, which may put men indeed, upon the revenues which they wcro intended to augment. io longer oppressed py iiicse snatMea. indusliy would every whcie revive i thn farmer and the artisan, cheered by llie prospect of nmpje icwaid for their labour, would ledoublo llicir exertions: for eigners, with tlirir capital and skill in tho arts, would crowd hither, lo enjoy Iho advantages which could scarcely, ebewherc, he found! and Columbia would soon exhibit the reality of tho beautiful fiction of Ecu clou Salcntiim rising from mi'crvnnd oppression, to prosperity anil happiness, under tho councils and ill lection of the concealed goddcsi. v hatohiee ions can ;c nrceit nuamst tins course ( Can nny one, acquainted with, the circumstances of Hie country, iiouot us success, ill rcsioiiugupu main taining trnnquillity 7 The people would certainly not revolt ai'ninst themselves: anil none of the chiefs who ure supposed lo be faclionsly inclined, would think of opposing nn sirengiu oi inu iiaiion, wnen uocciiii oy your laieiiis anil auiuoriiy. ihii ii is gam, uiai uiu want ot intelligence ninnngsi uio jieopie tinnis mem for the government. Is it not right, however, that lite experiment should he fairly tried I 1 have aheady said thnt thi'lias not been done. I'or myself, I do not hesitate to declare iiiv firm belief, that it will succeed. The people of Columbia possess iiiimy traits of charac ter suitable for a lcpiiblican government. A more or rlv, dciforbcnvitig, and wcll-di' pored people lire no where 'ii pi' t wi'li. itido. I, Miay ;-a' ty Peasscrteil, that tin ir faults and vices arc attributable to the euisi d "oveinnient to which thev have been so long subiectid, tnil to the intolerant character of the tclicion, whilst llicir virtues arc all their own. Hut, admitting their pi cent want of intelligence, no one has ever douhti d their capacity to acquire Knowledge, and under the rtrong mnlives which exist, loomnui it, supported py the inllucnce ol vour Excellency, it would soon hcou- ained. To yourself, the advantage would bo as great as to te reciprocal ; vour personal happiness secured, and our lame cievateii loa ncigiii wnicn woitm icavu om single competition in the estimation of posterity. In esiowing the Palm of merit, the world has become wiser than formerly. The successful warrior is no onger regarded as entitled lothe In st place in thctcm pie of fame. Talents of this kind have become too common, nnd loo often used for mischievous purposes to bo legarded as they once were. In this enlightened age. the mere hero "of the field, and the successful leader oi armies, may, lor the moment, attract alien tion. limit will bo such as is bestowed upon the pas sing meteor, whoso blaze is no longer remembered, when it is no longer seen. To ho esteemed c: head of the lcimblie. tippeartd. and. ill a iiioiiu in opposition ceased, and Vcneucla was rcstond to republic. Hut, it is said, that this was ellccud b your personal inuucncc, or the dread ot your indn.ir talents, and that, to keep General l'uez, and ot'n ambitious chiefs, from dismembering the repiililu . i was necessary to invest your Excellency with the ex traordiuary powers you possess. Tluru would hi Home reason in this, if you had refused to act without theso powers; or, having acted as you did, you had neen unauio io accoinpiisu any tning without them. Hut you succeeded completely, and there can he no possiblo reason assigned why you would not have iucccvdcd, with tho same means, ngainst any future attempt of General I'ae, or any other general. Thcro appears, however, to ho nno sentiment m which all parties unite j that, as matters now stand, you ulono can save thu country from ruin, at lmi, from much calamity. They differ, however, very widely, ns to the measures to ho taken lo put your Excellency in tho way to render this important ser vice. The lesser, and more interested nartv. is for piecing the government in your hands for lile. , either with your present title, or with oucwhieh, it must he confessed, better accords with tho nature of t in now. crs to be exercised. If they adopt the less ollensive title, and if thev weave into their svslem some anna- rent checks to your will, it is only lor Iho purpose of massing, 111 some tii'grcc, incir rmi onjccis ; wiucnis nothing short of tho establishment of n despotism. The plea of necessity, that i leinnl argument of nil conspirators, nncient or modern, against the right r ,L-m,t will he retorted lo. lo induce vnu to ne. cede to their measures; and tho unsullied state or the country, which has been designedly produced by them will bo adduced as evidence of that necessity. Th.m !m l, hi mm wnvtur vonr Evcellency to csi no from the snares which liuvo been so artfully laid to mtrap you, and that is, to btop short It the courte wlucli, uniortunaiely, lias neen anendv coniineiieii . Every step you advance, under Ihe iiilhienco of such councils, will make retreat more difficult, until it will become unpralicablc. You will bo told, that iho in tcniinti is on Iv to vest vol i with autlnoit v to coiritl u Jiatis ronuin the administration, and to put down uio incnoiip, mm urni, "in.ii in"ii") '""")'' --niai.llity, 'ho government may bo rcHtornl to ihe vjjsp k 'ill m tne jioj'ti. oi mote who rciy to death, and inimuro them in duiLreons, without trial, and mie where the army is every t.ling, and the people nothing, 1 must say, "that, if iho tranquillity of Cn- oniiiia is to no preserved m tins way. the wi i est anarchy would bo preferable. Om of that anarchy a neiier government uiigiit arise : nut the chains ol mi hlary ik'spotisiu oneo. fastened upor a nation, might pass away before they could be vhaken oil! lint l contend that the strongest ol ali governments that which is most free. Wo consider' that of the United States ns tho strongest, precisely Wcauso it is Ihe most free. It possesses the faculties tqiially to pioteci itsen ironi toreign lorevoruiteinal convulsion. In both, it lias hcen sullicicntly tried. In no country upon earth, would an armed oinusition to the laws be sooner or more eflcrttially lint down. Not so much by the terrorsof ihe guillot neand thogibbei, as from the aroused determination of the nation, exhibit ing their strength, and convincing the factious that their cause was hopeless. Ino, r, depend upon it. uiai me possession oi nrournry pjwer, py the ernment of Colombia, wil' not" be 'Sin nwnis i'f s ing its traniiiiillitv : nor will the diugcr of disturban ces solely arise from the oppiwitioj of the people. The power, nnd the military force which it will bo necessary to put in the hands of the pvernors of the ditant provinces, added to the nature rthe country will continually present to those officers the teinpta tion. and the means of revolt. Will the proposed change restore prosperity to tho country '! Willi the best intentions to do so, will you ne nine to recall commerce to us snores aim give new life to the drooping state of agriculture 7 The e-iusc of the constant decline, in these great interests, (tinnot bo mistaken. It arises fiom the fewness of thofo who labour, and thivmuubcr of those who in to be supported by that labour. Io snppmt a s imo ..ViumiTri'pu6-tilJit;a and an army gi' ai v dis roporlioned to the resources olnw i-oct."'''''. oi ni ii uers in a ten o d degree ins pro ion mu u llie ni-iiiv evi rv l.rnneli nf illlltistrv is onlircS-i ,1 W h burdens which "deprive iho ingenious man of tin prot( s s'lhsiy theconsnint and pressing neniaims wn.cu un made upon it, the treasury seizes upon every thum within ns ginii destroying the very genu oi moire ilo-perity. Is thcieany prospect that theseeviis win cease with the proposed change I Uiin the mmy n ( ilispensr d with W ill the inllucnce ol tne moil i e il longer necessary? Ilehcve tne, sir, that the snppon which tlie government derives from both these source , will be more than ever requisite. , I Hut the most nnpoitant inquiry is, iiieeneei wii.u this Btrong governiuent is to have upon the pii.pli theuisi Ives. Will it tend i improve and elevate thin character, and tit them for the Irecdoin which it i" pretended is ultimately to ho bestowed upon tin in? The question has been nnswenil from the age of Ho mer. ?ilan does not learn under oppression those no ble qualities and feelings which lit him for the enjoy, mem of liberty. Xor is despotism the proper school in which to acquire tho knowledge of the principles of republican government. A governiuent whoso reve nues urn d( rived fiom diverting the very sources of wealth from its subjects, will tint find the menus of improving tho moral and enlightening the minds of the youth, by supporting systems of liberal education ; and, if it could, it would not. in iclation to the fllect which tins investment oi power is to have upon your happiness nnd vour fame will tho pomp mid "litter of a emit I, and the finitely of venal courtiers, icvvard voufoi the troubles and nnx iclies attendant upon the exercise of sovereignity, everywhere, and those which will flow from your peculiar situation I Or power, supported by the bay onet, for that willing homage which you were wont to receive fiom your fellow-citizens '! The groans of a dissatisfied nnd oppressed people will penetrate the inmost recesses of your palace, and you will be tortur ed by the rcllectiqn, that yon no longer possess that place in thi'ir al feci u ins, which was nno your pride nnd your boast, and vyhicli would have bei'n your solace und. r every reverse of fortune, Unsupported by the people, your authority can hi maintain, d only by the icriorso'f the sword and Ihe senlliild. And have these ever hcen successful under similar circumstances 7 l'.l,l i,,.,,' ci,,,,ll,e,- fr n nerinil hill e.'i.l never cvt.ll- I guisli the iiieof liberty. Which you have contributed so much to Kindle, lullieposoin 01 every ioiomniaii. I will not urge, as an argument, the personal dan gers to which you will bo exposed. l!ut 1 will ask ifvou could eniov life, which would be pr served by tho constant execution of so mniiv human beings your countrymen, your former friends, and nlfnost your worshippers, 'i tie pangs oi sucn a situation win made more iicule, hy relleetnig on ine nanoweii itiveof many of thoso who would aim their daggers vour bosom. That, like the last of the lloniaus. they would strike, not from hatred to the man, but love to tho country. Prom a knowledge of your own disposition,, and present feelings, your Excellency will not bo williii; loiieiicvc, Hint you count ever no nrougni io eouiuiii nn act of tyranny, or even to execute justico with tin- uii-essary rigour, inn uusi nie, air, hi.u ui is. nothing uioru corrupting, nothing more destructive of tho noblest and finest feelings of our nature, lluiu thoi xercisoof uuhmileil power. I he man who, in ihu bigitningof biichn career, might shudder at the idea of iaiiiij nwny tne uiu 0111 leiiow-neiiig, iiugui soon nave his runscienco so senrcd bv Iho repetition of crime, thnt tho iconics oi his murdered ,vicluns luiglil liccoine music 10 his soul, nudtho drippings of his scnlfold nll'ord "lilood enough lo swim in." History is full of such cv.mplcsj I'roni 'nsilisL'UBting pieluro. neiniit mo In ndl 1 1 attention f your Excellent y to one of a dillereot , lm- rnctcr. r iixliinils you ns tin eoiisliluliouall hil l M.i gistritto of iifrcn people, givinato their rcpresenl'ilivcs iho inl!iienf,oof your great naino and talents, lo re form iho nhiws which, in n long reign of tyiunny mid eniincntlv real, it is necessary to be eminently good. The fina lities of die hero and the general must bo devoted to the ndvanlaga of mankind, before ho will ho permitted to assume the title of their benefactor; and die station which he will hold in their regard and aU'ections will depend, not upon the number nnd the splendour onus victories, but upon the result and the uso he may lnnke nf llie inlli.rnrn hn jtcotiires from them. If the fame of our Washington denend'.'d upon his military achievements would tlic coniinon consent of the world allow him the pre-eminence he pos-osses I Ihe viclonesat Trenton, .Monmouth, mid torn, oru liant as thev wcie, exhibiting, ns they certainly did, the hiuhosf grade of military talents, are scarcely thought of. The source of the veneration and esteem which is cnterlained for his character, by every tics, criplion of politicians llie monarchist and aristocrat as well as the leniiblican. is to be found in his imdcvi.it' ami exclusive devotcdness io tne inteicst oi ins country. Ao selfish consideration was ever sullered to intrude it-elf into us mind. For his country he conquered ; ond the unrivalled and increasing prospe rity ol that country is constantly adding ncsii glory to his name. General, the course which he pursued is open to you, and it depends upon youiself to attain the eminence which he has icaclicd hclorc you. To the eves of military men. the laurels vou won l the fields of Vargas, llavaca, and Caiebobn, will bo forever green ; hut will that content vou 7 Are you willing that your name should descend to posterity amongst the mass of those whose fame has beenderiv ed from shedding human blood, without a single ad vantage to the human race I Or. sua it he united to that of Washington, as tho founder and the father of a (neat and happy people I The choice is before you. The friends ot liberty throughout the world, and the nconleof the United States m particular, nie wiiitm your decision w ith intense anxiety. Alexander toiled find conquered to attain the applause of the Athenians; will vou legard as nothing the opinions ol a nation which has evinced its superiority over that celebrated people, in iho science most useful toman, by having carried into actual practice a system of government, ol which the widest .tlie.mnns had Put a glimpse in theory, mid considered as a blessing never to he real ized, however ardently to be desired J The, placowhieh you arc to occupy in their esteem depends upon your self. Fuicvvell. W. II. IIAKUISOX. much distress ciuong thcopciativcsnswellas many of tho owners.' TllllS it IltlPcal f tll.lt llie fraudulent nncllnn mm. plained ol haveilnveu all the American manufacture! s out of the market, and iho American importing mer chants out ol lh"irb"siucsa. Another pari oi the memorial shows tho reason why this hill has liecn reported by the Commit Ice on .vinnuiaciurers, miner man py the Coniliiltlio on Wnvs and Means. "'Vour mcnioiid'.sts are aware that the attention of " Ihe collectors, n m in particular th; vigilant collector "at iSovv-x oik, lint, cecii called to this rid, and " dibits nroinakng to slop it ; bat they believe that "further action Uf congress is necessary to guard "against thocvasun of the laws. Ilcccnt expdieiicc "has shown Iho p-eat dtfjets of ixisiing laws, pnr- "ticuiany m regain logouns winch have passed lino " the cuslom-houte and been taken from the original " packages, iilthotgli hy means of fraud and perjury "thcyinayhavepi.il but a small pari, if any, of the " ilulv fixed by lav." " our memoriTisis ihercloro ask that t iclaws fo " the enih etiotl of the; duties may be revised, and made " ctlectnal in plovtuting frauds of every kind." I have fifty nihil' inunorhls fiom American manu facturers, contains"" aiii'i'ur complaints. It wns Ihe pleasure or the House lyreli l t'.icm to the Commute on liltmuf icturers,) an i It conre .Ueiitly became the duly "I that commit'' lo npnrl lo this House a bill providing a lenn oj i"'i r-u '411.11 nn evu. lint the conmiitlC'ilid not proceed on the statements of the manufticiurrH alone ICn(,vving that the inteiest of the (iovernment ind tint of the manufacturers was, in this matter, identical, the first they did was to consult Iho Sccreta y of tl,e Treasury ns to the facts, nnd through him o holl coiiininiucntion with the collector at iXevv-Yik, tnd fiom the replies of both these public officer they received a full confiimnt'011 of the statements mideli the memorials. Tin re had in fact been much ecrrespondenco on this matter be tween the Secretary and the collector, picvious to the meeting of Congressi ;ll which I have here; but will not detain the coiuiritl-e hy leading. In addition to the. the committee had personally befoiothem two oQeirs of Iho customs from New York, who gave toltecoinmitleo a narrative of the mode III which these Irnuds had hcen accomplished. Indeed, the siibstrajiui of the bill was drawn up by tho collector nt Ncw-Vork and submitted to the dis trict attorney there tho former nttnrney-general of the l ulled States, '.tbas been drawn with a view to meet this nation of swindlers from abroad. I call them a nation, for tins practice is a sort of national t ting. In saving thitil is not mv intention injuriously to reflect on'lhe Uritsh nation, for ever since our De claration of Independence n part of my creed has been misrule, hat' fash md upon every hinnchnf the nd- inniislralum The army, nnd its sivu.-m of ofllcirs. reduced vvillur Iho lim.tsofrcnl ubefuhuii, placed mi tne ironiieiB. 11 mini u"i(;vi pi 1 iiijueii 10 lujutrol pUPlIC FRAUDS IN THE REVENUE. We have seldom read a debate in Congress of more interest to tho people of this country, than that v.. .'.Jilt, was produced by the bill "to insure the more fiutli(Ti,,l execution of tho reve nue laws," &e. called, in New- roriJ"JUr, Adams's ".Monstrous Rill," and a "bill to ann't- 'hilate iho commerce of New-York." When ' llie bill came up in its order, in Cninmitlec of 1 ilio Whole, .Mr. Rhett moved to strike off the enacting clause. Air. Adams rose in opposition tohe motion, and, in reply to some of tho ob- ;ectoas of A 17. Illicit, which lay against the bill I'scf, said Tin first of them was, that ibis bill has been vc tor'tci.to the Ilouce by the ('oinmitteo on Miinufac ii, res he. gentleman being of opinion that it should li.iveeotiu from the Committee of Ways mid Means, "r fiom the Committee mi Commerce. I believe it ivculd 'lave been in order if icpoi ted by either, cer :.unlv if bj llie Cominilte on Ways and Means; for it will ho icailleetcd that, when the first of tho inenio- l'lds on wliVh the bill is founded was presented in the House, it vus proposed mid argued bv myself to refer il to tlie Con nut lee of Ways and Means, hut the House d'cided not t'l do this, but to refer it lo the Committee. 01 Manulactiics. Ihe evd complainid of exists in 1 exi ciiiion i the laws ol the united States, and is 1 11 fore, in tlr; first place, till evil directed against the 1 une. It U-. fraud committed by foreign traders, 1 1 fi ct of wlnt'i is to defeat the collection of the re- v ue, Thcevit therefore, falls first 011 the Covcrn- ii ot, and, touelnng the revenue, it would have he en ii" appropriate sibiect for the consideration of the (' oiiuitteo of v:,vs and Mentis, lint tlieso frauds ah el, 111 the secnnl place, the manufacturing interests of dm eoiuury, which arc injured in the same manner as ihorevi into; the principal dilhciilly fakes place in that branch of the revenue derived from the importa tion of woolens, vvliich good?, for several years past, haveamoinitedin value." according to llie "invoices nl the customhouse, in not less than ten millions of doll.tf-ft annually. lovv, 1 shall endeavor lo show thai, in l.iet, ihcsi ten millions of dollars constitute but hv -thirds of I lie rial value of ihe wnnleiis ilotiiirt- ed. whidlis lint less han fifteen millions, nnd that by tlif'efiaiidsthediiliesou the balance of flvo millions are actually lost to the levcnue. At the time of the compromise, the average duty 011 these goods was fifty per ci nt. on tho value t bin, in eonrcqueiieo of the reduction which has since been made 111 the rates of duty, llie ave rage is novy forty-one per cent, on the value. Tin, 011 live millions, amounts to over two millio is of dollars. That is the loss which the reve nue of the country sustains hy means of these frauds in the port of iVew-Yoik alone. Ily 1 us deduction ofouc-lhii d of iho amount of duties, the luiinifaciurcrs of our own country nre rendered uiinbli: to sustain the competition. They statu in their memorial: " That they havo for many years past been engaged " in the miiiiufaetureof wool, 'having enteral upon the "I, .mess under the belief, that it would bo safe and " permanent, inasmuch asil would necessarily become "an extensive and useful branch of industry in this " country ; audiilvingupon ihe faithful execution of ' the Mrilflaws. Ihu whilo these laws have been car ' Hod into full ellect with regard lo lho importation of tbii raw limlilials, thereby keeping up the prices of 'wool in pariiciuar, very iiiiicu nuovo tne prices pain by foreign, iiianiifaeuuers, manufactured goods have heed coining lo this country in large quantities, in voi 1 d at much less than their cost or value, (hereby ve ,ng the laws, and placing lie Aiiui n.i 1 -ti-V crer . poii worse grou'id ihan if no tat ill' e c ted. 'I is has fx en done almost if not entire I V be fori ion- i, who hnvoiiccn lltj-uby enabled lo undcisil the nest American impoilcr, nnd this has iuei eased i bin n few veara lo such nn extent as to derive Vviii the importation of woolens nearly all the iiiVncan imposters, and il is now estimated Ibat 'V(U-cightsofnll tho woolens imported come into ,'e ccuntiymt foreign account, nut your iiicmon e.prcs.-ed in the laiuage of that instrument, for J hold the llriliili nation "cnemirs in war, in peace fne,-ds. and mv loefiugs nre now altogether Iricndly towards them : bin whin 11 purlieu of that nation comes over to this country to cheat us out of our revenue, and to defiand our own liianufacluring in terests. it is my duti to defend my country against mai injury. , , I have said that ihtro is something national 111 this matter, nnd I will now proceed to state what, in my

jiidgmint, lies nt tho bottom of ibis proceeding. It is a maxim of P.ritish -nnnnercial law that it is lawful for the citizens ofonoiiatiou to defraud the levemics nf other nations. 1 ho author ol the maxim was a man famous throughout the civilicd world a man ol Iran seendent habits, who fixed more, pcihaps, than any other man of the sane ccittuiv. his impress on the aire iii which he lived and upon the laws of England I mean Lord Mansfield. In some icspeets it lias been greatly to tlie alvantage of those laws, but, in others, ns much in their disadvantage and discndit of which the maxim of which I now speak is 11 signal instance. He was the first indue who established the principle that it is a lawful thing for Englishmen to cheat the revenue laws of other nations, especially those of Spain and Perineal. This principle was liist settled in nn net ol Parliament, the ohject ot wincn was to suppress what are denominated wager policies of insurance a species of instrument well known to lawye rs ns gambling policies, being entered into w hen the imrtv insuring has no interest in the property in sured. 'It had been a question whether such policies were lawful by the common law. The practice had greatly ineteasci' viso'imcl. that v:eer policies had become j common tiling. It was with a view to sop ores tlieso that the statute of the nineteenth of Ceo the second, chapter 37th. was passed. The subject of that statute was goex!; it was icniedi'd in its character : it went to suppress a public 1 vil ; but w bile it prohibited wager policies m all other cases, it eon laiueil an express exei ption in favor of those made on vessels nailing 10 nnain or I'oriugat. 11 t eiiiitn " An act to regulate insurance of ships holonun the subjects of (ireat liritain, and on merchandizes or cllects laden thereon." Mr. Adams proceeded to show, by extract from certain acts of Parliament and from the Commentaries of Rlaeksiime, that it was the intention of those laws to encourage Fiiiurfrling: " Iho fjbicct was, that smugglers should not only escape the effect of the irvillany, but should bo actually cncoiin 'od hv tho government in '"rnotration." Mr. Adams called tlie alien tion of tlic"Conuiwf?ifi to tho words of lllacl stone, and to several extracts fromtr -J'ronr opinion, urn! Ii lliete rorof tho peaceful eilizen, lly jiiHtswill leuvo tho American importers to speak for ihoiemoval oi Ins lncibus from the ircasntv. ,m,1 1I.7..W themselves and respectfully represent that tlicsn llie duly of Ihe ltacal J which have operated wiih so milium nil Clicc upon jwmimeuii" agtmuiuit, and Ihoiemoval ol his ineibus from tho treasury, !md iho,' (hcmselve.s and respectfully represent that tlicsn establishment f ordci . responsibility, and economy, "fnuds on l'o revenue, nnd consequent oxlrcin.i low inllitM'xpendii rciof :tc covermnenl, 1 wouid form ' P' ccs of woolens, haveruunil many, nnd force; all bo enabled to d.pcnsoitiiliilino'liijusi,n.nepoi... and. ' t" Hop lliei.' mills either wholly or m pari, until at 1. Pit 1 thn v. writer, all jinnii; lo estahltsli the chari;e of di: creditable motives for the exceptions in the laws in favor of smnirjrlors', and finally quotes tho folkWin;' from ,1 volp-no of tho English Tcnn Reports, aa t'm word's of the celebrate J Tiidoo IV.iller : "And. indeed, other parts of the art (10 Cico. 2, c. " 37) show that the Legislature mined llicir attention to uniereni cases wincn iiugiti arise in nie couise 01 " Hade ; for they afterwards speak of insurances upon " goods coming from any of the Spanish or,Poitu- tjucse duiiillin ns, wincn may no elleete 1, niieresi " or no interest.' That exception wns added for llie "purpose of cneoui-jgiiu; the trade with Spain and " P01 lugal. which w.-ei hi favor of this c mntrv ; and " 1 have heard I.oid .Maiisfuld say that the leasoii of " that allowance was totavor tne smuggling 01 milium "from tliesj countries, which was prohibited lo he " exported fioni iheiice; and llie persons to whom it " mi'dit be consigned hcie. could not tell bv what "vessel or at what time it might be sent, ns their " correspondents nl road were co'igul lo w atch the "opportunity uf exporting it. LHullcr, J. lenn lie poi ts, 1U 1. Air. Adams proceeded 1 think I havo now established the position which I nssiiined. that the 1 lvvfehit is of viulating llie revenue laws of other nations is a principle of English law a principle sanetimud by iho Legislature and the.ludi 1 inl fSnirts off real liritain. hut one which tho best elemental y writers, pioeccding on the gieat and ..tnrnnl nriiieinlcs of morali'y. have condemned as a false principle ; and 1 have thought it m cesarv to do this with a view 10 iru eill, sen aims upon our icveiua, committed by Hrilish wlycets, to what I believe to be their original source, in the fnle morality in th' P.u ldisb Parliament and EnclMi .'i.iIlis, What is the natural ellect 01 tuu pronuug iii"ii 01 mu-u jirmeipieii by such authority ! What -ni it be but to ciieouiage frauda on llie revenue of other nations i When a principle like this goes oat sanctioned with the legisla tive aulhoniy, It Will nave is eneet 111 inn 11.11 on. " Quid Icirca sine murilms." Tho whole moral prill- in e, if n iintiiin is i'oii inuna'ed liv this icasiauvo iiilhorialion and judicial sanction of a piaelice dis lioncst in itself, which necessarily includes not met ly n permission, hut n stimulant t" perjury, n an 1.11 flish merchant subscribing himself to this principle goes to establish liniisilfin 11 foreign country, he goes nsan cneinv. wnrianled by the' sanction ofhisovvn Courts and Parliament, to tin anything that can de fraud its revenue. Peilinpslhis may ho one of the causes of the vulgar saving, which all must have heard, hut which, thank Hod, I still hope is not wniinntcd ny the prnclieo 01 llie umivc mcrciiaiiis t'i I'm uiniii) , lb-it eiisioiii.liiiiisMii'iilis have no validity. There is a f -cling, but too prevalent, w Inch dislitigiii-hes 1 ctvvcen custom. in use oaths and outer oains, 11 is envious that smuggling cannot ho carried on lo any extent without Iho commission of perjury; thcro must be false swearing; audit K that false swearing which tho llrihsb laws have sancuonid. Noncof this bullion ol' which .lusiiee Duller speaks could be smuggled out of Npain and I'ort'iL'.ii vv 1.1 n,i inHc oaius, ami yet you will find from the. 1, 1 'ml'iir which I shall jue .illy c.ill to your ar die'h iinv ,nse swearing m al the hilllnin Ot I till frnlt'1 1 wh.ell ihlS bill Seeks to COr- iccl-- frauds, in coiisi r m ice of which seven-eights of all tho woolens imperii J i,Uo A'evv-Yoik esetipcil (he payment of tho duty clmrjcd bylaw. These people do not hold themselvei bound to respect our revenue laws, nnd thev nroce .! vmhout scruples to the per petration of perjury, 111 onler to carr on with wieccss the evasion of them. There are various modes by which this purpose is effected. One of iline modes, ns we learned from flic Collector nf New-Vork, i'i a iirofcml nudv of the phraseology or our lw, with tit' purpnuc ol fiiid iug thrreiu nny cqnivo 'ii! rprusion vvlueli may he IBKcii advnnl-gn nl lo 1 rtint the end or the law. And operation, they have had all th.it time ti prnH'cuto Ihis sluiiy, nnd to discover every possune mode ny which the law may he evaded. , Another mode was to ptepare double invoices in England when ihe goods wcro (.hipped one for llie consignee, tho other fer tin; custom-lions- the lirst exhibiting the real value of the goods, llie latter about two-thirds ol Hint vnhte. Thciluty was tnusreihictil in 18'.i'J sixteen or seventiTti per ceiil, i the reduction at present nveiaires from thirteen to fouiteen per cent, the duly having been lowered by tho compromise net. It is obvious that an escape fiom one-third of the duty enables them successfully to compete with our own iiiannfactiircts, nnd drive them out of the market. Another mode was direct corruption and bribery. This is proved to have been practised during a portbn of 11 period when Air. Sivartwout was collector. Now il appears that nil these modes of evading the revenue had gone 011 for venrs undetected, until a easo happened which I shall now produce to the Conihhtec. One of those Engi.h manufactiiii rs. commonly known ns Yorkshire clothiers sent out his son to this country .'is his ngciit and consignee, who entered Ins goods for a series ol years at our custom iiousu on ine exiiininou 01 invoices iais.itco m uic amount of one-third of the value. It happened, how ever, that, in spite of all this successful nyncry, the lather in 1', gland b came 11 baii'MoCt, in e1e(iuetiee of which Ilia account hooks nnd conifpotidi nee wete put into lite hands ot Ins assignees to lie CMHinilid hen all lus Inunls came to light. I h'j'c assignees nt lluir books over to this country, and. thev came into the hands of the collector at Aevv-York. Then io genuine mvo.ces vveie eoniimred with thoso whie,t for a series of years back had been exhil.itid by his son and. sworn to. The son, however, doi s not np- piar to have hcen publicly proscctiliu lor perjury, nut to have been tucd I'or that balance of duty which he ought to have paid and did not. On the l'Jth of June, in 1 -j'.', ine cause weni to a juiy, who niouuni 111 11 sealed venliet finding 11 balance of twelve thousand two lumilred and seventv-etght dollars and seventy . er utafor the United .Stales. The District Attor ney has given a printed account of the trial; it is 0110 1 the most curious can's which has occumn 01 laic ears, nnd goes forcibly to illustrate the position I have taken 111 relation to the English law, ns fixing in the minds of lintisli s ubiei ts a lalso code ol morality as respects detrain ing loretgu nations ot their revenue. " The defendant had imported a large amount of woolens bet ween the 11th I'cliruary, lS.il, and the "th .September, lHT, on which he had paid duties to the amount of HVfi'J 15, being SO per cent, tid nth rem (with the reduction icquircd by the compromise acO on the amount of the invoices by which ho had " entered '-"(H packages of cloths and cassiniers. " II. !'. llutler, Eq. di-irict attorney, opened the " ease on Ihe part ot the Limed Mates, ne eaiien " the attention of the ini'v to the fact that (he lcvetitie " inws imposing duties oil woolen goods had attracted " the special intention ol ( ajngruKX 1 Unit 11 Higher " duty had been imposed on woolens than on most " other goods imported : and that this presented great "er temptation loeiitcr them iieow ituir leaivniuc, "than the duties levied on other merchandize. He "said it would annear in nrouf that Air. .Samuel I! " Wood, the deli ntlalit 111 the cause, a isntMi sunject, " resident in New York, had been engaged in tlieiiu "portation of woollen goods for a number of years ; " that he was the son of John Wood, of .Saddleworllt, England who was in the ha id of mil chasing clotus and eassimercs in the Saddleworth maikel, and shinning them to his soliin iS'cw-York. who iiitcied them as owner, taking the oaths prescribed by your laws, and producing invoices and hills of lading, and malcing entries accordingly, lie also leccivcu con signments of simil'tr goods from other persons, which he entered in like manner. On the face of the papers, iire-entedhy the defendant at the custom house at the lime of entry, nothing occurml, except m a vol view instances, to excite suspicion in llie minds o'f the ollieers of the revenue; but it would "come out in the proof, for the most part, of letters " from defendant to his father, and of other doeutncnl " which had come to the hands ol the collector, that " the defendant had cittern! his goods much below " their real wist. His custom inisto vrotlitce an in " voice ft'toirtJii''ieco to bennhj ttro-tliirdj nf the riul " co.s7 in lingltuul ; tliux, I)' troy nfilinst nii'on, nil "urticlr, the real tint iif irliidi una Jiflcrn drillim; " n e mint, 'm entrrnl tit nkilliiirt. jxi! th. till- '' lies irire if eoitrac calcuUiltil on a fitUe inroicc and " enlm, and not on thcaitiml cost of the foods. The " distiiel attorney stated the law to be. that filling. " the T'niled Slates may have allowed entries hy fal-i "invoices, mill takcit'dnties nccnrdinglv. vet the' " may afterward charge the duty on the real cost. If " tho goods were now m defendant s possession, or " could bo traced and identified, tho t inted Mate " inm it have a forfeiture ol them. In thtscaso, how " ever, the goods having been sold nnd delivered, so "as to be beyond the reached of the United Male " there could be 110 attempt to forfeit them." In consequence of the possession of the papers of this banlmipt, a very curious and cdilvmg corrcspon denec between the father and the son also came to light. Air. Adams then rend to the coinimtleeuletlcr from Pordeaux, as follows : " It .scctns to 1110 that the time is now arrived when " some measures arc loudly called for to protect our " revenue fiom fraud, and I firmly believe that the " consular certificate to all invoices would, in many 'eases, had to its detection. ' Many persons ask what is tho use nftltc consular " certittcate when Ihe noods ure lice 01 iiuiy, or pay sneeille illllV. " The following elrcunislanec which lias occtired in lies port will provu the use of such ccrtiheatc, to American ninniif'ictiircs, and iinlvvillistauding that powerful objection thai the passage of such a bill may lossitiiy pieveiit Samuel swartwout Ironi Decerning 'resident of lite Unitid .States, laugh. 1 am ready to adopt nnv proper and rensonnblo nniendiiicnl. I seek to deirive no eiliyeii of his ri'dit to a I1111I hyjury; but, while I would s .cure all Ins constitutional rights, 1 would provide, if possible, nn effectual lemi'dy ngainst these nbonunabl frauds. 1 must confess that, what the gentleman said about American mamifaetrres brought powet fully to my mind something I had once bcaid fold of another ve ry distinguished nnti-iiiimifaeturiti" genileinan, who was nossei sed with such an litter hatred of nmniifae- litres, tint lie said lie would nl any time go a mile out of bis wtiy to kick a sheep. (A iauh.l '1 he gi iitlcinatilrem ;iildh Cmnldui, I lielievc.dnrs not go quite so far in that, but Ihe gentleman has thought himself to the conclusion thnt this Covctn iiienl ought not to iinpf's-e any impost at nil, hut ought to lav a iliircl tax. Now, if the gentleman will inttodlice a bill into this House h vying direct tnx on land nnd slaves, and if his constituents like it, and if be can satisfy me that direct taxation is a belter mode of raising revenue that Iho nyslr.ni under which wo have lived for the last fifty years, 1 promise hint my aid in carrying llnoiigli his bill. Alll. LOClvM'K AIOON .STORY, AH our Traders probably remember the diver ting hoax- which wan played ofl'by II. A. Loclcei (then, vc believe, the editor of the ov-orl; 1111) some years tigo, pnrpoititrj to l.o a letter from Sir V. Jlcrschel!, giving .111 account, of tho wonderful discoveries lie had tnailo in the toe 11, by the agency of his improved telescope. Die story wan republished read witlt avidity received ns sober fact by a few and road by all as a most ingenious pioco of harmless! pleas antry. Tlie editor of the Now York Signal has recently requested of Air. Locke an authentic copy of the " Letter," and a statement of the circumstances that suggested its composition. With the latter part of this request-Air. Locke lias complied. His reply is not less amusing than the original AI0011 Story, and the' way in which he soberly criticises the sectarian absur dities and refutes tho philosophical conjectures of the Rev. Thomas Dick, is not to be disre yarded. Vo havo addod n copious extract, and may give the remainder hereafter, if not pro vented hy a press of more important matter. 1 had lonir been seriously, and even painfully impressed With the conviction that the tmnrm,i lire irliool i j lihuovnmii, so popular at the pros out day, particularly in reference fo astronomy the Vliicf "lorv of which is ihe absolute cer tainty, both 111 mathematics and experience, of its many suniimc iiuvciopemcnis was rapuuy emascuiatiii'ir tho minds of our studious youth ; unlilting the.11 lor those sterner labors 111 the iiehl of iho exact sciences which yielded such an immortal harvest in the two preceding centuries and lostering .1 pucril'j ami prurient appetite lor the lanciiul and the marvellous, most unfavorable to a healthful desire for these solid and substantial acquisitions without which science evaporates 111 capricious theories. 1 was convinced, moreover, that tlie lluvhgical eii((.'cro,'i'o)K,'ciicroachmciitstt!onthe legitimate province ol science, wh.cli have become so matifest and avowed ano'ject of tlie school to which I allude, were cidcuiatcd, if unchecked and uurepnivcd, again to brid in tin. chains o soct.inun lailh and conventional dogmatism, m onirics into matters of fact that should be Ire as the mountain air and 111 chartered as tho light of heaven. 1 saw tho geology of the present Hire stniiwling airainst the sell-same felteri' tint were riveted upon astronomy in tho age Corr.nNitTs and (i.u.u.oi, and which so slowly oxidized away in tlie succeeding conttirv. The sr.tiuc impious! itrrr.v of sectarian and lil t orate interpretation of the "word of God, a-rainst the demonstrable evidence of the tin questionable uwl.f of Clod, that hud crushed the astronomical system of l'ylh igorrs for more than a thousand years ; thnt long deprived tho world of the precious treatise of Copernicus, in which that system was rc-difcovered and more fully revealed ; and that consigned Galileo, who had confirmed it by actual observation, to the dun geon and probably to the rack of torture I saw consigning tl.c unprejudiced students of geology to the excommunication of infidelity, with till its cruel obloquy. It had occurred within the sphere of mv own social inlercour-p, that sever al intelligent minds which were nnk!n.;.ilunb!e "Tlicru is at presThr i!n- .r.r Jtuiicnsejpwntity ' "XUNrvorlps, ilnhis.-rarid and' 1 c u! -ivattractivu Stnii,nrt,,u " that n great many boxes liad been ma Ic, purporting study, were "Tiulht-lStl. to. rc.iil'-'lHi i bcr.-usi-1 U'--. to contain wine in bottles, hut :-o filled up, with thev perceived it was leading Minru) i.TC-.l"Tiul '""j-lJK '. Scenery," now before me, nnd on tho page 27, fl torpor's edition,) which ho bleaks with a note denouncing "t'-t folly am immorality" of mi moon story, nnd declaring that I "ought to bij ranked in the class of liars and deceivers," hu talks about teaching tho inhabitants of tho moon tho alphabet, in the following manner : "Jl has sometimes been a subject of specula tion whether it might bo possible, by any symhon to correspond with tho inhabitants' of the" moon. Gruithuiscii see Edinburgh Now Philosophical Journal for October i!0, p. IVM in a conversa tion witli the L'roat continental astronomer Gati.", after describing the regular figures hu had discovered in tho moon, spoke of the nossi bilily of correspondence wait) the lunar inlia'uit rmtf. Ho brought to Gauss's recollection thn idea lie had communicated many years ago to ZitmneriiiPti. Gauss answered that the pian of erecting a geometrical flgiiro on the plains of Si l.'oria correspoii.led with lii.t opinion, becatijc, according to his view, a correspondence with tho iiiJi.'iuiUintfi of tin? moon coyuj only he us'i.'U.i by moan "of sitcR inn'honltical contcinpli.tu ' s. m, J leas ns wo and thev inut havo in common. Were tho inhabitants of tho nicon to reco":nii:n pueh !. figure, erected on an iinmnns ? scale, a. anl of correspondence, thev iniirh, perhaps (!; erect iiiemilar one in reply." Anil our iWiKleo plnlosopaor indicates Ins re gret thai "our terrestrial sovcro;gns are Ico muni engaged 111 plunder and warfare to think ot spending their revenues in so costly an experi ment. Jlu farther expresses tlie opioiuon that. .-chenies. far mora foolish and preposterous than the above have been contrived anu acted upon 111 very aire of tho world. Anione; philosophers, then, we presume, for it is difficult to conceivo any thing half so preposterous among the practi cal portion of mankind. Only think of one of " our terrestrial sovereigns," being so amiaoiy moon-struck, under the advice of hts wise men, as to stiller his tiuastronomical enemies to over run his sublunary provinces, and pillage their thoroughly discovered inhabitants, jwhile he is heavily taxing Ins wondenngsubjects to construct " a largo triauglo or ciipsis of many miles in ex tent," as Dr. Dick has it, hy way of opening an intorostHHr correspondence and csta'ilis'ting a . treaty of peace with hypothicul luiiarims ! .ht'-i l.uagir.? the Secretary of the Treasury applying ,0 Congress! lor authority to i.-;suo u iiingnaiunious batcli ol treasury notes, with power to re-issue, as Iho exigencies of the publics service might require, for the purpose of erecting somewhere in Alichiiran. a semi-circle, fifty miles in dianie'er, with a line of Alartello towerrf of proportionable dimensions and altitude, to lot out a radius, ami then a luminous argument in a nev.' I,rcs!(!cniVma',.":iiral message, cleany bowing; that the lunarians cou'd make neither head nortiii of the diagram without a. sine ami versed of white marlilo to indicate two tera the proposition ! Imagine, too, a warm ndlv norsfitial dnliatn tn arise! 01 r.nnonn ..! .,. .1- ..: 1 ..,....:1 r,. t.. tireiv unKiiown to the man-Dat.s: ana t chord, pud lcarnedlv con?fiMine and chord of the whole, so it is only to say that. as hall the chord is lo radius, so is the mcasur" of its versed sine lo the tangent of the opposite n1 UnN fl..-n...t Vr.f, L ,lCr..! If ', tlm iositon that it v'ou'd be found impossit' r, both J then and thereafler, lo reculaio the ejJ liango ofs signals without a national bai !c! Only slotcli to 'the mind's evo tho consterna tion in Wall-street iimou"- Ihe lieldv'rs of tho. .Yniv P., 11,' Sn,,,n li..,, 1. a,,,!,,., I .'-.r, tu ll.ni. nim.l.sll'..!1 ll... llnlell m ilinicry 11 tlie country is in operation, cimbingihctur.Mkwori63vhuniowbcin eight caia in false lids, ns evidently to bo designed to he till' " with dry goods. I have, of coin so. comnuuueak 1 ' this information lo the collector of .Vcw-Oi Uans, in " easo these boxes are to be sent there. I'.ut if every " iiivniee was subiuitled lo the consul's inspection, I " am certain that, from the data 1 have, 1 could put " inv linger on this particular shipment, and secure " the detection of the fraud. Indeed, thehite seizures "in the United States and vaiious circumstances " must com iuceevcry one that sumo additional means " nre required to protect the revenue ; and the great " reluctance of nnnv shippers to have their invoices " vcritied hv the consul is of itself a proof that it is a " precauti m which intcrfeies with the practice now " much Used, of making out llie invoice nfltrlhe foods "iirrice, so that th" orivinnl inroicc from abioad is "often withheld. In this coutiliy, partVulaily, such " a regulation is loudly called for in the interest of our 'navigation. Tlie want of it enab'cs I'lench vessels " 1 1 carry all kinds of foicign gooi's to the Tinted "States without their bilng subjected to additional " duties, hi eoiiseimeneeofno legulalion reiiiiii'iiig tin ir "invoices and nii.nil'i Ms lo he certifii d by our ci..isul ; , "wheri'as, all American vi ssols arriving in I 1 mice nre hound lo pioduco the.ie cerlilieales on llicir inn " nifests from tlie l'lcneh consuls on the oilier side. " Our shipmasters, tn vnu had an nnpoi (unity of "judging, complain thai 1'ieneh vetsels enjoy this " immunity, and with good icason, Thccvil will be " eoineof still greater magnitude when lines of French " steamers nre establi-hcd betv ei 11 rrauce and Xevv " York. This will ta';n place ere long inevitably, lis " (he Trench (iuveiiimcni will furnish the funds it " ue"cst;arv. And, unless the icgulntion 1 stigist " ii ndopted, all the Swiss an 1 German goods that nre " now shipped in our packets will bo scut in tho I'nneh. " The present regulations of our custom houses re quire that all iuuu'csof goods shipped for the ae " count of persons res.ding out nf the Tiulcd Slates "should he certifed hv the consuls. This, nfcoui.se, " exeiupls nil others Irom that formahly. .Now, it is "perfectly well known that I h 11 great and iinpji'taut " shipiiienls are made by the I '.uropeiin maniifaetureis "for their own account. They all, however, liavean " agent or confidential eh'ik iii the Tinted States, to "whom the goods urn ostensibly shipped for his ne " count nnd others. Theconsulai vciiticalion isevad " ed. Let every invoice be certified, and wo should " know who the proprietor is, nnd whether he is the " iiianufaelitrcr or not, as llu re would then be no inn " live in concealing that fact. On the other hand, "supposing lite goods are milly shipped for account "of persons in the United Slnlcs, iho shipper has 110 " motive for innkmga false declaralioii hclore the con "hid. In evcrv point of view, Ihcnforc, such a . ru " gulalion would bo attended with useful icsiilts. " You see (said .Mr. Adams) the advantages wliitb tiro taken ill consequence of having bid one or two packages examined. Hcie boxes were made with double covers, purporting to cotilien wine, but hi'im actually I'dlul with drv goods. These were-shipped ft -in I iiii'.ec to .Vvv-')ilcaiis, and thence to t'liicm unit, vvheio the fiaud was discovered. The cut signce was persecuted, but it happened unfoitunalclv Ibat the ev idciiev ill possession of the rnllei tor proved, 111 sonic if speel, dileetivet and nut mil v did tho con si iee escape, lint he turned round .m.l sued tho sur veyor of the port for damages on 11 1'nlse seiine. The parly hero concerned wasoneof thui-e sn'iio Voikbhire clothiers. , ... 1 trust I havo now presented to tho conuiiitlre sulU. cient reasons in show that ihu motion to stnko out the enaelilig clause of Ibis bill ought not to prevail. If there nro defects in its provisions, let them beicnie died by 1I10 suggestion of proper niueii'liucnls, bin In soino shape the bill ought cuminl)' to puns, nnd 1 yet linpe 101 ine voic 01 nn ceniiemen liom miiiiii discovery that the globo on wlcch vj live was not Kniiieil 111 lilorailv six nays 01 twemy-mur hours eacli ! It was idle to tej! them that three of those days had elapsed hoforn tho hoaveniy bod es wlii'.'i now make and measure our day aie said to have been created, and, Iharo.W, that the Scripture day e.;' cie.Uion, from itd own showing, and indcj eii'leinly of all geo!oci"al evidence upon tlie cp Ootioii, cm;, not have boon days' such f.s ours. It was in vain lo say that the Scripture statement m:glit be true, nnd translators and pasters false : that the pruuit'vo text might ipiadra'.o very well with tho primitive rocks; nnd, indeed, tin' gon'.ogy fur.iishe-d con clttsivo indications of dihti.ict periods in the for mation of our globe, adniir.ildv harmoniirg with the i-enntal progressive stages in tiio cruation i.f organiedlH'i"g, de. cribcd in the Mo-air iiecoun. All was useless; Uio niingina'.ve anil ttovoiiona philosophy prevailed; the tci'laik'.'-i theokijiy ol tho ptilp't triumphed over the thui'egk'al sec tions of tho hide. It was with uufoignod pain thai I saw this enthralling ower of unrrow minded prejudice receiving tribute and homiigf from u'mi'st every scioniilic work tint iseitcd fiom tho press j oven the most eied minds ot t'10 d.'.v. the llrewsloru m.il Iho Uorschu'lV, to say nothing o' their lo'.innu ol tncmltcant loiow civ, )iisi l laniiuotisly bonding befire it, and ad iiiimfatering to its" arrogant prctoiiHons. I, therefore, cevnlved to the. v a pehb.o at tit s (, ol lossiis, no', coitninV. with tho hope of rivalling the foal of David, 'but nieie'y l o:;nvs my indofoiuloiitand utter contempt for the- i.ii'.gin- ativo and can'ing school, ity oiuioinoriiig 10 0111- imagiiio il, and io its solemn cant, under the mask of dignified and plausible science. One of the most conspicuous of tie .i'ug'ing Ite-itds of this sell, ol, is tiio famous Dr. Hick 01 Dundee, who nastes tog-ether so many books about tho moon and stars, and devoutly helps out tho music 1 f tho spheres with tho nasal twang ol the conventicle. It wns this cyphering sagos "Christian I'luloso; her," that suggested my iiioon.stoi v, nnd ho seems to h.no suspected as much, for in Ids book out illed " Celestial Scene, ry," written in 1!I7, ami wlii.'h is 11 consider iblu improvement upon initio in the way of aslroni in- ical fancy-work, he piys me oil' 111 a 10.V, two days alter date. It will be reco'lected that, 111 his " Chrii tian I'hilo-ophor,'' ho spreads his wings in uxnli autieipiiliouof huge di. cover es being; 111 'do Iho ni',011 through tolc-vo'ies ; but w iilncit any rhynia or rer.son, tint nny hober-u.mdod body can pon oive, except that hi) had a new and mys terious li'lescopo of h's own, in secret prepara tion I have not th'.- wc-fit 'now ut hand, or 1 would extract the pas-age ; which I ruler fiom memory; but railroads, can.tls, public biiildiuge, a.nd nirtiiich loiii'iuui place 111 liters were to he liiscoveied 111 thoinism, beyond nil doubt, if pen nie would onlv lookout forlhem, in tlillbrent parts olilmwoild, audit was by no re,uw cor lahithti bonicoftlie (!i-,nau asli' iieuiers had uotl CDtiinir 1. t'nroliiu iiiiutelf, not wit!, lundinj .th 'h.s e.'P' .'iiwn 'not found ilium aire '"' in b- lV'e..tin'l r inaiiiCl , v iliagr.v. illustrative of thmr mo hod of mc'isiiriiig an are of tho turn inn. ! See, tin, a new Cmnmon Council, ineeting in joint ballot to appoint moon-surveyors and len-i- tnspoctots 111 every waril ; or siiuuei .y called from tbo;r o;,sterb to the rcof of tlie C.ty Hall to let' rn tin gra'ifying intelligence tir !. from somo hitherto unobserved appearances in the Va'e of the Tria.1-, iiin geoino'r.cians i f .l..il ce!e.br .s'd region were probably about to eiect in the com so of th" present cc uttiry, an acute angle ; thereby pointedly indicating 'that they recognised thn independence of tiio Uni'cJ 'Hates, ni.d v er? likely to take sides with Alamo on the hound ny question! And oh! what guiou. jolly t.mt .i for iiewsj-apers and inngv.nes! wliat ii vcs and rumours and discussionu! 'to i.t l eliaiiiii. vv'io'.i Ilio i.inrm it: in the lli.trke' ! .low a ptineeiiti.'i dit fir the quid nunc--, to the '!' t that " Mr. Tad fjnt, th'J hitherto ivspe -1 a'ld straight-forw i.-d treasurer of tho hoiv-lalaud ) Trareium CVniuuy, had setoiVfr mtl. dt' w ished circ.'oofhis "acqiiainteiK o wdh '1 J iiviu a 1 e tui"Jr-lJ'ie c.'inceiri!. and Jep r "ii" r but tiii! iciiors .. 1'. i.i. in pencil, to s. 'ij prenleui 01 ins destinaiion now an 01.1 aitoh in ihe D.nulcc l)Luur desen'jingjij lar ii'iiro built 'I'some kind of bnlhaut'. the hi east of t!ei groat mountain llnlhaMoes and prov.ng i' to bo an exact copy of the hm,-. htiuiu )roli'.ot Dr. Hick everted liytho suLier'.p tion of hi- ntii.ierona di.sctples "at hoiiie a: i abiord; and now a learned, though saicai , reply of Mr. Fowler the I'lirenologis', 111 tho .Wic Yuri; Crrscnit, showing that the hologra phy of this, lunar strut'! ure, though prohab! nu'tliing more than the fenciful outlmo of a con spicuous cavity, bears a striking reicinblanco to tho verticarsection of a calf's head! So immoderately absurd a proposition as thai of opening any experimental correspondenco witlithc inhabitants of tho moon by means of vast structures 01 'one, which it would requiro hall an ago av' 't m.no of wealth to construct, without the least tangible probability, either in mason or science, tin t they would auswer tlm iniondod purjiti.se, cvou in tho reniotut-t degree, would bo too extravagant for ridicule, if it wcro pivrPiiled idmc, as a nobtary ccce.V.riei y of iii.nd. Hut ' attuallv coiiftiltitcs hit' u inim r fo.itiwo oftl.o '.vn'ophilosoiihy which has litely si,-,,. I f.!i in tiio Juthiliinonls of piety and faith. It is inctelj n apt. mwn of a system; a component part ol an aggrogii'o , it s-iin elv 1 01 t it w ien er 1 noes not ovo v o n o uiin,t tude of doliberati) iuiM)si;1on, as well as of incal culable practical mischief. J)j Dick proacliesa hypocritical homily against my inooii-hivix, y hfrh vv.is intended meioly as a '(Kxl-iiatiiml satire; telling mo that (lod rtpiire'j"lruth in tho inward pails;" tint upon tho universal observance vl Ihts law of truth "depend tho happiness of the whole uil-lligeni hvi leiu, and tho foundations of the th'onool'thi Fernal." In adding; this lax. 1 - ,. .,1 oi. ...... 1