Jsii4JVWJ IvJJWy illy IJj JJVJv ii ivv NOT TUB GLORY OF OJESAH-DUT TUB WBLFARE OF ROMS VOL. XVII. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, JUNE 30, 1843. No. 'i , MR. WEBSTER'S SPEECH. On Bunker Hill, Juno 17, 1843, in com memoration of the completion of tlio Monu ment, as reported from liis own notes for the Boston Courier : A duty has been performed. A work of gratitude and patriotism is completed. This structure, liavincj its foundations in soil which drank deep of early rev olutionary blood, has at length leached its destined hcisht..and now lifts its summit to tho skies. We linvo assembled, to celcbrato the accomplish ment of this undertaking, and to indulge, afresh, in the recollection of the great event which it is design ed to commemorate. Kightcen years, more than half 'tho ordimry duration of n generation of mankind, havo cjapsed sinco tho corner stone of this monument was laid. Tho hopes of iis projectors rested on vol untary contribution, private munificence, and the general favor of the public. These hopes havo not cen disappointed. Donations have been made by in dividuals, in some cases of large amount, and smaller lams contributed by thousands. All who regard the object itself as important, and its accomplishment, therefore, as a good attained, will entertain sincere respect and gratitude for the unwearied efforts of the successive Presidents, Hoards of Directors, and Com mittees of the Association which has had the general control of the work. Tho architect, equally entitled to our thanks and commendation, will find other re ward, nlo, for his labor and skill, in the beauty and elegance of the obelisk itself, and the distinction which, as a work of art, it confers on him. At a period when tho prospects of further progress in tho undertaking were gloomy and discouraging, tho Mechanic Association, by a most praiseworthy nd vigorous effort, raised new funds for carrying it forward, and saw them applied with fidelity, econo my, and skill. It is a grateful duty to make public acknowledgements of uch timely and efficient aid. The lasttflbrt, and the last contribution, were from a different source. Garlands of grace and elegance were destined to crown a work which had its com mencement in manly patriotism. Tho winning pow er of the sex addressed itself to the public, and all that was needed to carry tho monument to its propo sed height, and give to it its finish, was promptly supplied. Tho mothers and the daughters of iheland contributed thus most successfully to whatever of ULuuiy is iii tuc uui'iisit iist'ti, ui wiiaii'ver ui uumy anil public benefit nml gratification in its completion. Ol'those with whom the plan of erecting on this spot a monument, worthy of the event lobe com memorated, originated, many are now present! but others, alas 1 havo themselves become subjects of monumental inscription. William Tudor, an accom plished scholar, a distinguished writer, a most amia ble man, allied, both by birth and sentiment, to the patriots of the revolution, died, while on public ser vice abroad, and now lies buried in a foreign land. William Sullivan, n name fragrant of revolutionary merit, and of public service and public virtue, who himself partook, in a high degree, of the respect and confidence of the community, and vet was always most loved where best known, has also been gather ed to his fathers. And last, Georgo Ulakc, a lawyer of learning and eloquence, a man of wit and talent, of s iciil qualities the most agn cable and fascinating, and of litis which enabled him to exercise large Bway over public assemblies, has closed his career. I know that in tho crowds before tnc there are those from whose eyes copious tears will flow, at the mention of these names. Uut such mention is due to their gen eral character, their public and private virtues, and especially on this occasion to the spirit and zeal with v.hich they entered into the undertaking which is now completed. I have spoken only of those who are not now num bered with the livinc. Rut a lone life, now drawing towards its close, always distinguished by acts of puuuc suirn, uumaimy, anu cmniy, lorming a cnar ecter which has already become historical, and sanc tified by public regard, nnd by the nfTeclion of friends, may confer, even on the living, the proper immunity of tho dead, and bo the fit subject of honorable men tion and warm commendation. Of the early projec tors of the design of this monument, one of tho most prominent, the most zealous, nnd the most efficient, is Thomas H. Perkins. It was beneath his ever hos pitable roof that those whom I have mentioned, and others jet living and now present, having assembled for the purpose, adopted tho first step tow ards erect ing a monument on Hunker Hill. I.onir mav here- main, with unimpaired facilities, in the wide field of his usefulness. His chanties have distilled, like the dews of heaven ; lie has fed tho hungry, and clothed the inl.cd; he has given sight to the blind; and for nuch virtues there is a reward on high, of which all human memorials, all 1 mguago of brass and stone, arc but humble types and attempted imitations. Time and nature have had thiircourse, in diminh-h-ing tho number of those whom we met here on the I7lh of June, 13'2j. Most of the revolutionary char acters then present havo sinca deciased, and Lafay ette sleeps in his native land. Yet the name and blood of Warren are with us; the kindred of Putnam are here ; and near me, universally beloved for bis years, sits the son nf the noble-hearted and daring Prcicott. Gideon f'ostcr, of Danvers, Enos Rey nolds, of Hoxford, Phincas Johnson, Rolen Andrews, Elijah Dresser, .losiah Cleveland, Jesse Smith, Phil ip Hagley, Needham Maynard, Roger Plaisted, Jo seph Stiphens, iVehcmiah Porter, and James Har vey, who bore onus for their countrv, either at Con cord and Lexington, nn the 19th of Anril. or on Hun ker Hill, all now far advanced in age, have come here to-dav to look once more on the field of the exercise of their vjlor, and to receive a hearty outpouring of our respect. The v have long outlived the troubles nnd dancers of the revolution ; they have outlived the evils ari-ing from the want of a tmitid and efficient government; they have outlived the pendency of imminent dangers to tne puutic tucrtyj they hayc outlived nearly all their contemporaries : but thev have not outlived they cannot outlive tho affectionate gratitude of tner country. Jicaven lias not allotted to this gene ration an ODDOrtunitv of rendering hirrh services, and manifesting strong personal devotion, such as they rendered and manifested, and in such a case as roused the patriotic lircs of their youthful breasts, ond ncrv ea tno sirengin ot tneir arms; hut we may praise what we cannot equal, and celebrate actions which we were not born to perforin. Pulchrum est bene- Jacerc republics, ttiam bene dteere baud. The Hunker Hill Monnment is finished. Here it etands. fortunate on the natural eminenccon which it is placed higher, infinitely higher in its objects and purposes, it rises over the land, and over the sea, nnd is visible, at their homes, to three hundred thousand citizens of Massachasetts, it stands, a memorial of thela,st, and a monitor to tho present, ond all suc ceeding generations. I have spoken of the loftiness of its purpose. If it had been without nnv other de licti than the creation of a work of art, tho granite of which ii it composea would have slept in Its native bed. It has a purpose; and that purposo gives it character. That purpose isrobes it with dignity and moral g'sndeur. That well known purpose it is which causes us to look up to it with a feclingof awe. It is itself the orator of this occasion. 1 1 is not from my lips, it is not from any human lips, that that strain of eloquence is this day to flow, most compe tent to move and excite the vast multitudes around. The potent speaker stands motionless beforo them It is a plain shaft. It bears no inscriptions, fronting to the ruins sun, from which the futuro antiquarian ehall wipe the dust. Js'or does tho riling tun cause tones ol music to issue from its summit. Hut at the rising of the sun, andot tho setting of the sun, in the blazo of norm-day, and beneath the milder effulgence of lunar light, It looks, it speaks, it acts, to the full comprehension of every American mind, nnd the awakening of glowing enthusiasm in every American heart. Its silent, but awful utterance; its deep pa thos, as it brings to our contemplation the 17th of June, I775,and the consequences which havo resulted to its, to our country, and to the world, from tho events of that day, and which wo know must contin ue to nun influenco on the destinies of mankind to the end of time; tho elevation with which it raises us high above the ordinary feelings of life, surpass all that the study of tho closet, or even the inspiration of pen. lus can produce. To-day it speaks to us. Its future auditories will be through successive generations of men, as they riseup beforo it, and gather round it. Itsspeechwill bo of patriotism and courage; of civil and rehgioui liberty; of free government i of the moral improvement and elevation of mankind ; and of the immortal memory of those who with heroic devotion have sacrificed their lives for their country. In the older world, numerous fabrics atill exist, reared by human hands, but whoso object has been lost in the darkness of ages. They are now monu ments of nothing but the labor and skill which con strucled ihem. The mighty pyramid itself, half buried in the sands of Africa, has nothing to bring down and report to us but thy power or kings and the servitude of the peo pie. If it had any purpose beyond that of a mauso leum, such purposo his j perished from history, and from tradition. If asked for it a: . 1. i . , . . .. . ....., UUJOI, bu- monition, its culiment, its instruction to mankind, or any high end in its erection, it ji silent-silent as the millions which ho in the dust at its base, and in the eotacoml'S which surround it. Without a juit moral fibjeet. thereto, made known to man ikn,mk sj-int lbs skits, it riritti enly conviction of power, mixed with strange wonder. .Hut if tho civilization of the present race of men, rounded as it is in solid science, the true knowledge! of nature, nnd vast dis coveries in art, and which is stimulated and purified by moral sentiment, and by tho truths of Christianity, be not destined to destruction beforo the final tertni liin of huniancxistcncc on earth, tlio obicct and pur pose of this cdifico will bo known till that hour shall come. And even if civilization should be subverted, and the truths of the Christian religion obscured by a new deluge of barbarism, the memory of Hunker Hill and the American revolution vvill still be elements and pattsof the knowledge which shall be possessed bv the last man to whom the light of civilization nnd VIII ISUUIlll Sll.l l UU I.AlCIIUlll, This celebration is honored liv the nresenca of the chief executive magistrate of the Union. An occasion so national in its object and character, nnd so much connected with that revolution from which tho gov ernment sprang, at the head of which he is placed, may well receive from him this mark of attention and respect. Well acquainted vviih Yorktnwn, tho sccneof the last great military struggle of the revolu tion, his eye now surveys tho field of Hunker Hill, the theatro of the first of tneso important conflicts. Ho sees where Warren fell where Putnam and Prescott, and Stork, and Knowllon, and Hrooks fought. He beholds the spot where a thousand trained soldiers of England were smitten to tho earth, in the first effort of revolutionary war, by the arm of a bold nnd deter mined yeomanry, contending for liberty and their country. And while all assembled here entertain to wards turn sincere personal good wishes, and tho high respect duo to his elevated nflico and station, it is not to be doubled that ho enters with true Ameri can feclins into the patriotic enthusiasm, kindled by the occasion, which animates the millions which sur round him. His Excellency the Governor of the commonwealth, tho Governor of Rhode Island, nnd tho other dis tinguished public men whom wc have the honor to receive as visitors nnd guests to-day, will cordially unite in a celebration connected with the great event of tho revolutionary war. No name in the hi'tory of 1775 and 177Gismore distinguished than that of an ex-President of the United States, whom we expected to see here, but whose ill health prevents his attendance. Whenever popular rights were to be asserted, an Adams was present; and when tho time came, for the formal De claration of Independence, it was the voice of an Ad ams, that shook the halls of Congress. We wish wo could have welcomed tons, this day, the inheritor of Revolutionary blood, and the just and worthy repre sentative of high Revolutionary nanus, merit and services. Hanners and badges, processions and flags, an nounce to us, that amidst this uncnuntid multitude are thousands of nativesof New England, now rc-i-dents in other Slates. Welcome, vc kindred names. with kindred blood! From tho broad savannas of the, South, from the newer regions of tho Wet, from amidst the hundreds of thousands f men nf f:nstem origin who cultivate the rich valley of the Genesee, or nvo niong tne cnain oi tiieiaKes, trom the mountains of Pennsylvania, and the thronged cities of the coast, welcome, welcome! Wherever else vou mav bestrnn. gers, here you nre all at home. Vou assemble nt this eiinuu ui nuuiiy, near uicianiuv nitars, at which your earliest devotions were paid to Heaven; near to the temples of worship first entered by you, and near to inc scnoois nnu colleges in wnicn your education was received. You come hither with n glorious ancestry of liberty. Vou bring names, which aro on the rolls of Lexington, Concord, and Hunker Hill. You come, some of you, once more to bo embraced by an aged revolutionary father, or ro receive another, perhaps, a last blessing, bestowed in love and tears, by a mo ther, vet surviving to witness, nnd to eniov. vnnr piosperity and happiness. nui u luimiy associations nnu tnc recollections ol the past bring you hither with greater alacrity, and mingle, with your greeting much of local attachment, and private affection, greeting also I given, freo and hearty greeting, to every American citizen, who treads this sacred Boil with patriotic feeling, and re spires with pleasure, in nil atmosphere fragrant with the recollections of 1775. This occasion is respecta ble nay, it is grand, it is sublime, by the nationality of its sentiment. In the seventeen millions of happy people, who form the American community, there is not one that has not a deep and abiding interest in that which it commemorates. Wnc betide the man who brings to this day's wor ship feeling less than wholly American ! Woebelido the man who can stand here with the fires of local resentments burning.or the purpose of fomenting lo cal jealousies, nnd the strifes of local interests, fester ing nnd rankling in his heart. Union, founded in justice, in patriotism, and the most plain and obvious common iiiictcsi ; union, lounueu on the same love of liberty, cemented by Hood shed in the same com mon cause ; union has been the source of nil our glo ry nnd greatness thus far, and is the gruund of all our highest hopes. This column stands on Union. I know not that it might not kiep its position, if the American Union, in tho mad conflict of human pas sions; ond in the strife of parties and factions, should be broken up nnd destroyed, I know not that it would totter and fall to the earth, and mingle its frag ments with the fragments of hlerty and the con-titu-lion, when state should bo separated from state, and faction and disniein! crment obliterate forever nil tho hopes of the founders of our rcpnl lie, and the great in heritanceof their chffJrcn. It might stand. Hut who, from beneath tho weight of mortification and shame, that would oppress him, could look up to behold it I For my part, should I live to such a time, I should avert my eyes from it forever. It is not as a mere militiry encounter of hostile ar mies that the baltlcof tjiunkcr Hill founds its principle claim to attention. Vet, even as n mere battle, there were circumstances attending it extraordinary in character, and entitling it to peculiar distinction, li was fought on this emi.ienco; in the neighborhood of yi'iiuer cuy ; in me presence ot more spectators than wcro combatants in theconflict. Men, women, and children, from every commanding position, were ga zing at the battle, and looking for its result with all the eagerness natural to those who knew that tho is suo was fraught with the deepest consequences to them. Vet, on the ICth of June, 1775, there was no- thing around tins full but verdure and culture. Tnere whs, indeed, the note of awful preparation in Uoston. There was the provincial nrmy at Cambridge, with its right flank resting on Dorchester, and its left on Chelsea. Uut hero all was peace. Tranquility rein ed around. " On tho 17th, every thing was changed. On yonder height had arisen, in the night, n redoubt in which Prescott commanded. Perceived by tho enemy at dawn, it was immediately cannonaded from the Hon ing batteries in the river, and the opposite shore. And then ensued the hurry of preparation in Uoston ; and soon the troops of Hritain embarked in the at tempt to dislodge the colonists. I suppose it would be difficult, in a military point of view, to ascribe to the leaders on either sido any just motive for theconflict which followed. On theone hand, it could not have Icon very important to the Americans to ottempt to hem the Uriu-h within the town by advancing one singlo post a quarter of a mile; while on the other hand, if the British found it essential to diilodge the American troops, they had it in their power, at no experiso of life. Ily moving up their ships and batteries, they could have completely cut off all communication with the tunin land over the neck, and the forces in tho redoubt would have been reduced to a state of famine in forty-eight hours. mutual was not tne aay lor any .such considera tions on cither sido ! Hoth parties were anxious to trv tho strength o! their arms. Tho pride of England would not nermit the rebels, as she termed ihem t defy her to tho teeth, and without for a moment cal culating the cost, the British general determined to destroy the fort immediately. On tho other side, Prescott and his gallant followers longed and thirsted for a conflict. They wished it, and wished it at once. And this is the true secret of the movements on this lull. I vvill not attempt to describe the battle. The can. nonading the landing of the British their advance tho coolness with which the chargo was met the repuiso tno second attack ins second repulso tho burning of Charlestown and finally ihe closing as sault, nnd the slow retreat nf the Americans tho his tory of all the-c is familiar. But the consequences of tho battle of Bunker Hill are greater than those of any conflict between the hostile armies of European powers. It was tho first great battle of Iho Revolution; and not only the first blow, but the blow which determined the contest. It did not, indeed, put an end to ihe war, but in the ihcn existing hostile slate or feeling, the difficulties, could only be referred to the arbitration of the sword. And one thing is certain; that after the New Eng. land troops had shown themselves able to face and repulse the regulars, it Iwas decided that peace never could be established but upon the basis of the inde pendence of tho colonics when the sun of that day went down. Ihe event of independence was certain! When Washington heard of the battle he inquired if tne militia nad stood the ftro or the regulars 1 And when told that thev had not nnlv tood thnt fire lull reserved their own till the enemy was within eight rods, and then poured it in with tremendous effect "then," exclaimed he, " the liberties of the country are safe !" The consequences of this battle were just of the me iui;HriBHLD um nim reToimion liseu. it intre wet nothing oi vtme in the principal nf tho American revolution, then there is nothing valu nblein the ba tlo of Bunker Hill and its consequen ces. Hut if the revolution was an era ill the history of man, favorable to human happiness if it was an event which marked iho progrecs of man, nil over the world, from despotism to liberty then tins mon ument is not raised without cause. Then, the battle of Bunker Hill is not an event undeserving celebra tions, commemorations nnd rejoicings. , What then is the Iruo nnd peculiar principle of the American revolution, nnd of tho systems of govern ment which it has confirmed nnd established 7 Now the truth is, that the Amcricnn revolution was not caused by ilia instantaneous discovery of principles of government beforo unheard of, or the practicable adoption of political idea', such as had never before entered into the minds of men. It was but tho full developcment of principles of government, forms of society, nnd political sentiments, the origin of, all which lay back two centuries in English and Ameri can history. Tho discovery of America, its colonization by the nations of Europe, tho history and progress of tho colonies from their estab'ishment to the time when the principal of them threw ofTtlieir allegiance to tho respective states which had planted llioin, ond foun ded governments of their own, constitute one of the most interesting trains of events in human annals. These events occupied three hundred years ; during which period civilization and knowledge mado steady progress in the word ; so that Europe, at tho com mencement of tho nineteenth century, had become greatly changed from thnt Europe which began the colonization of America nt the commencement of tho fifteenth And w;h.at is most material to my present purpose is, that in the progress of tho first of theso centuries, that is to say, from tho discovery of Ameri ca to the settlements of Virginia and Massachusetts, political nnd religious events took place which most materially nltccted Ihe stnto of society and the senti ments of mankind, especially in England, and in parts of continental Europe. After n few feeble and unsuc cessful efforts by England, under Henry the Seventh, to plant colonies In America, no designs of that kind were prosecuted for a long period, cither by the En glish government or nnv of its subjects. Without inquiring into tho causes of this long delay, its conse quences nre sufficiently clear and striking. England in this lapse of a century, unknown to herself, but undir the providence of Ood, and the influence of events, was titling ncrscll lor the wnrlt or colonizing North America, on the principles, and by such men, as should spread the English nam i and Eiii'lish blood, in time, over a portion nf the western hemisphere. The commercial spirit was greatly encouraged by several laws passed in Henry Ihe Seventh's reign ; nnd in the same reign encouragement was given to nrtsnnd manufactures in lbs eastern countries, and some not unimportant modifications of the feudal system, by allowing the breaking of entails. These and other measure, and other occurrences, were making way for a new class of society to emerge and show itself in a millitary and feudal age a middle class, neither barons nor great landholders on the one side, nor the mere retainers of the crown nor mere agriculturol laborer on the other. With the rise and growth of this now class of society, not only did commerce and the arts increase, but better education, a greater degree of knowledge, jusler notions of the true ends of government, one sentiments favorable in civil liberty, began to tpread abroad, and become more and more common. But the plants springing irom mcseisccus were oi s'ow growtn. The charac ter of English society had indeed begun to undergo a change, but changes of national character are ordina rily the work of time. Operative causes were, how ever, evidently in existence, and sure to produce, ulti mately, their proper effect. From the accession of Henry the seventh to the breaking out of the civil wars England enjoyed much more exemption from war. foreisn and domestic, than for a Ioni neriod he. fore and during the controversy between the houses of York and Lancaster. These years of peaco were favourable to commerce anu tne nris. lyommerce and the arts augmented general nnd individual knowledge; nnd knowledge is theonly first fonntain, both of tho love, nnd the prin ciples of human liberty. Oher powerful causes soon came into nclive play. The reformation of Luther prone oui, mnciiing up the minds or men afresh, lead- in? tO new habitS Ot thmiphr. nnd nu-fltieninn in in. dividuals energies before unknown, even to themselves The religious controversies of this period changed spcietyos well as religion; indeed,' it would be easy ,u iiu,uu una ui-uussiuii were proper iur u, mat riiey changed society to a considerable extent, where they did not change tho religion of the state, The spirit of tuMHiiciciui huh lureigu nuventure, tnereiore, on the inic nnnu, wnicn nau gained so mucn strength and in fluence, since the time of the discovery nf A merle and, on the other, the assertion and maintenance of ruugiuui nucriy, naving ineir source indeed in the re formation, but continued, diversified, and continually strengthened by tho subsequent divisions of senti ment and opinion among tho reformers themselves, and ihis lovo of religious liberty drawing after them, or bringing nlong with them, as they always do, an ardent dev otion to the principle of civil liberty also, were the powerful infiuences. under which rhn'rneier was formed, and men trained for Ihe great work of introducing i.ngnsh civilazation, English law, and what is more than all, Anglo-Saxon blood, into tho wiiocrnessoi iorin America. Kalcigh and his com panions may bo considered as the creatures, princi pally, of the first of these causes. High spirited, full Of the loVO Of norsonal adventure, evrited tnn in some degree, by the hopes of sudden riches from the discovery of mines of the precious metals, and not unwilling to diversify the labors of settling a colony with occasional cruising against the Spaniards in the West Indian seas, they crossed and recrosscd the ocean, with a frequency which surprizes us, when we iiiv . . 0' ii;jiiuii, mm wnicn evinces a iiiusi uiirin;; Mpiru. i up oilier cause peopled Vow England. The May Flower sought our shores under no high wrought spirit of commercial adventure, no love of gold, no mixture of purpose, warlike or hos tile, to any human being. Like the dove from tho ark, rhe had put forth only to find rest. Solemn prayers from tho shores of the sea in Holland, h-id invoked for her. at her dennrtnre. the Ideeemir. r.f Providence. The stars which guided her were tho unobscured constellations of civil nnd religious liber ty. Mcr oecli was tho nltar of the living God. Fer vent nravers. from bended knees, minnled mAmTn and evening, with the voices of oce-in.nnd the sighing of tho wind in her shrouds. Every prosperous breeze, wheh, gently swelling her sails, helped the the P.lrrrinifl nrt,..r.l in ,1..!, .n..., J ...v . a wlt.IU.U 1.1 IllVM LUUIOV, U,V,,IVU lltJWIlU- tltems of praise; nnd when the elements were wrought into furv. neither the tcmneat. tnstinrr ,l,eir fragile bark like a feather, nor the darkness and howling of themidnight storm, ever disturbed, in man nr woman, the firm and sottled purpose of their souls, iu iiuueruu mi, nnu 10 no an, tnai tne meekest pa tience, theboldest resolution, nnd ilm hiirhe.t imst in God, could enable human beings to sufler or to per form. Some differences mav. ilniihtles. tie imerrl ntihta day between the descendants of tho early, colonists ui y irginin oiio. inoso or iew i.ngiand, owing to the uiim-iciii inuucnce" anu amerent circumstances under which tho respective rcttlcmcnts were made. But only enough to create a pleasing variety in tho midst of a general resemblance -faeies, non omnibus una, 4Ve tlitersa tamen, qualcm, deed esse sororcm." But the habits, sentiments, and obiecta of bnth. nnn became modified bv local causes, growing outof their condition in the New World ; and as this condition was essentially alike in both, nnd as both at once adopted tho same general rules and principles of Eng lish jurisprudence, these differences prndu.-illv Himin. ished. They gradually disappeared by the pro rcss of time, and the influence of intercourse. The neces sity of some degree of union and cooperation to defend themselves against the savago tribes, tended to exebe in them mutual respect nnd regard. Thoy fought together in tho wars against France. The great and common cause of the revolution I ound them together by new links of brotherhood; nnd finally, fortunately, happily, and gloriously, the present form of government united them to form tho Great Repub lic of the World, nnd bound up their interests and fortunes, till the whole earth sees that there is now for them, in present po-session, as well as futuro hope, only "Ono Country, Ono Constitution, and Ono iJeiuiy, Tho colonization of the tropical region, and the whole of tho southern parts of thorontinent. hv Rnntn nnd Poitugal was conducted on other principles, un der the influence of other motives, and followed by far different consequences. From tho limo of its dis covery, the Spanish government pushed forward its settlements in America, not only with vigor, but with eagerness so that long beforo the first permnnent English settlement had been accomplished, in what is now called the United States, Spain had conquered Mexico, Peru, and Chili, and stretched her power over nearly all the territory she ever acquired iu this continent. The rapidity of these conquests is to be ascribed, in a great degree, to the eagerness, not to aay tnc rapacity, oi inoso numerous bands or adven. Hirers Who Were Stimulated to mhrlua immenu. re. gtons, and take possesion of them in the name of the crnwn of spain. The mines nf gold and silver were the excitements to these efforts, and accordingly set tlements wwe generally made, and Spanish authority established, on tin immediate eve of the nhiim9,in oneimorjr, ini tne nsttvt population mtjhtbr set to work by their new Spanish masters in tho mines. From these facts, the lovo of gold gold not produced by industry, nor accumulated by commerce, but gold dug from it native bed in the bowels of the earth, nnd that earth ravished from its rightful possessors by every possible degreeof enormity, cruelty, and crime. was long 1110 governing m-soii in opaiusu wura unu Spanish settlements in America. Even Columbus himself did not wholly escano the influence of this base motive. In his early voyages wo find him passing from islandjnquiringvery where for gold; as if God had opened the new" world to the knowledge of tho old, only to gratify a passion equal ly senseless nnd sordid; nnd to offer up millions of anunoircnding race of men to the destruction of the sword, sharpened both by cruelly nndrapacity. And yei uoiumuus was tar anovo his age and country. Enthusiastic, indeed, but sober, religious and magna intnous ; born to great things, nnd capable of high sentiments, ns his noble discourses beforo Ferdinand and Isabella, ns well as tho whole history of his life, shows. Probably he sacrificed much to tho known sentiments of others, nnd nddtcssed to his followers motives likely to influence them. At the same time it is evident that he himself looked upon the world which he discovered nsa world of wealth, all ready to bo seized and enjoyed. The conquerors and the European settlers of Span ish America were mainly military commanders nnd common soldiers. The monarchy of Spain wns not transferred to this hemisphere, but it ncted in it, ns it acted at home, through its ordinary means, and its true representative, military forco. The robbery and destruction of the native rnco was the achievement of standing atmics, in the right of tho king, nnd by his authority fighting in his name, for the aggrandize ment of his power, nnd the extension of his preroga tives; with military ideas, under arbitrary maxims, a portion of that dreadful instrumentality by which a fierfect despotism governs a people. As there wns no ibcrty in Spain, hgw could liberty be transmitted to the Spanish colonies? The colonists of English America wcro of tho peo ple, and a people already freo. They wcro of the middle, industrious, nnd already prosperous class, the inhabitants of commercial and manufacturing cities, among whom liberty first revived aud respired, nfler a sleep of a thousand years in the bosom of tho dark ages. Spain descended on (he new world in the armed and terriblo image of her monarchy and her soldiery; England approached it in the winning and popular garb nf personal rights, public protection nnd civil freedom. England transplanted liberty to America : Spain transplanted power. England, through tho agency of private companies nnd tho efforts of indi viduals, colonized this part of North America, bv in dustrious individuals, making their own way in the wilderness, ucrending themselves against the savages, recognizing their right to the soil, and with a ncneral honest purpose of introducing knowledge ns well ns unrisiiamiy among uicm. ppam stooped on south America like a falcon on its prey. Every thing was gone. Territories were acquired, bv fire and sword. Cities were destroyed by fire ond sword. Hundreds or thousands or human hcingsfcll by fire and sword. Even conversion to Christianity was attempted by fire and sword. Behold, then, fellow-citizens, tho difference result ing from tho operation of the two principles! Here, to-day, on the summit of Hunker Hill, ond at the foot of the monument, behold the difference ! I would that tho fifty thousand voices present could proclaim it, with a shout which should be heard over the globe. Our inheritance wns of liberty, secured nnd regulated h 1.1VV. nnd Pnliohtene 1 ho reltnti-tn nnA 1. ..n...l...ln . V , " fi iuvr.-ui;, that of South America was of power, stern, unrelent ing, tyrannical, military power. And look to the re
sults on tho general and aggregate happiness of the human race. And behold the results, in all (ho re gions conquered by Cortez and Pizarro, and the con trasted results here. I suppose tho territory of the United States may amount to one-eight or one tenth of that colonized by Spain on this continent, and yet in all that vast region ihere are but between one or two millions.of Kurnpean color and European blood; while in the United States there are fourteen mil lions who rejoice in their descent'from tho people of the mote northern part uf Europe. But wc follow thu diflerence in tho original princi ple of colonization, nnd in its character nnd objects, still further. We must look to mornl and intellectual results; wc must consider consequences, not only as they show themselves in the greater or less multipli cation of men orthesupplyof their physxal wants but in their civilization, improvement, nnd happiness. Wo must enquire what progress has been made in the truo science of liberty, and in the knowledgo of the great principles of self-government. I would not willingly say anything on this occasion discourteous to thencw governments, founded on the demolition cf the power of the Spanish monarchy They are yet on their trial, ami I hopo for a favorable result. But truth, sacred truth, ond n fidelity to the cause of civil liberty, compels mo to say that hitherto they have discovered quite too much ot the spirit of that monarchy from which thoy separated them selves. Quite too frequent resort is make to military force; and quite too much of the substance of tho people consumed in main mining armies, not for de fence against foreign oirgression only, but for enforc ing obedience to domestic authority. Standing ar mies nre the oppressive instruments lor governing tho people in the hands of heieditary and nrbitrarv tnon archs. A military republic, a 'overnnient founded on mock elections, nnd supported only by the sword is a movement indeed, but a retregrndo and disas trous movement from the monarchial systems. If men would enjoy tho blessings of republican government, they must govern themselves by reason, by mutual counsel and consultation, by a sense and feehmj of general interest, nnd by the acquiescence of ino minoriy in uie win or me majority, properly ex pressed and above all, the military must bo kept, ac cording to tlio language of our bill of rights, in strict subordination to tho civil authority. Wherever this lesson is not both learned and practised, lliero can be no politicolJrced,om. Absurd, preposterous is it a scon nnu a satire on ireeiorms ot constitutional liber ty, for constitutions nnd frames of government to be prescribed by military leaders, and the riht of suf frage to bo exercised at the point of the sword. Making all allowance for situation and climate.it cannot be doubted bv intelligent minds that the d:f. ference now existing between North nnd South Atneri ca is justly attributable, in a great degree, to political iiiMiiuiiuiis. aiiu now Broad mat ditterenco is! Suppose nn assembly, in one of the valleys, or on the side of onoof the mountains of the southern half of the hemisohere, to bo held, this day, in tho neighbor hood nf a largo city; what would botho scene pre sented? Yonder is a volcano, flaming and smoking, but shedding no light, moral or intellectual. At its foot is tho mine, yielding, peihaps, sometimes, large gains to enpifah but in which labor is dostined to eter nal and unrequited toil, and rewarded only by penury and beggary. The city is filled with armed men ; not n tree people, armed and coining forth voluntarily to rejoice in a public festivity ; but hireling troops, supported by forced loans, excessive impositions on commerce, or taxes wrung from a half-fed and a half clothed population. For the great, there nre palaces covered with gold i for Ihe poor, there nre hovels of the meanest sort. There is nn ecclesiastical hierarchy enjoying tho wealth of princess; but there nre no means of education to tho people. Do public im provements favor intercourse between place and place 7 So far from this, that the traveller cannot pass from town to town without danger, every mile, of robbery and assassination. I would not over charge or exaggerate this picture; bui its principal sketches aro nil too true. And how does it contrast with tho scene now ac tually before us 7 Look around upon these fields; they aro verdant and beauliful, well cultivated, and at this moment loaded wiih the riches of Ihe early har vest. The hands which till ihem are free owners of the soil, enjoying equal rights, nnd protected by law from oppression nnd tyranny. Look to the thousand vessels in our tight, filling the harbor, or covering the neighboring sea. They aro tho instruments of a profi tablo commerce, carried on by men who know that ihe profits of their hardy enterprise, when they make them, aro their own ; and this commerce is encour c:ed and regulated by wise laws, and defended, when need be, by ihe valor and patriotism of tho country. Look to that fair city, the abodo of so much diffused wealth, so much general hoppincss and comfort ; o much personal independence, and so much general knowledge. She fears no forcod contributions, no siege or sacking from military leaders or rival fac tions. The hundred temples, in which her citizens worship God, aro in no danger of sacrilege. The regular administration of the laws encounters no no sloclo. The long processions of children and ymilh, which you seo this day issuing by thousands from ihe free schools, prove ihe core and anxiety with which ii popular government provides for the education and moroUof the people. Every where there is order ; every where (hero is security. Every where the law reaches to tho highest and reachet to Ihe lowest, to protect him in his rights, and to restrain him from wrong; and overall hovers liberty that Liberty which our fathers fought nnd fell for on this very spot, with her eye ever watchful, nnd her (tele wingercr wideout-sprcad. The colonies of Spain, from their origin to their end, vysre subject to the sovereign authority of the king, dom ; their government, as well as their eommsrre, was a stud homt monopoly. Ifwciddto this the ettibhshcd usage of filling important pot in the td ministration of tho colonics exclusively bv natives of old Spain, thus cutting oirforuvcr all hopes of honor able preferment from every man born in tlio western ncnnspiierc, causes enough riso up before us tit once, to account fully for tho subsequent history nnd char acter of these provinces. Tho viceroys and provin cial governors of Spain were nevir nthonioin their governments in America ; they did not fed that they wero of thu pcoplo whom they fioverned. Their of ficial character and employment havo n good resem blance to those of tho proconsuls of Homo in Asia, nicuy, nnd ij.aul, cut obviously no resemblance to those of Carver and Wmlbron. nnd very liltlo to those of the governorsof Virginia, nftcr that colony had cs- luoiisiieu n popular nousc oi uurgesses. Tho English colonists in America, generally speak ing, were men who were socking new homes in a new world. Thev broiieht with them their families and all that was most dear to them. This was espe cially the case with the colonists of Plymouth and iuassncnuseus. ninny ot them wcro educated men, and nil possessed their full sharp, nr -milmrr to their social condition, of tho knowledge and ntlninincnta of that ago. tlio distinctive clnr.ictentic of their set tlement is the introduction of tho civili.ation of Europe inlon wilderness, without 1 ringing with it the politi cal institution of Europe. The rts, sciences and lit craturcof Enulandcaine over with the settlers. That great portion of tho common law which regulates the social and personal relations and conduct ot men, camonlso. The jury came; the habeas corpus came; tho testamentary power came, and the law of inheri tance nnd descent came nlso, except that part of it which recognized tho ri"hts of nrimoireniture. which cither did not corneal nil, or soon gave way to the rule of equal partition of estates among children. Hut tho monarchy did not come, nor thu aristocracy, nor the church ns fln cst.ato of the realm. Political insti tutions were to lie framed nnow, such as should be adapted to tho state of thitiL'Si but it could nut be doubtful what should be the nature and character of these institutions. A general social equality prevailed among tho settlers, nnd an equality of political rights aecmed the natural, if not the nccessirv conseauences, After forty years of revolution, violence and war, tho pcoplo of France have placed at the head of the fun damental instrument of thcirgovernmcnt, ns tho great boon obtained by all their sufferings and sacrifices, the declaration that all Frenchmen aro equal before tne law. vv nat f ranee had rcnclieJ only by tno ex penditures of so much blood and treasure, and the exibition of so much crime, the English colonists ob tained, by simply changing llieir place, carrying with them thciifiellectualnnd moral culture of Europe, and the personal and social relations to which they vveie accustomed, but leaving behind their political 'institu tions. It has been said, with much veracity, that the felicity of the American colonists consisted in their escape from the past. This is true so far ns respects political cstablishmc tits, but no further. They biought with them a full portion of all the richest of the past in science, in art, in morals, religion, nnd literature. Tho Hiblu.caino with thorn : nml il is not to bo doubt ed that to the ftce and universal rending nf the Bible it is to be ascribed in that age, ascribed in every age, that men wire much indebted for right views of civ il hbertv. The Bible is a book of faith, and a boo'; nf doctrine; but it is also a book, which leaches man Ids own in dividual rcsponibihtv. his own dignity, and hi carnal ity with bis fellow man. Bacon, and Locks, and Milton andShakspearc also came with them. They came to form new political syntems, but all that be longed to cullivntcd man, to family, to neighborhood, to social relations accompanied them. In tho Doric phrase of one of our own historians, "they camo to settle on bare creation ;" but their settlement in the wilderness nevertheless, wa3 not a lodgment of nomi nal tribes, a mere resting place of roaming savages. It was the beginning nf a permanent community, tho fixed restdenceofa cultivated men. Not only wns English literature read, but English, good English, was spoken and written, beforo the a.xo had made way to let iu the sun upon tho habitations nnd fields of the settlers. And whatever may be said to the con trary, a correct use or tho English language is, at this day, more general throughout tho United States, than it is throughout England herself. Hut another grand characteristic is, that in the English colonies, politi cal nll'iirs were left to be managed by the colonists themselves. There isanothcr fact wholly distinguish ing them in character as it has distinguished them in fortune, from the colonists of Spain. Hero lies the foundation of that experience iu self government, which had preserved order, nnd security, and regularity amidst thu play of popular institution". Home gov ernment was the secret of the prosperity of tho North American settlements. The morn dmtimnihdicd of the New-England colonies, with n mo5t reinarkalle sagacity, nnd a longsighted rcaih into futurity, refus-' ed to come to America, unlcssthcy could bring with ! Ihem chancre providingTor thendinnistration of their i nfTairsin this country. They sivv from tho first, the1 evilsof b'ing governed in tho new world, by counsels 1 held in the old. Acknowledging the general superi- orityot tne crown, they still ini-tM on the right or " nassmu local laws, and of local administration. And history teaches us the justice and the value of the de termination in tho example of Yircinia. Tho attempts early to settle tint colony failed, sometimes with the moat melancholy and fatal con sequences, from want of knowledge, care, and at tention on the parlor those who bad charge ol their all'iirs in England ; ami it was only after the issuing or tho third charter that its prosperity fairly com menced, Tho causo was that by that third charter the neonle or Yirfinin (for Itv this time, thev po ,!e. served to be called) were allowed to constitute and establish the first popular representative niemhlv which ever convened on this continent, the Virginia House of Uurges.ses. Hero then, arc tho great elements or our political system originally introduced, early in operation, and ready to be developed, more and more as the progress or events should justify or demand. Escape from the' existing political system of Europe, but the continued enjoyment or its sciences and arts, its literature, null us manners; vvitha series nf im provements upon its religions and moral sentiments and habits ; home government, or the power of pas sing local laws, wiih a local administration. Equality of rights. lieprcsetitalivo systems. I'reeforinsof government, foundedon popular rep resentation. Few tonics are more inviting, or more fit for phi losophical discussion, than the action arid inlliieucc of inc new woriu upon ino uiu ; or iho couiriuuuuus ui America to Europe. Her obligations to Europe for science and art, laws literature and manners, America acknowledges as she ought, with respect and gratitude. And I he peo ple or the United States, descendantsnr Iho English nock, grateful for the treasures of knowledge derived from their English nnccitors, acknowledge nlso, with thanks and filial regard, that among those ancestors, under the culture of Hauipdon and Sydney, nnd oth er assiduous friends, that seed or popular liberty first germinated, which nn our soil hax shot up to its full height, until its branches overshadow nil the lanj. Hut America has not failwl to make returns. If she has not cancelled Ihe obligation, or equalled it by others of like weight, she has, at least, ma lo resper. table advances, and sonic annioaches towards cuuali- ty. And she admits, that standing in tho midst or civilized nations, nnd in a civilized nao a nation among nations there is a high part which she is ex pected to act, for the general advance of human in terests nnd human weirare. American tiiinca havo filled the mints or Europe with tho precious metals. Tho productions i f ihe American sod nnd climate have poured nut their attendance of luxuries for Iko tables or the rich, and or necessaries for tho sustenanco or the poor, llirds and animals of beauty and value have been added Iu the European stocks; nnd transplantations from the transcendnnt aud unequalled riches of our forest, have mingled themselves prnfuely with tho elms, and ashes, and druidical oaks of England, America has made contribution far more vast. Who can estimate ilie amount, or the value, of the augmentation of the commerco of the world, that has resulted from America 7 Who can imagine to him self what wouM bo tho shock lo the Eastern conti nent, if Ihe Atlantic were no longer traversable, or there were no longer American productions, of Amer ican marl.cis ? Hut America exercises influences or holds out ex amples for tho cousiderotion or the old world, or a much higher, because, they are of a moral and political character. America has rurnished to Europe proor of the fact that popular institutions,, founded on equality nnd the nrmcinlo of renrcsentation, nre capable of main taining governments able to secure the rights of person, property nnd reputation. America has proved that it is practicable to elevate the mass of mankind-that portion which iu Europe is called the laboring, or lower class lo raise thcni to sclf-rcspcet, to make ihem competent to net a part in the grcal right, and great duly, of self-government ; and this she has proved may be done by ediicition and Ihe diffusion cf knowledge. She holds nut nn example a thousand limes more enchanting than ever was presented before to those nine-tenths of the hu man race who ere born without hereditary fort una or hereditary rank. America has furnished to the world the character of Washington! And if our American uistituiions had done nothing i Nr. that alone would have suutlrd them ' the respect of mitiMii'l Washington! "firitin wsr. firil in pex, and first in the henrtsofhis countrymen!" Washington isnll t our own! Thctnthu:anic veneration nnd regard in '.J! . i01',.!0' r ,;,1,lct, liin;. prove I them to be worthy of sue ; 11 countryman : won 1m S'iJ" 3b.;'"1 "I1'? " tl'l",'ticst honor on l,n ', o world e ,V A,-, . r 7, ' ,,. ...' ' .' ... . .. whole standi out tn tho lelicf of history, most pure, most respectable, most subliinc-7 ami I doubt not, that by a s ullrap" approaching to unanimity, tho answer would be, Washington! This structure, by in uprightness, its soliddy, its durability, is no unlit emblem nf his character. His public virtues nnd public principles weru ns firm ns tlioe.arlh on which it stands; his personal motives, as pure as the serene heaven in which its summit i lost. But, indeed, though a fit, it id mi inadequate em blem. Towering high above the column which our hands have builded, beheld, not by tho inhabitants of n single city or a sinulo stale ascends the colossal grandeur or bis character and his life. In nil the nets of tho other in all its titles to immortal love, admira tion and renown it is an American production. It n the oml odimcnt and vindication of our trnns-Atlan-tioJiberty. Horn upon our so.l of parents also born upon it never for a moment hatiiu had a higbt of the old world instructed, according to tlio modes of his time, only in the spare, plain, but wholesome el- tucntary knowledge which our institution pmvtle for thu childten of the people crowing up beneath and penetrated by tho genuine inllu ncr3 of Ameri can society growing up amidst our e.'.panding, lull not .luxurious, civilization partaking in our great destiny of labor, our long contest with unreclaimed natttro and uncivilized man our agony of glory, tho war of independence i ur great victory ol pence, the formation of tli'i Union and the establishment of the Constitution ho is all all our own I That crowded aim glorious ii'e 11 Where multitudes of virtues passed nlnni, Each prrfiug foremost, in the mighty lliron Contending to be seen, then making room I-or greater multitudes lint were to come;" thaldifovvas lliehl'e nfan American citizen. I claim him for America. In nil the perils, in eve ry darkened moment of tho state, in the midst of the reproachesof enemiesnnd the misgiving "nf frie.-.ds-I turn to that transcendaiit name Tor courage, and for consolation. To him who denies, or doubts whether our fervid liberty ran bo combined with law, wiih or der, with the .security of properly, with the' pursnits nnl advancement ot haiipiiiess,( ),,, who denies that our ' i'iti ti ms are iap-i! Iu ol producing exalt i tiou or noil and the pa.'ionur tnr gl iry - to him who denies that wu h iv- contributed anything io the "lock orgreat lessons and great examples to all these I re ply by pointing to Washington! And now-, friends and fi llow-citizens, it is time to bring thisdiseonr.se to a close. We have indulged in gratifying recollections of the past, in the prosperity and pleasures of the pre-ent ; and m high hopes nf the future. Hut let us remem ber that wo havo duties and obligations to perforin, corresponding to the blessings which wo enjoy. Let us remember the trust, the sacred trust,'att,ic!iing to tho rich inheritance which wc have received from our father.. Let us foci our personal responsibility lo the full extent or our nower and imlnenee for ,l,e preservation four institutions of civil and religious liberty. And let us remember that it is only religion, and morals, nnd knowledge, that can nnko men re speeinble and happy under any form of government. Let us ho d fist the great truth that communities are responsible, ns well ns individuals; tint no govern ment i rispectable which is not jut; tint without tin-potted purity of public faith, without sacred pub lic principle, fidelity and honor, no mere forms of government, no machinery of laws, ran give dignity to political society. In our day and generation let us seel; to raise nnd improve the moral sentiment, so that we may look, not for n degraded, but fir an ele vated and improved future. And when we and our children, shall all have been consigne I to the bouse appointed for all living, may lovo of country and pride of country glow with equal fervor union-' those to whom our names and our blood slmll 1 deil ! And then, when honored and dccrrpid age r.n.,o lem, utilise uic m'o oi tins iiioniiuiciit, and troops of ingennioiis youth shall bo gathered round it, and when the one shall speak to the other of its olivets, the purpo,es of its construction, nnd the great and glorious events with which it is connected lucre shall rise, from every youthful breast, the ejaculation "Thank tiod, I I 'also am an Ameri can. " "n the Peach Tree H'urm, by Dr. lurlland. Among the cause or the perniaturo decay on the uac'' tree, the depredations or the Peach tree worm 13 1,10 Principal one. . the larva or grub form, the body of this worm " a whitish color, anil its head reddish brown. It' length at maturity, is about t hrce fourths of an It commences itS detriietie-e eireer een., r.-l. has batched rrom the egg, and enters iho tice, prob ably through Ihelcuder hark, under thu suifaeonf the soil, rrom thence, it first wo, ks downwards in the root, unt.l the early part of tho ensuing Minimnr, when it directs its couisa upwards, towards iho body of the tree, hyevenva uig a channel, as it progresses, between tho bark and the wood. Having attained its fill! sio in theurfa or flrtI form, it netpasesinlotlioptt)ii state, between tho firft and tho mid lie of July. At lint lime, it mav j bo discovered close to the trunk or the tree, enve op- ed in hs fo'lule. and surrounded by a large accumula tion of gum, tint oozes out of its dessicc.Ued chan nel in thu roof. In this, the upa state, n continues until the latter part of July, or Iho begiiiuiii" uf An gust, vv hen it again changes into the moth, icinrcd, nr pcrfict state. In this con lition it is nctivo and vigilant, conceal ing itself through Iheday, in cracks r crevic about the trees, fence, or other secure places, an 1 at night issu.ng forth to fulfil its vocations, nnd prcparefor propagating a new generation of the grub. While in tho m lh state, tho sexes di'ler so much m appearance, ilyi a superficial observer might mis take them for disiinct species. Tho relink) son co nmences depositing her eg"s upon the bark of the treo, just above the surl'ice of Iho gro nd, and completes ihe process before the close of September, when ,hc, as well as the male, dies. Il is sai l that, in some insiaiu'es, she deposits noi less than lhroebuudre I eggs upon one nee. Thec j isobloilg-oval, dull yed w, mid so small as to be o7i ly just observable bv thu naked eye. It hatches into a miniitu grab in eight or ten dais. Tho v .mil" pro geny then perforates the lend, r hark or the tuvs, be ncaih the surface of theearih, iu the manner already suggested. "These several changes constitute its anmnl rou tine of transformation, and they usually occur at thu periods mentioned ; yet there nre individuals that do not conform to the general rule, but undergo the eh inges earlier or later, according to circumstance-, and it is probable that there are a few fom lie- deposa t,ng t bur eggs during tho most or nil of iho summer months. A dernilel account of tho nabil. nnd scientific characters or ihe L;er a, as wv.'I ol the im-aiis that nre sometime employed to prevent its depredations, is contained in Mr. .-.iv'm "American Entomology," volume 11, which your readers will do well to con suit. A knowledge of ihe lnb!t of noxiou or trouble some insec's, will many limes enable us to devise methods fur their counteraction. In the insianeenf this insect, a very simplo remedy to prevent us de predations has been suggested, and I nm happy lo say thatevperience has, lo roino exicnt, confirmedils efficacy. The .E.geria, in its perfect or winged state, is close ly allied to the moth family. The fact is prohahlv universally known, lint aromatic oils of all kinds are peculiarly offensive to that family of insect?. Everv housewife knows thnt a quantity nf camphor, turpen tine, oil nf taiizy.or tobacco, lilaenl in herd rnwera. j containing woolen cloths, wid effectually pieserve tlii-oi hum, tot, nii:,e-! U, mc common 1110111. I tit evident lint iho same plan, under some form, may be employed to repel from ihe l'eacli tree, lhc .Egirt.a, in its moth state; and it is only in that Hale in winch il deposits its eggs. Tobacco, sulphur, und-oal ashes, have been tntd with partial success but they ore temporary, ond require io be often replaced. Tansy and wormwood contain large quantities ol essential oil, which is peculiarly ofl'ensivo to this in sect; and it is found, ihst if the body of the peach tree bo surrounded by half a doz ai sprout of cither nf these vegetables, it wid be perfectly secured against Ihe approaches nf this destructive enemy. They should bo planted nut in the spring, neaily in contact with the body of the tree, nnd so as to sur round it. During tho summer they should he culti vated, and kept free from grass. In Ihiswnv they form a permanent successful means nf defence against tlio insect that has nearly exterminated the pencil tree from many sections of lite ewtniiy. II isnrobable the ChinlpatfumanthehnlnticumAho plnnt that furnUies the wornisocd ol, and peihaps somooiuer oiner anuirumanc vcgciauics, would ai swer equally well. The Hon Kcuben Wood first surgnlfd tin mlh. od tome revtral yeais unce, and I bvvo tried it my self to n limned extent. Puring the last summer I hJ ihe nt taction of teeing the mcctsjful kfuIi ol : ., ..i,ki..i..,i.i. r... . r. -,ie. trnn,r'i.nli,i t i.u.,..ui,J..J.u ., aian - ling ill I113 g.irdtn tint had reuinincd'evenir iv. , .?.. .....i.. e r.. - , t ..,.. ,atm vChith time they had been'car.fullv s irroun' """' "V " '" s1nK Garden and vrry colli! giiotis, left unprotected, very mpidly declining, wit" their roots petl'oratcd in nil direction I y the worm It is probably unnecessary to add, that to,.i i,iet 1 will act ns a prcventiv-: ngainst i'tc inject wh w it x oily in the winged stale. Tnov vvill not afiect tie latvn or thu pup i ; nor will th: horticulturist expert them to preserve his poach ttees ngainst ihe nliacl. ' of the ve'bvi, the cl,l (,1'ecls of n bad sod, or i' tnjiriwn iiiipre.--innaof cMreiuu cold weather win. i the wood is immature. Tun Scotch Majop.. Some siMy or seventy jear ago, a Scutch Major in the liiitisii nrmy was station cd at .Mutitrin' in l-ovvrr Canada, lie had from In.i quarrel"oniedi'poiticn fought several duel", nail r every iiitance killed his man. Indeed, for bis bu,v ing riputation, lie had neqauet such a tharactir lli-l it was decided thu liuglit of fully for any one to con trndict bia Word. Yankee prdlars abounded iu thou days as much lis they do now, and it so Inppenid that onoof them ha i located bimelf in tl'.c same tavern Willi our valiant htio from Scotland. Ill the course or conversatto the .M tjor observed : 'The Yankees are all cowards!' 'You're a harl' cmd the pedlar. All eyes were turned upon the la t speaker, tin was informed of the courago and performances of tb Major, and advised to retract bis words, but nil to n" purpose. lie persisted in his a-tertion ; nnd the con sequence was a challenge M n dm 1 the next morning which was instantly accpted by the Yankee, cm cor. dition that the battle should bo fjughl without ceo onds. Matters thus being agreed upon, tho Major repaired to the ground tho next morning at the time appointed; where bo found tlio YnnUo walking to nnd Irowitb shouldered rifle. On the Mr.jir's appearance vviihs pair or hair trigger p.stols, the Yankee presented In rille and said : ' Lay down your arms, dim your skin, or I'll blow your I rams out.' Thai's downright tnurdir,' said the Major, 'no man of honor would require any such thing.' The Yankee persisted in InsiiVmnr 1 and the nsult wa; '. ; stols wero laid at hi feet. 'Now,' Mj3 Johnntliatt, 'I'll deal fa,, withvou; I havo the ptptol- air you shall have the rifle.' Tho Maior gladly made the exchange! and seiz.n; ing the weapon, cocked it and aiuud it at the breast of h snntagonisr, exclaiming, ' l)i hverror I'll blow you thro-..gh!' 'Blow and be hanged"!' said the Yankee. The .Major snapped the piece ' xis r.ct hededt Hobc'-nme so mortified from the eircums'.ance that he left the service. Portland Amcrirm. A Tnur. Win:. Tlio Iltiff.ilo papers an nounce tliu dentil, on I lie 21t of May, of Mrs. Muria Wait, wifu of liunjamm Wait, one of tlio Canatlian political convicts. An obituary notice in the Buffalo Commercial says : " Sho was a woman or very uncommon powcrs-of mind, amiable in her deportment, ardent in her affec tion, and of tiniiring energy nnd perseverance of char acter. Her exertions in behalf ol" her husband and his rellow-prisoners, who were under sentence cf death for political ol! nces. committed during tho win ter of 1S57 and 1S3S, in Upper Canada, seemed al most superhuman. After having procured a commu tation of tho sentence from death lo perpetual banish ment to Van Pieman's Land, she went directly to London, where she continued ten mouths, her un wearied exertions for llieir final release. She was most kindly received by the flucen, the heads or De partment, and all theollieersnf the Crown. Through I her exertions the freedom of tho Island wns extended ' her exertions the freedom of tho Island wns extended to ihem. nnd nil thu liberty ihevVmild eniov in the land of their exile; and but for their escape she soon would have procured llmr final pardon. Her trials and sufferings during this period of incessant toil and anxiety aro mostnllecliugly nr. 1 graphically described in her letters to a friend, publ.shcd in her husband's narrative." Tub I.stmjc.v.y is inoio prevalent this year than it Ins hcun dnnns any oilier sea son we remember. In this city n great number of persons enfraire'l about our office aro tifllictctl with it the- ollices of thu Com mercial, Courier, and other papcis make iho same complaint about sixty uf the crow of the Norlh C.iiolitn aro troubled by it tlio hotels liavt! been Niicd, and several board-inp-houses vvilliin mir knowledge have not escaped. In Albany the editors, reporters, nnd printers, and others employed in tho of fices of the Journal, Advertiser, Argus, nnd other papers, nre alllicied with it. Trom Philadelphia similar complaints rcaclitis. A". Y. Tribune. Gispen, celebrated optician in Paris, has devised a new mid curious kind of Il.ironi etur, which is exciting much attention. It consists of a representation of a rural scene, in which two lovers are vvalkins;. The lady carries a parasol, and tlio gentleman an um brella. In finn weather thu parasol is open ed and raised, while the umbrella hangs in the hands of tho gentleman. At tho ap proach of rain, the parasol is shut and lower ed, while the umbrella is opened ami raised over tho couple. The affair cosis forty fiancs, and sells very rapidly. From Eng land especially, tho demand is greati It is n curbus fict lint there is not a 5th regiment of Li'.dil Dragoons in tlio Hritish Army. The teasoii is, th.1t in the Irish Re bellion, about half a century ago, the 5lh re giment, almost to a man, deserled ami joined the insurgents. This so exasperated Georgo III. that ho declared iijiIi regiment of Dm goons should not e.xUl in his reign ; and Ii om lb ttlime the numbering of those regi ments jumps from 4 to G. Amkiiicvn Liiro.MOTivi:s, At a meeting of tho Civil engineers Inslitiilion in Lon don, simin t i mo .since, the subject of Ameri can locomotive sleain engines was discussed. It vvssstaled that the supeiinrlty of tho Ante lirau locomotives was inronieslihle. In n trialon an inclined plane, tin Americrn 'Iio giu' engine, vvitha cylinder 12 1-2 incliei in diameter, driving wheels 4 feet diameter, weighing 11 tons, couveved u gross load of 51 tuns up tho incline at the rate of 12 miles an hour, uhilo tho best of tlio English en gines with n Iii inch cylinder, 5 feet driving wheels, nml weighing 12 tons, draw 38 tons up tho incliiio at the rate of six milts nn hour. It was staled that thu American en gines consumed a greater amount of fuel than tlio English. Tun nwnt or iur. Ocram. This is a point, says M. Burn, which has puzzled alike philosophers anil practical men, nml is afier all, left in a wide field of conjecture. The most prohablo guide is analogy ; nml tho wisest men, judging by this cVilerioii, have presumed that tlio depth ef iho sea may bos measured by thu height of tlio moun tains, tins highest of which nio 20,000 and a0,000 feet. Tho greatest depth that lias been trinl to bo niensu.ed, is ihru found lit the northern oceans by Lord M'ilgmc. Un heaved a very heavy soundinc" lend, and , gave out nlonc wiih it a cable rope of ihr Icnglll ol '1,'WI feet, wilhout fn.d o ' , bottom.