farm NOT THE OLOIZV OF 0 JB S A R DVT T II 0 WELFARE OF ROME VOL. XVI. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, JUNE 2, 1843. No. 62 TOW ' TUB BRAVE OLD OAK." BY HENItV Ill-SSEL. A long of tho Oak, tho bravo old Oak, Who hath ruled in tlio wood loni. Here' health an J renown to his broad green crown, And his fifty arms so strong ! There's fear in his frown, when tlio sun goes down, And the fire in tlio West fades nut, And ho showcth hismisht n n wild midnight, When storms tliroujh his branches shout. Then sing to tho Oilt, the brave aid Oak, Who hath ruled this land so lonz, And still flourish he, a hale green tree, When a hundred years are gone. He saw tho rare, time, when tho Christmas chimes, Were a merry sound to hear, And the squire s wide hall and tlio cottage small, Wore full of f'nglish cheer And all tho clay to tho rebeck gay, They frolicked with lonesome swains, They .iro gone,they are dead, in tho church yard laid, But the Tree ho si ill remains. Then sing to tho Oak, fee. Ac. ADDRESS Delivered before the Uurllnc-ton Mechanic's Institute-, by ononr.u I MARSH, AMD rt-'DUSHED DY I1EQCEST Or THE INSTITUTE. Concluded. I shall next direct your nttenlion to the vari ous arts of which wood forms the raw material. By ranking the artificers in wood after those in clay, stone and metal, I do not mean to insist, that the two latter substances were employed by man, before the former more abundant and prac tical material, but I think tint the potter, the stone cutter, and the smith, considered as regular artisans, must have preceded the builders of houses and boats. Wood in its natural condi tion is scarcely available for any purpose to un civilized man, and it can bo fashioned into the the shapes which his uses may require, only by bucIi sharp implements as first the stone cutler, and afterwards the smith supply to him. The perishable nature of wood lias rendered the pre servation of any very ancient works in this material impossible, and our speculations on the original modes of its employment must be in pome measure conjectural, though the knowl edge we possess of the arts and customs of existing rude tribes furnishes data from which we may reason with confidence. Among man's first wants are food and shelter. The latter is most conveniently furnished by structures of wood, and food can be obtained so abundantly ftnd easily by no other means as by fishing, for the successful prosecution of which boats are indispensable. The lightness of wood renders it the fittest material for this purpose, and it was no d Jiibt used for boats before it was discovered that skins or bark could be made to float a con siderable burthen. In all probability the boat builder preceded the liouso-wright, for boats would be needed before stationary habitations could be required. We find therefore that the rudest nations, whose huts are destitute of al. most every comfort of civilized life, frequently display great ingenuity in the construction of their canoes, and the best European boat build ers may still take lessons of some of the savage islanders of the Pacific, and the Indian Oceans. The earliest profane writers in all languages speak of their vessels as tho highest achieve ments of their artisans, and the long voy ages performed by the hardy Northmen in mail undecked ships, or rather boats, before the invention of the compass, prove tho skill of the shipwrights of that rude and warlike people no less than the dexterity of their navi gators. Tho ship is a favorite object in all primitive poetry. Homer ascribes intelligence to the ships of the I'lucicians, and the appella tions of dragon, serpent, sea horse, anciently applied to them, (.hew that they were look cd upon as quasi-animated, and possessing qualities beyond those belonging to mere dead matter. The first vessels were probably mere rafts, and from these the transition to a hollowed log or canoe is easy. The construction of a boat with frame work implies some advancement in art, and it is probable that frames covered with kin were long used, before tho art of working timber to such a degree of thinness as to bo capable of being fittedlo the curved sides of the frame, and with joints so tight as to exclude water, was discovered. The improvements m ship building have by no means kept pace with those in many other arts. The true confiiriira tion of the hull, or that form, which shall unite in the highest degree strength, capacity and speca, depends upon the resolution ot very X; in T r "V"y .I3 ,7 T " tl11"' iUc i:!OTtian linen.though it is surpassed . . fCess,ly of ' l'tmB tho mou d of the j fim,llpss orr'Cad by thu eotfTn muslins of In vessel to the greater velocity now given bv steam ,i;, a.,,,, n J , i. ! .V ' ' to sea-going vessels will lead to.furthor advance- ment in this dhcult art, winch however lias already received important improvements from the genius of Stevens ond other American ship wrignis. Although tho Greeks and Romans did not rnaue mucti use ol wood, as an .. -.t.! ... I material, in public buildings, or tho better class .111.11111 iiui.ll of private houses, yet a considerable knowledge of carpentry must have been required for the j construction of the necessary scaffolding, eon- j terings, and other conveniences indispensable to the architectural mason. In the middle ages, great t-kill was often dis played in frame work, and many roofs of that period yet extant are admired as very perfect specimens of carpentry. The ingenuity of mod ern carpenters has been perhaps more advan tageously displayed in the construction of arched bridges, and wooden roofs, than in any other way, and our own country has contributed many valuable contrivances to this art. The principal improvements in wooden arches are those which diminish or remove the lateral thrust, and those which substitute lighter timbers for tho heavy beams formerly employed. The most celebrated Rhine at SclTaffliausen. 'ThTs'was'huTiect'm length, having a pier near the centre, but so constructed as to leave it doubtful, whether it rested on the p'icr or not, A wooden bridge over the Schuylkill at Philadelphia, built in ld!3, was of a single arch 310 feet in span, and an arch of 250 fret was thrown over the I'Ucataqua at Portsmouth in 1704. Of remarkable arched roofs in wood 1 may mention that of Westmins ter Hall built about the year WO of chestnut, end still perfect, which is 272 feet long mid 71 wide, the wooden dome of the Halle du Die, at Paris, and the much more extraordinary roof of the Hiding-House at Moscow, which covers n extent of more than ten English acres. This roof is unsupported by cross walls or pillars, and is is about 2000 feet in length and 23.". in width. Few wooden structures have excited norc at tention than the slide of Alpnach. This was a trough six feet wide, and three or four deep, and extending eight and a half miles in a straight lino from the summit of a mountain ridge to the Lake of Lucerne. It was composed of trunks of pino trees, and was used to convey timber front the mountain to the lake, The velocity acquired by timber in sliding down this trough was such that large trees passed over its whole cngtli in six minutes, In joinery, cabinet work, and carriage build ing, the moderns are in all probability superior to the ancients, or at least to tho Greeks and Romans. The practice of building in wood, tho vast multiplication of articles of domestic fur niture, which modern habits render indispen sable, the general use of wheel carriages, which were little used by tho ancienis, and the inlro duction of ornamental woods from tin newly discovered regions of the East aid West, have furnished occasion, inducement nnd material for the exercise of great skill in tlitse branches of the mechanic arts. The Egytian joiners and cabinet maW-js how ever seem to have anticipated not only modern improvements in working wood, but nodern fiuhions. This we know, not only from ujnt ings, but from the wooden objects found in the tombs. Thry had chairs, both Muffed and plsn precisely similar, even to claw feet, to those in fashion within twenty ycar3. They practised veneering, marquetry or inlaying, dove-tailing, dowelling, the imitation of variegated and knot ted wood by painting and slahiing, and were familiar with the use of glue. They employed all the joiners tools now used, though of rude workmanship, except the plane, of which in its present form, they seem to have been ignorant, using in its stead the adze, chisel, and pumice stone. Tho Greeks and Romans nro generally supposed to have been acquainted with the plane, but the etymology of the word used in both languages, and translated plane, seems to indi cate, that it was rather an adze, or implement in the form of a mattock. The qualities of different woods in respect to strength and durability, and the means of sea soning them and rendering them less obnoxious to decay nnd the attacks nf insects, would form an interesting subject of observation, did our limits permit. In general it may be observed, that the iV.ivlost, hardest, ami most uuraulc woods are found between the tropics, though the sycamore of l'gypt, and the oaks of temperate climates are both tough and lasting. The best woods for the frames of ships are the teak of India and Africa, which is heavier than water, the live oak of our southern states, which is nearly as heavy, the llnglish oak, and the American locust and red cedar. For spars, plank, and other lighter parts of vessel, as well as for the frame ami joiner work of houses, the resinous woods of the North furnish the best materials. The art of seasoning timber is imperfectly understood, but kiln-drying, and a short immer sion in running water are thought to be the best methods. Many plans have been devised for expelling the natural juices of wood, and filling the pores and sap vessels with mineral salts and other substances, for the purpose of rendering it more durable. The most celebrated of these processes is that called Uyanising, from Kyan the inventor. It consists in impregnating the wood with a solution of corrosive sublimate, and I TJie silk of the coccoon of the common spider is very effectual though expensive, and in some has been both knit and woven. It is of excel other respects objectionable. Coal tar has been lent quality, and might be used to advantage, if used with advantage for tho same purpose, anil I procurable in sufficient quantity. A Swiss officer a very recent invention by an American is high, a few years since contrived a mode of compel lv commended by persons competent to judge, ling the silk worm to weave a web to a pattern This process is applicable to cordage, sails and instead ofspinning a coccoon, and thus produced many oilier articles as well as to wood, and is i lliought to be not less eltectual than kyanizing The substances used for impregnating tlio wood or other material are the sulphates of iron and copper. Si-1. v.n i no and Wr.Avisn arc entitled to bo ranked amung the primitive arts. In what country they were invented, or what material was lirst convened into clotli, is uncertain, but it is probable, that these arts originated in those warm regions where man was cradled, and that the inner bark of trees, cotton, or some other vegetable filament was first employed. In the most ancient historical records of all civilized people, we find mention of these arts, and many mythologies have deified their inventor. It is probable that spinning was first employed for the manut.iciure ot twine, lor binding tlio separate parts of rude implements together, and necessity would soon suggest the use of the net in fishing, and from the net, the transition to a closer and liner texture is easy. Th perishable nature of all textile substances lias left us few remains of an cient woven textures, except of those of Kgypt, where great quantities of cloth were employed in enveloping embalmed bodies. The paintings in the tombs represent persons engaged in spinning and weaving, and spindles and other implements connected with the fabrication ofclolh have been found in tho Ilgyptian ruins. Greek sculpture has preserved some similar representations, and the free and flowing drapery of their statues, and the testimony of history, both sacred and profane, show that very fine textures were more or less in use among all the civilized nations of the re inotest antiquity. Tho cloth in which the mum mies are enveloped has been proved by micro scopic observations to be uniformly of linen, though wo have historical evidence that the Lgyptiaus wove cotton, cotton and linen, and wool. The fineness of texture of same of the linen found in the Egyptian tombs is surprising. In one instance, there are not less than i70 double threads to the inch in the warp, while the woof lias uui Jill, 'tins disproportion is observable in all the Egyptian linens, the warn havimr al- ways from two to four times as many threads to the inch as the woof, and is probably owing to their laborious proecss of weaving, in which ac. cording to the paintings, tho woof was not thrown by the shuttle, but inserted by a long rod having a noie at pacn ena. io European texture is li .hcrVpindlo hand s it stili is in the finest 1 1)rocluction of ,1rJia,nnl the looms were of the ru(lost al(J ,iml,iPSt construction. Nothing but a very dense population, and very great cone. ' " F " V ; ,Vn. ' "i J " tl" v ...... ...U.II3, u V DUUil .1 II nnr,, , ini nmlnlr. murine 111' ,.., II..., !,!.. which were manufactured by processes enuallv simple, I am not aware that any cry ancient Hpccimenscxist. Fragments have been found in Denmark, and other fsortlicrn countries, satis f.ictorily ascertained to he nearly 000 years old Ilicse are of coarse, but curious texture, the thread doubled and twisted, and the web twilled Woolen cloths were the general material for all purls of tho dress throughout Eurone. the finest vegetable textures, though known, being utile used, until a comparatively late period, and indeed cotton hardly became common, until the discovery ol the passage around tho cape of woou nope opened India to the commerce ol the west. 1 lie substitution of cotton for wool Ion is thought to have had a highly important in fluenco on health, and bv some, tho disannear ance of the leprosy and other allied cutaneous diseases has been ascribed to this change. Silk on, out was scarcely known in Europe, until about the commencement of our era, and the silk worm was not introduced until the sixth century, wnuigii raw siik nau ueen imported and manutao tured somewhat earlier. The strength, softness, iiiirainiiiy, and beauty of the manufactures ol silk render it superior for general purposes to any .v-Aiiui inait7ii.it, uim 111 value ranks first among American imports, tlio quanti ty imported in ldll being not less than $11,000, ODD in value, I'erhips the most admired production of the loom is the fabric generally called camels hair, but which is really from the wool of the Cashmere or Thibet goat. It is usually manufactured into shawls, which are sold at enormous prices, owing to the scarcity of the raw material, and the tedi. ous process of manufacturing, which however i.umpean ingenuity Has simplified. In Ir-'JU, the great and public-spirited Krench manufacturer lernaux introduced the Cashmere goat into r ranee, wlicro lt tliri vos very well. The price of the Cashmere shawls has been in consequence somewhat lowered, but as the goat yields but halfa pound of wool at a shearing, this fabric can never be abundant or cheap. Figured weav ing appears to lie an Eastern invention, and of considerable antiquity, hut it lias now been troduced into all manulucturing countries. Tho most interesting branch of this art is the fabri cation of Upestry or woven hangings, or curtains for walls of rich apartments, now little practised, thuugh carried to the highest conceivable per fection. In the middle ages, and down to the time of Louis XIV of France, this mode of do. totaling wans was mucii in vogue, and it is un doubtedly the most graceful and elegant embel ishment for splendid nnarlinenta Hint nrt line de, vised. The greatest masters were employed in designing the figures for the loom, and Raphael's drawings for a suit of tapestry executed in Flan. uers, several in wuicu are now preserved in Ew. land, and known as the cartoons, are by com mon consent considered as among the finest pro' ductioni of pictorial art. Several of the tni tries wrought from these designs sre still in ex- istencF, snd are annually ejhibiterj it Rome, The principal fabric of tapestry at present is the royal manufactory of tho Gobelins at I'aris, es tablished by Louis XIV. The tapestry manu factured here is of two sorts J hautc-ltssc, in which the warp is stretched perpendicularly in weaving, and bassc-tissc, which is woven some thing in the manner of ordinary cloth. Doth kinds require very long practice in the workman and not less than ten or twelve years are con sumed in acquiring the necessary skill. A sin gle piece ol'thistapcstry,cightorten feet square, frequently occupies five or six years in weaving, and tho portrait of Louis XV11I, finished about twenty years Bince, was five years in the loom. The material of the Gobelin tapestry is wholly wool. The metals have been employed in weaving, and gold and silver brocade were for several cen turies much in vogue. The rigidity and want of elasticity of tho precious metals renders them unlit for the loom, except in combination with other substances. Gold and silver lines tlieretorc generally consisted of silk, with metal lic threads interwoven, or more commonly, of silken threads wound with flattened gillor silver wire. The weaving of asbestos, which issoinc limes practised, is not modern, though the pre sent process of preparation is different from that anciently employed, and it seems to have been woven at a distant period even in the rude North, for in an Icelandic H.iga of the 13th century, we find mention of a napkin, which ''burned not, though cast into the lire, but came out cleaner than before." The bark of trees and of some herbaceous plants is woven in the Last, and mod ern ingenuity has added to the list of textile sub stances the apparently intractable whalebone, from which cloth is fabricated 60 closely reseinb ling hair-cloth, as not to be readily distinguisha ble from it, the native flax of New Zealand more commonly employed for cordage, the wool of tho South American Llama, and the silky beard of a molluscous animal found in the Mediterranean, which is usually knit, but sometimes woven, in to fabrics nf singular softness, lustre, and beauty. vein anu oilier liglil tissues, ul a fineness lar surpassing tho most delicate productions of the loom. The most recent improvements connected with the nrinufacture of clotli are the contrivance of one of our own fellow citizens fir unravelling woollen cloths, and reducingthem again to wool. and the proposed substitution of felting for weav ing, in almost all the varieties of woollen goods. Great expectations were formed in regard to their latter improvement, but it docs not seem capable of as extensive application as was hoped by its projector. Another art ol great antiquity and importance is the MAXCFACTunE of glass. In the ornamen tal and decorative branches of this art, the an cients far surpassed tho moderns, and according to Winckelmann, the economical uses of glass were more extensive among them than in our times. It is disputed whether the ancients ap plied this substance to one of its moslobviousand important uses, the glazing of windows, but it is certain, that it was used to but a very small ex- it-iii in mis way, 11 at an, until me tweiiui cen tury, and it did not become by any means com mon until the fifteenth. Egyptian paintings 3.100 years old, represent glass blowers at work, and using uiow-pipcs similar m all respects to those of the present day, and bottles, jars, vases, and other implements of glass have been found in the tombs of Thebes. In ornamental work, the Egyptians had attained to unsurpassed excel lenee. Thev stained irlnsa nf v.irinnu r.nlnnrs. and tlieir imitations ol precious stones cannot Le equalled by any workmen of modern times. The Greeks and Romans possessed equal skill, and some of their productions in this art yet extant exhibit the highest beauty of design, and perfee tion of finish. Winckelmann describes a piece of glass found at Rome, not unite an inch in length. and a third of an inch in breadth, exhibiting on a dark and variegated ground the figure of a duck, very beautifully ex"cutcd in bright and varied colours. The outline was perfectly sharp and well defined and tho eye, the plumage, and all the minuter parts were executed with won derful truth and fidelity. Rut the most surpris ing circumstance was, that the opposite side of me glass presented precisely tho same figure. and it was obvious, that the colours extended quite through the substance of the glass. A frac ture revealed the mode in which this curious ob ject was fabricated, and it was found to have been accomplished by passing straight threads of glass, ot dillerent colours, through a hole in the tablet, and so arranging them, that a transverse section exhibited tho figure of the bird. These filament? were doubtless afterwards united by partial fusion, as the most powerful magnifiers failed to detect tlieir junction in the figure. An- other specimen exhibited flowers, architectural ornaments, and other small objects of various light colours, on a blue ground. These were so delicate, that the naked eye could not follow tho finest lines, nnd yet they were carried through the subitaucc of the glass, as in the case of the bird just mentioned. Immense masses of glasswere also fashioned, and we have reason to believe that statues of the sizu of life, and even large columns, were sometimes wrought, wholly of this material. An ancient author affirms that the art of making glass flexible, and so tough as to sustain no injury from falling upon a marble floor had been discov ered. Thattlieartsofciittini'igrinding.and pol ishing glass were understood, wo have abundant evidence, and many glass mutations of porcelain almost precisely similar to those now manufactu red have been found in ancient ruins. Perhaps the most admired object in this material, which has come down to us from antiquity, is the liar bcrini or Portland vase now in England. This was found in a sircophagus at Rome, about two liuuuit-ii jtdi since, aim wes long supposed to be of stone, but is now satisfactorily proved tohe oi giass. u is auout ten inches in height, and six in breadth, and of very graceful figure and proportions. It is of a dark blue colour, highly polished, and ornamented with small figures in bas-relief, of opaque white glass, exquisite in de sign anil workmanship. Antiquaries are not agreed as to the subject represented. Under the head of works in glass may be rang, ed mosaic, on art known to the Greeks and Ro mans, and still very successfully practised. It originally consisted in joining together small pieces ot marblo and other opa.pae stone of vari ous shapes, sizes and colours in such a way as to represent natural ond artificial objects, on a plane surface, liko a picture, and was first cm. ployed in ornamental paving. Afterwards the precious stones were used in the same way, and exquisitely beautiful works in these costly mate rials, requiring an incredible amount of time and labour, ore now produced at Florence. Itutthe material now generally used in mosaic is opaque class of different colours drawn out into slender rods. Short pieces of these rods aro broken oft, ry ine workmen and arranged in a frame, side by side, presenting the mils to tho spectator, so as to imitate painting with great perfection. The joints aro so close as not to be perceptible, with, out a cloje examination, and when the surface is ground and polished, the effect is scarcely in. ferinr to that of tho finest works in oil. This art is ofgreat value as a means of perpetuating those masterpieces, which, from the decay of the wood or canvass, on which they are painted, and the fading and soiling of tho colors, can calculate on a duration of but a few centuries at most. Works in mosaic may be made of any desirablo thick, ncss, and sometimes the tablet is sawn through, nnd two or more copies thus obtained. The number of shades of colour used in tho mosaic fabric at Rome is 18,000, nnd even these hardly sufTico to reproduce all the tints employed in painting. Largo pictures have been conied in this wsy, and among others, the celebrated Last site the origins.!, being thirty feet in leng nupper or ua vinci, I he copy is of the same th and fifteen in height. The figures are consido rably above tho size of life, and the nieces of glass ot which tins mosaic is composed snow a surface of from one twelfth to one fourth of an inch square, which is however much above the size of the pieces used in smaller mosaics. It oc cupied the constant labour of five skilful artists for eight years, and cost above $3.",000. In tho middle ages, stained window glass was one of the principal decorations of ecclesiastical structures, and was carried to an admirable de gree ni perfection, tins nrt, alter having fallen much into decav. has been latdv revived, and specimens are now produced at Munich, in no io interior to the finest lrom th: middle nges. Tho principal modern iiiiprotements in glass are in casting large plates for mxrors, afterwards ground and polished, and in its idaplation to op tical purposes, to which the progress of modern astronomy and many branches of physical science is in a great measure to bc'ascriLed. The inven tion of achromatic object glasses for telescopes by Dollond was an era in the art, and the Eng lish had for many years the highest reputation tor optical instruments, out tlio iinpiovenicnts ot Guinaud in France, and Fraunhofer and his suc cessors in Bavaria, have led to the production of large masses ot glass ol great transparency, and perfectly homogeneous ond uniform in texlure, (a point of great difficulty) and refracting tele scopes are now made at Munich of much greater power and excellence, than any hitherto attemp ted in England. We have no direct evidence that tho ancients possessed any means of aiding the sight by opti cal instruments, or even that they were acquain ted with the magnifying power of convex trans parent objects, but it seems impossible, that the latter property should have escaped the notice of their glass-workers, anil the use ot magnifiers by them has been inferred, with great probability, from the extreme minuteness and delicacy of their wrought gems and figured works in glass. The beautifully executed figures of their lapi daries and gljss-workers ore often so very mi nute, that they can be appreciated only by the aid of a powerful convex lens, and it seems im possible, that the naked eye of the most practised artist could guide the tool, or direct and arrange the threads of glass, in lines of such extreme fine ness and precision. The possibility of accom plishing this receives some support from the known fact, that some of tho best modem en gravers on wood use no magnifiers, but the sur face upon which they work is plane, or very near ly so, and therefore more accessible, so to speak, in every part, to the eye, than the sunken figure of an intaglio, or a perforation in a tablet of glass, and the opinion ol Winckelinann,lhatthe ancient artisans made use of simple lenses or some other optical instrument, is therefore not hastily to be rejected. The manufacture of glass lias been at all times remarkable for the simplicity of its processes, and tho fewness of the implements required, and the modern improvements in machinery have not yet exercised much influence on its produc tion. Lenses both concave and convex are ground by hand, no mechanical contrivance hav ing been found to answer so perfectly. A recent new application of glass has excited some interest in Europe. It consists in inter
weaving filaments of glass with silk in such a way as to produce a flexible and highly brilliant and beautiful texture. Specimens of this fabric have been exhibited in this country, and it is thought to be capable of such improvements, as to furnish a very beautiful, and nut extravagant article of dress. I shall now give some account of the arts con cerned in the most important of manufactures, tlio I'lionncTioN or books. The earliest sub stances, upon which characters were written or rather traced, were probably the bark of trees, thin slabs of wood, lead, and wax tablets, ancient specimens of all which are vet extant. But none of these materials are suited for receiving wri I tings of much length, and books, properly sneak- i ing, could not exist, until it was discovered, that parchment and vellum wuuld receive and retain characters formed by colored fluids. The appli cation nf the Egyptian papyrus to the manufac ture of paper was an important step, in the pro gress of the arts connected with literature. Pa per of this substance bears some resemblance to the paper cloth of the Sandwich islands, and their modes of preparation are not wholly dis similar. The Egyptian paper was formed of two or more layers of thin slices of the pith of tho piani, laid transversely to each otlier, cemented by nun glue or sizing, and dried under a heavy pressure. It was exported to Greece and Italy, and being more durable and convenient, and probably also cheaper, than parchment, was in general use in Europe until tho eighth century, when cotton paper was introduced into Spain bv the Moors, and gradually supplanted the paper of Egypt. The oldest linen paper is supposed to have been produced in Germany about the year i.iwii. rarenmentand vellum however nave been at all times more or less in use, not only for wri ting but for printing. Rooks printed on vellum are now not often met with, but is not uncommon in Europe to strike oil' on vellum a few copies of works ol permanent value, and these are highly prized, for their rarity, by bibliomaniacs. The scarcity and high price of parchment in the middle ages not (infrequently led the posses sors of old manuscripts to erase the original wri ting for the purpose of substituting what they es teemed ol greater interest and value. Manu script thus ro-written are called palimpsests, or codices rtseripti, and a method has been lately discovered of restoring and deciphering the orig inal characters. In this way some important lost work3 have been recovered, and new discoveries in this curious branch of research are continual ly making. The ancient form of books was the roll, a long narrow strip of parchment or papyrus written on one side, and attached to and rolled upon around stick, as is now practised with maps. A library of such volumes, consisting of about 1700 rolls, was found ot Herculaneum, near the middle of the last cetHmj, mid thougli charred, and other wise injured, many of them have been unrullcd and deciphered. The present form of books is older, by many centuries, than the nrt ol printing, and very few ancient manuscripts exist m any other form. The volumes tvero at first bound in parchment with out wood, pasteboard, or other stiffening, and this mode of binding is still sometimes practised particularly in Spain. It is perhaps the best mode of binding yet discovered, being not only durable, but not liable to be attacked by worms. For tomo time after the invention of printing, books were generally bound in wood, covered with parchment or leather, often stamped with the arms of the possessor or other devices, and frequently ornamented ond strengthened with metallic bosses, corners, ond clasps. Hooka were sometimes bound in gold or silver, of which tho famous CWcx .'lri;cnteus ot Upsal is a re markable instance, This is a volume of parch ment, containing a translation of a part of the of the Scriptures into tho Ma-sogothic dialect, by Ulphilas a bishop of that nation, who lived in the fourth century. The volume is ofgreat an tiquity, perhaps even cotemporaneouj with the translator. It has excited much attention among scholars, not only on account of the lunguage,of which it is almost the only considerable speci men extant, but from the manner in which the contents are executed. The letters are in silver, and to the eye appear to have been impressed or stamped with punches, but most antiquaries are at present of opinion, that they were produced by a process having no reseinblanco to printing, If we reject the claims of tho coder nrgenteus to be considered as a nrintedj book, we find no satisfactory evidence of tho existence of the art of printing in Europe before about tho year 1110, though there are extant a few engravings on wood, of earlier dale, with titles engraved upon the same block. The discussions on the subject of the invention of printing have been conducted with much research, and great acrimony, be tween the partiztns of Gutenberg of Mentz in r. . i i ' . fit , r t, , i . tween mo paruzsns oi uuienncrg oi menu in Germany, and Kosterof Haarlem in Holland 1 cinnot enter mtu the merits of Ihii controvrisy further than to observe, that the claims of Kostcr appear to mo unsupported, and that the inven tion must be considered as duo to Gutenberg- It has been confidently asserted, that tho first moveable types were of wood, but there seems to be no satisfactory ground for this opinion, and in all probability they were of metal. One of tho most remarkable circumstances in the history of this art is, that it should have been perfected al most as soon as invented. Hooks printed thirty years alter the invention of the art are scarcely inferior to those of the present day, in colour of ink or clearness of impression, thougli the types are not so well and cleanly cut. The most im portant improvements in this art are the inven tion of stereotype plates, by which a whole page is cast solid, the introduction of inking rollers, and various new presses, and other mechanical contrivances, by which presswork is performed with vastly increased rapidity. Various attempts have been made to construct machines for set. ting types, the compositor touching keys like those of a pianoforte or organ. Some of these are said to promise important results, but thus far, thcy have disappointed the expectations of tlieir projectors. The invention of paper making nnd printing os well as those of gunpowder and the mariner's compass are claimed by the Chinese, and some of them at least with great show of probability, but as all these inventions were known in Eu rope before there was any direct commercial in tercourse with China, the European inventors are fairly entitled to the praise of originality, if not of priority of discovery. The art of printing from engraved metallic plates or blocks of wood, and from stone, though more generally employed in the service of the fine arts, ought not to be passed unnoticed. In engraving on copper or steel, the lines arc cor roded by an acid, scratched by a needle, or cut by a graver, in intaglio, and in printing, these lines are filled with ink, and the intermediate spaces cleaned oil", and the impression is given by a rolling press. In wood engraving, the lines are left in relief, the intermediate parts being cut away, and the block is inked ami printed in the same manner as common tvue. Stone mav be engraved with the graver, and printed from', like metal piaics, or llic lines may bo lell in relief, and the spaces corroded, in which case it is ink ed and printed like a wooden block, or lastly, as in common lithography. Hie drawing or writ ing may be made upon the stone with a crayon or a fluid of peculiar composition. The print ing ink adheres to the lines only, leaving the in termediate spaces clean, and thus the iuiprossion is in fact taken from a plane surface. The most remarkable improvement connected with these arts is that of Perkins. I!y this plan, an engrav ing is made in intaglio upon soft steel, which is then hardened. From this plate an impression is taken in rclirf, on the surface of a soft steel roller, and the roller being hardened will give impressions in intnulio again, on flat olates nf soft steel or copper. In this way the original plate may be many times multiplied, and extensive use has been made of this invention in bank-note engraving. Tlio portion of your time, which I have thought myself at liberty to occupy, has allowed me lo give but a very hasty and imperfect sketch of the history of it few of the principal arts, and I have been obliged to omit all notice of many, of ninuist uquiii interest and importance. A tolera bly complete account ot the rise and progress or any one of them would require a volume, and 1 have aimed not to gratify, but to excite curiosi ty, by such hints as might lead the members of the Institute to further investigation nnnn sub. jects, which to them must posses much interest. I shall now trespass upon your patience but a few moments longer, while I endeavor to no tice the distinguishing characteristic i,f mruli.rn mechanic art, and some of the economical princi ples, which are peculiar to it. The most striking characteristic of modern art is the vast extent to which machinery is sub stituted for human strength, and even human manual dexterity. That the ancients used the mechanical powers in various combinations. f,,r raising heavyweights and moving heavy bodies, for battering walls, and impelling military pro jectiles, for grinding grain and other similar pur poses requiring a mere accumulation of power, we well know, and it is certain, that they em ployed the lathe, riot only in pottery, but for turning in wood, and possibly metal, the lapida ry's wheel, the bellows, the loom, and many other simple contrivances for abridging or f.icilit ltmg labour. They are morever said to have con structed automata, and the mechanician Ar ehytas is reported to have m ido a pigeon of wood and metal, which was not only supported, but moved forward in the nir, by machinery con cealed within it. Archimedes is related to have displayed wonderful mechanical skill in contriv ing a great variety of engines of defence, at the siege or Syracuse, nnd even to have set on fire the enemy s fleet, at n considerable distance, by means ol' a compound concave mirror, lint the ancients do not seem to have employed machin ery for any purposes, which could be easily ac eomplished by manual skill, such as cultin.', or shaping the raw material, nor do midlines of any sort seem to have been employed to anv considerable extent in tlieir public works, or ill manuuciurmg, it we except such simple contri vances as cranes nnd pulleys, the lathe and the loom. Of complicated machines they had none. The steam engine, that wonderful combination of mechanical capacities, which has introduced a new motive element into practical mechanics, and which, after doing its marvellous work fur little more than a century, is perhaps to he su. perseded by the newly discovered power of elec tro-magnetism, is altogether modern, as is also that miraculous machine the chronometer, whether clock or watch, which when ue eonid cr the extreme smallness of its pirts, th.- delica cy of its adjustments, and th- precision of its movement, in spite of the numerous dislurbiu i causes that interfere with the regularity of its operation, may well be regarded ns" the instin-e in which man has most successively imitated the mechanism of nature, approaching on the one hand to the microscopic minuteness of the ele. ments of organised life, and on the other, to the unerring certainty of planetary motion, and of course os the crowning triumph of human iu"e unity, i o Among other modern machines we may men. tion as peculiarly valuable, that modification of the lathe, by which objects of almost any given regular or irregular form may be produced, the hydraulic press and other presses of great pow er, the firo engine, the endless varieties of the water wheel, by which the weight of falling water or the force of a moving current, a power known to the ancients only in its rudest forms, may be made subservient to an infinite number of mechanical purposes, tho saw mill, the circu lar saw, the improvements in the flouring mill, and the multitude of machines and parts of ma chines, which have been invented within a cen turv for facilitating the manufacture of cotton and woolen fabrics. Of new contrivances applicable to different machines, may be noticed the various modes of changing the direction, character or speed of; motion, the many devices for reducing friction, the employment of fly and balance wheels, as accumulators of power nnd regulators of motion, that inojt ingenious instrument the governor or mechanic regulator, which not only measures, but controls the speed of machinery, and the modes of registering the amount of work dono, fluids distributed, or fuel consumed. The origin of these improvements is to be as cribed to two causes, The ono is the progress of the natural nnd exact sciences, The other is the necessity of increased facilities of produc tion. Tho principal nations of antiquity, from density nf population, the practice of domestic slavery, the want of extensive foreign commer cial relations, and the consequent limited demand from abroad for manufactured wares, had al ways at hand a largo surplus of human trenirii, inuu manual nextcruy, ana could therefore well 1 afford to employ that strength and that rieilrritv and manual dexterity, and could therefore well in irtvirri, which the few modern mnufclur- ing nations, who have the world to supply with their wares, arc obliged to perform bv the more cfh'cient and economical means of mechanical contrivances. 1 am inclined to think, that tho influence of the existence of domestic slavery, in checking the progress of mechanical improvement in the principal nations of antiquity, modified und soft ened as it was by the sympathy, which neces sarily exists between tlio master and the slave, where both are of tho same color nnd of the same race, has been in general much underrated. Slavery is eminently hostile, not only to man's moral, but to his intellectual development, and though one born, bred, and taught as a slave sometimes displays a good share of manual dex terity in those operations, which depend upon the patient and long continued repetition of a simple set of movements, yet the ingenuity of combination is rarely or never found in slaves The ancients accordingly employed tlieir slaves in all those coarse and simple labours, the per formance of which is readily learned, and once learned, is repeated and continued habitually, nnd almost unconsciously. Jlutnll those work's, the execution of which requires active nnd cal culating intelligence, have in all ages been ac complished by free hands, directed by free heads. Now, the kind of labour ancic nlty performed by slaves is precisely that which is now executed by machinery, the dead unconscious engine be ing substituted for the living and suffering man. 1 lie number ol slaves in most ancient countries was sullicient for the performance of the mere mechanical labour required by tlieir modes of life, at a period when manufactured wares scarce ly entered into commerce, but at present the whole slave population of the earth could not accomplish the work or British machinery alone. Uur own country unhappily ononis an illustra tion of the truth of these remarks. In those states where tho accursed system of slavery prevails, and where, of course, a foolish pride makes the while man reluctant to engage in manual occupations, mechanical skill is at a low ebb, and the ingenuity and industry of the free North ore relied upon for the supply of al most overy article of use or ornament, except those edible productions which a favoured soil and climate vicldcvcn to the rude agriculture ! of the slave. There are two important economical princi ples of extensive application in the mechanic arts, ono nf which, of a strictly mechanical character, is entirely new, and the otlier, though not wholly modern, has been much extended in practice in recent times. These principles are styled by mechanical economists the identity nf product, und the dicision of labour. By the identity of product, is meant that prop erty or accurate and precise repetition of action in machinery, by which all the objects el tbora led by a particular machine shall be precisely similar in weight, figure, dimensions, and atl other sensible qualities, This principle is of immense importance and of very various ap plication, embracing alike the graduation of the fi nest mathematical and astronomical instruments, the coinage of the precious metals, and the shaping of pins and shoe-tarks. The applica tion of this principle has lately been extended. I with great advantage, to the parts of which com I pound implements, or otlier manufactured arti cles, are composed. Let us take the case of the musket. If each of the numerous parts of eve ry ni'sket is made by itself, without reference to any other musket, than that to which it is lo be attached, it is obvious that between these parts there will be no close similarity, and much time must be consumed in fitting together the differ ent partsof each lock, and in adapting the lock, barrel, and trimmings to their ptrtictilar stock : anil if in using the gun any one of the parts is lost or broken, a new one must be made ex pressly to supply its place, and it must be fitted to the other parts by trial. But let every stock, every barrel, every lock and part of a lock, manufactured at a particular armory, be made by machinery, precisely similar each lo each, 'mill nnnnliniT In n nrnci-ri1i,.il iiflnpn l-.. fl,if any one part shall perfectly fit all the otlier pirt-i, nf the same or any otlier musket, and it is too obvious to require elucidation, that a vast saving of time and convenience is gained both in the original fabrication of the arms, and in facility of subsequent repair. If you carry the principle further, and require exact conformity lo the pattern in all the government workshops, the advantage is proportionally greater. The other important principle, of the division nf labor, requires tint each nrtizan shall be em ployed in one simple department only, as to in stance in the manufacture of pins, 'before the invention of pin. machines, that one man shall be exclusively employed in stra'ghtening the wire, another in cutting it of the proper lengths, an other in preparing it fur the head, another in coiling, and another in fixing, the head, another in sharpening the points, and so of the rest. It may indeed happen, that in a scries of succes sive operations, some one may occupy as much time as the preceding or f Mowing two, and in that case, the same individual may perforin those two, without violating the principle. The advantages accruing from the application of this principle are first, the much greater dexterity, which will be acquired by a labourer who con fines himself to a single department, and sec ondly, the saving of the loss of time occasioned by changing from one occupation to another The division of labor has been thought objec tionable, os having a tendency to reduce the man to a machine, by confining him to too nar row a circle of thought and action, This objec tion is not without weight, but its force is daily diminishing, by the substitution of machinery fur almost all those processes, which were for merly accomplished by mere motions of the huiiuii hind guided by fixed habit, rather than active and conscious intelligence, The general result of our observations ap pears to be this. The moderns have invented miny entirely new objects of ornament, conven ience, nnd ue, and discovered many new pro cesses, ar.d some new principles, all tending to facilitate the production nf the vast variety nf artificial objects required for human consump. tion, and thus both to increase the supply of lliese objects, and economise human tune and l l'e in their production, but that in the character nf the articles produced, in their adaptation to the purposes for which they are individually de signed, in Ihe perfection of tlieir execution, and the gracefulness of their forms, there has been in general no improvement within the period which authentic profane history embraces. Tun Itiii.ivn Passion. Hrps.-ir folilm! hit rotio around him, ami fell with dignity " even at tho base of Poinpey's Statue." John Adams died un tlio4iliofJuly,182G, the liflictli Anniversary of American Inde pendence, with lliu word, I.NDr.rr.MiE.NCK, on his lips. Thomas Jnrrr.nsnN's last words, on thi ianio day, were. " Warn thu Committee (of Public Safety) of tlieir danger." INapoleon diuu, Willi the professional phrase " Tcte d'armec," trembling, on liis tongue. I, ,i. ,. j. tien. ll MililJO.N s inst worus supposed ui bo addressed to Mr. Tvixn) wore " Sir, 1 wish vnu In understand the true nrincinles of the Government, I wish them carried out. I ask nothing nioiu." Commndorn OAiNiinmnE, when ho lay struggling in death, summoning nil his ener gies Tor a final elTort, exclaimed " Call nil hands to hoard tlio enemy." And recently, Uoniiiiodoro I'oiiter, when dying in a foreign land, cliruclcd us his last rennest. that " liis liodv should ho buried at tho foot of tho flag-stair, that oven after death, the glorious stars and stripes ot Amen ca might ae over him 1 " Prom the Whitchnll Chronicle. CONSECRATION AND ORDINA TION. Wo were favored, on Wednesday nnd Thursday of last week, villi n visit from the Rt. Rev. Disbups of New York and Vor munt, and several of the Clergy of tlieir Di ocesses. On Wednesday morning the hew St. Paul's Church, lately eroded in Ibis vil lage, was consecrated lo tlio worship of Al mighty God, by tho Rt. Rev. IJishop Onder donk. Al 10 o'clock, iho Rislmps, nccom panied by the clergy, entered llie Cliurcli re peating alternately the verses of thu 24lb Psalm, and proceeded lo the chancel, when the instrument of ordination was presented in behalf of tlio Vestry of tho Parish, by tlio surviving Warden, Wm. II. Kirtland, Esq., and rend by the Rector. Tho Bishop of New York then proceeded with the prayers of Consecration according to tlio rites of the Protestant Episcopal Cliurcli, after which the sentence of Consecration was road by tho Rev. Palmer Dyer, tho lato Rector, and placed by the Bishop on tho altar. Morn ing Prayer was then read by the Rev. Wni. II. Holt, of Si. Albans, Vt., assisted by the Rev. Norman W. Camp, of Poultneyl Vt., who read the lessons, the Bishop of Vermont then proceeded with tho Communion servi ces ; thu sermon, which was preached by tho Rt. Rev. Bishop Hopkins, was an ablo and instructive discourse from Hebrew ix, 1. After its delivery the service was finished, and the benediction given by tho same Rt. Rev. Prelate. In the afternoon, after Evening Prayer by the Rev. Henry M. Davis of Vergennes, Vt., assisted by tho Rev. Louis McDonald of Granville, who read the lessons, Bishop Ondordouk preached an interesting and edi fying discourse from Isaiah xi, 2 ; and admin istered thu holy ordinanco of Confirmation to 10 persons. After which ho delivered un address to them on the nature of the obliga tions which they had assumed, and the dan ger of failing to discharge them. Un I hursdny morning the Bishon of New York admitted to the Priesthood the Rector of tho Parish. Thu sermon, which waj preached by him, w as from I. Thessalonians 1J, and was a complete and instructive! summary of tho duties of the minister of thrisf, and of the regard which the neoiilo should render to him. None could resist the effect of the solemnity of its truths, and tho leeling and impressive manner in which it was delivered. The solemn and iiiiDosine office of Ordination was then performed by l.; ; .. i i.. .i r. - nun, usMsteu oy ino nev. itJcssrs. uyer, Camp, McDonald and Purdy, and tho holy Communion administered by the Bishops, assisted by tho Rov. Mr. 'Dyer. Bishop Hopkins returned immediately to Burlington, and Bishop Onderdonk left immediately af ter the services for Fort Edward. New Method op CrtArTixa Apple Trues. Plant the seeds in rows at a suita ble distance from each other, and the hills say about five feet apart in each row. But one tree .himld bu suffered to grow in a place. Now when the young Iree is suffici ently grown, in tho spring of tlio second or third car, any quality of fruit may be graft ed into it in the following manner: First, bend the trco over and obtain fur it a firm resting place, either on a block or a board resting on the knee, (after it has been divest ed of its branches) and with a stout sharp pointed knife, pierco holes directly through tho centre of the tree, about five inches apart, into which tlio scions aro to bo introduced leaving above, two or three buds. A trench is then to bo dug, in a diiect line between tho trees, about four inches deep, and tho whole tree bent down and buried, leaving tlio tops of the scions above ground. In this nun condition, the scions become uni formly thrifty young tress, supported und nuurished from the buried tree, from which issue, indue time, roots from its entire length. The second year from this operation, ilia wl olo parent tree nny be dug up, the new .rivdh sawed apirt, and transplanted. It i.l thus bo seen that if the tree is five feet in I'Miglh, ten or twelve young trees, of what ever quality is chosen may bo obtained in 'his way, whereas by the ordinary method of .'rafting, thero could be but one, provided the cult lived. Tlio young scion will bear fr lit thus transplanted, in tho same time it wmiiM lud it been grafted into a tree fifteen M' trs old. I know not whether this process is now i.nnng lour acricultural community at the Virth; but I have repeatedly witnessed it in (i nrgia and Alabama. Yours respectfully, II. LEE. ' Why, Jim, what's the matter ? ' 'Oh, not much, Ned. 1 only underwent a gouging operation since you saw mo last ; that's nil.' ' And lost an eye, eh I ' ' Yes, and although as ronmntic ni ever I'm not more than half as eiJio;i ory.' 'Jim, I have just thought of a conun drum.' ' Let me hear it ; I'm death on thoso do ings.' Why is your lost eye liko the United Stales Bank I D'ye give it upl' Yes I pass.' Becauso it is an obsolete ryc-dea ! ' ' Nod, if I bad'nl taken the pledgo I'd treat after that.' Conduct. Be slow in choosing a friend and slower to chango him ; courteous to all : inlinnto with few ; slight no man for hit humbleness, nor esteem any for their wealth and greatness. ' Ah ! ' said a Dutchman, ov oil do shell fishes in do worll, zour krout is do pest mit 'em oil 1 ' Och, ye fool,' replied Pat, 4 it's nothing to bo kimpared to a maley pcrtatie!' Wooden Nutmegs outdone. A person of tho name of Charles Nash was convicted at tho London Excise OlTice, of manufac turing tobacco from rhubarb leaves, and sel ling iho samo. Ho was fined .10, and all thu cigars and leaves were ordered to bo soiled and destroyed. PAsstoN.Ncver suflfsr your courage to exort itself in fierceness, your resolution in obstinacy, your wisdom iu cunning not your patience in lulltmnen and despair.