Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, August 13, 1841, Page 2

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated August 13, 1841 Page 2
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Iff"- WHIB BPRIB88 WHIG STATK TICKET, ron novEitNon, CHAKLES PAINE. ron i.int'T. novr.nNOR, WAITSTILL U. RANNEY. rou TitKAsfnEn, JOHN SP AULDINO. rOR Sr.XATOUS CHITTENDEN COUNTT. THADDEUS R. FLETCHER, DAVID FRENCH. PC -1 FISCAL BANK OF THE UNITED STATES. IIocsc or KtrnnscNTATivrs. Moaday, August 2. Tlio Bank Bill being taken up Mr. Sergeant, chairman of tlio committee on tlio currency, who had reported the bill, took the tloor with tlio purpose of supporting the gener al measure, solar as the limited time allowed him by the rule should permit, lie said that the objects of the present called session uf Con. gross were well understood by the People of the United .S'tatcs ; and, as thoro was no time to ptiare in going into an enumeration of them, he nhould content himself by saying that they might nil be comprehended in this, viz to put the affairs of Hie union in order. Tla House, thus far, hail fulfilled the expectations of the Public mid poi formed its duty. It had now arrived in due course at a'incasuro much ljoked to, of vast importance, and which ho considered as indispensably necessary to the administration of the Constitution itself. He could not now en ter into proofs ; but ho would nay that the Con etitutiou had never worked right, nor, in bin opinion, ever, would, without such a machino f j this bill contemplated again to introduco into the Government, and thereby to render its great plan complete. H'hcii this bill should have been duposcdof, there would then remain (tho ho hoped, not long) the Sub. 7'reasury bill and the Ihiikrtipt bill to complete the enumeration w hich bad been made of the principal measures which ought to occupy the attention of Congress at the present extra session. Iltl Stated Ills nrncont nliln,., l.- - t i. ; 1 , in K m remove uouuls aim dilliculties, ifanv existed in tlio of members of the House. He should not no into tho constitutional question ho meant upon original grounds. His position would be, that that question was now settled, and his main endeavor would bo to show this. Some gentle men might bo diffpo,ed to ask, Why take any trouble to establish such a position 1 Did not , . ik'uv Know, anu teei, and acknowledge that it was a settled question, .mil !,,! i..B? half a century 1 Yes j it was very true that it . in )ini oi respect with as much regard as ifit had been inserted in express .onus in mo letter oi the Constitution. But una n5 noi s uncient . lor whenever tho ques tlOll Was llltrrwliifr.,1 !,,l !:... . 1 . .i . , uiavutuiuu, ii was ob vious that there remained still a lurking rem- .......... u, ,. uicuiiy which had formerly attended it, and which was more or Inssnm.l,,;. tivo of embarrassment. Ho wished, therefore, ..UN Liimjuustion, anu Hoped to be able to dispose of it, soastoluavono doubt on anv Ihc House was composed forthe most part of hwyors.but lawyer acting- as statesmen. And he, therefore, should not deem it sufficient to i" ' every argument which mmtit be restored to in a professional eiicountcr? Jliere were questions which, though thev might seem at first sight to bo merely and strict ly professional, were nevertheless, founded on considerations which addressed themselves to a Wh.fnT JllL'tew,ero entitled to respect f 1,0 1 ',oro oro -f"l,er,J wl'ich sprung direct ly from the Constitution itself, and to settle which we must go to the Constitution itself-an authority which must cucr be admitted as final, as much by tho statesman as the jurist. In taking an historical view of the question, his time would admit merely that lie should present the points of tho argument, and leave them to the reflections of the committee. Ho should go back, almost to the period when this nation lirt-t assortedits independence Ho must look at one of the gloomiest periods in our whole revolutionary history-he meant the year l,sO, when tho representatives of the na tion having confederated themselves by articles ?,?iT-i?' f" i70, (,l,0USh "ot ful'y carried out till litjl,) forthe purpose of carryine on the struggle agamst tho power of Great Britain, resorted to the very measure proposed in the present bill 71o idea originated 'in 1760 ; and ho Journals would show that no sooner hid it bsen conceived by the patriots of that dav than U vv;as instantly adopted by Congrccs-'vb on they'd ofJunc, 1,60, at a time when Maryland had not yet joined the Confederacy. And in De comber, l,dl, itmore openly espoueed the Bank w hich had done so much to enable the States to bring the war to a triumphant conclusion lherc was an ordinance of Congress in 1781. in. corporat.ng the first Bank of the United States, and in its preamble that body employed these memorable words-words as true it this day as hey had been then, and cantaining a truth like ly to bo more especially appreciated in a time of war, viz: 'W hereas the CMgencicsof the United states render it wdcspemalh, necessary tint such an act bo immediately passed." This was the judgment of the old Congrcw t was one of those historical facts which one iked to resort to for it camo to us hallowed by the patriotism of the cause and of the distinguish, od ae on in it. Ho wished tho commiUce to keep this resovo m me, adoption of that Constitution which was after ward giveii jo the country as its chief blessine, and by which its Unmn was consolidated, herc was the confession of Congress that an exien. cy had arisei. (and might again arise)in which a National Hank had become essentially neccssa ry to tho public welfare. When the Constitu! tion came to bo established, tho great object in view was to establish a more intimate union among the States : and it was Virginia that gave the first impulse in that all-importatit movemen . "he imperfection of tho art clcs of confederation became daily more apparent ; and as it vvas but five or si.v years after the resolu. tion above quoted, it was impossible that those who frames the now Constitution could have forgotten tins, and could purposly have dropped out of that instrument a power which they had themselves declared to ho indispensably ncces fary nor did they do so. In the prostrate condi tion of the country tho exigency did arise, and one of the first acts adopted by those great men who haU framed that instrument, who had fought the battles of the Revolution, and who were as familiarly acquainted with tho journals and proceedings of the old Congress as centle. men now were with their own, was to establish n Hank of tho United .S'tatcs. Mr. N. did not say that no differences of opin ion had at that time existed as to tho power to cstablith mch an institution ; but tho act passed and it received the highest sanction known to the history of tins country in tho signature of (.co. W ashington ;and it remained the law of the land, w ithout objection or dispute, for 20 year,-. Ho called every gentleman to bear it in mind, that w hile this law was pervading all the business of the country, while it was operatiii" in every tribunal, and in its effects touching the whole community and overy individual it it, while it was dealing with all sorts of corpora, ions and with the Mates themselves, yet noob Jcction wan, dnring that whole period, raised on tho ground of constitutionality. What private opinions might be entertained, it was not for Mr b. to inquire.: it was enough that the constitu. ttonality was never judicially questioned. Vet iu Ui.,n iiMi na mcu actions in overy tribunal of uiu cuumry.iiigu ana low. Men were not only civilly prosecuted, but oven criminally tried anil condemned to tho penitentiary for forging the paper of the bank: yet tho question .,? u,,con rtitutionahty was never raised. Never did etat. lite incorporate itself more vitally and intimate, ly in the very being of tho community, and con- """' i-iueeiy wiwi tncdailv bread ol But furllinr. Thn viz : that of tho Congress of tho United States. It became expedient, in tho opinion of tlio bank to establish a branch at tho city of New Orleans; - o-i'viihuiii iiuiuuuii iiiu iiu'jJi;iiu ill lih: country, and MrJcfTorson was at the head of f.nM..a i i. .i i , , u.iui.o. j nu uaim nuu mull uuun USiauilSllCO Itllrfnnn trnqra . n.i.l t 1.111 n.,tt.n-:..: ! .n ,11. J""10 ' MM... ."I I.IIIJJ Ik III KB" tablisli branches within tho Territory of the United tS'tatcs, passed both Houses and rcceiv cd tho signature of the President j in conse quence of which the branch at New Orleans tvnlit intn nnnrnf.ntl ITntJl.l n . .1.. 1.111 v,.w.-v.w... ivuiu iiul ouiiur IIIU Ulll to become a law by neglecting to return it with objections, butthc actually sizned it. Yet he was the hcao and loaderof tho party who had nroviouslv hern as strong notions in relation toils unconstitution- ,v,MO ul "ivsu most opposco 10 it. uy fiiirninir n liill In natqliliul. n r ,i. , o r. u iiu,y uiuiiii ui lilt; institution, he virtually sanctioned tho oslab. mcnt of a new bank. This was in 1804 Pre. yiously.m 1801, the Commisioncrs of tho Sinkins tund, established for the payment of tho nation. - - -t ....ivilM-UKr oy IIIUBIUUK Ul the bank subscribed for by the United States : llin oil. ...nr. . ....I V lt . t1 receivcu into mo i reasury. Ill Iflll. llin l.-,.ln.,.f !... I. 1 1 . 1 hiv .ui t.iugui uiuoiukn ... 1 ...w Ul lliu llinL UilllK uAiiireu, and from that time down to 1810 tho financial aiidiru oi me country had been in a etato of nor IL'Ct COnfllaiOli: nunnFttinitw tii.l Lnn 0!,.l thon, as now, to individuals to take advantage, of tho government and of each other: epccula tton nbrmnrlpfl. ilflfrtlr-itlnna ul:i:.i r . tuilltl nuu UUIJ1I UlllilUU " , -"wuHuiw uiui;iriivUf 1IIU Ul" fairs became woreo from day to day, till thon, i tuiiiuiuiiuy encu out wiin one uni ted voice. "Let us have a Uanknf tl.n ITnlin.l States." A bill for tho charter of a bank was accorumgiy brought into Congress, passed both a"i ""i was Bum 10 mr. mauison lor his slg. nature. 'I'hnt irroit mm l.-.l !.. i r posed to the incorporation of the first bank, but in that, in ll piqn tin ,11.1 t.rl :..-!: i l self by tho zeal and ability ho displayed : he was in fact one of tho chief champions of those who maintained the unconstitutionality of such an institution; more especially aftor the adop tion of the memorable resolutions of 1708, when ho wa considered also as a watchman peculi- . V "iwi "t;i Hie aanciuy oi what then came to be known as the "State rights" cause. Mr. Madison returned tho bill with objections, not however to its eiinstlti, ton ality, but to its expdioncy. His veto Message was dated Jnmi.irv .HIV . -...l .1.- a. - - J ' -w.v, anu ill lug 101. lowing joar Congress passed a bank charter whirh rntnnvnil fiic rvtilt tr.tm t- and he signed the bill. Here, theni were the uiusinous names 01 1 nomas Jetlcrson and Jas Madison, thn Otin ntfirmiMrr titn r r-. ' : . , , b l'cr Ul irross In nxtftml llm nnu-n. 1 ki. i , . a uuim uireauy in existence, tho other to nstahliali ...... i..r. ' - ,v udiih. I hero .they stood 111 company with tho name of (ipnrtrn Waalniirrtnn rn tl.n .nn..1 e ., a" s " w IVI.UIUS (11 W10 ffOV. ernmont as sanctioning the power. Mr. K.nTrwl upon the record. Nor would it do to tell him mat tile assoni was oxtortod by necesr.ity the moment any man resorted to that argument, he surrendered the question of unconstitutionality if the charter was rendered constitutional by a case of nrirnnt nnrArtrfltt. tlir... . . . . .. . ,i ,,as consiuu- tional now, the necessity only being shown to print. Conuress had auain been callml 1,. , .1.. question in 1837. It had then more than a 1: 1111 op 1; ui liil irrpar KiiiiartrntM r... -11 .1 . 11 1 .1 li i t!i . rt" lilinjfS called the bub-I rcasurv nr tho !.,.? 1. ,n ,, r- 'ui.-l:iiul'I11 reasury." To nroDaro tho w r... ii.. ... . UJ- ommittoe of Ways and .Veans had brought in a Hesolu tion, declaring what J that it was unconstit,,. tional to establish a bank of tho United States ' No but that it , : , "men musi bo construed to mean that, as tho Sub-Troasu- ry wuuiu 00 auequaio 10 the supply of all the fiscal wants of tho government, a National Hank wnillrl nnt ltn MniiluJ 1 - ..... ...,uuuu. ruuiu gentle men tell him that under this allegation, viz. that to create x hnnk wnn inaFf.nrl;nH. .1 ---- - ...uni.ouiuiii, mere was contained the proposition that it was unconsti. luminal 1 111.5 nuuin oe to attempt to do what was no less iiitjillnr'tiiiillu il.n.. .,1.. . possible, viz. made the loss contain the irrcater .. ...v .... uutuiumunonji, inenthequcs. ;i 11 "pen; 11 men the House voted it to bo expedient, they voted ... .v v uuu, u h nau oeen ex- nofiionf. flinrivmiM liavn litl the charter. ' "smw This, Mr. S. said, was a hasty glance at the legislative ap.tinn n roK,, ... .1. and, without going any further, ho might here 'T " A"3 cauiim man would now al lege that a National Bank is in itself unconsti. tutionall He next nrocecded In lnnL- fi ii. , ... .- . juuiciai re cognitions of its constitutionality, which had taken place. They wore, indeed, iiitini te. ton numerous tor particular reference, and in overv variety of form: lint. u.-iil,,,i . 1: ., , , ' , K-uaruiii inese. Congress had made two express and solemn de cisions on the direct question, viz: one in the celebrated case of McCulloch vs. the State of .miMMiiu, anu uiu oincr mat ot Usborne acainst the Bank of the United States. What was the OUestlon 1 It U'la una .rln.l, .... . ... , - """-ii iusu unuer me Constitution and Laws of the United States ; and what was the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court nil curl, n.ificlinnu 1 Tt . .1. ., r. , . " ;."", . ' k " ,llml anu eon- elusive over all subordinate tribunals ; its deci- sion semeu tne law. in this case its jurisdic. tion was exclusive, and every citizen iniKht co into court with its decision as being of final au thority, against which no objection would lio as to the unr.nnntitntinnnntv nf U l.-i. 11.. . ,v . .uu uuiiK. yiiai an anomaly would it be that that which is de- w.ut.-ii uy me supremo tnuunal of the country to bo a constitutional 1au kin.l; .... .1.- .. . -j . : i."" ." "ii uie ivii hc land and every individual in it, should bo held not to 1 bo constitutional ? If a man should be sued by tho bank, could he plead that the bank was not constitutional ! Certainly not ; because .jueiiiiuiuiiaiiiy was a settled question He did not, indeed, pretend that the authority of cuch a decision extended to opinions it was ui iicwBvury 10 insist on any such thin" but . ...M.. iin-ui reiain me same opinion after the decision that he did be iuic m (,us iiajijiuueu in an courts every day ) but wlmn tho ntlpctinn wnn . tl.n ' - . ........... lUU,,Hj, ,L. country to have what, according to the lamina".- nf thp nlfl fTnnrrrpuu t.-o II J4I. ...il ... ..0, vr, ., limiclt:ilMlulR OH then no one was at liberty to controvert their- i.yuvuiij' iiium man lie woum 00 in COUrt. On nnir.t 1 R ...A..l.l 1... .1 w.. ,.w ,,u.iiu iuv uown a mod. est and reasonable proposition, which he honed nnnA llfnlilJ iIakv. fin li a .llnrrn.l a.. la . IUIIU UH' n'ij -w nuu IV.ILIIi;ii Ut .Uf, JolToreoii's signing a bill for the New Orleans branch in 1601, and Mr. Af.idison's signing the charter of the bank in 1810, after having, in 13. 10, given nis nojeciions to it : in that case he considered thenuestion nf rnnctitiiti...!:,.. ... tied, not only as to tho existing bank, but on the general question of the rights of the I'eople of the United States to have a bank whenever they wished it. Now, he asked whether, sig ning that bill, Mr. Madison had ever been clia". "nil with rnntrailictinn ? Mr. S 1.1,1 .-au nut IT heard the chargo from any quarter. Did thoBo uvu itcsiuoiiih auaiiuun inuir uuiy on signiii" those bill 1 Was it their duty, because they had originally entertained the opinion that a uu.m ttun uutuilMHUMUliai, ur UUCaUSC they might still entertain that as their private opin ion, as I'residenU of jhe United Statos, to veto me urns suumtttcd to them 1 Was it a derelic tion of duty not to do bdJ Mr. S. insisted that when, in his official capacity, a President was called upon, as an act pertaining to his office to inrrn a lull whir.li hail nr.CCA.l i..i. u i1 " '.oovm will tlUUSUH Ul Congress, ho was not bound to adhere to his own private and personal opinion, but to yield his judgment to the official settlement of tl.n question. It might be thought by some that Mr. K. should go further, and say that in such case a President was bound to sanction the Jaw ; but ho did not choose to go further, lie thought it more respectful to the Chief Magistrates to take the position that they were, as President, loft perfectly free to do whatever they should VJ e?. , 0 cxigencies of the country to require. lip illil nnt .nBl. .1 1 , , 1 . , mumuj uo noiu as siavcs, lasi bound by anv nnvii.n .,;,..,, 1 . . . I'.l.u.u llllU IJUIBUIiai opinion, but as Presidents to feel themselves at i".Tiy uiresponu, as .Mr. Madison had dono. to tho call nf iI.p IWnlo - 1 IthoconHrtutional qtirtion hair bvcn p-ittlodby all sorts of ofliclal decisions. The language of f t-.l! .- ,..L, f .. ,n n .nr. mauison was runiirK.iDiu lor Homing more than for its accuracy j he was a full. minded man, but at the same time a most ncrnnlnihin. kcr and writer. He never employed useless or unmeaning words ; nor did he leave tho sense he intended to express doubtful or obscure " Waving the nucstion of constitutionality." It might be asked, what right had a President of il... rr..ii.i vini. ... It e .1.- iiu UI111-.-U ULtiiuo lu tvaivu IIIU U.1IU3UUII Ul IIIU cnnstitutionslity of any thine 1 lie had none : nouo whatever ; ho was bound by his oath to support the Constitution of the United States. What then was his meaning' Ho waived the question because, there was no longer any ques tion undecided : the Question had hecn settled Although he might privately have thought uuiurwisu, nay, uunougu 110 mignt Sllll DO 01 llic same opinion, yet when ho cast his eye overtho whole land, and saw it filled with tho monu ments which proved the question td have boon decided in the lcgislatvic, the judicial, and the executive departments of the government, and by the long acquiescence of tho People, lie camo to the just conclusion that, as President of the United States, he had no question to settle. On this ground ho waived the question. His wonis were, waiving the quostion of tho con stituonal authority of the Legislature to estab. lish an incorporated bank, its bcina phecluiisd. t' mv iitJamcnl. by rencatcd roiwrnitinns. nn. der various circumstances, of the validity of such .111 insiiiuiion, in uiu acts 01 tho legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches of the Gov. ernmont, accompanied by indications indifferent inoues ot concurrence ot tlio goncral will cf tlill llatinn." ITn u-nifoil It . vna . Tint .ut.ii .11.1 he vvaivo ! His own private opinion, if he still held it ; or his former oninion. as more oncnlv expressed. There was no longer a question for him to deoide. He might say to himself, "No matter what I may have thought as a man ; this liiesuon now comes up to me as rrcsulent, Irom a land teeming with proofs that it had boen de cided ; and am I to sot up my private opinion against that of tho whole People of the United States! No; as President of the land, irntre n. Mr. .S. further adcertcd to the fact that, when Mr. Madison used this language, the ju dicial decisions by tho Supreme Court had not yet been given (for they were not made till I8isi,j ami asked how much stronger would his li.nmm"n linvn Lr.ni. t.i! ll.,.n .rA..:n:nH. I .. bol'orohim! How could that bo unconstitu. tional which tho tribunal declared by the Con. stitution itself to bo supremo over all court, so lar as rignts wore concerned, had pronounced to bo constitutional ? Ur. S. would not ask whether, under these circumstances, a meinbor of Congress was at nuuriy 10 urge bucii an objection against a bank bill but hcthcr he was bound to do it t I Tim- could he bo 1 Ho might give his opinion on uiu poinias a reason lor Ms vote j or ho might leave tho Hall when the quostinncame, as had been done by a vory distinguished individual, remark at the time, but whom Mr. S. was under stood to approve as acting on the nrincinln tliat tvnusc cunuiici nan riven rise to a n-m.it iina nt when a constitutional question has been, no iiMiiuas at nueny to mane activo opposition against it on tho ground of his own oersonal opinion. To try this principle, ho put the case of a man who from some notions of his own .if to tho unconstitutionality of a law, should forci. bly resiit its o.vocutioii, and thereby incur the penalties of treason. Would it bo a sufficient plea in his case against sentence of death bciii" pronounced on him to sav. that it wan hid nri! vale opinion that the law he had resisted was unconstitutional ! Surely not. He might enjoy us ujiinioii, out must not carry it into action against the settled will of tho nation legally ex. pressed. Suppose a marshal nf il.n II. v .., called to execute process issued in behalf of the Ihtik, might ho refine on the plea that he thought the Bank uuconstitution.il ! nr n,;i,i court refuse to give judgment for the Baiilc in a suit, because one of the judges on tho bench nein mat opinion i And why would it do any brt'er for the Pres. idont 1 Let him take the Constitution as others were bound to take it. He wai perfectly free to do so, nor Would he lin "uilti- r,f cy or a broach of duty in setting aside his pri vate opinions just as tho judgo of subordinate court must do. If any functionary of the Gov. eminent was bound to act otherwinp. it mmi i,n on tho alleged ground of his oath to support the Constitution : but did that mean that overy man must support the constitution "as he understood !" a flllcl' dovtrine was in the Constitution. ho same r,ath was administered to overy func louary If ono was bound, nil ntl.oro ... And, in a nucstion like thin, u-a n.i.rl.i u... fully argue from a lower to a higher, as from a higher to a lower officer. If tho marshal was bound to take the Constitution as effectually settled, so was tho President! Ho mi"ht in. siston his right of private judgment, so" might iiu .iiarsii.il, anu so mo judge, and so mi-lit, at last, evory private citizen : and then u-n HhnuM come to that glorious state of universal confus. ion, where every man interpreted law and con. stitution to suit himelf, and every man did what was right in his own eyes. A man might have sold his neighbor a quantity of bank stock, and when he demanded ins money the other might say, I shall not pay you a dollar : the bank is unconstitutional, and its stock no more than blank paper. ARRIVAL OF THE ACADIA. Tho Acadia left Liverpool on tho 20lli ult. and arrived at Boston on Monday morn ing at an early hour, thus making the nas. sage in about 12 1-2 days. She brings Liv- erpoool dates of her day or sailing, and Lon don of the day previous, being six days later advices than reached us hv the Great West ern. Seventy-nine passengers left livernool in tho Acadia for Halil'ax-and Boston. Among tho passengori landed at tho former place, we notice Mr. Lyall the geologist. Mr. Swurtwout, ex-collector of tho port of New l oi k, is also a passenger. The news is not of much importance Tho great struggle between the Reformers ami Conewi-vnittva, linil iiMclieu a close, and returns had been received at Livernool from the United Kingdom, excepting the couuties of Wexford and Kerry. No doubt was en tertained of tho return of tho Reform candi dates in these counties. The number of Reformers may be stated at 290, wiiich in a house of G58, leaves tho Tories a majority of rtcfnrrncrs. Tories, r.ngli.ih rioro'iRhs. . . 17G irG Kni'iiU Counlie... ... 22 137 Irrhnd CI 43 Scotland . . 31 22 Total. . . 2'JO ffl" Tiid.ivfrpoolTimcsof ihe20ih, spoking of the ruction, say Tho majority, we mum acknowl idije is considerably moro niinu'rous than we antici pated, It will probably be somewhat mluced when Parliament assembles, by the unwalinsof several of tlio G'iiit.erviimcs, who have been returned for Irish cities and boroughs. There will also be 11 great number uf r.m-IMi incinlxra unseated by election nimmitlccs, llioiijjli it is impossible 10 tell at present how thin will tiled iho bilancc uf patties. Hut sup posing that the Liberal nnrty should gnin something considcrnh'c by tho result of the commitlct's, there will still be h majority in favor of Iho conservatives of between GO and 70 voles, a nuijority amply suffi cient for the. purposes of 1,'iivcrnimiit. ,s fir os the political government of Knglsiid and Scotland is eon. cerned, the new mlmiuislration will probably differ very huh. from the present one, and its foreicn policy may alio bo expected to bo very much the tamo. Its eoinmcreiul policy will, however, bo directly opposed to that of the present jrovrrnnicnt, and to ihc inter. esHofnlloxoeptlhopmileKPdch6.es, and it will find no small dimculiy in keeping its own friends in Ireland, many thins; like order. O'Connell was elected from Cork, and will resign therefore, the seat from tlio County ot Heath. The new ministry, rcppeeting which there are some speculations alrtady in tho Ilnj-lish papers, will not, of course, hi- formed until tho nest nic-Mim; of Parlia ment, uhich ijfiudfaMhe lWi of Anu-t, T i .nrt.nm.,nnn r.F ,1. I. ' ...... . uanui for having dograded himsolf so much as to meet tho plenipotentiary or to listen to the ! Pfl cession o, ong rvong. Two of tho impor tant characters reached Canton in time to behold tho succoss of the British am. nn,l . sign tho truce and sanction a tomporary UUUUt Captain Elliot was at Canton, protected by a military guard, waiting tho arrival of "Yeksliara," tho Emnoror's was hourly expected, and who would be compelled, by force of necessity, to sanction tho arrangements made by his colloaguos Four men-of-war are stationed in theMocoo passage, above Canton ; three a few miles bolow, and six at Whampoa, where they will remain, to insure tho safety oftho foreigners anu io cnecK any treachery on tho part of local authorities. Tho otl llr VPCi-.la i rn n tho Bogue, Macao and Hong Kong. Major General Sir Hin?h finn,,l. on the 2d of March, as commandor-in-cheif oi me land lorct-s. Sir Gordon Bremen was gone to Bengal for reinforcements, but was oxpcciod to return about tlio first of June when tho fleet would im North anain. J make another demonstration upon the cap- lUI, L UtVHI. Tho loss of the Chinese in the- varin,i.n gagemcnts was estimated at 2500 or 3000 men, and about 800 pieces of cannon. Tho Chinese Admiral Kewang, fell in defence of the Boguo forts, as did of high rank. The captain of a British trans port, arriving nt Chusan after the surrender f t. I i. . ui mat isianu to tlio Chinese, wasslain on landing. I h0 day uftertho fall oftho Boguo forts rewards wore offered for tho capluru or destruction of British ships ; 100,000 dollars for a line-of-battlo shins. Sin nrui fnr , -, .w.

a stuamcr, ou,uuu lor tlio Admiral or Cant oiuoi iiiaKcnanve. and S4 ).onn far niii.or of their heads; Teas were hi"h and scarm. Tim t, merchants would deal only for cash, and in sisted on beiiin paid beforo tlm i.-a delivered. It was believed that the arran gement for trade could not last long, and that the foreigners would bo again compelled to leave for Macao. A large encampment of Chinese troops was visible from tho facto ries, at a little distance from Canlon, and tho numoer was daily increasing. Courier. From tho St. Louis Arcu. GREAT BATTLE IN THE INDIAN COUNTRY. La red numbors of Imlinn. ,. moiierels from Florida I, !.rn h...... ..I.. 1 i . " "--.-II IIIUCUU upon tho borders of Arkansas and Missouri. oy a gentleman direct from Fort Leaven worth wo learn thai snnin firm nn. .. e. Florida and runaways from tho Choctaws aim wiiuniKL-us ana iront tne whites, united with a few Indians : and nnrha,.. ...i.:. men, have been gradually associated in the fastnesses west of Arkansas. Not long sinco they marchod high up Rod River and camped for the purpose of hunting buffalo. They built a very tolerable Fort with logs, surrounded with a ditch, to protect them selves against all dangers. They caught but few buffalo and therefore to supply their wants invaded the possessions of tho Choc taws and carried off catiln. nnilltrt renin &c. The Choctaws followed but finding uiiiu Humours .uiu loruiications nn overmatch they retired and sent to Fort Gisbon for the w. maius dragoons. Uapt. Moore of Com pany D. Was Sent to Cntllnrnllmrr. n-M. !.. - t ...... (., ,,,, uiiku comnaiucs ofDrarnnm hut uiu. -,,-:..:.. upon thoRcd River he found their entrench- iiiuiiis too strong and their number too Crcnt to VCIlturo an altarb Tin o,i:i.. sent to Fort Towson and was re-enforced witn a line company of infanlry and a cou pie of pieces of cannon. Tl... I..,rllt. ln..n,tn upon tne works and soon made tho splinters fly and the logs move so quecrly, that the refugees at a signal rushed outside of their """" aim ucgiin to lorm upon the I'raino in front nfilinlr u-nrb. r, .1,,... IlllI V succeeded in ilninir u M.,, Ins ga ant dragoons charged upon them at ftl nn on. Tim i... I - i : B" r- - -iiiaj;u 111,11 UI1SUOU 13 rCIl- rescnted as terrific il.r. ii - ,...,! . , - winguuii. luuiiu them in all directions, and after putting largo iiiuatruru, succccued in captitr- 1112 tne whole bndu ! Tl, -,i..-. r .t. r1' t j ,u viriiuuu, ui lilt, Uragoons is represented as worthy of all commendation as regards both skill and bravery. Tho bravrv ami mi,nr. r .1,0 rerugecs availed absolutely nothing against """suoiino mounted drag oons. This decisive lilnw -.n ... that exposed portion of our frontier and con vince the rufunrc nnumoc 1...1: .1.... o wa iiiiu iiiiiidll iiiai our dragoons may not bo trifled with. Tho toss 01 1110 dragoons was unknown to our in formaiit: ho said an express brought tho news to the Fort. Death from a Worm in the ;r. A man died on ono of tho flat l,-.i. .. .1... v. .. . uuilla utl ,,,u j - leans Lovoc, on the Gth inst., of a disease which baffled his physician. A nn.t ... tern examination took place, and, upon ox u.iiiiiiiig ins nram, it was discovered that nn insect about an inch long, known by tho uanio of a Centipede, or hundred legs, had crawl- j ru jiiio 111s car, causing cxcrirtinting death.. t ... v.vwv. u. uu nunvy rnui.1, Humu npprencn sions wero cnlertouted in relation to Iho crops, and Hour had advanced somewhat. Cotton lias declined the sales of tho week cuding tho 17th, reached 18, 210 bales, and in Iho csmmon and middling qualities uelmoof 1-8 has resulted from the rroodom with which these qualities wero offered. Money for nil Cotnmereicn purposes was nbunUant enough. A mcricait stocks were stillcntircly neglected, and no transactions had taken place. FROM CHINA DIRECT. New York, Aug 4 Wo learn from Capt. Dumaresq, of the ship Akhar, arrived this morning, 109 days from Canton, that im mediately after tho fall of the Bogtio forts the city of Canton was evacuated by all who could afford to leave, taking with them their families and property, and when tho Akbar left, China street and the business part of the suburbs wcro deserted, shops closed, and scarcely any ono to bo seen. On the news oftho attack upon tho Boguo, reaching Pu kin ; tho Emperor ordered three Imperial Commissioners ono a near relative, to pro ceed to Canton, and to exterminate tho Eng lish, swearing in his edict that both powers could not stand, ono or the other must con quer or perish. Keshcn was ordered in chains to tho capital to hp. iriml , ...:.. Tho Cincinnati Chronicle has been ex amining tho six returns oftho Census, token at intervals often years each sinco tho adop tion of tho Constitution. Theso calcu tions show somo curious facts 1. Tho population of tho United States increases exactly 34 per cent, each Ion years, ond uhich dou bles erery ticcnhjfuur years. This law is so uniform and permanent, that when applied lu tho population of 17UU, anil brought down to the, present lime, it pro- r VLMl m"y , yc,y result shown by tho census Of,13,0-.A,1."1US wo mny ,c" with great accuracy what will bo tho census of 1S30. It will bo nearly tieenty-thrce millions. 2. Out tho' this is the aggregate rcjiilt, it is by no means tmo of each particular part of tho country) for New England increases ot tho rato of 15 pur cent each ten years while the North WYstcrn States in creaso 100 per cent, in that period. 3. Tho Stare 1'vjmlation inctensed at 30 per cent., but since at lci than 2,'i per cent. Tho Free Pop ulation have, however, incrcascl at the rato of 30 per cent. Atllusrate therefore tho diffcrcneo between the free, and slave population is constantly increasing. 4. Another fact in, that tho colored population in crease, just m proportion to tho dislanco south t and that slavery is certainly and rapidly decreasing in the Stalest bordorinc on the free Stntcs. This state of things continued would in half n cen tury cxtingvish slavery in these Slates, and concen trate the vyholo black population of the Uuitcd States on tho Gulf of Mexico, and tho adjacent States on the Southern Atlantic. Charactereristk Eloquence. Benton, of tho Senate, in one of his speeches on tho fiscal agent, said he did not valuo such a bank "three Bkips of a louse." Times and Star. Benton it seems has tdonted a new Standard of value. I'orhaps ho will wish to push it for ward as a circulating medium. It certainly pro- D. ... i....iia,i"u llltlll ins gold project, and Ins friends could provide lame BANK BILL PASSED Wearo happy to announce to our readers tho highly important intelligence, oftho pas sago oftho Bank Bill in the House. It was taken up on Friday, and after various inef fectual attempts toomend.-cnibarasj and do feat, was finally adopted and nao,l actly as it camo from the" Senate, by the de cisive voto ot ma to 97 a majority of thirty-one. It now only remains for" the President to add his signature of which we entertain no doubt. Tho constitution allows him fen days for consideration (Sun days excluded) so that supposing the Bill to be transmitted to him on tho 7th inst. tho constitutional limit will expire on Thursday the 19th inst. "Tho National Intelligencer of Saturday says : "The bill to establish tho Fiscal Bank of the United States, which passed tho Sen ate some days ago, yesterday finally passc(j the House of Representatives by a majority ofthirti.one votes, and now only requires the assent of the President to becomo a law The bill passed the House as it came from the Senate without alteration or amendment of any sort. Not that it had not bettor have been amended in some particulars j but our political friends appaar to have considered it most expedient to pais the bill in its pres ent shape, and leave the desired amendments to be disposed of in a supplementary bill, to be brought forward at tho present session. In consequent of the failure to procure amendments deemed by them indispensable, a few Whigs, Mr. Adams among them, voted against tho bill. No stronger evidence can be given of the determined spirit of the Whig party, than that tho separation of such men as Mr. Adams, and those of the same poli tics who did not unite with the party on this question, should yet leave tho majority in fa vor of the bill so large. Thus has the House of Representatives added anothur to its claims to the applause oftho Pcaple, for the fidelity with which it obeys their will, and the per severance and firmness with which it exe cutes their purposes." At our last dates from Washington, the Bankrupt Bill, and tho bill to repeal the Sub Treasury, (both of which have passed the Senate) were under consideration in the House, and of thoir final and speedy passage no doubt is entertained. In the Senate, the bill from the House, for tho distribution of tho proceeds oftho public lands, was under consideration. Thus have one or both branches of Con gress acted upon all the great measures of the whig party which secured the elevation, of John Tyler : the Bank Bill, tho Bankrupt Bill, the loan Bill, and tho Distribution Bill. Add to this, that bill, have been passed to in crease tho revenue, to PlOVido fnr n l.nm,. squadron, and make provisions for tho front- 1 i icr ocienccs and we have n mass of impor tant business, such as has never before been performed byany legislative body in tho samo length of lime. And when it is remnmh,.r,wl that all this has boon accomplished by the honest and true men of the whig party, in defiance of treachery in their own ranks, and an opposition rcmarkablo alike for its un scrupulous activity and unwavering determi nation to thwart tho majority upon every question without relcrcnce to its merits, well may tho country award to ihc whigs in both Houses of Congress their cordial and heart felt appiobation. Thus true to their principles and tho rnnn. try, tho administration mav look with confi dence for that eencrous sunnori whirl, nn ihtelligent people will surely yield to able anu noncst public servants. LOCOFOCO CONSISTENCY. Tho Tory papers ore all crvitm n. "You whigs promised to give better limes as soon as you got the power. Now why don't you do it 1" Tho answer is rea.K-. If , expected us to revive business, why do you nui u-i us auopi mo measures wo proposo I Why oppose every thing we do 1 If indeed a mere change of men, without a chango of measures, could bring relief, then thero must havo been an abomnible set of men in before, and there is every reason whv thev should not bo put in again. You oppose the extra session 01 congress, and opposo every thing dono to alteryour system of noliev You insist on our continuing that policy ; though you admit something is wrong. Now wo ask is it reasonable to require us to fol-1 iow 111 your track, keep in your officers, continue it policy which has placed u in n condition of unexampled embarrassment in . PRI DAV MORNING, AUGUST 13, 184 1. time of peace, omptled tho treasury, begun a nauonai uuut : mat wo should in fucteoifin ue the experiments tchich have failed in your hands, and yet bo blamed, and by you too for not making tho times bolter in a twink ling. Nothing can moro strongly cvinco the contempt which loco foco editors and writers havo for tho intelligence oftho people, than thoir bestowal of censure upon the whigs for not improving tho business of tho country before a single one of their yroposcd meas ures oj rclicjhas been carried into operation. fjyWo invito the render's attention to the speech of Mr. Sargeant of Pennsylvania, on tho passage of tho Bank Bill in iho House. It embodies the whole question within tho limits of a nutshell. ELECTIONS. It may not bo uninteresting to our readers at present, says the Bultiinuro Patriot, to bo informed in rcgird to tho time when, and tho States in which, the next elections take place. The annual election in Knntnrl.-i.' occurs on tho 2d August in Tenncsseo on .1 VI VII . A. ..... 1110 uiu in Illinois on tlio ad and in India na durintf the samn innnth. Illinnia rliin. 'J w . ...... J J a legislaturo and three members of Concrcss. a ma oiuiu is wuiioui a rcpscscntation in the popular house of Congress at psesent. In Indiana, the election is for members of Le gislature. In Tonnessco thoy elect a gover nor and legislature, and as the latter will have tho choice of two United Statos Sena tors, that circumstance imparts much addi tional interest to tho contest. The contest between Jones and Polk, tho candidates for Governor, is a spirited ono, and there is lit tle doubt the former, who is the Whig can didate. Will triuinnh. Our frinnrlc -.ln -,:. cipalo Whig majorities in both brandies of .1.. I 1 m, uiu legislature. 1 no elections for governor and members oftho legislature take place in September. In Maine the contest will bo very close. Tho candidates for Governor in that State are Kent (W) the present Gov ernor, and Fairfield, (L. F.) the l.ito one In Alabama, in August, a Governor and members of the legislature take place, when the loco focos most probably, as usual, will succeed. ILLINOIS KLKCTION. The only returns we have received are from Chicago, which are to ho found in the annexed slip from the office of the Cicigo American. Wo presume there is no doubt of tho re-election of Stuart, (Whig,) by a heavy majority. Tlio Whig majority in the district last November was over 3000. Co.sanijSNio.N-AL Etrcrios. The result of ihc Con gressional liltclion in this city is as follows, vu : Kawloii, l.ocii, 3 jo Smart, Whiir, 300 This is better than wo expected. " At" tho hat Con jrresKional Weenon (19 S3) Oougl-iss' (Iv.ca) majoritv 139, nt the laM Aiiftuit Election the- Loco mnhntv was'.,i4, ond at the. last Prc-idrniial Election Van liurcn s minority was 193, GM Tip's popularity hem unbounded. Tt p.mnnt tin ,1, .!,.! l,.,..... .t... :e ... m btunrt Had come out under hid own bond in favor of a umMuln iMc, tie wing majority would have been at least CO, a difference of 100 voics. iv7-lle "''""nisis polltd abo't SO vole?, mostly vviu?. The l.ocofoco Abolitionii"ti generally deser ting Ihotr colors nnd voted for Rulston. SOUND DOCTRINE. We wcro not mistaken in saying, that our neighbor oftho Lamoille Whig, would sacri fice any personal preferences ho might have, and go cordially with his friends in support of Paine. He has placed the regular nomi nation at mast-head, and closes an able edi torial in his Inst number, with tho following excellent admonition : "iow we wish to sav to tho Whins of crniont 111: c.tncrui, not to i.osk skiiit or Tiiosr. citn.vT rnixciPLns ron which wis HAVE CONTENDER DLT.1NG THE LAST TWELVE VEAiie. Let us sacrifice every minor con sideration upon tho altar of our country. Do not tho same overpowering motives exist, now as heretofore to impel us on in the sup port of Whig principles 1 Have the Utopian schemes of locofucoism lost any of their de formity? Is not the present administration fast redeeming the pledges that have been made to the country, although, perhaps eve ry measure may not bo perfected exactly to our liking I Havo the hopes of anv onn who assisted to bring into power tho "great and good Harrison, been disappointed ? Wo bcliuve not. Therefore, wo say again, jn 'those things which are essential, lot thero bo unitv; in no.n-essknti.u.s, liiicrtv; and in all things ciiaritv. Particularly in relation to our approaching State election. wo would say to our friends, keep an oyo - - 1 to ntg I'nncipics." BENNINGTON COUNTY. Whig Convention on tlio 29th u. nn. diah Swift and A. L. Miner wcro nomina ted for Senators, and a seiii-s of eond Whig resolutions wero adopted unanimously among them this : ti n i r. ' "i'l""e iiicnominv uon of Charles Pamof.irGoCruor W.K.Hat n -for nnsnh-Ptl. Thai ivi rnrHMI.. , - as tiiKle by the fetato Convention, bolden on the 30tl day of June laM-and that saidvandidatiH are in our opinion well worthy tho confidence of tlulWhi" naitv i. f tin State. B ' THK STATE TICKET. t.i.,a U';ii;.ni, i... .1 ..)-... . honorable to him, and uch as we had a rifilit to ex pccifrom nny and every Whijiplaccdin Ins position ; every Whig paper in the .State, (saveone, from which we have not beard since Judgo W. declined,) sustains w? ii-ui, ueitBii in u nuru, ilia nay i Liear ior union nnd harmony, and a victory over locofocoistn mi..,, a, nit, ,,iij;nui .riinui., UUI mutually (O achieve. Why shall not tin's opportunity for the res toration of harmony bo seized, nt once, by every VVhijr in the Statel l'riidenco and the truo spirit of patriotism rcr,u re it i the tuecess of Whig principles and Whig measures requires it. "Once moro into the ;, r. -. i,.i.ii.Ll ,uui is mr tn.nnrlnn li, ni.,nl.m l'l.: .... : . -,..,... u,,..u, ,u ,nij; i-iiusu in Ver mont, than io elect this or that particular man to nffll-O Un nrao ,n. t. ...... ...I... .. ...1 1 e ,-. .....v. ... m,.v.i ..inst- ,m, muuiu pieiertiuu- . , , i ...w u.tvniiu p,iiu iioetrine principles rather than man. Uy iieclecliiig this rule VOlt Wl I linn,. lnov.(bl.l,lrr.,a, unnn 11 . n... 1 . i , - ,.,... .,.u u ,i,i e.i.eei- atioim, loth os tjincn ond measures. H'atchmun. THE ItECil'LAR NOMINATION. Indrpendnnt of his being iho regularly noininoled andlilalo of llir nnrle. v .... L,.,i'..n. hy even iho mos,t bcnipulous whig rhould not voto for l ol. l ame. IIU talents uiul ncquirciiicnts as a scholar, his habits of industry nnd promptitude In business, nre i-ni.rr..a,llu .,,l,..., , .1... .,',: . r,i... 01I1CC tO Which llC hns fieri, .lr-ir.Mnlt.l Mr, -mmn, It is true, boast or oflieiul rank nnd prof ess'Onal dis tinrtinn lt,, i. f--V... , . "mil i.uiifciiiuie9 a mi pi iter euiiiiueil itnlinn fnr nnn..1- r .- i ., L , . iu'umr liiiur, lie 11.10 iiirouiiii mo ueeij en cai-'ed in 1 ustnrss operations aniung llic agrietiltiiral anil ii,n,,,,rBM, in,. .r ,i. - , ,. .-...Y.u.iii.; uiiofta ui uiu lOllllllUIIll), Ullll his practical know ledpe of tho intc rests, wants and W14!,m nf n nr-. ,A.. nt .1 : I. 1 I - uj mv c'iii-istAeeiiieu oy very few m the state. As n politician, unlike too innny tidr-wainne, offict nUnv men, he hn never minimd or varied fiom a ir.sl firvoid to rr b'or years ho has been biiioii" Iho forcinosl to Biutnm thoso fundamental whtif piincples and inctisnri ..mv.. ,Tii, i;,ui luiin uiu unsii oi our national tune pctity, and in unvaried nppo.uion io tho nrburary federal tourtc of Iho lat adiiinii trnlion, whnm mer cenary iiarly policy bus como very near ruining nil tlio grcal interests of the country. Hut vvhi.'o loco focoism has dono its worst to ldat iho hopes of tho funning and 1 iboring claw?, fol. l'rtino has distrib- , """i .,n.;.ij un irrcn siapio winch forms the basn o! our nttriculturnl we-ilth, and in tlio manufacture of it, in the wots, nf tunes, ho has ,.vi, nuuiciiis oi iiiiisisiriicc to miiiiuudcK, who would uthr-rwisc havo been destitute of employment. Although Col. Pain, has before been before tlio ffi r J3,? ra'" "n" r,,r 1110 Cllicf MwUUncy, not a v Xn IrllVr l,00n nm,cJ 10 character. J'ar L bl fdr mrB 'iMir.M him. than 11,1 j-r Vu inn.nn I ", '!?" !' fV l"11'" WllOf.lUg lt unuer vvashinslnn. nnd im . ,i ft.-.. ..i.i :.?. Pies of covcrmnei t ult, " I T., V " patriot. A rh, of a wVt r f i7n Z , " T " lcssedly ailv.ni.-ed t!m routilrv li tl, hiulu-m pi eh of national creatnsa and tirosi,,.t.- ' 1."lul 01 pirty vvhtiHO cnnteinpl for I . j . ul a r r , s 1 , 1 a I ,?, , 1 ,?r "r S reniic u mo Boynrnmrnt to an tlceiiva monnrrl y. can have but hlllo itillir nee atitong th inttlliL-ent people, of crmniit who Invo long since learned to detect the imposture, and Io despise tho cheater und tho cheat. n. ii .i i' .viu, iv.tiiiiuy, nn-eniiuiouio ior i.icuirnant-nov-crnor, is n mm of a strung cultivated mind, nnd of enlarged nnd liberal views, a true republican, nudnbovo nil nn honest man. I'or several ycari ho has rrvtd in fltft f.'.. n-,,n ,.r ,1,., y,n I. I....I .. . for t.ilent and iHel;ilnc, and csirci.1lv for lin nblo llflvoenev nf tint trim dpninrr,ir.v I, t, ,..!, .1... heart, mid extend tiiulinnd ol nrntnri,..,, r.l,,ii the highest nnd humblest of Ins fellow citizens of whatever complexion. Ptuplis Press. ' LIGHT! The political propcct brightens. We have seen with pain and mortification an appearance of disunion in the Whig ranks on tlio .Statu Ticket, which ahrm ed us. Two of our papers, came out decidedly against tlio nominations mule in convention at Monlpelier, nnd urged upon tlio whig-t the support of Judge Willi ams for Governor, nnllhc Hon. Carlos Coobdoo for Lieutenant-Governor. We trust and bel.evo that both these gentlemen were presented without their know ledge. Judge W illmms hns come out in n letter in tho lluiland Herald, winch we have copied to day, nnd declines unqualifiedly standing- a as candi Intc. Trom our know ledge of the charaeier of .Air. Coolulce wo entertain not a doubt but tint the exhibition uf his name, as candidate for Lieutenant-Governor, under the ei-cumstanccs on which it was preetited, is re pugnant to his wishes, nnd wo have no doubt but that he will take boasonablc measures to make his enti. ments known. The Hern! 1 Ins hmled down the names of Judgo Williams nnd Coohdge, and gives us tin. week Ibu regular nominated candidates. Woi.joico to s-e this restoration of harmonv in tho Whig ranks, and hopo it limy bo poreptual. 11. falls O'a:. KKMKMllER THIS. The great comet in which the Whigi havo been for years engaged is not ended : in the ides of Nrvem cer, thoeneiny wero terribly beater, their strong holds broken down, and their leader driven from theenpit ol but they are not annihilated. Again the nre rally ing around their own tlmd.ird i again nre tin y urgm" their oft repudiated doctrines nnd measures i an3 gathering strength nnd courage fiom the murmurs, here nnd there, of disappointed applicants for Whig patronage, nnd from tho more serious divis ous which the folly mid madne-s of other Whigs havo created or countenanced that enemv is now pu-hmgon with nil of their accustomed energy and zeal. Wehava succeeded, in one word, only m this : we have pli. ccd nt the head of the government the men who wero pledged to the work ot lUform : the meamrts nro yet to be carried, and cnrr.nl, if at all, against all tho obstit-lf of an infuriated, rce-klts and unprincipled minority in Congress and their party in the corutry. The main business of the contest 11 "vet to be carried through i there is not, nuu cannot 'he. any rest.ng spot for Iho whigs of iho country until their mcasurZ nre carried out, firmly rstablihed nnd approved bv the people. Let tho Whigs look at tho great nues' tioiH itisMic ihe Currency and the Tariff mill to bo settled an I nk theiim-lu.-i "-e.iioui.lv whether this is the tmio to p'ny inlo tho hands of'loco-foceusm by countenancing ilisuiiioti an I disorgan -ation, m our ranks. At least this we beg of tho Whitts of Ver mont! forget not your piinriphs in anv of vo r con tes's about men. See lo it ihii your" Senators .and legislators nru nund t lint your strenuih is main tained unimpaired; that tho political mlliience of tlu, slate iH retained, nnd llt.it influence nil thrown on tho s'di-nf Wing principles nnd Whig meniire-'. The iinpornuie-K of tin-, tnnnnl be overrated Anv serious diminution of tin- strength of the Whigs o'f the state whether, indicd it be real or onlv apparent : any (-onmderablc reduction of the Whig vote-, and of their strength in the legislature, will nt once rill our friends thro gbout the country with discouragi nient, and our eneynies with hope. Let u, then, invoke tho Whigs of Vermont to vigorous and untiring exertion to gel nut oneo more the stren-ih of the sta'e, and to accomplish, in every s.-natonnl district and town, all that can he nccomp'i-du-d. It is no time for sloth ; but lo throw moro enert'V inlo tho contest, and to cxercis.j more of the spirit of forbearance towards omi another. Watchman. Ttom the Middlebnjy People') Press. Tho following letti-r, coming from an en lightened cultivator of tlio soil, under a tlio circumstnncr-s.is truly pratifying to the friends of the country. It is what might have been expected from tha sagacity oftho man who, by his able researches, has done more than any or all others, to render the industry cf tho 'busy bee' in gathering the sweets of our fields tributary lo tho subsistc-tico and comfort of our race. It goes back to first principles, lays tho foundation of all jtit policy in the promotion and protection of tho groat inter ests ofagiictilturo, commerce and manufac tures, nnd reprehends every act of govern ment, calculated to impede thu prosciity of of either of theso natural classes of commun ity, ns a vital oflonco against tlto freedom of tho country. II.i very justly observes in substance, that all tho elements of the social state may be resolved into theso thrco clas ses, and that the object of all political rmnr,. my was lo protect and ndvnnco their inter ests, and seeing no trenching upon them in tlio mearuri's ot tlio present Ailinin istration. he cannot act against it. Tho truth is, .Mr. V eek s convictions oftho destructivo nnturn of loco-focoism isut length complete, and ho will no longer sulTor his partialities for that party to lend him aside from the nnihof dutv. Wo hail this communication as a strong ill lication th.it tlio recent onon avow als of noitherii dough-fared loco-focoism against tho tnrill, tho distribution bill, and in fivor of direct t.ixntion. instead nf a minm uf impuMb calculated tor protection, in luim- Ulo subserviency to southern dictation is nrn. ducing its legtimato olTcci upon the intelli gent yeomanry of Vermont. This crush commercc, crush-credit, cru,h-nmnufact urn party have at length crushed themselves, in tlio estimation ot tlio moru reflection mo tion of their own party, and nothing enables tneir leaders to tiuoy up single day.lmt tho unnatural ccstacics into which their feeblo hopes from whig dissentions havo thrown them. .. , , Salisbury, July II, l&fl. .un. iicui, Mm I observe a nonce in jour paper, that I am appointed a coimiiittco lo net for a polttienl patty m the coming cleclion. 1 cannot content m his, nor even to have my nnmo arrayed against that Administration of tioternmrnt, that is a decided choice of the people, until ibcy ilo sonu-ihuig ihal j, calculated lo infringe ihcfundiiincnifd principles upon which the- frcdoni of Ainesicnn citizens is baseil! I am a democrat of 17R I must be free as the mr I breathe. 'Ibis 1 cannot be, nnd feci pledged to nny ;iry in pohtie'S. No Government cun be fiee and republican, thnthns nut lor its object, the most pro found in erests of ngriculturo, mechanical nns, n'an ufactiircs nnd coinmeree. In e flier words, the wholo sfctem of ftce, republican Kovernment (in my is. lunation) isbasul on the inietesis of the farmer vuchnnic, Manufacturer nnd inenhnnt, nnd'nny act on the part of tioverniiiem that is cnlculated to im rede Ihc equal pro'penly of etlher of these cnsesor our fellow citizens, and impnir n tiiiflc link in thm perfect chain ought to be looked upon by everv free man, ns an i infringmiiit of ilie free insliiuiioim of cut county. The Urn word i-pokeu by the Almightv nticr r.eation was tin,,!,, d except man, intimated Yri tlicHroiifcsl terms llicdeslmyof maiuo labor, "ihat (.odsailihero was not anion lo till t,0 .round" Agriculture soon found the necessity pfthc mce'ianlo and nnmifaettircr, nnd from ihc productions of these ho iiierelnin la able lo fieililole the exchanges e f nil the d Herein productions of various climates to aid the, industry of each other, nnd administer to their mutusl w-inis. On this chainor natural princples iny ZTy oT politick rests, and all others. 1 feel compelled m re Iwn 1 not n( io atr Mc-u 'in-trnn,