Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, June 23, 1843, Page 2

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated June 23, 1843 Page 2
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A New Philosophy. Thu cluo which it given below to tlio doctrines of tiro Char don struct Chapol reformers, wo think will prove iofiillihlo. Lot tho reader clearly comprehend the fundamental principles so distinctly laid down in the brief extract from Mr. Brownson, nnd ho cannot bo nt a loss in obtaining an equally clear comprehension of tho reasoning of the expounders of this phi losophy in their public discourses. Tub Lioiit that is Dabkness. Wo sre aware that we possoss readers who, themselves withdrawn from thu' throw; and the cla-huf life, anil catching irom their "loop-holes of rclreal" lull distant ulimp sos or tho turmoil, lilllo inianino tho up-sido-dowu work o( tho outer world, llio general upsetting of all veficraliln notion, the grand demolition of all lormer principles, tho undermining and the blowina up of all oustottiiiry feeling', nnd the universal dismantling ol overy thing that wasonro thousht to mako society afe or aijrce.ihlc, which is now going on amung that part of tho world who call themselves " the think ers," and who constitute what is denominated "the movement" of tho day. To such readers, whit we occnsunally say of tho now political and moral phi losophy may havooften seemed incomprehensible, or even incredible. At list, however, foi tune send s lis a golden opportunity uf placing before them n whole body of those doctrines, issuing fiom their very Vati rin a aort of council-general of the philosophers of all kinds, which lately assembled in lloston. Ih'fore, however, one enters a country, he should that is, if ho ii not sent as an ambasaidor under stand its tongue. Tho new tdiilo-ophy has, of course subverted languafo as well as eery thingilse, and ornplovs a vernacular of its own. Tins has, neces mrily,' to lie studied, brfaro ono can comprehend the hijZh truths nf which it is tho i-hicle. Wo must thus prcsont to our rciders, in tin first plav, a pecimen i:l which they miyslulv Iho grammar of this dia lects ami aficr they shall have mistered that, they ean proceed to the philos ph v itself. It is by Mr. Onnmu A. (Ihownson, acknowledg ed as porlnps thn very greatest light of I. icofoco phi losophy, that all tho main aiioins of the new sci encaaro transparently set forth in tho few sentences that follow, tin thus explain", in a recent publica tion, all Ihusocnl ills under which men have hereto fore suffered, and their cure : "The evil thi-re is in sochty and individuals docs nol spi ing from an original duality, but front a secon dary duality. It consists in our loss of unity, and at tempting, to livoindnilily, that is to say, in multiplic ity alon '. lis remedy is in attaining to unity, which srnll convert tho duality into s, trinity: tint i; in attaining to unity in multiplicity, and multiplicity in tinny, which gives us ni once unity and universality. ThitU niv doctrine, and I ilo not sea tint you sug gest anything that goes beyond it." Nothing, certainly, can bo clearer; ami if, after this ciphnation, any one remains ignorant of Ihe Art of rtovcrnmentor of Moral Philosophy, it mutt bo bis own taull. H iving conned this ettract ovcrmenly till they undeialaud it, so that philological difficulties nny no further impede their progress, our readers may now prnccoil to the doctrine itself, as sellled in lhal high convocation of ha apostles of which we have already spoken. Of this nvjo tic asteml ly, wo havo an ac count, in the following report of ita discussions given tiy the lloston Post, onu of llio journals addicted to Ihe modun philosophy, but apparently not yet suffi ciently sdvanreil in the doctrine to relish tl practical opeialion. ui. Intel. Pram the lloston Pott of June 6. As wc supposo our readers would never forgive lis, if, in summing up ;he results of anniversary week, wo omitted to notice tha aunu il step to perfection mado by tho male and female philosophers who hare nt different limes made some noise in ihe world, or at least m Chardon street Chapel, by talking about the Church, tho bible, tho clergy, non-refcislancc, Ac. we ffcl bound to go a brief sl.clch of the proceed ings of tho meeting called by them in tha chapel nrorcaaid oil Thursd iv evening last, to dis.-uss the right of ono individual to hold properly of any kind to the exclusion of others. This meeting, wa ore told, was not thought of un til a few hours before it was held but, tw that as it may, tho call was promptly obeyed, and at an early hour in tho evening the chapel was filled with those who had taken ihc'lcading port in the debates of the N. England Anli Slavery Convention during the three preceding days, and their more humble followers. The first speaker who took tne stand was John O. Wattles, of Ohio. But, before we proceed to the bu siness of the meeting, wo must ante lint it was or ganized on the principle for which Aligol Kolsoin and other non-resistants have contended, and had neither prosident, vice president, nor secretary: in fact, no organization at all, leaving all free to speak when they pleased and how they pleased. Mr. Wattles ppolp lor more than an hour, but, as his -pecch was entirely devoted to a defence of the principle of association advocated by the disciples of -'merrier, and did not once touch upon the question for the consideration of which the mreiing was called, wo do not think it tie ecssar) to givoony of his remarks. Uo was followed by N. H. Whiting, who stated that the meeting had assemblid to consider ihe rishts of property and the rights of man in relation tuit th evils of tho preecnt system, and the remedy for those evils, 03 well 83 for the uther evils which afflict the human race. He gave his assent to the axiom that man has a natural and inalienable right "to life, liberty, and ihe pursuit of happiness." and from this ground ho reasoned something as follows : If a man has ihe right to live, ho has, in consequence, a right to sufficient of ihe products of tho oarlh to suppurt life, jnd the men who occupy more of ihe earth than is neoessary for llio supply of their own wants, and refuse to share their surplus with their needy fellows, re robbers and murderers. The rights of all men in relation to the earth from which ihcy have sprung re equal, and nothing can give any man a rightful claim tn any narticular Dortion of it except the evi dence required by tho Vermont Judpo in the case of llio man lio was orougiii Deiorc mm cioimcu as a slave a title-deed, sinned, sealed, and delivered by tho hand f the great Kather of llio Universe! and he never could recoanise the rigluof any man to a am ple inch ul God's footstool until that evidence was laid before him. Kium this wrongful claim which noma men have set un to the possession of property. he contended, have sprung all tho evils which afflict humnmtv. It haa ir.iroduced an unnatural and un holy motive the hope of gam to tule all tho actions of man, until man seems to exist only by the misfur tunes of fierce hostility. The lawyer lives by the ijuarredsof his neighbors and it ia for liis interest tn keen them in Intuition : the doctor lives upon their bodily diseases consequently it i profitable lo him to keep mtn tick; the pneet lives by ihe tins of man kind it is therefore for hi interest to make men as bad as possible, nnd hence, through all the ages, they nave wiittcn man down ns totally denraved. He ex tended the same process of learning to merchants, carDenlers. shoc-ntalcers, and olhcr professions in so ciety, and then went on to aiguo that the holding of properly uiougui slavery mm e-xisie-ncu , 111:11 inc common system of labor for wages is but a modifica tion of slavcrv: that ihe modification never look place until tho capitalists found that they could in that manner make tho greatest profits-, and that la- hnr for waics. for the reason Hint II bears unon its face somo semblance of humanity, is as much more destructive to Ihe happiness -f man than unqualified slavery, as Satan is more dangerous when arrayed as an anijel of light than when apptaring in his own propur shape, as a demon from the bottomless pit. Tho evils of tho existing system, he enid, in conclu sion, oro crying aloud to Heaven, and ioiiio reform must tako piacc which shall secure to man all the rights and privileges necessary for the perfect deveb opemoniof lu nature. It is a deep libel both upon man and his Maktr 10 siy thai lie came- into the world wilh ihe stamp of depravity upon him. Had that been the otc, the influences to which he has been subjected would havo made him a demon. Man's nature ia good he can love his fellow he de sires to do it and nlace him in a nosition where he can devulope the principles of his nature and be will do it; bat in Ihe present state of society he cannot. Only, my friends, go out into the streets and attempt to do as Christ commanded to love your neighbor as vonrself and von will nol live as lone ss the horse which tha Frenchman tried 10 male eiin without "ting. . , . tiirrn AmoAit Fot.mM occasioned some lauvhter among the audience, nnd slightly disconcerted the speaker by rising and saying plumply, "1 deny it." Wu.tino. I think if suler Folium attempted it she would experience the titult which I have stated. Aoioail. 1 have tried il, mid havo lived in a stale of perfect love, at No. 45 .Mjrlls street, far tbs lssi eight montns As there was no more lobs said on Ibis subject, Mr. Whitino sal down. Jonti A. Collins then look the floor. He, too, started from the position that man has an inalienable tight to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness j and, after going over the ground which nod been previously occupied by Mr. Whiting, he went one step further than that gentleman, and contended not only that mm has no exclusive right to any portion 0! the earth's surface, but that one man haa as good right as another 10 any of the earth's fruits, no mai ler Tiy whose industry they may hive bcn produced. Rev. A. Bailou said it seemed to him that Ihe fact that man was an individual, with individual wants, created a necessity for individual properly, and made the right lo it a matte r of course. Collixs. Trove thai. Fallou. Well, I will prove It in this ways Man has a stomach to feed anJ n body to clothe, nni, in per forming those Uiiliep, there must be some lime when tha fno-l nrrann' for the one and the clothimr ne cessary for tho other will belong to him, and to no one eie?. nereis wriere wie iikih iu umiviuuai juutivny levins. Human beings have been created. y and fetnalo; In larrvingout tho principles of their being they prednca helpless offspring, which their instincts load ih'tn to prnvidofor. The maintenance and edn- oslicn of these children rfquiro properly, which they hia right 10 hold and apply for lhal purpose, and tin; properly csnnot U laktu frum thtm without an evident violation of natural law. Two men go in the spring and setlle upon ono of the crest Western prai ries, where there is land enough for them both, and both find equal means of maintaining themselves there. Ono goes to work, breaks up llio soil, and plants hia potatoes and corn, In tho fall ho gathers just sufficient 10 aupport himself through iho winter. The other individual, with a perfect knowledge of tho consequences of his conduct, Instead of imitating this laudable example, has spent his time in idleness, and, when winter comes, finds himself without anything to eat. To say that tho iJlo man, under thcao cir cumstances, has as good a right to tho products of tho earth as tha industrious man has, outrages all our natural ideas of justico and confounds our notions of right. Unless wo aro to have stomachs in common and back in common, and wives in common, wo must have thu right to produco and appropriate what tho necessities of our condition require. A man's right to a particular piece of land depends upon his occupying and improving il, and tha man who lakes a portion of tho earth as it camo from the hands of tho Creator, and labors hard upon it and improves it, until by the sweat of his brow ho his mado it fruitful, has a right to retain possession of it which no olhcr man can live. So a community who cultivate any particular tract havo a right to its products to thu ex clusion of others. Collins. I deny it. Hallou. Do yon mean to say that a settled com munity, who by their industry produco sufficient for their own wants, have no more right to tho fruits of their labors thin any roving banditti who may chooso tocomo and nnpropriaW thenil Collins. Vis. Whitino. Tho rights of the two patties aregradu nted by their necessities. Hali.oi'. Do you mean to say that the man who will not work has as good a right to cat tho fruit of hia industrious neighbor's tod as that neighbor has himself! Collins. Yes. IIallou. I hardly know how lo artrue seriously against a theory that so plainly violates Scripturo and common sense. Instead of removing the evils under which society groans, you invito and encourago rob bery and sliifu ; for who is thero among us that, after hiving toiled hnrd to produce something for our fam ilies, could sit unmoved and soo the man who hid looked idly on whilo we labored, walk up when the food was prcpar.-d and dip his noscup to tho eyes in our trough 1 Theatlempt to carry such theories in to ell'ectcan only result in widespread confusion and strife i Here Aetata Folsojt, who during Iho discussion doilt her blows right and left wiih prai-ewnrihy im partiality, rose 10 assert that a person might, by " per fect love, overcome the1 greatest injur.cs, and favored the audience with another leaf from ihe hitory of her experience at No. 4fl Myrtle street, containing an ac count of a womin who quartered herself upon her there, and for several months alo her bread and burnt her wood without once being guilty of ihe politeness of asking for eiiher. The llev. John Dowlinxi, of Providence, related tho well known anecdote of Rowland Hill, who, when waited upon by a gentleman holding tho same loose notions in regard 10 property that wcro professed by soma of tho persons who had taken pirt In thodehate, ordered his servant to show Ihe gentleman out of the house, and nol to tako his eyes off him until ho was clear from hia premises. Mr. Dowliso concluded by advising the audience, as there were possibly somo la zy persons pro-enl whoso ncctssitirt might ennfuso their perceptions of right, to take good caro of their pockets. Jons A. Collins said, in reply to Mr. Ballou, that a man bv being lazy could nol forfeit or alienate his right to live, and contended lhat men are lazy only because labor is considered degrading. That no such thing is seen as a lazy child before it has artived at that age when it can feel tho disgrace which society has stimped upon tho man who toils. Tnat it is tho law or mm s heme lo be active, and that, in a pror.cr stitoof society, a lazy man, like a man born without ieei, wouiu exisi oniy as an anomaly, anu wouia 00 pilitd fur his misfortune instead of punished for crime. It is the duty of every man to labor to pto- luce what ho consumes: but a mm who is so con stituted as to neglect that duty cannot thereby fotfeit his right to cat and to live. Men derive their rights from their necessities. Avounz man in the an hence here interrunted the speaker bytnquirincif it did not follow from his theo ry that iho more lazy a man is the greater are hia rights, as his laziness cviJentiy increases his necessi ties 1 Collins. Nol at all. It had now pal to ba nearly 10 o'clock, luthfifare the adjournim-nt N. H. Whitino stated thai ho was desirous of saying ono word to the friend who had been so kind as to caution tha audience to look well to their pockets. He would tell that man that he was the thief and ho was the murderer, becausa ho lived upon the misfortunes of his fetlow men and took from them that fur which he gave them no just equiv alent, and that Ins argument was just such a 0110 as mignt bo cxpecica irom a minister wno could pray in his pulpit that tho down-trodden laborers of Rhode Is- lane might be still more wickedly oppressed. A general inquiry hero arose 1 "Who is he 1" "What is his name 7' eve, which thcReverend gentleman an swered in rather a consequcntal way, by stating lhat he was "tho author of Rowling's reply 10 Miller." tie men went on to say that ho stiouu havo bethought himself earlier of the saying that no honor could be gained in a contest with a skunk, for though iho crea ture might bo vanquished, Ihs victor would bo per fumed all over. This sally was greeted with miny kisses, snd somo applause, and the mectinu immediately broVa 1m. thr philosophers regretting the slight discord which had occurred, hut consoling one another with Ihe reflec tion that tho presence of a clergyman rendered it 111-cvilablo. On Friday the discussion was resumed at 9 o'clock in ihe morning, and continued until six in tho eveninir. We omu the report of the acco.vl days Proceedings. This rrenileman resided in Milford. and wa lo. lieveis at tho head ofi community of more than ono hundred persons, who aro testing by actual experi ment the principle of association. AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. Our readers will find amusement in ihn ennnt nf thosjizuro which the London custom house officers have made of the .MANcur-STtn colton goods which a few weeks 'since wo inserted an account of having bcn si-nt as an adventure from Itoston. A striking, and similar incident occured a few years since on the nrrival of the first bale of cotton in Kngland from this cuuiiiiy which was ceizeu in line manner ana uilucr kindred expressions. A hint may be taken from the amount to which lhat irado has since icen extended, as to what they may expeel from the further results of .immiiM Higuniuiy iiiiu tiiierpriie. Having 1110 raw material in greattr.ibiiudanee and perfection than any other people, will not bo long in fabricating wintev et ran be made of it. The annexed fact goes some what to illustrate. "On the first day of February lasr, a new pattern of Mousselinesdel.aine3 arrived niNew York, unit was offered I y tho importer at H cents per yard by tho case. The agent of a Rhode Ialand calico printing es tablishment forwarded n piece of iho new style of LMiuus u i-ruriuunce me uay aner uieir arrival, and in lo days he had tho samo style of tmods mi.t nf nm,! fibnc in New York, selling at ten cents per yard. The manufacturer had but 12 days to emravu the new pattern on a copper cylinder from which the en graving was raised on a steel cylinder then hardened and ready for impression : the compound of ingiedi ents for color discovered by chemical experiments the cloth printed, dried anil cased for niarkent. me scizuro ol the hales of cotton goods above al luded lo, was madu on tho ground that the mirk up on them- "Stark Mills. Manchester. N. II." was fraudulently intended to designate them as manufac- uireu in .uanrncsicr, r.ngiand. The lioston Atlasal ludiiuj to this laughable mistako of the llriiish custom house officers, savs : "I'oor Jotinnv Hull 'It is a lullir nil I Cnr vn m swallow, this altciiint of your own home. The American tariff policy, adopted in spite of your utmost efforts, and thoscof your agents in this country, has enabled us. to match our manu- laciurcs Willi yours even in your own markets. That intimation in lliolcttct of Messrs. darings, that the seized goods, "aro as dissimilar as thev well can be in matter, s!)le and execution," lo the r.nglish brands, is peculiarly significant. The goods are unquestiona bly of much belter fal ric than the aamocla-a of goods turned out from Kngland looms and an imparrial examination would doul lltsa convince tho examiners thst the mirks which the American manufacturers have attached 10 the pood, 'am IppitimnipW (li,r msrks, without ihe slightest ides of imitating any of ,1111 iii,;i,Bit niauuiuciires. Another Boston paper has this paragraph on the mute. "bTASM mills." Il is sufficiently amusing that John Hull should hive selected iho above stsmn as a forcer y of a Bnmh firm. Tho nreflpnt tritium, l,n must Imo forgoiten ihe Rattkof Hennington, where iici wuvjjiiw ui'in sounuiy, i.en i statu captured t detachment nf ilurpoyne's armv. Ii w m casion he said to Ins raw militia -'Wo must thrash these regulars, or Molly Stark doepa this night a wid ow." The fact is, the name of Stark Mills was given in honor of tha old hero, tha sstnhliiihmr,,, i,..;,r,;t. listed on part of a firm which actually belonged 10 BUNKER HILL. Tub Celebration or tub 17m. TI10 an niversary of tho Ilattlo of Hunker Illlh. and of tho completion of tho monument In commemo ration of il, was celebrated on Saturday, in a manner worthy of the occasion. Tho facilities of travelling which havo placed our capital in so near contact with our mends and neioliborp, In every pirt of the State and of other States, brought so many of them to unite in our colo uration, togivo it a jjramlatid imposing; effect. In addition to llio 100,009 of nur city population thero were hi tho city on Saturday, probably a hundred thousand more, who camo cither to unite in tho ceremonies nnd festivities of tho day, or to be a spectator of them. Tho rain winch continued through a great part of tho day on Friday, and effectually dim tnedthe beauty of tho rocoplinnon that day, oc casioned also rerioua forebodings for tho sue eecdiujf day. But happily tho morning opened with a clear sky, and a pure and cxhiloratingnt mosphore. 7'ho various military corps, and other assosialions which wcro to form a part of the procession, woro early scon pursuing their march towards tho Common, and thoso who were to join it from the State house, assembled there at an early hour. Tho procession formed in tho order, and moved in tho direction indicatod, and such was tho bucccss of tho judicious arrange, inonts for tho occasion, that thero was no disor der or iliuppointtnont. 7'lio procession was large and imposin.fr, and the vast number, anil tho ox etnplary order and decorum of the iminonso multitudes: who lined the streote, and tilled tho houses along tho route, tosether with tho vari ous embellishment., presented a most gralifyiti" ,.!.. ...Ml. . . ..? " aii.-ui.ioii;. , nu ujimury jure ui mo procession, consisting of a largo number of volunteer corn panics from abroad, who came to add a lustro to our exhibition, in addition to thoso of our own ci ty and vicinity, exceeded any display of the kind winch lias been soun here. Vorv many of thoso compinioi from abroad, among which woro (ltinguislicti the four companies of N. York National Guards and olhors which we forbear to enumerate, hocauhu we know not whore to stop, deservedly attracted much atten tion by the beauty of their uniform 11s well as the procision of their discipline. Indeed tho whulo body of troops, consisting of sixty one companies, numbering from threu to four thou sand men, and constituting probably one of the finest divisions of Light Infantry over assembled under the command of ono Major General, form ed independently of other parts of tho proces sion, a most imposing exhibition. The vast area between the platform erected for tho Orator and tlio invited guest on the ono side, and tho glacis in front nf the Monument, covered with seats and occupied by ladies, on the other, was soon filled bv tho thousands of persons who composed tho procession. Tho multitude who filled this area, 001) feet in width from right to loft, and HOO feet in depth, various, ly estimated at 30 to 90 thousand persons, (the former number probably not exaggerated) com. posed the audience whom the Orator was toad, dross. On the platform by tho side of the Ora. tor of the Day and tha President of tho Monti, mcnt Association, woro the President of tho United blates the heads of tho Executive Do partmcnt many Officers of tho Government, and other distinguished gentln.nen invited, a number of survivors of the battle, and the Direc tors of the Association. After a short and appropriate prayer by tho ivuv. mr. r.iii--, iiir, vv euster rose, aim was gree ted with enthusiastic cheers by the immense auditory. From tho moment when he becan until he finished there was a breathless silencn and attention, inlerruptcd only by frequent ex pression of applause. It cannot bo supposed that his strong and clear voico tilled tho whole area, but it was heard by vast numbers, and ma. ny oven to the top of the glacis wcro able to hear a large part of the discourseOf tho discourse, it is not necessary for us to speak particularly, a wo publish a report of it, which will spea'k for itself. Wo will only remark in general, that it deeply interested the audience, and was full to bo not merely appropriate to tho occa. sion, by the truth and jus.ness of its sentiments, but worthy of it by tho iinpressivcnessof its stylo and the beauty and dignity of its illustrations. Sandwich Islands TI10 Philadelphia Mercury, a Tyler paper, has this information in a letter front Washington : "A despatch haa b-en received at the Department ofSnte.from the Sandwich Island, containing a formal and strong protest from their King, against iho hto invasion of the llritish, addressed to nil Govern ments, inviting our and their interposition to check ineuiecaianu grasping spirit ot conquest which Eng land of late yeara has adopted, without respect to tho uuxiuyui iriuooa ui ueierencc 10 1110 Treaty stipula tions which obligated her loa courso eniiri.lv ,!iflrni The Protest is drawn up in a manly and able style, ot ,t"ti'i 111 mu ouoiiL'e-ji anu mosi proper lerma Ihe injuries indicted by Kngland, and appealing for meditation in such language as must induce a warm and decided expression of sentiment by other coun tries. This document is understood to bo the nro- ducnon of some clever American in the confidence of 1110 iving, which, in connection with the important commercial interests wo have at stako in that coun- try, may cause our government to investigate very thoroughly ilia rights and principles involved in this ttttnmn, ' From tha Albauy Journal. LOCUST. As this Insect has mado its appearance the present year in several sections of our country, its history and charactar msy bo Interesting to many of our readers, These insects do not appear in all parts of the coun try at Ihe samolimoor the same year. I have tho locations of sixteen distinct districts, in which they appear, cither in diflcrcnt years or with largo spaces of territory intervening. Tho following tablo will givo an idea of tho districts! Htapptar in loin ,0:1 In Louisiana they appear In 1630 AtOalhnolis. Ohio lflM On ihe Muskingum fiver, Ohio 1829 in I'cnnsyivama, west or tho mountains KSi In eastern Georgia and North Carolina 1831 In Prince George's county, Virginia 1829 In southeast New York, western Con necticut and Massachusetts 182S In Middlesex county, New Jersey 1826 In Kanquicr county, Virginia, andas far south as Milton, N. C. 182S In norlhorn Maryland, southern Pcnn. De'awarc, and northern Virginia 1831 In Mississippi, N. 15. Port Gibson 1831 In tho -outh part of Massachusetts 1833 InKeatucky and adjacent parts of Ohio 1833 In the middle counties of ficorgia 1812 1853 1855 1810 1849 1851 1845 1843 1813 1843 ia-,i 1831 I?55 183r 1859 lIOURin MCBDEH IK THE MaSSACIIPSSTTS 5?TATt PainoN. The estimable Warden of the Siato Prison Charles Lincoln, Esq. was murdered on Thursday af tcrnoon in one of the work shops of the State Prison at Charlestown, by a convict named Abner Rocira' .... .....,. u I,, uiifciM 1, mi, wim an over seer respecting some work, convict Rogers, who wai employed in making maltrasses, left hi bench Bnd approached Mr. Lincoln in the rear and stabbed him with a shoemaker's knife in his neck, complete nlelclv sovrrinz theiucular vein. lie fell m il, n and died instantaneously, Theovrrreers and prison ore rushed to Ihe body and raiaed it un. but life was extinct. " The murderer was immnliatfly scenred and pul in irons. No causa can be assigned for thia deplorable act. Thu murderer has been obstinato and unruly for sometime past. Mr. Lincoln was on upright, hu mane, and efficient officer, and a worthy nnd esteemed citizen, and his less wiM b. ftyer.lv Mi. lit l.ft a very large family. Tho ground heretofore taken by this Gov ornnirnt in relation to those islands, will ho understood by reading the following extracts, tlio first being from a despatch of Mr. Web ster to the Sandwich Island Commissioners, asking a formal acknowledgment of tho in dependence of thoso islands ; tho second from a subsequent Message to Congress of the President of the United States. N. Y. American. nxlrnet.from .l, Webster's Letter of Uth Dee. 1312 The United Stales have legarded' the existing nu- uittiics ui uiv oiiimiYicn isianus aa a government suited to the condition of thu ntnn! nn.T their own choice, and Ihe President is of opinion Mar ... ..w, ... ui u, ,c fiuuim require mat mt not ernment shoild not be intkbfeii m with nv r.io.f towers. Of tho vessels it is now known that a great majority belong to the United Mates. The Ilnilral .Smit-a ,l.n,r, ... more interested in tho fate of these Islands and of ineir i.uvcrnmcm man any other nation can be : and lilts consideration induces ihn ('m.l.lon, , 1,., willing to declare, as the sense of tho Government of lilt U Klll'U OIU1L!. 11131 I IRlanif mniAn, tT .. Cnn.f wich Islands ought to bo respected 1 and that no poweb ought cither to take possession of the Island as a conquest, or fur the uurnase of roii..,t,, .l ""'' j-un j.1, uuS,n iu I'ccniorany undcx contsol ute-r uiu existing government, or any exclusive rmviLLOLg ui iMiifieiii-e 111 mailers 01 commerce." Extrattfromlht President' s Message of 30th l)ccM2, "lis nearer annroach ro this mm?,,.. v., .n.i .i.n : tercoiir.e which American vessels have vviih it such vessels constitute five sixths of all which annually vitit it could not but creato dissalisfaction on tho part of the limited States at anv attempt ay an- OTllEa power, f hould such attempt bo threatened or feared, to take possession of Iho Islands, colonize them, and subvekt tha rnlive nirnm.ni rnn.;j. enng, therefore, that the United States possess so very large a share of the intercourse of ihoso Islands, it it deemed nol unfii in make ihe declaration that their govcrnment secU, nevertheless, no exclusive control over tho Hiiwaian irnvmmtxu 1m, ,' -Ant, it, iiiuriiciiueiii existence, anil anxiously wishes for lis security and orosneriiv. In rorh.rnn. ; .k:. respect, under tho circumstances of the very large intercourse of their cituens with Ihe islands, would jrsnrv Tina government, should iwenls hereafter arisp to require it, 111 making a devided kkmonstsance ogmiiai uir iiinqiiion 0 an opposite pobcy by forugn power." nit &TOBM1N unto. Innddmon to the break in 1110 canal near Ucavclaml, the storm seems lo have extended with considerable (fleet throughout olhcr parts of Ihe State. The Hudson Observer says the stone basement lhat supported the woolen factory at Brandy wine gave way, and the whole building was reduced to a mass of ruins. The building was four stories high, the lower being of stone. The immedi. ate cause of llus accideiit was iho destruction of ici;ii .uum at 4,11110 vorK. The loss is estimated as high as $18,001) and over l 1,000. A portion of tho bridge nt Untidy wino ia al-o carried away, as also one of Iho bridges on the road to lloston. One of the reservoirs at Franklin gave way on iuuimnjr oueiimiin, ami me noon caused great dativ ape to butldmpj. as wr!l a ,a m,ll. ,lan. e.t.i - The dam at Jlonroe Mills haa been carried away,' and tho mill somewhat injured. The Hand of the Canal ui tyiiiiijii'cjiiMiiiii iias oeen swept oil. I.oomis's Mills, in TwinBburg, have besnalsode stroyed. At Akron ihe storm was enusllv ipi Th r. lory belonging to George V. and James Wallace on ranaywinr e,reKas entirely swept away. tfuffa M Com. AJt. . M In North Carolina, central counties, and south pari of Virginia 1912 1859 In Illinois, nbout Alton 1812 1359 It may b that the two districts, Muskingum river, Ohio and Kentucky, &c, may bo ono and thr same, although tho Muskingum river is n long distanco above Kentucky. Soalso.moy thcMiddlcsex county (N. J.) District he n part of the southeastern of New York, western Massachusetts, and western Connec ticut districts. All tho others aro perfectly discon nected! and theonly point on which wc aroatony losis tho boundaries of tho districts j wo dont know whether thoso above indicated cover tho whole extent of our country, or whether thero are others not yet recorded. If editors of newspapers and post masters would tako upon themselves the small trouble of in forming me of the fact whenever the locust occurs, 1 should bo ahla to mako the table complete. It is not uncommon In some parts of our country for thia insects to appear at periods differing mora or less from 17 years. We account for this in this way ! IxDiidoun county, V.i., is on Iho borders of two districts, that of Mary land, Ac, (1834) and that of Fauquier county, ('43) and theso districts lap over cich other in Loudoun county, and probably for a lone extent of territory ! Hence, on llns border-belt tho insect appears every ninth year alternately. This circumstance has led tho people of lhat section of country to disbelieve in the 17 th year character of this insect, asserting that it is not true, at least so far as their section of country is concerned. Other sections present other devia tions from tho samo cause. For example, in tho soulhVirt of Henrico county, Va., they havo the lo custs this year, and they will have them again in 134S : ihe borders of tho two districts lapping as abovr; These insects make iheir way out of the ground as soon os tho weather becomes warm in tho spring siy from tho 15th of April in tho South to the 15th ol May in tho North, making a round hole, like a thrce fourih inch auger hole, in the ground. In n grove or shrubbery, lhat was occunicd hv trees or shrubs seventeen years before, there will bo several of these holes in n square foot. The insect, when it leaves Ihe ground, is in tho chrysalis state. Ho seeks a tree or shrub, immediately attaches himself to it 0 few feet irom ma ground, until he nccomes ury, wnen ne run- . l:- .l.ll L ui. 1 1. l.!..lr ... r !. lull". 1119 3IIVI, Ull Ills uui lv, niiina iiiiiie,i;ii vui 'i it, gradually cxpands his delicate wings to the sun and air. and in Iho course of an hour or two is ready for flight. They ore nearly a month before they (cavo the ground after they have reached near the surface, having formed a kind of chamber at the top of their holes, apparently for the purposj of availing them selves of tho warmth of tho sun, as thoy descend to the bottom at night and in cold weather, and ascend to tho top in day tune in warm dry weather. The top of the chamber or hole, and its sides, are nicely ce mented for tho purpose of excluding water. Soon after tho insect has taken flight, as above mentioned, the union of tho soxes take place, and in a few daya cencrally only ono or two Iho females begin to deposit their eggs in Iho small branches of trees and shruns. I hoy generally choose branches about tho sizo of their own bodies. It will be impos sible to describe the niodo of depositing the eggs without tho aid of drawings. The female has an instrument called an otivosiler, (egg denositer,) by means of which ske makes an excavation in tlio ranch, to Ihe demh of nbout half wav between tha bark and pith; in each excavation she drspttsits two eggs ; then withdraws the ovipositer, makes anoiher excavation, depositcs two more, and thus proceeds till all aro deposited. If sho has not room enough on one side, sho goes round to tho other, and when sho docs so 1110 branch is apt 10 perish Irom the interrup tion of Ihe sap ; hence wa see bo many dead branch' es on the trees and shrubbery in tho summer of " lo. cust year." In from thrco to five days after deposi ting the eggs the female dies. Tho mile dies a day or two sooner. They always select living wood in which they deposits the eges. They are not particular as to the kind of tree or shrub, except they generally avoid all Terebinthenate trees, such ns pines, etc. In six to seven weeks after the ?ea aro denosited as above, thev hatch i the little insects, creeping out of tho exeavalions fall 10 the ground, and immediately enter theearlh in search, of food, attaching IheRlaelvea to iho lender radicals of grass or olhcr vegitablo growms, tneieeaingon tne exudation irom their Bur faces. Thev have no other mode of fecdincr. Thev lave a trunk or proboscis with three capillaries or lairs, which they extend over the surface of the roots, nd merely take up tne exudation above mentioned; nd this is their only food at nnv period of their lives. Even the full grown insect lakes its food in the same way. The young insect is so small it can scarcely be seen by the naked eye. After having descended into me ground nicy remain mere until their advent, sev enteen years afterwards. Tho locust is grpedily aoughtafter by all sorts nf fowls and birds and hogs, from the time they first leavo the ground 1 and tho young insect is pursued with equal avidity by rats and oiner uevuurera 01 msecis as soon as nicy leave ino It ought to bo stated that this insect is not vronerlv called a locust. There is an inseet of an entirely dif ferent character that has born lhat name for some thousands of years; the Egypiain locust, nnd several other insects of the same genus. The locust (properly so called) as a grasshopper, resembling our largo grasshoppers m an respects, uur (ociur possesses not one leature be oncinc to the truo locust. How ridiculous it is. then, for us toirivo a name man insect that has been appropriated to an entirely different ono ,u, nilo . IIIU Ituull lldlllD IU, UUI IsrLl 13 ICl!!.'U- nea sevtendicinl. As it is unnuestionahlv the most interesting insect 01 iho world, or at least that has yet been discoveted. I think we should give it n. new name, snd not intrude it upon a eomnanv where it cannot bv any possibility, bo a welcome cuesl. and wtiercm 11 loses an the cnuns 10 distinction lhat its natural character is entitled to. It is not possible to cive a full descrinlion nf the in seel in a newspaper without the aid of drawings. It is a to, ..minus inscei 111 iiiaiiv I e'puecis. jib o 11 peculiar character requiring reventcen ycara for it ilitiiuuiy t (.all cay Hunting ou ia, 09 1 Know, aiH I havo taken i-reat pains lo inform nivself. iliii is no miliar to this insect. Naturalists make no mention of any other with a similar habit. Then, again as to us appearing in ramihes or communities in Uulerent parts of the country indifferent years. How wonder- luny sisangc is this: itowcan it Of accounted fort Uaio we presume to explain it 7 That it is so 1 know; and all may know by a lilllo attention to tho subject. It will be seen that I have indicated the loe-ahlics of six distinct districts of the country in which these insects appeared in different ycirs, or if any two or mum in mo same year, wiueiy separaieu irom each nthiri and 1 havo no doubt there nut nthera thni I have not discovered sufficient to cause the advent of I no insect in some pot lionof tho continent every year i inivw unen iiiuun ii il was it most iiesiitiini nnnirni eminent of our republican institutions, or rather a nat ural indication of the peculiar geographical division into which our nation should be and is partitioned. I has been suirirestcd that the dilTerenri. nr rlim,A wn- the cause of their appearing ai the South atone limo snd at the North at another I but this cannot bo so, because they appear the same year in Maryland and Pennsylvania, and in Mississippi; in Massachusetts and Kentucky; in Georgia and Illinois. IJut I must nave latiKued both you and your readers by this tedi um avsar. should an y of your readers desire a more perfect ac count of this extraordinnrv insect. I rnn mi.rA thmm , nhamnhlet published in 1834. with nli rmn ing the insect in all ils stages off listener, ihe price of which, owing to the cost of tho plate, is out dollar for let iwiit, ivmmi suouiu uu Be-iu ires oi postage by Will editors and nostmastrrs do ma th favor nt ,'n forming mo of the appearance of tho locust, whenever or wherever it annearl If all will do an It u;n .n.. bio me to inform llio public of ihe exaet lime of their appearance, and of ihe number of districts, and iheir uounuuiiea. uiDtupi u. SMITH, M. If, Tub Pbesidsni'b Power or Appoinhisnt tn tub recess or the Senate. A writor in the Newark Dally Advertiser, thus dispose! of the question of what creates the vacancy, in the case of a non.acccptanco of an appointment mado by tho President and Senate. The Commercial Agent to China. What constitutes "a vacancy" In tho true extent and meaning ol the Constitution has never been ju dicially decided, although an opinion was given upon ono occasion, by tho Supremo Court, on this very question under tho following circum stances, to wit: A Mr. Marbury of the Dis. trictof Columbia had been appointed a Justico ot tne I'caco ny tne elder Adams. l!is appoint ment was confirmed by tho Senate, tho commis. ion mauo out, signed by the 1'rcsident and Iclt n tho ollico of tho Secretary of Stato for the affix of the seal and record. Marbury did not call for his commission until after the accession the Presidency of Mr. Jefferson, bv whom tho commission was withheld. Mr. Marbury insti tuted proceedings to ascertain whether tho non possession of tho commission created a vacancy in tho office. Tho question involved was nre. cisoly tho one now under consideration viz; what constitutes "a vacancy," as that term is used in the Constitution. After carcfull inves tigation, serious arguniont and full deliberation, the Court cave it ns their opinion, that when a commission was signed by tho President, the appointment is final and complete, independent ly of the acceptanco of tho appointee." I trans cribed a portion of tlio reasoning upon which this opinion is founded. "As the transmission of the commission is not ne ccssaty to givo validity to an appointment, still less is , iiuuiiiuuti;. i iiu nppuiiiime'Mi is ino soto nci oi o President, thoaccentanco tho sole act nf thn officer. and is in plain common sense posterior to the appoint ment os ho may resign so ho may rcfuso to accept; but neither the ono nor tho other is capable of render ing the appointment a non-entity. That this is llio understanding of tho government is apparent from tho whole tenor of its conduct. A commission bears date, and tho salary of tho officer commences, from his appointment, not from the transmission or accep tance of tho commission. When a person appointed to any office refuses to accept, the successor is nomi nated in the place of the person uho declines' to accept, onu uui iu tuu piuco oi inc person wno nau Drcn pro-vioui-lyin office, and had created Iho original vacau- ."- laiarutiry vs. Madison, 1, Lranch, 11. 137. Thus it will bo seen what sirrnitication tho term "vacancy" has as it occurs in the Consti tution, in tho opinion of tho Supremo Court. Now for tho facts of tho case. A law is passed requiring tho appointment of anngent to China. Mr. Ijvcrott is nominated as that agent his nomination is confirmed by the Senate the commission is made out and signed tho broad seal attached, and forwarded to him. Mr. Ev erett declines to accept a vacancy is thus cre ated during tne recess ot tne .-senate, and tho Executive, in tho exercise of powers confided to him by the Constitution, (and not looking to, orrcgrrding the acts of a co-ordinate branch of tlio Government,) fills tiiat vacancy, by the ap pointment of Mr. Cusliing, and he bears upon his commission tho broad seal of tho United States affived, by one whose duty it is'bnder the constituted government to affix it. UOBBirLE Effectb or I.ifliiTNiNo Fvur Lives r-oir. un t riday last, the houne of Mr. James Conck un, in ine town ot uortlanui, a niori distance uelov Peeksklll was struck bv lie'hlnini'. and four nt tl. eloven persons who where in it at the lime, were killed on the spot. The lightnings first alwek a treo on one side oi ins house, and passing dowrrit, passed through the house, nnd thence lo a tree on Ihe opposite side, which ii loiioweu, ana speni its lores in -iho sir There was no rain at Iho lime, or even that dav. in tho vicinity of the occurrence. The persona struck and killed in tho house, were, Ihe wifo and child of Mr. James eoncllm Louisa his sister, and Betsey Mary his wife's sister, Mr. Concklin himself was struck prostrate, and lay senseless for some lime, but fortunately was fiualhr brought to. Westchester Chronicle. Death v Lioiitnino. The Lvcominir. P. Ga zrtte announces tha. melancholy death of Mr. and iurs. otewari, ai tneir restates in i.ycoming township on Sunday evening, the 4th inst. They were engag ed, on ocnaed knees, ottering up Ituir devotions lo the Supreme Being, when they were struck by light ning and instsntly killed. Four small children havo, thus suddenly, been deprived of an affectionate father and mother, and left to the mercy and protection of on aii-wis providence, now striking the admonition-'1 Vie ys slro ready, fur j know ! ivhtn Ike on oi man somtin," FRIDAY MORNING, JUNE 23, 1 843. NOTICE. Tho Whigs of Burlington aro notified to meet at tlio American Hotel on Friday, tho 23 inst., at half past seven o'clock, in the evening, for tho purposo of olecting delegatei to tho Whig Stato Convention to bo held at Rutland on the 28th inst. Geo. K. Platt, ) Town J. K. Gray, C. L. Nelson, ) Committee. Burlington, June 12, 1843. awny. Tlio ability displayed by our Gov ernment in all III branches, while il com. mands tho homago and admiration of the world, Is silently building up for froo institu tions an argument more potent and convin cing than the children of aristocracy nro able to refute. They know nnd feel that the ox- pcrimont which lias been tried here, has de monstrated lo a cortainty, that whero the mass of the people havo no wrongs to re dress, no oppression to repel, life and prop erty aro in nro scctiro than in thoso less favored lands whero tho burdens of aristocra cy, and tho hopelessness of poverty, every day furnish the groaning millions with an in centive to destruction and revolt. They know too that the people nro not aliko in nil cotiulrics that hero where education and an equal participation in political power con spire to bid man respect himself, tho voico of the pcoplo is a very different thing from tho cry of hunger or tho yell of despair which comes up from llio prison houso of llio vic tims of despotism, And where tho choice of public servants is left lo the People, their selection generally, not always, vindicates the justice and propriety of commuting that power to their hands. Wo havo been led to theso reflections by the result of tho District Convention. In tho nomination of Mr. Marsh, regard was had to every qualification necessary to tlio character of a Representative in Congress As a lawyer he has few equals no superiors in tho State. His literary reputation is as oxtensivo as it is richly merited and the vast fund of knowledge, political, historical and scientific, with which lie has stored his mind, will come greatly in aid of tho right understanding and duo performance of his legislative duties. As a citizen ho is inli tnatoly acquainted by actual participation, with tlio wants and wishes of his constitu ents, having a deep interest in the welfare of community in which ho lives. An uncom promising friend to protection an equally uncompromising foe to slavery, tho anncxa tion of Texas, and every other slavcoccatic aboniination,andgificd withreasoning powers of the first order, and a fluency ahd elegance of diction seldom equalled, he seems to bo in all points peculiarly fitted for tho high post he is destined to occupy. And he will be elected by a majority in every county of tho District, which will mako Locofocoism aban don all hopes in this quarter of tho State. John Smith' is certainly booked for Salt River, unless ho.wiscly refuses to embark ut all in the unequal contest. THINGS AT WASHINGTON. Whilo tho public officers aro loafing at Boston, and receiving tho homago of offico holders nt every place largo enough to havo ono along tho road, tho public business at Washington is committed to nny body and overy body, to do witii as thoy please. It is all " ucting " from Tyler down. Thero is Logaro "acting" Secretary of Statu and " A. Tlio. Smith " " ncting " Sec rotary of the Navy and some drunken loafer " acting " Sucretary of War and so on to tlto cud of tho chapter. It appears tho buzzing of tho oflico seek ers who remained nt Washington after Ty ler loft, was so groat that John tho less, Pri vate Sea-clary to China was obliged to go back and throw out n few crumbs. Tho idea of waiting till Tylor camo back was in tolerable. Their hoard hills wcro running up, and waiting was out of tlio question. Poor fellows ! theirs is tho loncsomcst chancu we know of. The constituents of II. A. Wise, the lost renegade of Accomac, have lately given him a dinner, with toasts, letters from tho Guard Ac. all endorsing him as immaculate and averring that the whole Whig parly have abandoned tho ground of 1840 and left this virtuous band of patriots behind ! When will impudenco reach its climax 1 TYLERIAN DEMOCRACY. It would bo ludicrous, wcro it not alto gether disgusting to witness tho abject ser vility and English twaddln poured forth by the bought up organs of the Acting Presi dent, in respect to iiis northern tour, and the good natured forbearance and civility shown to him. These presses seem to vie with each in their efforts to transcribo with syco1 pliantic accuracy the sickening trash vomi ted so unceasingly upon every magnato of tlio English monarchy. The New York Au rora must certainly have in its pay some bro ken down lackoy from Buckingham Palae or somo penny-a-liner from the office of the London Court Journal, that nauseous sewer for all tho toadyism of England. The be smearing of Tyler is quito excruciating. We find that on one occnslon Mr. T. mado a speech in tho usual wishy-washy style j and the Aurora declares that though "wo have given a sketch of the remarks of tho President, yet tiio look, the manner, the in tonntions of Mr. Tyler's voice were inimita. Ik !) and cannot be committed to paper " ! Shade of Jefferson ! Is this youi disciple T I Ins your beau ideal of democracy T And then, at Boston, Com. Nicholson orders a sa lute at tho approaching festival " in honor o tlio President of the United States " I Tho Boston Atlas very properly savs " We aro authorized from high authority to say that the celebration is in honor of tho completion of Bunker Hill Monument, and not of the President of tlto United States." So we go We supposo our neighbor of the Sentinel is delighted with theso " demonstrations of re spect nnd attachment " as the Madisonian calls them. Indeed, it were not safe for him to do less, and wo shall fear for his head un less 11 Mr. J. Richards" comes out and makes somo manifestations of Tylerian vitality. It will bo all over with you, Dana, unless you begin to " wood up "pretty soon. GEORGE P. MARSH. No circumstance tends more directly to prove tho capacity of the people for self government, and at tho same time to confute and disarm the opponents of free institutions, than the selection of able men for offices of trust and importance. It has been the con stant cry of tho sticklers for monarchy, that under a government whero the will of the peoplo was the all controlling power, no proper choico could bo made, since they ar gued, thn pcoplo would rather choose tho weak demugoguo who. flattered and decoivod them, than tho man of sterling talent who disdained to mako uso of such low arts to win favor. Thoy derived their idoas of pop ular judgment and integrity from tlio ignor ant and depraved victims of their own vi cious systems, and having no interest prompt ing them to do justice to the principles and practice of liberty, thoy soon camo to be liovo that Republicanism and anarchy were convertible terms, and that a Republic was a government where tho man of integrity and ability was crowded out of public station by the demagogue and the scoundrel. Theso falM and preposterous ideas are fust weiring Tm White and Red Roses. Sorffc tinio ago tho conceited inhabitants of lli'a't little sand bank whero tho Hon. John C. Calh oun deigns to mako his residence, put forth its (that is, Mr. Calhoun's) declaration of faith relativo to Iho timo and manner ol" holding the Locofoco National Convention, and tho basis upon which it should bo or ganized. Of course they went for May '41 and the plan of formation most likely to " en ure to the benefit " of the " fiery planet of tort Hill." This has called forth an elabo rate reply, and vindication of the proposa to hold tho Convention next fall, from a Virginian who favors tho " Sago of Linden- wald." A rejoinder is looked for with tlio greatest anxiety, and it seems as if tho great question was in course of settlement. But let these gentlemen come to what conclusion thoy may the " democracy " havo given it a quietus, and if a Convention in May 1844 bo any thing like a start for the man of Car olina, ho has it. Tho Loco Conventions two to one have favored the postponement, and so Mr. Van Burcn's darling object of precipitating the session of the Convention, and then by a coup dt main maneuvering himself into a nomination, appears be totally defeated. Tlio Calhouncrs imagine, for what reason wo know not, that all danger to their favorito is buried in tlio grave of the November Convention. But they do not know their man. They aro destined to see Matty elbow out tho great Caroiinianand to bo again driven witii him into tho ranks of opposition. STATE CONVENTION. Wo hopo every town in tho Stato will tako caro to ho woll represented at tho Stato Conventional Rutland on tho 28th instant. Gov. Paino declines to bo considered a candidate, and it therefore becomes neces sary out of tlto plentiful" timber" which tha whig parly of Vermont presents, to mako a new selection. Delegates nt largo to tho National Convention nt Baltimore aro also to be appointed. Proper action on theso points, requires a full delegation, and such there should be. Tho candidates wiioso names nro promi nent beforo thu people are, Hon. David M. Camp, Hon. William Sladu, Hon John Mattocks, and Hon. Horace Everett one Ex-Lieutonanl Governor, and thrco Ex Members of Congress. Any of them would make a Governor of whom Vermont might ho proud. SAFE ! Wo would congratuliito our readers and tho whole Stato upon thu fact, that the foot steps of John Tyler are not to pollute tho sa cred soil of tho Greon Mountain Stale. Wo would not bo too intolerant even toward such a detestable falsifier of every plcdgo and principle ns this accident from Virginia, but wo do say that here, where tho largest proportional majority savo ono was given in 1S40 for llio establishment of tho principles contended for by the Wings, the wretch who iias wantonly nnd openly, with every circum stance of insult and contumcey, turned to bile the hand that fed him, and to revile tho friends that warmed him into unnatural im portance, ought to expect and receivo no other treatment than undisscmbled scorn, ha tred and contempt. "BURNING" IN VERMONT. Thrco well dressed scoundrels who camo up in the southern Boat a few evenings since, met a young gentleman lately from Canada, and by dint of tho usual gammon so ofton and graphically described by the Tribuno, succeeded in swapping off S45 in United States Hank Bills for good Monlrcnl money, leaving thu young man to rejoico in the pos session of a touch ofdear-bonght experience. The swindling villinns went on their way re joicing, and wo advise them to he a little shy ofBuilington hereafter unless they havo an aye to a residence in Windsor. Whilo wo arc on this subject wo will just remind our renders that bogus half dollars, and indeed most kinds of counterfeit coins, are nfo among us. Thoy are usually well executed, especially tho halves. Look well to your money, if you nre lucky enough to gel any. Hon. Jacob Collamor, Into Judgo of the Supremo Court, has been nominated by tho whigs of tlio Second (Mr. Everett' j District, as a eandidato for Representative in Congress. If ho lives long enough, ho will bo elected. We wonder what whig is destined to bo fired at in the fourth t Tho Truo Democrat is in pain becnuso the Whig Common Council of Albany re fused to extend an invitation to tho apostate Tyler lo visit that city. This tlio T. D. construes into an affront, and talks tho usual stuff about " respect to tho offico " &c. Pray Mr. Democrat, would you feel yourself authorized to fly, into a passion and com plain of being abused if a resolution to invito you to Albany were introduced and negatived in the Common Council of that city I It is one thing to treat a man with insult, and quito another lo " tote " him round as if you liked him, when in truth and " at hoarl " you deipiso him. Does tho offico of PrcsN den), or any other office whatovor possess power to prevent a man from really being a dctestablo rascal, if he and naturo conspire to mako him so This treating a knavo well because ho is in office, and doing it out of respect lo the oflico, is truly, a Virginia abstraction. But we will say no inoro ; the Tribune has said tho best say on this head thit wo have read this many a day. When we come across it agnin wo will publish it for the benefit pf our new neighbor, THE NEW JAIL. The foundation and floor of the now Jail in this ill.igu uro already hud, and tho work men aro busily engaged in hewing the stone) for tho walls and cells. Tho work is under tlio immediate care and superintendence of Judgo Van Sicklin, and if tho Judgo puts up it superstructure to match the substratum, we predict that scamps will not hereafter bo so merry at the idea of getting into Chitten den County Jail. Tho material is a blue stone from Isle La Molt. Tho blocks aro very massive, and look as if thoy would not yield to a common kick, ns tlio walls of tho old nuisance did. fX?" Ono of the Tyler toadies, descanting witii a swelling heart on somo of tho recent displays of tlio Presideutiai menagerie, burst out in tlio fulness of uncontrollable emotion, with "happy nation ! could it havo such a man for President in 1S45 !" As tho cup of bliss hero alluded to, will doubtless pass from us, wo would suggest a National fast in tlio prospect of such an nfilic tivo event. Wu know of somo neighbors of ours who could get up a good deal of -tcmporc grief in view of a termination of tho present lease in 1815. Gallon. Aixxakpcr Hill Everett (de livers tlio oration beforo the University Scf cictics in Now York nt their approaching anniversary. And Hon. Willis Hall,. Into Attorney General of Now York, is to. address tho citizens of Albany on the Fourth, Free Trade. Wo find in tho Montreal Transcript, a very good illustration of the principles of freo trade, npplicd to this Pro vince under present circumstances : To grants freo trado npi.enrs my like tho barrrnn between two farmers, one of whom was remarksbU for the goodness, nnd the other for his total want of fences. The latter proposed to jatmr in costmoo. snd thereby sai-o a creat annual cxpenco in keepinc up fences, which after all, when looked at on central principles, nrgucd tho latter, could not but be viewed as unnecessary barriers. The former answered I have no objection to al low my calile to run in your fields, when your pasture happens to he heller than mine but notwithstanding general principles, I slnll lake caro that my fences shall at all times keep out your cattle from my pas tures. ' 1 Not, unlike this U tho system of granting free trada to nation s who still continue protective or prohibitive duties. When their own markets aro best, they keep their productions at home) but when the prices ore greater in a foreign market, lltey have no objection to supply il. This may he a homely comparison, bul there is a good deal of truth in il newilieless i and all the fine-spun llienriesoffree trade, of buying ir itis cheapest and selling in the dcarett market, are only theories, and very fallacious ones, as lorigas on of the parties can regulate his own market by protec tive duties, on grounds directly opposed by those prt-, ntrd by his genera.1 unprincipled 'irocinte.

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