Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, May 19, 1843, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated May 19, 1843 Page 1
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xtt tt RB OP ROMS VOL. XVI. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, MAY 19, 1843. No. 51 NOT THE GLORY OP C S A It 11UT TUB W E L F A Prom Blackwood for April. TO THE IDEAIi-By Senium. Tmsn wilt thou, with thy fancies holy Will thou, faithless, fly from ms? With thy jor, thy melancholy, Wilt thou thus relentless free 1 O Golden Tune, O Human May, Can nothing, KloetinnOne, thco restrain 1 Must thy sweet river glide nway Into the eternal Ocean-Main 1 The suns serene tircdost and vanished That wont the path of youth to gild. And oil the fair Ideals hanished From that wild heart they whilom filled. Gone the divine and sweet believing In dreams which Heaven itself unfurled I What godlike shape haveyesrs bereaving Swept from this real work-day wotldl As once, with tearful passion fired, ThcCypiian Sculptor clasped th stone, Till the cold cheeks, new light-inspired, Blushed lo sweet lifo tho marble grown I So Youth's deire for Nature! round Tho Statue, so my arms I wreathed, Till warmth and life in mine it found, And breath thai poets breathe it breathed. With my own burning thought it burned j Its silence stirred to speech divine; Its lips my glowing kiss returned J Its heart in beating answered minel How lair was then the flower the tree! How silver sweet the fountain's fall! The soulless had a soul to me I My life its own life lent to all I The Universe of Things seemed swelling The panting hearl to burst its bound, And wandering Fancy found a dwelling In every shape thought deed, and sound. Germed in the mystic 1 uds, reposing, A whole creation slumbered mule, AlaB, when from the buds unclosing, How scant and blighted sprung the fruit 1 How happy in his dreaming crtor, His own gay valor for his wing, Of not one care as yet in terror, Din youth upon his journey spring Till floods of balm, thought air's dominion, Bore upward to tho faintest star For never ought to that bright pinion Cou'd dwell too high, or spread too far. Though laden with delight, bow lightly The wanderer heavenward still could soar, And aye the ways of life how brightly The airy Pageant danced beforo ! Loe, showering gifts (life's sweetest) down, Fortune, with golden garlands gay, And Fame, with starbcams for a crown, And Truth, whoso dwelling is the Day. Ah ! midway soon, lose evermore. Afar tho blithe companions stray j In vain their faithless sleps explore, As one by one they glide away. Fleet Fortune was llio' first escaper Tile thirst for wisdom lingered yet But doubts wiih many a gloomy vapor The sun shape of the Truth beset! Tho holy crown which Fame was wreathing, Behold! the mean mill's temples worol And but for one short spring-day breathing, Bloomed Love tho Beautiful no more! And ever stiller yet, and ever The barren path inorclonely lay, Till wanting Hope could scarcely quiver Along the darkly widening way. Who, loving, lingered yet to guide me, When all her boon coinpaiinus fled 1 Who Mand consoling slill beside me, And follows lo tho House of Dread f Thine, Friendship! thine the hind o tendir Thine ihehilm dropping on the wound Thy task llie load more light lo render, O, earliest sought and toonesl found! And thou. sopleKcd with her uniting To charm n ' soul-storm into peace, Swi":t Toil ! in uself ilctuhtine. Th'.f moro ' bnr-t, '. j, c.i Hreasei Though hut lv grains, thou aid'st tho palo The vast Kiernity upicars At least thou sink st Irom Time, the while, Life's debt tho minutes, days, and yearslt That is to siy the Poet's occupalion Ihe Ideal. t Though the Ideal imagrs of youth forsike us the Ideal still remains to tho Poet. Nay, it is his task end his companion i unlike ihe worldly fantasies of fortune fame, arid love the fantasies the Ideal create-are imperishable. While, as tho occupation of his life, it pays off the debt of limes as tho cxalter of lift, it contributes to the building of eternity. ADDRESS Delivered before the liurlliigton Mechanic's Instltuc, by KEOKUK P. MAItSII, AND FUBLISHED BY HF.Ql'EST Or THE INSTITUTE. Gentlemen of the Institute : I propose to address you on the History or the Mechanic Arts, a subject, which from its close connexion with the daily occupations of most ot the members ot the association can not fail to possess interest for you, and which, from tho important influence exercised by thcs.e arts on tno physical well being, and moral and intellectual condition of man, and tho mutual inter-dopendonco between their improvement and the advancement of science, is certainly no unworthy object of enlightened curiosity and philosophical inquiry. Tho scope of our subject embraces neither those rude handicraft labours, which not only originate in but cxpiro with savago life, nor those arts, which, though mechanical in their means of execution, are designed rather for the embellishment than for the maintenance of life, and which address themselves rather to our intellectual than to our physical nature, but I shall consider tho term mechanic arts as ex tending to the various modes of elaborating the raw material by artificial processes whether of mere handicraft or midline. labor, for the pro ductionof articles intended to bo consumed by use. This definition is nearly in accordance with the general distinction between the fine and mechanical or useful arls, though in strict ness the former term is hold to embrace some arts purely intellectual, such as eloquence and poelry, and is often extended so as to rompre hend snmo whose character is equivocal, as architecture, which equally belongs to the me chanical arls. I shall perhaps find it impossible to confine myself strictly within the limits which I have firescrihed, oxcluding tho extinct arts of savage ifo on tho one hand, and the fine arts on the other. For Ihoso mechanical arts, which re- quire an advanced state of knowledge and of society for their perfection, and which the con- wants of man are likely to render nave tiiuir germs in a period aniece dent to civf)w.ation. and their history Will fin In complete, without some notice, not only of tli 1..., f L-: ..I r J . .....I. .-ii-iH, uu, ,u wiijir uusuicio lorms, and again, tho mechanical processes, upon which the fine arts depend, aro so intimately connected with those belonging to tho useful arts, that occasional relerenco to them will he unavoid- able. The proner history of cvorv art hocins. when it ceased to be a simple occasional exercise of 1 J! r. . . 1 jiamiicran, anu uecamo an occupation, or trade, or in other words, when it becamo tho appro- priato and exclusive cmnlovmont of individuals. and every head of a family no longer himself excrciseu me lunctions of all the various arti aans whose productions ho rcnuircd. The origin of the mechanic arts is to be found in tho physical irnporfectionsof ourstruc lure, rrom nature wo receive no covering, and thence tho necessity of clothing and shel ter, and by consequence the arts of spinning, weaw,'t architecture, tanning, and the thou, and tranches of industry which flow from, or are subservient to theso ; no weapons or implements; y "'U01 wonuerttil machine tn hand, for'1 ' complicated in its struc lure, and In,, various in its uses, to ho call d an organ, dr"J hence arises tho necessity of tfte various oi "is smitii, in metal, and the wright, in wood. IVe aro slow of pace, and feeble of sinew, and aro consequently obliged to avail ourselves of the superior speed and strength of brutes, and henco the numerous arts connected with the subjugation of the do mestic animals to tho various uses of man, and with other modes of transport and loco motion. It may not be impertinent hero to devote a wordlo the social position, in diil'orcnt ages and countries, of those who have exercised the mechanic arts. 7'heso arts, as has already been hinted, wcro domestic in their origin, and their successful oxerciso would necessarily require tho highest degree of ingenuity and intelli gence which savago lifo affords. those quah ties would ordinarily ho found united in the highest norfection in the older and moro experi enced members of a family, and as the posses sion of the weapons of the chao and of war was indispensable both to the maintenance and defence of life, the most dexterous fabricator of theso implements would, other things be ing equal, probably raise himself to llio Inglieit wealth and distinction in his tribe. In the next stage of society, when handicraft became art, the best artisans would naturally enjoy a high degree of consideration, both because their number would be small, and because the pro ducts of their 6hops and forges would still con. Untie to be the indispensable means of acquiring either opulence or power. Wo find accord. ingly, that in the earliest historical periods, the smith was a companion for a king, and in munt ancient mythologies, we meet tho smith at the table of the Gods. Thus in Greece and Rome, Vulcan was worshipped, not merely as tho forger ofthethunderbolt,butas the armourer and white smith. So in the Scandinavian mythic history Vaulundr the smith was the son of giant and a mermaid, and occupied a distinguished place at the board and court of King Nidung, and even scripture has not forgotten to record the birth of Tulml-cain, allied in name, as well as in office, to both. The first mechanics then wcro not only freemen but princes, and they appear to have retained their primitive rank and estima tion unimpaired until the unnatural, unjust, and mischievous principle of ihe exclusive heredita ry right of primogeniture, by transferring to the oldest son the undivided accumulations of his ancestor, whether these consisted in moveable elTocts, lands, or in authority, released him from tho necessity of becoming the architect of his own fortunes, and made him great and power ful, by the accident of birth, rentiirmsr of him only the ability to defend, by the help of his vassals, what the unaided wisdom and bravery of his li.thcr had acquired. So lung as martial exploits were the only pith to power and fame, tho armourer stood highest in general estima tion, but in somewhat more cultivated ages when the decorative arts aro separated from those called mechanical, a higher rank has been generally accorded to those who exercise the former, for the simple reason that they furnish the means of flattering the vanity of tho great, while among the most highly civilized and en lightened nations, whether ancient or modern, tho processors of painting, sculpture, and tho other arts of design hue by common consent taken precedence of all others, who practicu me. chanjeal or inanuil employments. In the pro sentso called utilitarian ai'e, the highest esli- IIIUlUII nmontf Itioch .11 il.s la rt l .1 rdcd til tllOSO who arc engaged in works of public utility, as architects, engineers, naval constructors, tiivon tors uf machine, and discuvorers of new pro cumsus in thu art. At an early period in the history of Greco and R"me, the simpler me chanical, or as they were railed, serciic arls were abiiidonod to slaves, who were collected in workshops, and superintended and directed by freemen or servants, and traces of this humble condition of artizans aro still lo be met with in the laws and institutions of most European countries, and perlnps no whero in a moro unjust and oppressive form, than in a country which has long boasted itself as the pi oncer of light and liberty, and as a perfect mod el in law, government, ami religion. The lo gislation of Kngland. the proudest and most sol fish of aristocracies, is nicely and most ingeni ously balanced, upon the principle of allowing to the laborer just as much light and comfort, as are required to make him, on the whole, the most profitable drudgo to his taskmaster, and there is probably not a country on cirth, whero lie artisan produces so much and receives so little none whero so paltry a pittance remains to him, jut of the fruits of his labour, after the taxgathcrer, the bailiff, and the tithe and church rate collector, each backed by the strong hand of tho law, have extorted from him what will sat isfy the hungry maws of his Majesty the King, ins urace tno uiiKe, my L,ord the liishop, and his Reverence the Priest. Tho atrocious oppressions of tho feudal lords in the middle ages led to the foruntion of whit wore called Guilds, among the artisans of Ku rope. Theso wore associations of tr.idosmcn for the purpose originally of mutual aid and do fence, hut afterwards embracing various obiccts. such as the regulation of the forms of appren ticeship, the prices of mechanical labor, the ro ciprocal rights and duties of maslcrs and jour neymen, 1110 reiiol ot tno sick anil poor, and other matters of special interest to those who exercised the mechanic arts. They proved a powerful moans of protection and improvement to tneir meiiiuers, as well as ot progress in Ihe arts, and an important instrument in the main tenance of order, at a period when tho majesty of the law, being rontemned by the great, was scarcely reverenced by the humble. The guilds trequently acquired, by fees from members, and by donations and legacies, considerable funds, and when tho Romish Hierarchy, ami that ac cur.-ed plan of inisgiivoriiment, tiio feudal sys. tern, which h id been such faithful allies to each other, fell together before the Reformation, the guilds were dissolved, and these funds, being no longer required fur the uses for which they woio originally accunml lied, wcro generally appro. priaieu to ti.o establishment ot schools, many ol which still subsist, and bear tho names of tho guilds by which they wcro founded. Tho most important subsisting memorial of these associa lions is the practice of giving a legal existence to organized societies for pnvato purposes, cal led corporations, which forms so prominent a feature in the modern legislation of Kugland and America. Theso corporations aro by most lo. gal antiquaries traced to tho guilds, though the opinion, that they aro derived Irom tome of tho ecclesiastical establishments; of I'opcry, is not iviuitiui prooauiiny. According to tho theory nf and our civil institutions, the social position of uiu niuitmuji uas no necessary connection with or dependence upon the art ho exercises, and there ia hardly a post of honor, trust, or profit, military, legislative, judicial, or cxecutive.uudcr tho general or our own state government, which ims iiui ueuu croimauiy niieu tiv men. win havn experimentally proved themselves ahln to icio tho sledge, to drivo tho plana, or to ply tlio awF Tho man here khould, and to a greater extent than is any whoro olso practised, actually does l-lrn rtnr nnn..l: , ..r , . . .anu .unit ..I.UIU1I lO UlSlllOrill VIUUCS, lllSlll- tcllcetu.ll power, and his aenuired knnwlnil.m Nevertheless, though the nrol'os.ors of tho dif. ferentarts should individually rank according to tho criteria just laid down, yot thore is ground for a claim of Dreredoncn mnnm. ii, .i.,.. selves, and thHart should cloarlv rank l,!,rliBt. for the exorcise of which the greatest amount of Knowiouge, intelligence, ana Ingenuity is re. quncu In tracing tho rise and progress of the mo chanic arts, I purpose to sketch tho history of a few of the principal branches in succession, from their earliest origin to their most maturo devel opment, and t think it convenient to arrange the different arts chronologically, or according to their probable pnoxity ol origin, though 1 shall occasionally deviate from this arrangement, where the close relation between different respect to the raw material used, or the nature of tho processes employed, or other considerations of convenience shall so dictate. The relative priority of tho dilTuront mechanic arts is indeed not with certainly determinable. No authentic profane historical records roach back to so ear ly a period, and Scripture throws little light on the subject. The fragility nf clay and stone, tho perishablencss of wood, bono, leather, and oven of tho metals, have spired few of the works of primitive man, and a priori probability must hero be our chief guide. It is not unlihcly, that the order of succession was different in different countries, as tho varying necessities of man, conditioned by climate and natural productions, called tho respective arts into being, or accord. ing to trio abundance or quality of the raw ma terial. Hut although the extant remains of an cient art tin not enable us lo decide this question of priority, yet the means for judging of the ac tual condition of the mechanic arts in most conn tric, at all periods from the earliest historical recoids, aro abundant. Resides the scattered implements, funeral monuments, architectural remains, the ruiiuof great and populous cities, in various parts of Europe and Asia which have boon destroyed by war, earthquake, or political revolution, and the treasures of art entombed in those, there are two principal sources of information on this top ic, which have-long supplied, and doubtless will long continue lo yield the richest harvest to the labours of tho antiquary. I hero allude to the buried cities of Ilorculanoiim and l'ompoii, and the sculptured and painted temples and cata combs of Egypt. The citios of Ilerciilancum and Pompeii were overwhelmed by an eruption of Vesuvius about the year 79 of our era ; too suddenly to permit the removal of furniture and other moveables, but not sufficiently so lo pre ventthe escape of most of the inhabitants. The former was discovered near the begining of tho last century and the latter a few years later. The discovery of these cities oxciled a lively interest throughout Ji'iiope, and excavations were soon commenced, and have been since con tinned, with more or less spirit, and with most important results. They have put us in posses, sion of every article of ornament or use employ cd by the Italians of that timu and region, and have not only revealed to us the secrets of most of their trades, but havo laid open to us the whole mystery of their domestic economy and private life. Tho paintings of tho Egyptian tombs, though less instructive, because no pictorial roprescii tation can be so intelligible as the objects depic ted, aro yet more comprehensive in their char- actor, embracing not only representations of most ot tho processes employed tn tho art", hut also of tho details of their agriculture, their fish eries, and other industrial employments, togeth er with scenes from their warfare, their domes, tic lifo, and ihe ceremonies of their government and religion, 'lliort .,riim iU-:pl-.i .(frcmnlno omltrfton tlio period when the arls were in many respects at an acmo of perfection, which has never been sur-pis-ed in the results, though with regard to the means of production, and ingenious variety of application, the moderns havo made important improvements. Hut I shall take occasion to re fer to this part of tlio subject moro at length hereafter, and therefore wave its further discus sion for the present. So far as wo can conjecture from history, from the remains which have conic down to us from antiquity, and from a priori probability, the old est existing art i9 that of the I'ottkh. One nf the first and most indispensable wants of man is a hollow vessel to contain his food, and no mate rial suited to the fabrication of such ware is so universally diffused, or so easily fashioned, as clay. The raw material is every where abun dant, and the hand was originally the only, and still is the chief implement, by which it is wrought. Vessels of clay maj thcrrfnre be rea sonably presumed lo have existed hufnrc there were any known means of forging or casting met als, or of hollowing out stone or even wood, and it is remarkable, that the most ancient remains of architectural skill, and the most venerable me morials of human industry now known to exist, should be composed of one of the most fragile of materials. The bricks of Jlaby Ion are older than the pyramids, and the clay vases of the aborig inal inhabitants of Italy, a race whose history was forgotten before Rome was built, have nut lasted many a proud structure of marble anil of granite. The city of Rome was founded about 2001) years ago, in a region abounding in volca noes, which lnd not only become extinct, hut whose eruptions of lava and ashes had been deep ly covered with vegetable soil before the timo of Romulus a process requiring hundreds, per haps thousands of years and yet, buried under a layer of volcanic' ashes hardened by tho slow chemistry of niturc, In stone, ami this again cov ered by several feet ofearth and vegetable mould, have recently been found numerous clay vases, under circumstances clearly showing that they must have been buried before the deposition of the eruptive matter, which now covers them Clay vases are moreover often discovered in the most ancient tombs of Ugypt; the Chinese, who iiiiy perhaps claim to be the ulilt-st of nations. count them among the most venerable works of their lathers, they have been found in the ruins of the ancient cities of this continent, and among our own Indians, and there is no people who do not, anil have not, trom their curliest antiquity, wrought in this material, though in tropical re gions, the abundance of gourdlike plants, and of largo shell hsh, supply to some oxient the place, which clay vessels occupy in colder climates. Wo owp our principal knowledge of the pottery of the ancients to that superstitious piety, which led them lo deposite in the graves of the dead vases and other valuable articles, cither lr use in n future state of existence, or because the de ceased was considered as still retaining his right of property to the articles most prized by him in in.;. Tho anliouo vessels, which I mentioned as having been recently found near Runio consist of large cases, answering the purpose of Collins, in me sliapo ol houses or rather hills, and con taining smaller and more finely wiought vases of various forms, and many other articles both of ornament and use, together with tho bones and ashes nf the dead. In the first, and as far as I am informed, only locality yet discovered, not less than 1000 of these vessels have been found. They are of rude workmanship, hut similar in their general character to thu celebrated I'.lrus. can vases, which, though at least in general pro bably ot later date, deserve a moro extended no tice, because of their superior merit as works of art. There has been much dispute among antiquaries), in regard to tho proper appellation of theso va ses, and they have been goineliiucs rather arbi trarily divided into various classes, as Ktruscan, Campanian, Tyrrhenian, Egyptian and Greek, and while somo investigators have claimed them all as belonging to Greek art, others have as confidently ascribed their origin to Egypt. They nave ncen lounu m various parts oi naiy, in great numbers, and many of them, if not con. tempornneous with those discovered beneath the eruptions of extinct volcanoes, belong to a period at least anterior to the foundation of Rome, In the year I63U, a very large number of these va. ses was discovered in ancient burial places on the estate of Lucien Bonaparte, prinoe of Canino, and on other estates in ine same region, no less than UOOO having been found in the course of a few months, on the estate of the prince alone. This discovery seems to prove conclusively, that these vases do not belong to Grecian art, in the common acceptation of that term, as they un doubtedly date from a period prior to our eaili est historical accounts of the cultivation of art in Greece, and the probability therefore is, that pri maeval Italy was rather the mistress than tho pu pil of Greece. The Etruscan I have already remarked, havo been usually found in graves and other funeral monument', and though a particular class called urns or cinerary vases usually con tain the ashes of the dead, yet by far tho greater number of them seem lo have been table or orna mental furniture, such as pitchers, drinking ves sels, lamps, flower pots, essence and toilet jars &c. A numerous and elegant suit of vases was as much a milter of pride with the ancient Ital ians, as a splendid service of Dresden or Sevres procelain in modern times, and the antique Etruscan pottery was very highly prized by the luxurious and tasteful Itoiiuiu, in the time of the Republic and early empire. In gracefulness of form, beauty of decoration, and excellence of i workmanship, antiquity has left us nothing more perfect than these little vessels. The common material is a fine clay, and tho colour of the ground is usually reddish, but sometimes yel low. Whether these colours are derived from the native ingredients of the clay, or from some foreign admixture or coating, is disputed, but there seems lo be reason to think, that in some instances, the colour is natural to the clay, and in others, artificially produced, They are gen erally ornamented with figures of exquisite puri ty of design, and delicacy of execution, usually black on a red ground, sometimes the reverse, am! in either case often heightened by touches of while or other colours, and sometimes entire- ly white on a black or red ground. These fig- ures appear to have been traced on the surface of the vase before baking, by means of a perfor- ated pattern of parchment, sheet bronze or other flexible material, and a coatim' of different col- our from the ground was then applied to the fig- tire or the ground, according to the taste of the artist. In some instancis the traced ground ap- pears to Invo been removed to a certain depth, after traciiiL'. and the fifriires to have been senar- ately formed and inlaid, and in others, the whole frames is occasionally used for the walls of cheap surface was coated before the tracing, after which ' houses even in Europe, and it is extensively cm the traced figures were removed, and the ground i ployed for the same purpose in India, and other left nfits original colour.or figures of a different! Eastern countries. hue inlaid. The subjects represented are usual- 1 .!.,- I t.- ,.!-.. --.1 ! I IV inj inoiogiu.u 01 iMYiilo-, ami ui i. 11 is ' J . ? .. 0 . - '. .. i nolhiii n niiin- nxnmsiln hn.intv In mast, than i these smill figures, which are but nfa verv few inches in height. The bodies nf the vases r.p- pear lo have been fashioned upon the lithe, and the Inndley. leaf-work and other aiseil decora- lions, were separately moulded, chiefly hy the' Hand, and attached hy simple contact. I lie me- cliauical skill ot tho ancient potters in mixing and preparing Ihe clay, and in workingand burn ing or drying it, (for some nf the vases are unburiit) is proved by Ihe vast numbers of these vessels which still remain entire and in all their primitive sharpness of outline, and bcautv of col our, and hy the remarkable fact, that the strong est mineral acids do not act upon any of tho colours employed in them, except upon thu white. " These vases nro the most important remains snro the most important remains' lounu .11 the same rums are ol similar rumen- oflhe pottery nf In; nncent tal-, sions and hgure, and ol such strength and dura - eisgoreaiontobelievethatthey,bi!i.y,.hat;the of a bridge constructed of now existing ians, but there is good reason to believe that they were acoininted with nverv kind of clav ware known to the moderns, whether glazed or un- gli7cd, from the finest porcelain lo the rudest pottery. Among jlir Crruks tin.! Unmans, net. ther cist nor sheet iron was used for the f.ibri- cation of hollow ware, and clay vessels seem to hive occupied the place, which 111 our domestic economy is filled by vessels of metal or nf wood. The common receptacles for wine and oil, both

of which were very largely consumed by tlio nn - cients, as well as fur all other lluids, were ol'clay, and the vast extent to which these vessels were used nt Rome is curiously illustrated by the .Monte Testaccio, or I'otsherd hill, a hillock, which though much reduced In dimensions sinrp the seventeenth century, isstill KiO feet in height 1 .1 i- .....i . . - i- , anu une 1M1111 01 u nine in circiiiiiiereuce, anu is composed entirely of fragments of broken potte ry apparently a general place of deposit for all the potsherds of the city. lloth the Greeks and the Egyptians possessed cqua sum wiiii me aucieiu Italians, ill me uu- , f.iti. rication ot the finer wares of clay. 'I he proper 1 1 LUIV HM3 ill (J HJ Mill HUT lO IIJ'JJU IUUI1C1 111 II aly to require a separate description, and those of Egypt are thought at least lo indicate, that the three nations derived the art from a common ix 1 ,, .. . , source. Our knowledge nf Evntian notterv is de - rived principally from Ihe paintings in the tombs, but vases of clay, as well as of metal, have been not linfrequently found in the ruins of Thebes. The manufacture of porcelain, the most ser viceable as well as beautiful in textureofall clay wares, is known to have been earried on by the Chinese from a very early period, and a curious proof of the great antiquity of the Chinese porce lain has lately been unexpectedly met with in Egypt. In an Egyptian tumb which had not been opened since the time oflhe Pharaohs, the Tuscan antiquary Rosellini found a small bottle of Chinese porcelain with a Chinese inscription, precisely similar iu general appearance lo bot tles manufactured in China at the present day, though of somewhat finer texture. It was filled with a cosuutic, and no doubt was 11 part of the toilet furniture of some Egyptian lady, who " Walked about, how strange a story ! In Thcbes's streets, three tlniism I yearsngo." Several other similar vessels have been found in the same locality , under circumstances, u hich pre clude the supposition, that they were brought from the East in modem times. In sticngth and beauty of texture, the Chinese porcelain has never been equalled, though in gracefulness of form and elegance of decoration, it is vastly inferior, not only to the pottery of ancient Greece and Italy, hut to that of modern Europe. It appears to be wrought upon tho lathe, an implement of very high antiquity, and formed almost entirely by the hand. The figures and other doooratinns are never printed, but punted by hand, and have therefore neither the regularity nor the uniform ity of the figures on the common printed Euro. pean ware. 1 lie Chinese set a high valuo on antique specimens of Ibis favourite national ware and in the celebrated collection of Chinese rari ties lately exhibited at Philadelphia, there were porcelain vases of a light triiislucent blue colour, not less than four feet 111 height, and believed apparently with reason, to be at least ssveral hundred years old, The art of pottery has long flourished in other parts nf the Eastern world, and in climates where hooped wooden vessels would shrink, from the heat, and decay, from imbibing tho moisture of their contents, it is a most important branch of imnulacture. 'I lie superstitions nl some Orien tal religions forbid a second use of clay vessels, and as the cup or platter is required to bo broken, as soon as it has been used, the consumption oil such wares must be very great. The use of cooling vessels nf clay is an l.asl ern invention, and was introduced into Europe through Spain by the Saracens. These are simp ly unglazed jars, through which water or other liquids slowly transpire. Tho jars being filled, and placed in a current of air, the evaporation from the outer surfuce, by a well known chemi cal law, rapidly cools the fluid within. The manufacture of porcelain has now been carried to a high degree of perfection in several European countries. Tho English china is fa miliar to all, hut is surpassed in beauty, both by that of Dresden in Saxony, and that of Sevres in France. Tho decorations on tho wares of the two latter manufactories, as well as of somo in England, arc, ns in China, painted by hand by skillful artists, and a bc&uty of effect is thus pro duced, wholly unattainable bv the usual process of printing tho ware, by the application ofaclotb freshly stamped with coloring matter from an en irraved olate or roller. The colors aro applied before the elixir.!.', when th were is in a half burnt state csllea biscuit, ana are metallic, as vegetable colours would be decomposed by the intense heat of the furnace. Glazing consists in covering the inner or outer surface, or both, with a coating, which is vitrified or changed to glass, by the heat of the furnace in which the ware is baked, The ingredients of the glazing are finely ground, and mixed with water, and ill this fluid state applied to the ware, which imbibes the water, and leaves the solid ingredi ents on tlio surface. The European porcelain requires to bo partially burnt before the glaiing is anplicdj but the Chinese is so comjiact as to sutler no injury from dippingin the fluid glazing, after being merely suii-dric3. Porcelain is sometimes used for other purposes, than the fabrication of hollow ware. The Dutch decorate the jambs and mantles of their fire-places with painted porcelain tiles, and churches and other public buildings were often floored, in the middle ages, with variegated, figured and glazed tiles of extraordinary beauty. The recent use nf this material for writing tablets or slates is familiar, and it seems capable of profitable appli cation to a vast variety of purposes, for which other materials have been hitherto used. The porcelain of Sevres is sometimes formed into flat tablets, on which are executed imperishable cop ies of line paintings, and sold at enormous rates, At the annual exhibition of the products of French art at Paris in 1820, a round centre table of Se vres porcelain was shown, the leaf and foot each of a single piece, the former more than three feet in diameter, and covered with the finest copies of some ot the principal pictures, statues and other works of art in the Louvre, executed by six dis tingulshed artists. The perfection, to which painting on porcelain has attained, is chiefly duo to the ingenuity of Madame Jacquotnt, a French lady, whose productions surpass everything pre viously accomplished in this art. I lie plastic flexibility of clay renders it a material ol high i value in other arls, and even sculpture owes much of its perfection to the facility, with which ' the artist can model hl.s conceptions in clay, and thus test the realization of his ideal, before com-1 nicncing the work in mirble, when nf course any I considerable deviation from the original design is impracticable. The ancients sometimes made visual, ULViuuiMiaiivn in una n.. iif i,i,,liv i use ol tins material m statuary, and statues nt ciay noui ourni anu unuui ni nave ueen lounu in m iny countries. Clay stunned or beaten in Ihe art of nr.irKMAKixn, being of great ar.ti ....!,. fi1lt,n.t. n.A.M., Mn o1,.n,i.-.lnlnll, 'i',"- , """"n """-u'j ----.'."e;.-', v . . .. . t .. .(- .-. nexi 10 inai oi noiierv. may. irom us sininariiy (if material, fitly find a place here. Ilricks w ere doubtless first used in some of those warm l.aslern countries where rain rarely falls, and mi' iciiaciiy oi mo r.iay ueing uicii-a'vu u) working in straw or rushes, they did not require 10 uu imrni, in uiosc ciini.ues, nuinesuunsmii; ted nf such brick would be in many respects preferable to those of wood, and would not only outlast their builders, but might endure for cen turies, as is proved by the unbaked bricks still found in the ruins of IJ.ibylon. Thesu bricks were moulded as nt present, and frequently stamped with figures and inscriptions. 1 hey I are l'roni twehu to twenty inches square, ami ' three or four in thickness, and so hard as to ring I like clinkers, when struck. The burnt bricks 1 found in the same rums are of similar riimen lulily, that the pier's of a bridge constructed of them, and by some antiquaries supposed lobe the same mentioned by the prophet Itaruch, aro still standing. The bricks used by the Romans I were somewhat larger th in the modern, and the courses were occasionally hound by tiles not less than two feet square, I may here mention a singular union of the arts of pottery and brick- ' making, in ancient architecture. Arched roofs ! and ceilings were often constructed of hollow ' clay pots milled by cement instead of stono or common brick. This practice seems to have been resorted tn, for the purpose f lightening thu weight and pressure of the arch, but in some ' instances these pots or vases were so disposed as , to facilitate the propagation of sound. Ilricks, as is well known, are generally firmed by filling 1 : 1 1.1 : . .. .... ..i-. ...r.i. . :n nuum-u niuuui, upeii on mo sines, wiwi ieui ....... 1 -I ... 1 1 . - ..I'.'y' ""'" 'T have been proposed for moulding t.iem, none of uiu mimiu.s ny 11 inn. 1 resseu nr cis are iiiurn in ., .1,11 1 n , , 1 , the mo 1 ds hv hmil f'rem"! line, c lire much in . use, and arc superior to common brick m weight, I "''HUHt tlllll 3 II II Mill i It U 33 Ul MU jill'C. 1 I1U Ml "I''""" "T." lT "" " ,c V""y c u.ay appro . Clllllg 10,. ear uie l.aiure u, 1 .1 1 ,. , , , , plied to other purposes besides ordinary building. iiiiiu 10 oe reaunv compressuiic. nriCKS are an- land one of their most important uses is the con- struction of furnaces, for which purpose thev are moulded from fire clay, sometimes tempered with other ingredients. Eire bricks have been made, not only possessing the property nf resis ting the hottest fires, but so light as to float in water, and at the same time almost perfect non conductors of heat. In connection with this bianch of the subject, 1 may mention the use of tiles fur roofing. Roofing tiles are thin curved plates of baked and glazed clay, moulded with a lip on one side and a corresponding llange nn tho other. They make tight and durable roof- ing, on. are oujeeuouaoio iron, li.e.r weigui, which requires strong carpentry lor their sup - Por ' Whether the art of brickmaking proceeded that of iinwiso is not easily determined, but 11 is cerium, inai ine an 01 soaping nam siunes by some means not now well understood was one of the oldest and most primitive arts. In all rude nations, the earliest cutting instru ments, and tho first weapons of war and the chase, as well as the mortars, which ore the primitive flour mills, are always of this materi al. The kinds most commonly used were llint and qinrtz for sharp instruments, while the sof ter rocks generally supplied the blocks for the hollow ware, but porphyry, basalt, obsidian, and other stones of extreme hardness have been sometimes employed. Spear and arrow heads, knives, axes, chisels and maces of stone, pre cisely similar to those so frequently found about tho favorite haunts of our own Indians, occur nil over the world, and they are fashioned in a way denoting considerable ingenuity and much perseverance. Not long since, an ancient manufactory of flint tools and weapons was found in Denmark. Resides a considerable stock of tho raw material, in goodly lumps of uinvroilght flint and quartz, there were found arrow and spear heads, knives, and other articles, in all stages of progress, from a mere splinter to the finished implement, Fragments of stone would no doubt often occur, so nearly resembling the different instruments in form, as to require but little aid from art, to fit them for Use. Rut where the manufacturer was obliged to take the raw material altogether in tho rough, the process, so far as could be determined from a careful examination of the remains just mentioned, appeared to be this: An oblong stone was selected, having us pianes 01 cleavage, or so 10 speak, grain, at right angles to its greatest length. It was then, partly by chiselling or healing with other stones, and partly by grinding, brought lo such u shapo, that a transverte section would give the form of the instrument required. This being done, the lamintn were split olf, probably by a stone ojiisel, and nothing further was requi red, hut to dress the edges, which were sharpened hy chipping, and not by grinding. The spear and arrow-heads, as well as the axes, appear to havp been attached to the shaft or handle, by thongs, for which purpose there is always a groove near the thick end. The next step in the art of stone-cutting appears to havo been the manufacture of mortars, pots, lamps.and other hollow ware. This was probably suggested by the pot-like excavations in hard rocks, so often formed at water-falls by a curious natural process, the action, namely ,01 small revoh ving currents of water on stones and eravel accidentally deposited in the depressions of the rock The ancient stone pots being of great thickntf,end frequently, no doubt, of miff rials which would not bear the fire, were first heated by throwing in red hot stones, but there is found in many countries, and particularly in the north of Europe, a species of steatite called pot-stone, extremely soft when first quarried, but like many other stones becoming very hard and tough, after somo exposure. This miy he fashioned with great case into pots, and other hollow ware, and it hears bent so well, that the noorer neasants ill I Sweden and Norway, in the vicinity of the site beauty of proportion of the whole, or the ac quarries, form their cooking utensils of it lo this I curate and beautiful finish of the details. In gen day. eral, the ends and upper and under surfaces only Slono appears next to have been used for building, at first unhewn, and Without mortar, the interstices being filled with moss or cliy, and when this mode no longer satisfied the demands of comfort or of taste, the stone-hewer came to the aid of the mason, and fitted the blocks to each other, so as to make close Joints without mortar. This was accomplished, not by hewing all the stones flat and square, but, with perverse and laborious ingenuity, by cutting in one stone cavities to correspond to the protuberances of another, i lu.i mode ol building has the advan tage of great solidity, because the corresponding projections and depressions serve as dowels to bind the courses, or rather blocks, for the stones were not yet laid in courses. The immense labor of this stylo of misonry, and the rugged appearance of tin; walls, caused it soon to be discarded for the plain fashion of square hewn work, and this, when once adopted, has never been abandoned. The stones ucd by the an cient builders wore sometimes of immense size, as at llalhec, where somo of the blocks are sixty feet in length, nineteen in breadth, and ten in thickness, and therefore imply great skill in quarrying. All the different modes of detaching the blocks from thu ledge now in use, except blasting, were practised by the ancients. The uiJ!Llili v( TO Iir.lCllSeU UVlllf .IIUIUIUS, I III: earliest mode is supposed lo have been the tedi- ous one of chiselliii'i- the block from the quarrv, by a channel cut on all sides of it, but less lab'o- nous processes were invented at a verv remote period. Sometimes a row or holes was drilled nt short distances from each other, and the blocks split olf by thin metal wedges driven into all the holes, precisely as now practised in granite ipiarnes. In other eases, dry plugs of, wood were driven into the drill holes, and thesel being welted, the swelling of the plugs, some-' times aided hy the expansive poer of fr0.tJ would burst the rock. Sometimes a line was traced ui.on the surface of the ledge. alon, ; which a narrow fire was kept up, until 'the stone , was heated to a considerable depth. The fire 1 ,1 ll -..!.( .... living iiiL-u sin-pi. uii, uoni w.iii-i .. .is i' inn -u . .. . .... ' . ..' atom' the liealeil line, anil a crack was llius nro- duccd,inlo which wedges could he driven. The masses separated from the granite quarries of l.gvpt by these various means were sometimes one hundred leet ill length, and eight or ten in breadth, and ho have accounts of some of even vastly greater dimensions. I The Egyptians were skilful, notonly in squar-1 ingand hewing giar.ite, sandstone, and the hard-. er rocks, as porphyry and basalt, but in a finer and much more difficult style of work. The, obelisks, a characteristic feature in Egyptian ar chitecture, and many parts ol the temples, tonu.s, and other structures m Egypt, were sculptured with Inern rly0 inscriptions, the art of decipher- mgt'ir rather mteiprcting which, after being lost for centuries, has been recently discovered The of 10u.nents were covered with 1 ( renresentin.r a vast variety of snb- , and ireoj j..cts, and frequently on a very large scale. Ac- rording lo ilkinson, the oldest sculptures are . t;sou grcat sllccc" nmj th ablest antiqua. 111 low relief, the figures though raised ..hove the riea ari, a0inelimc9 dcccivpd bv modern copies, general surface, being 11 it, with the edges and The economical uses of precio'ns stones are few. corners rounded off. Mink or intaglio sculpture 1 Tlie (1i.1mnmi i9 vaiuaule for jt3 property of cut was afterwards introduced, and in many instill- tin;; gas3i and bolU this and other gems havo cos, both figures and h.erog yphics are in a style beeI1 a,cy uscd topoint metallic pens, and etch combining relief and int.g!,,., each object being in;J ccMca fur engravers. For the latter pur wrought in relief, m a sunken compirt.nent.- , pnsl. tbcy nre tllrncl, in a Ia,h Spi;nter of 1 he Egyptian sculptures are generally, though diamond serving for a chisel. Some of the more not uiiilormly, nl interior merit 111 point of de-, transparent crystals are cut for lenses for spec sign.but in .nechanica execution, they leave no- tacK.Si ,, t, h olIu.rise'r ,0 thing to be desired I he hieroglyphics are usu- tllt, bo Ias , ar e ,,rcl?rri;a for 6nlc purposes, ally executed in a stvle, which to a modern stone i,P.,,.,. ,,. , i:,i,i , .,.i. t-i.T j:. cutter would present very serious difiiciilties. - They are truly and squarely cut, the sides of the lines being perpendicular lo thu idee of tfie obe I IISII, Ul Ullll.T CJII.IOUIIlt'lll, "llll U1U UllL'Il 31UIK III II..1- ,.i , . 1. the hardest stones as basill or porphvrv. to a I t nr, to in : , he a g e Als . ..:,. e ,..,,, .lnni.' ,n-r thnn 1-.1H1U111111' 1111: snail"!' ss ui uu nn ui I'ssion un ...r U . r lja3alt or hyry is nf extreme hardness It , ....( ; " , ' 1 I . 1, . .1 .1 , t steel tools of modern manufacture, and no chisel, wl,ich Elironeans can form- U eanilil,. of rnlli,.,. ,i. .., :.i. 1. , - . .. .t..: iiiu siuni- win suuii ai-tuiauv uiiu iirfUMioM as ine ' 1 , .,. J .1- ...... .. ( w,.,t m'. ,ms .1111 other carving display, lly then did the Egyptians execute works, which almost set at defiance the skill of modern artizans .' V e must necessarily believe, that they possessed some easy process for per forming theni,for the sculptures and inscriptions occur in such abundant profusion, tint with any means now known, the united labour of all ihe stone-ciittcrs of Europe, for centuries, would not sulficu to produce the carvings of the single city of Thebes. Various explanations have beensug 1 gested, such as Ihe comparative softness of newly quarried stone and the probability, that the sculp j tors were in the practice of stunning the stone, -t . . u . , a n -, ,,, , IC t() ,BU,ptllr(.df and'tnls crllsi,: I ing the crystals, before the chisel was applied. '',t. rorme"r of these su"C3tions is disproved, by the well ascertained fact, that additional hiero- rlyphics were not unfrenuently sculptured upon monuments, a hundred or more years after their erection, and the process of stunning is not ap-1 plicablu to slnrply cut and delicately finished work. 1 here is gooii reason to Believe, that the Egyptians used the toothless saw with sand for simple cutting, and it is at least probable that they employed the revolving drill, with sand or emery. The finest cuttings might indeed be finished by this latter process, but its tediousncss renders it improbable that it was extensively adapted. Tho difficulty is increased by the fact, believed to he well ascertained, that slerl was very little used in Egypt, except for martial pur poses, and the chisels which hare been found among the chips in the quarries are of bronze, as well as those represented in the innus ot me stonecutters in the ancient paintings, so far as can be judged hy their colour. Hut bronze, which is ' an alloy of copper and tin, is a soft metal, andj readily turned bv the very stone which they are It. 17 l-MJJU Ul UIU I.II.BVI., lu, g,u,,v ,3 1 supposed to have formerly been used to cut. The question therefore must remain unanswered, until further investigations shall reveal the mys. terv. The art of cutlins porphyry was known, but not much practised, hy the Oreeks and Romans, It was revived in the middle ages, hut the ex treme hardness of tho stone renders the process of hewing and polishing it so tedious and expen sive, tint it is generally abandoned for a softer material, t he principal establishment mr worn ins this stone is in Rlfdal in Sweden, where the cheapness of labour, and the native ingenuity of the peasants, cnaulo the crown 10 carry on ine work without much sacrifice. I he ground ot the the porphyry of Clldal is reddish, beautifully mottled with luacK, green, aim wuue, aim 11 takes a high polish. It is wrought into small ar ticles of table and ornamental furniture, and sometimes antique vases are copied in this mate rial. The most remarkable work in porphyry is a vase destined to decorate one of the pleasure "rounds of the kins: of Sweden, the bowl of which is inure than twelvo feet in diameter, and was hewn from a sincte block. 1 lie desijn was la ken from a smaller vase found at llerculaneuni, and the proportions and details of tho inodJ are very faithfully preserved in the copy Tho skill of the ancient stone-cutters is seen to great advantage in tho marble temples and other public structures of Greece and Rome. The stones are hewn and polished with the nicest ac curacy, and it U remarkable that the blocks ern- ployed in the darkest recesses and least ooaspie. uous psrts of the building are often wrought with the same laborious care and exquisite finish, at those most exposed to the eye of the critical spec tator. The columns, capitals, and bas-reliefs, as well as the graceful angular and curved mould" ings, and all the decorative members of Greek and Roman architecture, were elaborated with the most scrupulous care, and the nicest attention lo precision of workmanship, and one knows noV which most to admire, the svinmetrv and cxnui of the wall stones were dressed before laying! the inner and outer faces being cut to the line of the wall and polished, after thu masonry Wat Completed, lly this means, a truer general silt' face was obtained, and the danger of accident to thu corners and faces of the stones during the progress of the building was obviated. The an cient stone-cutters seem to have been particular ly skilful in giving not only outline but finish by the chisel, and in the finest ancient statuary, tna ny parts are finished by that implement, which the timidity of modern sculptors would only ap proach with tho file or pumice store. The stone-cutters employed by the Gothic at' chitects of the middle ages wrought with s!n gular boldness and skill, though, as they gene rally employed a coarser material, as sandstone or granite,their works have not the exquisite deli' cacy of finish, which so admirably distinguishes the productions of tho stone-cutters of Greece. The Gothic style of architecture is redundant in ornament, and the most capricious and fanciful decorations, composed of slender lines and bold and abrupt curves, intermingled with grotesque figures and foliage, were carved in stone, with as much freedom as an expert designer could siieicn inem on paper. lint tho triumoh of the ancient nrlists seems lo . . ,, ' , " , " p 1 10 .engraveu gems, used by the ancients lor " al rings, personal ornaments, decorations of '"Idles, and other trappings.and various other on nameiital purposes. 1 he styles orcxecution were J.wo- lnl,1L' one, generally called cameo, the "Sures were raised, or in relief. In the othef c.i'led intaglio, they wcro sunk. Gems in inta- gho are the rnostcoinmon, and that style was pre. ;-"-"i -;"- . i muu iu cm an ""V" , ?" "ecause mo ngiires were less ex. poe. oacciuenia. injury, wmeo was employ cjl to the grca est advanl.ige, when cut upon a. t"ne having layers of diflerent colours, so that by cutting aay the whole i.l one layer, except l"? '"t0 l 1;i,l('r ul tppearoi a Uinercnl ?ol,,",r 'r?nl "'"ground, and thus the 'relief would IIC'l he heightened, the common shell cameos so , -. t . , , . ., .. Illtiell Worn he nil n, nrnninnn . nro ii.tilfilinn. dies as ornaments are imitations. . , and sometimes close ones, of the ancient stone Ca , "."u " s"e"s wcrc onen wrougui uy gems are Usually from one to two inches in di ameter, though some have been found below, as well as much above these dimensions. The subjects are portraits, mythological rcprescnta tion, and copies of celebrated statues and pic tures, and nothing can bo imagined more ex quisite both in design and execution than these minute figures. They are believed to have been executed hy means ot the revolving drill, and arc commonly of beryl, cornelian, agate.or onyx, lml h t.xalnpit.s in olhcr etonc3 arebnol wantin8. Tie ancient lapidaries were not acquainted wifll i ,i,,, nrt .- -.,,,, ,,i i:i,: ,i, ,i:,,j , though they made use of its powder in cutlinff ol, ' nV an 1 tissai i no t to have been cut , . kv 1,1 1 e .1 " m t .? ? j C(.nlury. T)!(. art 0f engraving gems is still nrac Illom hjs als0 heon rcct,lltiv nmi.ioved with ,reat advantage in the formation of lenses for smalt 1 microscopes, To be continued. Wito kkuis .v.v Amrrican Uook ? By lliti packet of M.ircli 4, llio Messrs. Harper sunt to John Murray, tlio great London pub lisher, 1,230 copies of Stephens's Incidents of Travel in Yucatan. Hy the Britannia, lliey locoived an order for 7o0 more, which ucie shipped on Thursday last; and, in ad dition to all these, Messrs. Wiley and Put nam h.tvo sent L'dO copies to (heir houses in London linking 2,2j0 copies. Of the In cidents of Travel in Central America, Lou dun has taken nearly 4,000 copies. Mr. Murray writes to tlio Messrs. Harper, thai, at tho trade-sale in March, lien only Inlfa dozen sample copies had been receiv ed, lie took orders for "00 copies; and, be tween that sale and the writing of this letter, he had orders for 800 nuro. N. Y. Com. J(k Too Good to hp. Lost. Tho following story was lately told by a reformed inebriate .is an apology for much of tlio folly of ( 1 111 nk:i 1 ds : A mouse raniiinsr ahmii a I hrewcrv bv accident fell into ono of tlm van f ,,,r( allj .;ls in i,,,,,,; dJI2er 0f ill owning, and appealed to a cat tn help 1 1 i 111 nm : die cat replied. " It is a foolish icipii'sf, for as soon as I get you out I shall cat you." Tho mouse pitpotisly replied, " futo would he bntler than to bo drowned in beer." The cat lifted him out, but tlio fumes of the beer set poor puss a sneezing, and dropping tho niouso, lie im mediately took refugo in tils liolo. The cat, ns soon as she could recover herself called upon tho mouse to como mil " You rascal, did not you promiso that I should cat you " " 01) !" replied tlio mouse," but ) OU kl)0. .;ls j jqlIof . ,,0 ,;, i I.N A I'nxDiOA.MBNT.-. Tlio Portland Ameri can makes up tho following, -bowing what it is lor a young man to uu in a 'predicament.' 'Hallow, Jim, I111W aro you 1 inquired ,1 young man of a friend whom ho called upon and Imi mi confini'il to Ins chamber, 'I am not well I' 'Not well! what's llio mailer with you V 'I'm in a predicament.' 'In a predicament! How do you make that outl' I li.ivu not paid my board theso six weeks.' 'Is that sal I Why my dear follow, you lo not pretend to say thai (his is tho causu of vonr iliicss?' 'Yes, but I do ! Tliuy won't allow me to go nway till 1 pay my board, and lliey won't allow 1110 to eat (ill I settle up I' A Titur. AXKcnore. -All who havo hoard of Gon. Wudo Hampton, of South Carolina, have been told that ho was distinguished among al.iroholders for cruelty. On his death-bed, ho was in grcat distress of mind. One of his. old negroes, describing his situa tion, said, " Massa keeps all the time bog-, gift God to forgive him ; and I am most afraid He wilt foraive hire : thav sjy he ii sg 0(ty 6