Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, December 18, 1840, Page 2

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated December 18, 1840 Page 2
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THE BURLINGTON FREE PRESS, PRESIDE NT'S M E S S A G E . fellow Cikimh of the Scimlr, and of the Ifousc of Uepmenlativeu Our devout gratitude is duo to the Supreme Being for having graciously continued to our beloved country, through the vicissitudes of another year, the invaluable blessings of health, plenty and peace. Seldom has this favored land been so generally exempted from the ravages of disease, or the labor of the husbandman more amply rewarded ; and never before have onr relations with other countries been placed on a more favorable basis than that which they so happily occupy nt this critical conjneture in the affairs of the world. A rigid and persevering abstinence from all interference with the domestic and political relations of other states, alike dHC to the genius and distinctive character of our government and to the principles by which it is directed ; a faithful observance, in the management of our foreign relations, of the practice of speaking plainly, dealing justly, and requiring tn'th and justice in return, as the best conservative of the peace of nations; a strict impartiality in our manifestations of friends-hip, in the commercial privileges we concede, and those we require from others ; thesc.accompanied by a disposition as prompt to maintain, in every emergency, our own rights, as we are from principle aveise to the invasion of those of others, have given to our country and government a standing the moat fnmi v of nations, of winch wc have just cause to be proud, and the advan tages of which are experienced by our eili r.cns throughout every portion of the earth to WHICH llicir enterprising ami uuicmunni? snirit mav carrv them. Few if any, remain insensible to the value of our friendship, or ignorant of the terms on which it can alone be III PRLT VCll. A scries of questions'of long standing, dif ficult in their adjustment, and important in their consequences, in which the rights of our citizens and the honor of the country were deeply involved, have, in the course of a few years, (the most of them during tne successful administration of my immediate predecessor,) been brought to a satisfactory conclusion : and the most important of those remaining are, 1 am happy to believe, in a lair way ol ucing specmiy anu sausiacioriiy adjusted. With all the powers of the world, our rein tions arc those of honorable peace. Since your adjournment nothing serious has occur red to inicirupt or inrcaicii mis uesuanie Har mony. If clouds have lowered above the other hemisphere, they have not east their portentous shadows upon our happy shores. Hound by no entangling alliances, yet linked by a common nature and interest with the other nations of mankind, our aspirations are for the piescrvation of peace, in whose solid and civilizing triumphs all may participate with a generous emulation. Yet it behooves us to be prepared for any event and to be al ways ready to maintain" those just and enligh tened principles of national intercourse, for which this government ha? ever contended. In the shock of contending empires, it is only by assuming a rcolute bearing, and clothing themselves with defensive armor, that neu tral nations can maintain their independent rights. The excitement which grew out of the territorial controversy between the U. States and Great Britain having in a great measure subsided, it is hoped that a favorable period is approaching for its final settlement. Both governments must now be convinced of the dangers with which the question is fraught : and it must be thcii desire, as it is their in terest that this perpetual cause of irritation should be removed as speedily as practicable. In my last annual message you were inform ed that the proposition for a commission of exploration and survey promised by Great Britain had been received, and that a counter-project, including also a provision for the mefit for its coiisidciatioli."" The answer "of that government, accompanied by additional propositions of its own, was received through us minister here, since your separation. inese were promptly considered ; such a: were deemed correct in principle, and con wstent with a due regard to the ju.-t rights of the United Stales and of the state of Maine, concurred in ; anu the reason for dissenting from the residue, with an additional sugges tion on our part, communicated by the Secre tary 01 oiaie 10 air. o.v. J hat minister, not feeling himself sufficiently instructed up on some of the poidts raised in the discussion, felt it to be his duty to refer the matter to his own government for its fuithcr decision. Having now been for some time under itsad visement, a speedy answer may be confident ly expected. From the character of the points still in difference, and the undoubted disposition of both parties to bring the matter to an early conclusion, I look with entire confidence to a prompt and satisfactory termi nation of the negotiation. Three commis sioners were appointed shortly after the ad journment of congress, under the act of the last session providintr. for the cxnlorntion nnd survey of the line which separates the slates of Maine and New Hampshire from the Bri tish provinces ; they have been actively em ployed uiftil their ;.rrgress was interrupted by the inclemency of the season, and will ie same their labors as soon as practicable in the ensuing year. It is understood that their respective exam nations will throw new light upon the ub ject in contiovcrsy, and serve to remove any erroneous impressions which have been made elsewhere prejudicial to th rio.i,iu f .1... United States. It was, among other reasons with a view of pievcnting the embarrassments' .....v.., ... mi .uuu,mr system 01 government impede and complicate negotiations involvimr the territorial riirhi nt .. ....... .1.... 1 .1 ., ," 0 . """, wiui 1 IllOUght it my duty, as you have been infoimed on a previous occasion, to propose to the British government, through its minister at Wash melon, that early steps should be taken 'to udjust the l.oints nt difference on the line of "u""u") e entrance of Lake Superi or to the most northwestern point f the Lake of the Woods, by the arbitiatio,, 0f a friendly power in conformity with the ev enth article of the treaty of Ghent. No an swer has yet been letumed by the Biitish government to this proposition. With Austria France, Prussia, Ilussia, and the remaining Powers of Kurope, I am hap py to inform you our relations continue to lie of the most friendly character. With Jlcbri- and equality, was concluded in MatXTaM' and linvimr l.onn fi.l k.. .1.- ., . " """1 "... " y me jieijrmn eov- eriiment will be duly laid before the Senate Jt is a subject of congratulation that it ro: vides for the satisfactory adjustment of u standing question of contiovcrsy ; thus re moving the only obstacle which could ob. struct the friendly and mutually advantageous intercourse between the two nation?. A messenger has been dispatched with the Han treaty to Berlin, where, according to stipulation.thc ratifications aie lobe cxcl.m,,.. eu. 1 am happy to announce to you that, nf ter many delays and difficulties, a trca y of commerce nml .....: 1 . ' ..A ,., s ' r ""b'l"ii, neiwcen 1110 Uni- -i. 1 . 1 1 4 """8'". wns cone u, ed and signed a Lisbon, on the 20th of August Inst :, . "'I""""""" "re loun, ed unon those principles of mutual liberality ",! ad" vantage which the United StatesYnvc a ways sought to make the basis of their inter with foreign powers, and it is ZJt they will lend to foster and Mrengllicn the ommercml interests of ibe twocou,,!,. Under the appropriation of the lnrt session !CoiilrM,,ana)i,nthasbilMBt to titr- many for the purpose of promoting the inter, csts of our tobaeco trade. The commissioners appointed under the convention for the adjustment of claims of citizens of the United States upon Mexico having met and organized at Washington, in August last, the papers in the possession of the government, relating to those claims, were communicated to the bonid. The claims not embraced by that convention are now the suhiecl of negotiation between tne two governments, through the medium of our ministernt Mexico. Nothing has occuried to disturb the hnrmo- ny of our relations with the different govern ments of South America. I regret, however to lie obliged to inform you that the claims of our citizens u'pon the' late Republic of Co lumbia have not yet been satislicd by the separate governments into which it has been resolved. The charge d'affairs of Brazil having ex pressed the intention of his Government not to prolong the treaty of 1828, it will cease to be obligatory upon cither party on the 12lh day of December, 1811, when'the extensive commercial intercourse between the U. States nml that vast empire will he no longer regu lated by express stipulations. It nfl'ords me plensuie to communicate to voti that the Government of Chili has entered into an ngiccmcnt to indemnify the claimants in the case of the Macedonian, for American property seized in 1819, and tondd, that in formation has also been received which jus- tines the hope of an early adjustment of the remaining claims upon that government. The commissioneis appointed in pursuance of the convention between the United States and Texas, for marking the boundary between thcm.havcaccordinglo the last report received from our commissioner, surveyed ami estab lished the whole extent of the boundary north along the western bank of the Sabine .! f 1.. ...a...... !.,, il.n..!f f II co. to the thirty second degree of North lali tude. The commission adjourned on the 1(5 of June last, to re-assemble on the first of November for the purpose ot establishing ac curatcly the intersection of the 32d degiee of latitude with the western bank of the Sabine, and the meridian line thence to Bed river. It is presumed that the work will be concluded in the present season. The present sound condition of their finan ces, and the success with which embarrass ments' in regard to them, at times appaiently insurmountable, have been overcome, are matters upon which the people and govern ment of the United States may well congrat ulate themselves. An overflowing ticasiiry, however it may be regarded as an evidence of public prosperity,! seldom conducive to the permanent welfare of anv people; and expe rience has demonstrated its incompatibility with the salutary action of political institu tions like those of the United States. Our sa fest reliance for financial efficiency and indc pendence has, on the contrary, been found to consist in ample resources unencumbered with debt; and, in this respect, the l-cilciul (joy ernment occupies a singularly foitunatc and truly enviable position When I entered upon the discharge of mv offieinl duties in Maich 18117. the act for the distribution of the mi plus revenue was in a course of rapid execution. Nearly 28 mill ions of dollais of the public monevs were, in pursuance of its provisions, deposited with the states in the months of January, April and July of that vcar. In jMav theic occurred general suspension of specie the banks, including, with very few exceptions, thoe in which the public moneys weie de posited, and upon whose fidelity the govern mcnl had unfortunately made iti-clf dependent for the revenues which had been collected from the people, and were indispensible to the public service. J hissusnension.'anu the excesses in banking and commerce out of which it arose, and which wcregicatly aggra vated by its occurrence, made, to a great ex tent, unavailable the principal part of the public money then on hand, suspended the collection of many millions accruing on mcr- .Ojc aiirtnjj Hum cu.siunr.-l ami iiie-pbdhc ..ntiTiS, int.!- uncus nave continued to operate, in various decrees to the tircwiit nrr-i!. ,,,,1 ; addition to the decrease in the revenue thus produced, two and a half millions of dollars nn.e uccn relinquished liv two biennial re ductious under the act of 18.1.1. ami uml.-.M.. as much more upon the importation of iron for rail roads, by special legislation. Whilst such has been our condition for the lasi lour years. in relation in t'nn ,. during the same period, been subjected to an uiiutuiuiiijie continuance of large and ii.iuiuiii.ii v exne ses nercssari v r,iv nr ... of past transactions, and which' could not be immediately arrested wit bout t-i.-nt m-om.i;,,. to the public interest. Of these, the chaige upon the Treasury, in Zonseiupnr. nf iu Cherokee treaty alone, without adverting to others arising out of Indian tieaties, has al ready exceeded five million of dollars ; that for the piosecution of measures for the remo val of the Seminole Indians, which were found in proeicss. has been nrnrlv fi.ri,... millions; and the public building l.nv re quited the unusual sum of three millions. It affords me, however, great pleasure to be able to say. that, from ilir,.ni ,. this period to the present day, every demand upon the Government, at home & kbroad.has been promptly met. This has bocn done, not only without a permanent debt, or a icsort to additional taxation in any form, but in the midst of a steadily progressive reduction of existing burdens unon iho timnin ir..,,.:., still a considerable balance of available funds which will remain in the Treasury at the end of the year. The small amount of Jreasury notes, not excecdm f,., . half millions of dollais, still outstanding, and less by twciitv-thiee millions ilin ti, it:..i States have in deposile with the States, is composed of such only as are not yet due, or i' emeu ior payment. They may be redeemed out of the if the uxpendituies do not exceed the amount 1111111 which incy may, it is thought, be kept without prejudice to the public interest, and he revenue shall prove to be as large as may justly be anticipated, ' Among the rellcctionsar sim ii, templatiou of these circumstances, one, not the least gialifying, is tl,e consciousness that 11 e uovernmcnt had the resolution and the ability to adhere, in every emeigency, to the auen oiiiigations ol law; to execute all its Lumncis accoiding to the reou remenif.f il. constitution; nml thus to present, when most needed, a rallying point by which the busi- the resources of many of the states, and the future industry of their citizens, been indefi nitely mortgaged to the subjects of European Governments, to the amount of twelve mill ions annually, to pay the constantly nccru inir interest of borrowed money a sum ex ceeding half the ordinary revenues of the whole United States. The pretext which this relation affords to foreigners to scrutinize the management of our domestic allairs, if not actually to intermeddle with them, pre sents n subject for earnest ntlcntion not to say of serious alarm, fortunately, the federal Government, with the exception of an obli gation entered into in behalf of the District of Columbia, which must soon be discharged is wholly exempt from nny such embarrass ment. It is also, as is believed, the only gov ernment which having fully and faithfully paid all its creditors, has also relieved itself from debt. To maintain a distinction so desirable, and honorable to our .national character, should be nn object of an earnest solicitude. iscver should a free people, if it lie possible to avoid it, expose themselves to the necessi ty of having to treat of the peace, the honor, or the safety of the icpuhlic, with the gov ernments of foreign creditors, who however wen disposed tncy may lie 10 cultivate wiui us in general friendly relations, arc neverthe less, by the law of their own condition, made hostile to the success and permanency of po litical institutions like ours. Most lnimilint inir may be the embarrassments consentient upon such a condition. Another objection, scarcely less formidable, to the commence ment of a new debt, is its inevitable tendency to incicnsc in magnitude, and to foster na tional extravagance, tit has been an un profitable observer of events, who needs at this day to be admonished of the difficulties which a Government habitually dependant on loans to sustain the ordinary expenditures, has to encounter in resisting the influences constantly exerted in favor of additional loans by capitalists, who enrich themselves by Government securities for amounts much exceeding the money they actually advance a prolihc source of individual aggrandize mcnt in nil borrowing countries; by stock holdois, who seek their gain by the rise and fall of public stocks, and by the selfish im portunities of applicants for appropriations for works avowedly for the accommodation of the public, but the real objects of which are, too ticqucntly the advancement of pn vale interests. The known necessity which so many of the States will be under to impose taxes for the payment of the interest on their debts furnishes an additional and very cogent rea son why the Federal Government should re fraiii from creating a national debt, by which the people would be exposed to double taxa tion for a similar object. We possess with in ourselves ample resources for every cmcr gency; and we may be quite sure that onr citizens, in no future exigency, will be un willing to supply the government with all the means asked far the defence of the country. In time of peace there can at all events, be no justification for the creation of a pcrma' nent debt by the Federal Government. It; limited range of constitutional duties may certainly, under such circumstances, lie per formed without such a icsort. It has, it is seen, been avoided during four years of errcat er fiscal difficulties than have existed in a similar period since the adoption of the con stilution, and one also remarkable for the oc currence of extraordinary causes of expend! tu res. Hut to accomplish so desirable an object, two things aie indispensable: first, that the ancc in the Treasury nt the end of the year if the remedial measure, connected with the customsand the public lands, heretofore rec ommended, shallbc adopted, and the new ap propriations by Congress shall not carry inc expenditures beyond all of the official estimates. The new system established by Congress for the safe keeping of the public money, prescribing the kind of currency to be receiv ed for the public revenue, and "providing ad ditional guards and securities against losses nasjiow nce.n several monins 111 upeiuuun. Althninrh it mitrht be premature, upon nn experience of such limited duration, to form a definite opinion in regard to the extent of us innucnccs 111 curreuing mniij i" " which the Federal Government and the country have hitherto suffered especially those that have grown out of banking expan sions, a detirccintcd currency, and official de- fa cations : vet it is but rnrht to say mat notbinirhns occurred in the nrncticnl opera tion of the system to weaken in the slightest degree, but much to strengthen the confident anticipations of its friends. The grounds of those nave necn neicioiorc so limy expiameu ns to require no recapitulation. In respect to the facility and convenience it nflords in condiictinir the public service, and the ability of the government to discharge through its agency every duty attendant on the collec tion, transfer and disbursement of the public money with promptitude and success, I can say with confidence, that the apprehensions of those who fell it to be their duty to oppose itsadoption, have proved to be unfounded. On the contrary this branch of the fiscal af fairs of the government hns been and it is be lieved may always be thus carried on with every desirable changes and improvements in the details of the system, without affecting any principles iiivoivcu in 11, win ne suunu- tcd to you by the Secretary of the Treasury, and will. I am sure, receive at your hands that attention to which they may, on cxami found to be entitled. I have deemed this brief summary of our fiscal affairs necessary to the due perfor mance of a duty, especially enjoined upon me by the constitution. It will serve, also to illustrate more fully the principles by which I have been guided in reference to two contested points in our public policy, which were earliest in their development, and have been more important in their consequences, than any that have arisen under our compli catcd and difficult, yet admirable system of government. I allude to a national debt and a national bank If was in these that the political contest by which the country has been agitated ever since the adoption of the constitution, in a great measure originated : and there is too much reason to apprehend that the conflicting interests and opposing principles thus mar shalled will continue as heretofore to produce similar, if not aeirravated. consenuences. Coming into office the declared enemy of both, I have earnestly endeavored to prevent a resort to cither. The consideration that a large public debt affords an apology, and produces, to some de gree, a necessity also, for resorting to a sys tem and extent of taxation, which is not only oppressive throughout, but likewise so apt to lend, in the end, to the commission of that most odious of all offences aeainst the pnn ciplcs of republican government the pros titution of political power, conferred for the general bencht, to the agrandizcmcnt of par ticular classes, and the gratihcation of mdi vidual cupidity is alone sufficient, indepen dently of the weighty objections which havi already been urged, to render its creation and the people to a greater amount than was ac-1 tuatiy necessary to ine pudiic service, con ducted upon the principles I have stated. In lieu of a national bank, or a depen dence upon banks of any description, for the management 01 our tiscai attairs, 1 recom mend the adoption of the system which is now in successful operation. That system affords every requisite facility for the trans action of the pecuniary concerns of the Gov ernment, will it is confidently anticipated, produce in other respects many of the bene fits which hnve been from time to tunc cx- lccted from the creation of n national bank, hut which have never been realized; avoid the manifold evils inseparable from such nn institution; diminish to a greater extent than could be accomplished by nny other meas ure of reform, the patronage of the Federal Government a wise policy in all Govern ments, but more especially so in one like ours, which works well only in proportion as it is made to rely for its support upon the unbias sed and unadulterated opinions ol us constit uents; do away, forever all dcpcndanccon corpomte bodies, cither in raising, collecting, safe-keeping, or disbursing the public reven ues; and place the Government equally above the temptation of fostering n danger ous and unconstitutional institution at home, or the necessity of adapting the policy to the views and interests of a still more lormidablu money-power abroad. It is by adopting and carrying out these principles under circumstances the mos ar ilous and discouraging that the attempt has been made thus far demonstrate to the people of the United States that a na tional bank nt all times, and a national debt, except it be incurred at a period when the honor and safety of the nation demand the tcmnnrarv sacrifice of a nolicv which should only be abandoned in such exigencies aie not merely unnecessary but in direct and deadly iiosiuuy 10 me print ipies ui inuir uuvcui mcnt and to their own permanent welfare. The progress made in the devclopcmcnt of these positions, appears in the preceding sketch of the past history and present state of the financial concernsol the federal uovcrii' mcnt. The facts there stated, fully author izc the assertion, that all the purposes for which government was instituted have been accomplished during four years of greater pe cuniary embarrassment than were ever before experienced in time of pence and in the face of opposition ns formidable as any that was ever before arrayed against the policy of any administration ; that this has been done when the ordinary revenues of the govern ment were generally decreasing, as well from the operation of the laws as the condition of the country, as without the creation of a per manent public debt, or incurringany liability other than such as the ordinary resources of the govcrnmen' will tipeedily discharge, and without the agency of a national bank. If this view of the proceedings of the gov ernment for the period it embraces, be war ranted by the facts as they arc known to ex ist ; if tne army and navy have been sustain ed to the full extent authorized by law, and which Congress deemed sufficient for the dc fence of the country and the protection of its rights and its honor : if its civil and diplo action of the Federal Government be kept existence the source of bitter and unappeas- wjiiiiii 111c imiiiiuiineii picsuiutu ny 11s ioun-1 auie uiscoru ile is; and, secondly, that all appropriations lor objects admitted to be constitutional, and the expenditure of them also, be subjected to a standard of right, but well eonsidered and practical economy. The first depends chiefly If we add to this, its inevitable tendency to produce and foster extravagant expendi tures of the public money, by which a neces sity is created for new loans and new bur dens on the people ; and finally, if we refer on the people themselves, the opinio!! thev to the examples of every Government whir. foim of the true construction of the consti- has existed, for proof; how seldom it is that tution, and the confidence they repose in the the system, when once adopted and implan irt!itiC.,Wmlimcnts ol those they select as ted in the policy of a country, has failed tc .,.,, ..,1 ,.... .,!,',. I .7-', !ff "nijl public credit was exhaust were no longer able fp iru.ts mmi.,:n.i ... .1. -im. V r "'"uium, uii ine none omiini il,n ov. f .1.: .", , . . " -"b " extent ol con

. m;s"-s. i me jmiuic service is qucsi, no accession of wealth in auuiiueii on all hands; yet there are few sub jects niioii which there exists wi.lnr.iwrnr. enee of opinion than is constantly manifes ts-n in lugaru to tne nuclity with which that umj is uisciiargcd. Witlmi f ...! . .. .. ui.ufi.) ui cniiineni, or even mil- rtnrtirntor uui:;, norany, nor all its combined adv tages, can countei balance its ultimate but certain results a splendid Government and an impoverished people. If a national bank was. as Is im,1,ni-,.l repudiated by the framers of the constitution tual iPiri.n:nn,' iiiii tin-iiiiincrs oi ine constitution ual icirin inalions, upon a pointin respect as incompatible with the richts of the Mates o which the public mind is so justly senti- and the liberties of the vcor f- if oJ foe !'V,; 711 'C Cl1!''rcl' .av?Wcd b.cSiniS " has been regarfiby lnr Z? so at periods of irreat Political tvrlii-mrm An intelligent people, however seldom fail to aiiKi-in me end at correct rnnr . nc such a matter. Practical economy in the management of public affairs can have no ad verse influence to contend with more power- tions of our citizens as coming in direct collis ion with that grcatand vital ainendmcntof thr constitution, which declares that all powers no. luiiiuiicu uv nun instrument nn tim cral government arc leservcd to the states and In llm miAU. 1 1 . . . ful than a lams ...n.1... ... '" lZ i"' " ' s "fcn viewed by them dinary requisitions for the public service ue as an unwritten constitution, dependent, as grow , ,g out of the state of onr Indian rcla- it would alone be, for its meaning, on the iu- -' " ...v-w.ioiui-i.iimi; ucgrcc, traced lures-icu interpretation of the dominant party, o this source. The sudden and rapid distri- and affording no security to the rights o( the Miry, and the equally sudden and unprccc- what national erounds could lmv Un e deniedly severe revulsion in the commerce ceived for anticipating aught but determined and business of the country pointing with opposition to such an institution at the pres. unerring certainty to a great and protracted cut day. 1 " ,c nws, strengthened the Could a different result have brrn v h 1 i V-01 ,,,ca1r"cst Poetical reduction of peeled, when the consequences which have i ftlJrd,1T 0HCd frm its ion. and particularly from it, to change a system operating upon so Us struggles to perpetuate its existence, had,.-a sunace, anu applicable to such nu. confirmed ncss of the whole countiy might be brought back to a safe and unvarying standard a re suit vitally important as well to the interest UD "K m "ram oi the people. There can smiii-m now ue noun erenrn nr ii, r... : gaid to the incalculable eviln that would have arisen if the government nt ilm r;i: .i mcnt, had suffered itself to be dctcircd from upholding the only true standaul of value either by the pics.,uic of ndverse circumst.m. ces or the violence of unmerited denunciation. I hc manner in which the people sustained ,V , . " '"iiuuiy wushiir h y hon orable to the r foiiiiml.. n.,,i , cannot fail to stimulate their agents to adhere ........ ... ...i .msuinces.tolhe line of duty; and lo satisfy hem of the safely with which a course really right, and demanded by a finannal ciisis, may in a community like ours, ...v.., ...... v., i, ujmuivnuy bevcre its illinium, in; UjlulilllOII. The policy of the federal government, in cxtinguishiiig as rapidly ns possible the na lional debt, and subsequently in lesisting cv every temptation to cicate a new one, de. serves to be icgaided in Ihc same favoinble light. Among the many objections to a na- ..u.iai ..i-ui, me certain tendency of public se curities to concentrate ultimately in the cof. fersof foreign stockholders, i. i.:i. :.. every day gathering etrengtu. Alieady have merous and diversified interests and was moie than the work of a day in so strikim? a mjiiiur ihn mn objects, hcnsions of its earliest opponents: when it rtM . I 1. .1 I , , ' .. i ue at- "'tu uccn so cieany demonstrated that a rnn so vast rccie.i to that end; and has been so continued means of influence, mav. in those ner.lir tcntion of every department of the govern- centrated money power, wicl'dinir so :i,MaS.,,l,,alel;'.llml.inK'od fnVdl. UpiUl, and combining such ! Sin iu me present moment, ihe estimates and appropriations for the vcar lfias. il. fir.i over which I had any control, were some- vtn.ii uiminiMieii. 1 he expend tnresnf inio conjunctures to which this GovernmP.,f unavoidably ; exposed, prove an over-match tut me inimical nnwer nf ih .,, i ,i,n, Ulc lrL. cuarncier ot its ca- were reuucci six mi limns nf ,lr,l -,r ti... ,(i, i...- .- " . .:: . ol : .8,0, exclusive of disbursemsfonmb! Inl.d, h llnTo Hts favoS th ,U8?nd PAI ot the labS S prop- ... ..w ...... ,v .mu mimuiis oe- cnyui every man in i s extended counirv ng between two and three millions less than had been so' fully anil fcarfnUv ilevchSd those of the preecd nrr vcar. and ni., , . u-W, it .i I ' 1 aevcP?u. million ii, .i,.r ' r VoV, V " 'ai an classes ol this " 7 , .i ..iioa(. iMr nas n great community had by means of the nower "CCC'' . n ort,erto Produce Und influenced thus xZL been n- li ivCon es, :Z L IZ- TlCtm rUV. ma,JnPss with a spirit of heedless he miidi. ,V. "".'b r i ' V"l!',-CHU1 "i"-'-"."iii wneii it had been seen that, sc he pub He woiks,' except by deferring "ex , "en- cute in'the su f , oi ' h com. .S oi l.tiires or a short period upon a limited por- flnences by wiilch it was , ro , ue h em fJmem.,;a" . wliicli rostponcment Icrmi- violate itshartcr. and set the laws a de ""v- "l "r- moment ine nce witn impunity; and when too it Inn! Irca.ury Derailment, by further receipts become most a .parent tha Uc believe?hat such !JS hnkmmi "cum.,Ia.Jn of power,! , c ' never .v.. ,,.,, i, ,uiuiei uiem witnoilt nrrin. eranicd without tl. ... , dice to the public service in other respects e'd, was to indulge in a faTa ielusk mf Causes are in operation which will, it is To avoid thcccLuy of a nermanent wte,!J!Irt'f? U M'" "r,,'Cr "'on. debt, ami its consequences, I ha'c advocated in is, ' riJ"ry 10 a"y ,lnfPr,a.nt "ntiol i- nJ endeavored to carry into effect M gieatly reduced through the pLevc " ! clearly w h in the co ii t$Z X?L( forts of the war department anA a reasonable the Federal Governmen of Pevch. W ,m hone mav be en ert.i nei i n.i ti.n . , "'" J11"' oi ixciuiiing from ope may be entertained that the necessity for its expenses those m ov dent and iilitary ,,, thai quarter . will soon Ihorise'd grants of ,,blTc money or vi jnse. J lie removal of the Indians from ihlernal rmprovcn.enl. wh lh VZ1 Kar a z:mms .1 ges upon the Treasury, is rapidly diminish- be'en so check ed wo, ,Id b g e tKstinm n,f by death. The most costly Jf our public have involved the finances of ene il buildings arc cither finished, or nearly so; Government in (MnbmScnts h, S lo.,.eVn,nay',-I,1,i,nk' M,fcly P'nise'our: than those which ar 1 rc, hic9C0,,,lm,ed CXCnll,,i0n mm b0r,lcr '!"' f "'States; of li iH gC Uu " x ' . JS o'iaSmrvann ?B onlJoVTff millio;,a0ndJam,anof, dolK'T.,:"1 "n LW,h, hlon.eonrfMent with L'charS receipts from all .ourcej from ihe c m 'an, 1, " iiL? pub 0' year w. lit is believed, be lands, a revenue fullj ?id quaTe deK dethe f.ovfinmcnt to meet the expenses thus inrn,JJ il "a. pretcute wbatsoevtr, to impose taxee upon matic service has been equally sustained ; ample provision has been made for the ad ministration of justice and the execution of the laws; if the claims upon public gratitud in behalf of the soldiers of the Involution have been promptly met and faithfullv di charged; if the public faith hasat all times and every where, been most scrupulously maintained by a prompt discharge of the nu merous, extended and diversified claims of the Treasury ; if all these great and pcima'ncnt objects, with many others that might he sta ted have, for a series of years, marked by pc culiar obstacles and difficulties, been success fully accomplished without a resort to a per manent iieoi, or ine am oi a national banK have we not a right to expect that a policy the object of which has been to sustain the public service independently of cither of these fruitful sources of discord, will receive the final sanction of a people whose unliins scd and fairly elicited judgment upon public an.uis is never ultimately wrong. That embarrassments in the ncciiniarv con cernsof individuals, of unc.vamnleil evinni and duration, have recently existed in this ns in oincr commercial nations, is undoubtedly true. To suppose it ncccsssary now, to trace reverses to tneir sources, would be a re flection on the intcllieence of mv fellow riii zens. Whatever mav have been tlinhcriii;i in which the subicct was involved .1 lirinrr tlin earlier stages of the revulsion, there cannot now ne many by whom the whole question 10 inn limy iiHiiersiood. iNot deemnm it within the eonstifinmnnl powers of the General Government tn r.-nir private losses sustained bv reverse in Imcin... Having no connexion with the nn Km-.-; cither by direct appropriations from the Treas ury, or by special legislation designed to ki. cure exclusive privileges and immunities to i miviuuaisor classes in preference to, and at ine expense oi tne eroat mnmntv ni.r:i.. .li.,.,.i f "T-' u'" '"ly pii.ucipauon in tnern, ik attempt to do so has been cither made. rPrnm mended or encouraged. by the present Ever. UIIVC. It is believed, however, that flu. rnt n,.,- nrtKPB tnr llio nltn! . -f ...l.-i .. . Government was instituted have not been lost signi oi. intrusted only with certain limited powers.cautiouslycnumcrated .distinctly speci tied, and defined with a ness which would seem to defy misconstrue . ' if -s my constant aim to confine '"J"-1' "itiiiu uiii limns SO c v mnrL-Pi v..., .i in o careiuiiy guarded. Having al ways been of opinion that the best prcserva live oi the union of the States is to be found in a total aostinence from l be ivin- f .,n doubtful powers on the mrt nf tl Vn.ini Government, rather than in .-ittomiito in t.ii-mu a loose construction of the constitu- uon.oran inirenioiis nervers nn nf it n-nr,io i have endeavored to avoid recommending any measure which I had reason to apprehend would, in the opinion even of a rn.,B , lomMn minority of my fellow.citicns, be regarded as trenching on the rights of the States, or the pro visions of the hallowed instrument of our Union. Viewing the aggregate powers of the redeial Government nsn vohiMi-.r,- : f Ihc Slates, it seemed to me that such only should be exercised as were at the time in tended to be given, 1 nave been strenctbened tnn i. priety of this course, bv il.o ,....:,:..., .i.. all efforts to go beyond this, tend only to produce dissatisfaction and dissrust. to eveiin jealousies, and to provoke resistance, insieml of adding strength to the Federal Govern ment, even when successful, they must ever prove a source of inmrnhin u...nbnnu i... nliAiintlfirt .. e .1. J ........... ,,B jhmuui. in mosc wnosc adher- states a remedy for present, or a security aeainst future dancers. The first, and assuredly not the least, im portant step towatds relicvinrf the country from the condtiion into which it had been plunged by excesses in tiado, banking and credits of all kinds, was to place the busi ness transactions of the Government itself on a solid basis, giving and receiving in all ca ses value for value, and neither counten ancing nor encouraging in others that delu sive system of credits from which it has been found difficult to escape, nml which hns left nothing behind it but the wrecks that maik its fatal career. That the financial affairs of the Govern. ment arc now, nnd have been during the whole period of these wide-spreading dillicul ties, conducted with n strict and invariable regard to this great fundamental principle, and that by the assumption and mnintainnnce of the stand thus taken on the very threshold ol the approaching crisis, more than any oth cr cause or causes whatever the community nt large has been shie'ded from the incalcu lable evils of a general indefinite suspension of specie payments, and a consequent anni hilation, lor the whole period it might have lasted, of a just and invariable standard of value, will, it is believed, at this period, scarcely be questioned. A steady adherence on the part of the Gov ernment, to the policy which has produced such salutary results, aided by judicious State legislation and what is not less important, by the industry, enterprise, pciseveiance and economy of the American people, cannot fail to raise the whole country, at an early period to a state of solid and enduring prosperity, not subject to be again ovcithrown by the sus pension of banks, or the explosion of a bloa ted credit system It is for the people and their representatives, to decide whe ther or not the permanent welfare of t c country, which nil good citizens equally de sire, however widely they may differ as to the means ot its accomplishment shall be. in this way secured ; or whether the manage ment of the pecuniary concerns of the Gov ernment and by consequence, to a great ex tent those of individuals also shall bo carried back to a condition of things which fostered those contractions and expansions of the cur rency and those reckless abuses of credit from the baleful effects of which the country has so deeply suffered a return that can promise in'the end, no better results than to re-produce the embarrassments the government has experienced ;and toicmovc from the shoul ders of the present to those of ficsh victims, the bitter finitof that speculative spirit of en terprise to which our countrymen are so liable and upon which the lessons of experience are so unavailing. The choice is an impor tant one and I sinccrly hope that it may be wisely made. A report from the Secretary of War, presenting a detailed view of the affairs of that department, accompanies this com munication. The desultory duties connected with the removal of the Indians in which the army has been constantly cngaijcd on northern and western frontiers, and in Florida have rendered it impracticable to carry into full cfl'ect the plan recommended by the Sec retary for improving its discipline. In every instance where the regiments have been concentrated they have made great progress : and the best results may be anticipated from a continuance of this system. Duriim the last season a part ofthc troops have been employed in removing Indians from the interior to the territory assigned them in the west ; a duty which they have perlbr mcd eflieicntly and with praiseworthy humanity ; and that portion of them which have been stationed in Florida continued active operations there throughout the summer. 'PI I! --.!- TT r.. . xiiu jiunuy 01 me united states in re y.iru 10 me uiuians oi winch a succinct account is given in my message of 1S38 anu 01 the wisdom and expediency o which I am fully satisfied has been con tinned 111 active operation throughout the whole period of my administration. Since the spring of 1S37, more than foity thousand Indians have been removed to their new homes west of the Mississippi, and I am happy to add that nil accounts concur in representing the result of this measure as eminently beneficial to that people. The emigration of the Scminoles alone has been attended with serious difficulty, and occasioned bloodshed hostilities link ing been commenced by the Indians in norma, unucr the apprehension t int thnv would be compelled, by rorco, to comply with their treaty stipulations. The execu tion qftho treaty of Payne's landing sign ed in lS32,butnot ratified until 1831, was i"";r" uiiuu aunuiiaiioii oi the Indians, until 1S3C, when they again renewed their agreement to rcnyive peaceably to their uu niimcs in tne west, in the face ol this solemn nnd renewed compact, they UIU iiiuiriiiuii, nun commenced host . ties by the massacre of Major Dade's com mand, the murder of their agent, General iHiimou, ana other nets ol cruel treach ery. hen this alarming and unexpected intelligence reached the scat of frovornmpni ucry eitort scorn to have been made to reinforce General Clinch, who rnmmnnil. cd the troops then in Florida. Gen. Eustis was despatched with reinforcements from Charleston troons were called nut nf A In. bama, Tennessee, nnd Georgia; atidGen ocoit was sent to take the command, with ample powers and ample means. At the first alarm, Gen. Gaines organized n tV at New Orleans, and without waiting for orders, landed in Florid:;, where ho cbdiv. crcd over the troops ho had brought with him to Gen. Scotr? . ... I. ... Ul.8.l. ...I since, uen. Armistcuu, uno was in norma wiicn Gen. Taylor left tho nrmy, by permission assumed the command, nnd, after uctivc summer operations, was met by propositions (or punco ; nnd, Irom the fortunate coincidence of the nrrival in Florida, nt the same period, of n delegation from the scmin oles, who were happily settled west of tho Missis sippi, nnd arc now anxious to persuade their coun trymen to join them, these hopes were lor some time entertained that the Iiidi ins might be induced to leave tho territory without further difficulty. These hopes have proved fallacious, and hostilities liavo been renewed throughout tho whole of tho territory. That this contest has endured so long, i to be attributed to causes beyond the control of gov ernment. Experienced officers have had command of the troops; officers nnd soldiers have alike dis tinguished themselves for their activity, patience, and enduring courage ; tho army has been constant ly furnished with supplies of every description ; nnd wo must look lor the cnuscs which have so long procrastinated tho issue of tho contest, in the vast extent of the thentre of hostilities, the almost insur mountable obstacles presented by the wily character of the suvnges The sites for marino hospitals on the rivers and lakes, which I wns authorised to select nnd causa to be purchased, have bent designntcd ; but the appropriation not proving sufficient, conditional ar rangements only have been made for their acqui sition. It is for congress to decide whether those conditional purchases shall be sanctioned, nnd the humane intentions of the law carried into full ef fect. Tho navy, as will appear from the accompanying report of the Secretary, has been usefully and honorably employed in the protection of our com merce and citizens in tho Mcditeriancati, the Pa cific, on tho coast of Brazil, nnd in the Gulf of Mexico. A small squadron, consisting of the fri gate Constellation nnd the sloop-of-war Boston, under Commodore Kearney, is now on its way to Chitin and the Indian Seas, for tho piupose of at tending to our interests in that quarter ; and commander Atilick, in ihc slnop-of-war Yorktown, lias uccn instructed to visit tho Sandwich and Soci ety Islands, the coasts of New-Zealand, and Japan, togoiher with other ports and islands frequented by our whale ships, for the purpose of giving them countenance and protection, should they be required. vjiner smaiior vessels nave uccn, and still arc, em ployed in prosecuti.- g the surveys of the coast of the United States, directed by various acts of Con gress ; anil those uhu:h have been completed will shortly bo laid before you. Thc c!)loriiig expedition, nt the latest date, was prcpaiingto leave the liny of Islands, New-Zealand, in further prosttion of objects which have, thus far, been successfully accomplished. The discovery of a new continent, w! ich was first seen in latitude GG 2 south, longitude 1 54 27 east, nnd afterward in latitude GG 31 south, longitude J53 40 east, by Lieutenants Wilkes and Hudson, for an extent of 1S0U miles, but on which they were prevented from landing by vast bodies or ice which encom passed it, is one ofthc most honorable results of the enterprise. Lieutenant Wilkes bears testimony to the zeal and good conduct of his officers and men ; and it is but justice to that officer to state that he appears to have performed the duties assigned him with an ardor, ability, and perseverance, which give every assurance of an honorable issue to tho undertaking. The report ot the post master general, herewith transmitted, will exhibit the service of that depart ment the lust year, and its picsent condition. Tho transporfitioii hns been maintained during the year to the full extent authorized by the existing laws ; some improvements have been effected, which the public interest seems urgently to demand, but not involving any mnlcrial additional expenditure ; tho contractors have generally performed their enae mcnts with fidelity ; the post masters, with few ex ceptions, have rendcied their accounts and paid their quarterly balances with promptitude ; and the who e servico of the depaitmcnt has main tained the efficiency for which it has for several years been distinguished. The acts ofcongrcss establishing new mail routes, and requiring morn expensive service on others, and the increasing wants of the country, hnve, for three years past, carried the expenditures something beyond the accruing revenues; the excess havit." neon met, until the past year, by the surplus which had previously accumulated. That surplus having bee., exhausted, and the anticipated increase iu the rcvciiiie not having been realized, owing to the de pression in tho commercial business of the coun try, the finances of the depaitmcnt exhibit a small deficiency at the close of the last fiscal year. Its resources, however, ample; nnd the rcduccdrates of compensation for the transportation service, which may be expected on the future letting, from the general reduction of prices with the increase of revenue that may rrasnnnbu- h .:: i c. ,i, I .. ' ' .lliliv-lliuieu JILMII he revival ol commctcial activity, must soon place the fiiiancDs oi ihc department in a piospcrou condition. 1 Considering the utifbvnmi.i.. -i ..i.:-u have existed during the pastycar, it is a gratifying result that the revenue has not declined, as com pared withlhe prccedinc vmr. Imi ,, ,t, exhibits n small increase, the circumstances re ferred to having had no other effect than to check the expected income. It will bo seen that the postmaster general surges. I certain imnroveinpnis in i. -.,i,i:.,i r.i . - ..iv. v-iiiuiisiiiuuiil UC signed to reduce the weight ofthc mails, chenncu the transportation, ensure greater regulation in the service, and secure a consiil.-r.iSh. rn,i,; :.. .i.. rates of letter postagc-an object highly desirable. 1 110 Sll OlPfl la nnn,,l'..n.....l . . - . w gum-,,,, iiuerest ,0 ,(le commu nity, nnd is respectfully recmnmnmUl sideration. ' The suppression of tho Afrienn srtv..-.i- v. received tho condition nf i, .. ...... --- -- -r"i-i ii mum. mo Dolphin and schooner Ginmnus hair 1, witn ine ex iccteit during the next yc iiii:.:..i ni.i .1.. u....,vn.u. iu ciiauiu me iiuveinmcni to bippi ij ugugcHiiiii, ana ieav a ruitaUM bol aiicc is indispensible to the great aggregate of united strength, and whose voluntary at tachment is, in my estimation, far more cs sentinl to the efficiency of a government strong in the best of all nn;i,t ,,i. the confidence and attarlim.iit nt u,J r...i. make nn its constituent rlpm,.nio Thus believing it has been mv nurnose tn secure to the whole people, nnd to every member of tho confederacy, by gonenl al,i tary, and coual laws alnn. ii.n r those republican institutions which it was the end and aim of the constitution t,. ...i-.i. lish.nnd the impartial influence of which is, in my judgment, indispensable to their '"". icannoi uring myself to be jevc that the lasting happiness of the pC()IIt. the prosperity of the States, or the pcimanen- r' s..u ou maintaineil by K v ing preference or priority to any class of citi. zens in the distribution ,.f . . ' leges or by the adoption of measuies which enrich one portion of the Union at the cv pence of another; nor rnn I no in the inter ference of the Federal Government With the local Jtgielation nnd reserved rights of the Governor Call was subsequently ap pointed to conduct n summer mmnni..., and nt the close of it. wns rcnlnm,! l, nZ.' Jessup. Theso events nnd changes took placo under the administration of my pre decessor. rnlivitlic-ir..wi;.,r. .1 ..,...MUM,S lul; nous oi tno experienced officers who had com- mauu there tor ciehleen months, on on tering upon tho administration ol'ihn eminent I found tho territory of Florida n prey to Itidinn atrocities. A citnu.mi,. effort was immediately mado to brill" mosc hostilities to a close ; and tho nrmy under Gen. Jessup, was reinforced until it nmoiinfcd to ten thousand men, nnd fur nished with abundant supplies of every description J ,,is campaign a great number of tho enemv uem nii,n.i ...i destroyed ; but the character of tho cor test was changed. The Indians having been defeated in every engagement, dispersed mi small bunds throughout tho country, nnd Dccninonn ontcrnrisinrr. r,..,:.i.,i.i. ...i ruth ess banditti. Con. Taylor, who suc ceeded Gen. Jessup, used his best exer tions to siibduo them, and was (seconded m his efforts by the officeis nml,.,- i,iu command ; but ho, too, failed to protect ...w ,,,,, ,, ,r uppreunlions. IJy fin net of signal and cruel treachery they broke tho truco mad,, with them by fieii. Macomb, who wns sent from Washi.."- bris Ion for tho purpose of carrying into cfiect . vAiuusscti win na r r.. .. , hnvo continued their devastations ere, V ;U; r 7 s ";l SCnin" " the const of Alnca, lor thenurnoso nrnmi-nnt; i .. - tlm. trade as was' said o bo ": " " , 01 American flag. Alter c.uisimr off'tlm . JrXZ coast most tiMiallyreso. ted to by slavers, until tho commencement of ,he rainy season, these vessels i ' u""?(l amies tor supplies, and havo since been despatched on a similar service brom the reports of the commanding officer.', o "E',S il,n,,thB 'rai10 '? ,,0H' PciP..y carried .. ....... . . Lumrs; aim uiey express the opinion that the apprehension of their presence on the s nvc-coast has, in a prcnt degree, ai rested the prosti.ution f ,,o American flag to h nhuman puiposc. It s hoped that, by continuing this lorco , that quarter, and by ,lc exertions of the ofiicers ,n command, much will be done to p, a stop to ulm ever portion of , his traffic may have been carried on under the American fing.nnil to prevent its use in a trade which, while it 'violates Hie Jaws, is equally an outrage on iho lights of others nnd the '-clings ot liumnuily. The efforts of tho t . governments who a,e anxiously seeking to suppress tlii-s Irnfi.e must lion over bo directed ngainit tho fiicilmcsnflbtdcd by what a.o now iccotizcd a! legitimate conimcicialnurstiiis i.r, ?i... i . can be fully accomplished. mu "Jccl Shim Het ol nrovisinns wnir i . . Articles romiecied wi,, ,l,e Vf C "Z ' "'"t"r,1,s,t M are. i, is understood, f "rl ly ffi , n-,rade to vl icl ,v hP " "f ')' i'berof 1C nniion, 11, "T 'l'U', ciitinccil in il.e con.mcrco of in,, r ha vi it it i.. , r '0,lrJl"lf.'iucni8 wluilior tbispovrrnment b a , ne been i ho firt io prohibit, by od. quale pennl iT, "e Imeiriidf-the tirn to derive it pfracv-should not bo ibo first, a8o, io forbid to iu ehin'ns all trmlo vti li ili s ave fuumrlrsoii the eo.nt orAfrirn givnip cxun,,,e ,o nil uai.onit in this rcfpcci, hlcli If fairly followed cannM fail loproduco llio most cflcetive resulig in i.rralilno p tl.oe,lcnof.o'a,ii.y. M, VAN 1WHLN. Wathincian, Pec. 6, IP-10.