Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, December 15, 1843, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated December 15, 1843 Page 1
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rate NOT THE GLORY OF C jQ S A R BUT THE WELFARE OF ROME BY II. B. STACY. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 15, 1843. VOL. XVII No. us. PRESIDENT'S M E S SAG E. Tt the Senate, .ind House ofncpsicntatives, Of the United Statei : If any people ever had cause to render up thanks to the Supreme Being for parental eare and protec tion extended to tlicm in all the trials anil difficul ties to which they have been from time to time ex. froied, we certainly are that people. From the first settlement of our forefathers on this continent through the dangers attendant upon the occupation bf a savage wilderness through a long period of Colonial dependence through the war of the Hev olution in the wisdom which led to the adoption of the present Hepublican forms of government Jnthe hazards incident to a wnr subsequently wag "ed with one of the most powerful nations of the fear Hi in the increase of our population in the Spread of the arts and sciences, and in the strength iind durability conferred on political institutions em anating from the people and sustained by their will the superintendence of an over-ruling Providence lias been plainly visible. As preparatory, therefore, to entering once more upon the high duties of legis lation, it becomes us humbly to acknowledge our dependence upon him as our guide and protector, and to implore a continuance of his parental watch fulness over our beloved countiy. We li.no new cause for the expression of ntir gratitude in the pre servation of the health of our tillow citizens, with onto partial and local exception', during the past1 tl(.,. casun lor me auuuuance Willi wincli the earth has yielded up its fruits to the labor ofthe husband man for the renewed activity which has been im parted to commerce (or the revival of trade in all Its departments for the increased rewards attendant upon the exercise of the mechanic arts for the con tinued growth of our population, and the rapidly re viving prosperity of the whole country. I shall be permitted to exchnge congratulations with you, gen tlemen of the two Houses of Congress, on these auspicious circumstances, and to assure you, in ad vance, of my ready dispssition to concur with you in the adoption of such measures as shall be calcu lated to increase the happiness of our constituents, and to advance the glory of our common coun- feinco the last adjournment of Congress, the Ex ecutive has relaxed no efforts to render indestructi ble the relations of amity which so happily exist be tween the United States and other countries. The treaty lately concluded with Great llritain has tend ed greatly to increase the good understanding which a reciprocity of interest is calculated to encourage, and it is most ardently to be hoped that nothing may transpire to inlerrupt'the relations of amity which it is so evidently the policv of both nations to cul lirale, A question of much importance still remains to be adjusted between them. The territorial limits of xne ivro countries in relation to what is commonly known as the Oregon territory, still remains in dis pute. The United Stales would be at all limes in disposed to aggrandise themselves at the expense ol any other nation ; but while they would be restrain ed by principles of honor, which should govern the conduct of nations as well as that of individuals, from setting up a demand for territory which dues not belong to them, they would as unwillingly con sent to a surrender of their righls. After ttio most rrgiu, anu as tar as practicable, unbiassed examina tion ot tlic subject, tlic United states contended that llieir rights apj region of the country ivin? on braced within the forty-second and fifty. fourth !() deg. of north latiludu. This claim being contro verted by Great llritain, those who have preceded the present Executive, actuated, no doubt by an earnest desire to adjust the matter upon terms mu tually satisfactory lo both countries, have caused to be submitted to the Itrilish Government propositions for settlement and final adjustment, which however, have not proved heretofore acceptable to it. Our agitated with internal convulsions for many years from the edicts nf which it is to bo hoped she is des tined speedily lo recover when under a more libctal system of commercial policy on her part, our trade may again fill its old and so turns her coiilinentul pos sessions tiro concerned, its almost forsaken chnancls. thereby adding to tho mutual ptospcrit of tho two countries. The Germanic Association of Customs and Com merce, which, since its establishment in 1833, has - giu'tlllj; III IU(VL'I illlll I 111 put 111 IlUl , UI1U consists at this time of more than twentv- German Stales, and embraces a population of "7,000,000 of peupic, unueu lor an me purposes ot mercantile in tercourse with each oilier and with foreign states, oners 10 the taller tho most valuable exchanges on principles more liberal than are offered in the fiscal system orany other European power. From lis or igin, the importance of the German Union has ncV' er been lost siirtit of bv tho United Slntns. Tim in dustry, morality and other valuable qualities of tlic German nation, have always been known and annro- cialed. On this subject I invito the attention of vongress io the report ol the Secretary of State, from which it will be seen that while our cotton is admitted free of duly, and the duty on rice has been reduced, which has always led to a greatly increas odconsuniption, a strong disposition has been recent ly evinceii uy mat great body to reduce upon certain condifi(.ns, their present duty upon tobacco. Tills being the first intimation of a concession on this in teresting subject ever made by any European power, i cannot uui regard it as well calculated lo remove the only impediment which has so fur existed to the most liberal commercial intercourse between us and them. In this view, our Minister nt Iti-rHn. who has heretofore industriously pursued the subject.has been instructed to enter upon the negotiation of a commercial treaty, which, while it will open new advantages to the agricultural interests of the Uni- ten otaics, and a tree and expanded field for com mercial operations, will affect injuriously no existing interest of the Union. Should the negotiation lie crowned with success, ils results will be communi cated to both Houses of Congress. I communicate herewith rerlain despatches receiv ed from our Minister at Mexico, and also a corres pondence which has recently occurred between the Envoy from the republic and the Secretary ol Stale. It must be regarded as not n little extraordinary thai the Government of Mexico, in anticipation of a public discussion, which it has been pleased to infer from newspaper publications, as likely to take place in Congress, relating to the annexation of Texas to tho United States, should have so far anticipated the result of such discussion as to have announced its determination to visit any such anticipated decision by a formal declaration or war against tho united States. If designed to prevent Congress from intro ducing that question, as a fit subject for ils calm de. liberations and final judgment, the Executive has no reason to doubt that it will entirely fail of ils object. The Hepresentalivcs of a brave and patriotic people will suffer no apprehension of future consequences to embarrass them in the course of their proposed deliberations. Nor will tho Executive Department of (lie Government rail, for any such cause, to dis charge its whole duty to the country. T lie war which h tween Mexico and Texas, has, since the battle of .1. jjciiiio, consisted lor llio most part of predatory incursions, which, while they have been attended with much orsiillering to individuals, and have kept the borders of the two countries in a stale of con slant alarm, havo fulled to approach to nny definite result. Mexico has fitted out no fnrmiil.ililn nrmn. igation of Tex- since Texas de- mill itltrimr 1 1mf time she has been recognised as a sovereign power I ........I ..r .t - . . -J. buh-iui oi mo principal civiiizcu Biates. Mexi co nevertheless, perseveres in her plans of re-con-quest, and refuses lo recognise her independence, l'lie predatory incursions to which I have alluded, have been attended, in one instance, with the break ing or (.lie courts of justice, by the seizing upon the persons of the judges, jury and officers of the court, and dragging them along with unarmed, and there- - unbiassed cvamtna-' result. Mexico has fitted out no for nr V?S, ."'I" aUV.-5'S l h"'S r "' SC;l f0- Ulh" pperta u to the entire as. Eight years have now elapsed si n the I acific, and em-dared her independuice of Mexico, a minister ai juonuun lias, um er mslrnrtinna. nrrnin i r.. T. ... . . : u I, .i . . :. ' ,,,,L "uncumuiiinu cmzens. mio a cruel and onnrps uiuuniii uiu auuiLT.i ui ine consit cnimm nt iimiu;.. i i i . . . . . " j Gnvnrnmnnt ' ..J ...Ml l. . Jn UIUS jca VI CHIllo 10 ffo UnpuillMlflL 1& C.CIIH U Ol JoUll-, WCfO Ittt O mom Ihiill nhrlit - v ... um 'Willi. jii'iiuii " t 111 lf UIMIl' IU mul iiiiiiii.riilll.. t ... aii I lit. i- i it . . --n--- 'l?.".0" '? tV'tc.' State.,, f.re UewmZoZ' war as has existed fir so many years between these two Stales, humanity has had great cause to lament. oui.il uuiiuiiiuii ui iiiinirs io oe deplored only iA.mi.n i.P It... 1...1. ..!.!. .! 1 . J course persevered in by Mexico will have mainly contributed to produce ; and tho Executive, in such a contingency, will with confidence throw itself up on the patriotism of the people to sustain the gov ernment in its course of action. Measures of an unusual character have recently been adopted by tho Mexican government calcula ted in no small degree lo effect the trade of other nations with Mexico, and to operate injuriously to the United Slates. All foreigners, by a decree of tlic y.ld day ot beplembcr, and alter six months from its promulgation, are forbidden to carry tho busi ness of selling by retail any goods within the con fines of Mexico. Against this decree our minister has not failed to remonstrate. The trade hercloloro carried on by our citizens with Santa Fe, in which much capital was already invested, and which was becoming of daily increas ing importance, has suddenly been arrested by a de cree of virtual prohibition on the part or tho Mexi can government. Whatever may be the right or nicxico lo prohibit any particular course ol trade, to the subjects or citizens or foreign powers, this late procedure, lo say tho least of it, wears a hrjrsh and unfriendly aspect. The instalments on the claims recently settled by the Convention with Mexico have been punctually paid as they have fallen duy, and our minister is en gaged in urging the establishment of anew commis sion, in pursuance of the Convention, for the settle ment nf unadjusted claims. With the other American stales, our relations of amity and good-will have remained uninterrupted. Our minister near the republic of iew Grenada has succeeded in effecting an adjustment nf the claim upon that government for the schooner 'Hy Chance,' which had been pending fur many years. The claim for the brig 'Morris,' which had its origin du ring the existence of the republic of Columbia, & indemnification for which, since the dissolution of that republic, has devolved on ils several members, will be urged with renewed zeal. I have much pleasure in saym that the Govcr.it incut of lliazil has ndjusted the claim upon tha Government in the cnc of the schooner " John S. llrynii," nnd that sanguine hopes arc entertained that the pair.e spirit of justice will inlhience ils councils in nrriviiiK lit an carlv decision upon the reuiainintr claims j thereby removing all cau-o of disso sion be tween two powers, whoso interests lire to some cxtcln interwoven with each other. Our Minister nt Chili has succeeded in inducing a recognition by that Government of the ndinstmnnt effected by his predecessor, of the first claini3 in the ease of the " Macedonia." Tho first instalment has been received hy the claimants in the United Stales. Notice of the exchange of ratifications of the treaty with Peru, which will niko place at Lima, has not reached this country, hut is shortlv expected to lir; ri. ceived, when llio claims upon that Republic will doubtless be liquidated nnd paid. In consequence of :i mi-understanding between this Government ami that of ISitcnos Ayers, occuiriu" several years no, this Government has remaned 1111 represented nt that court while u minister from it has been constantly rydent hem. Tho causes of irrita tion havo in n yi'at Incasnru passed nwnv. nnd it i. in contemplation, in view of important inteicst which have giown up in thm country, ut sonic early period dining the present session of Cungrus, with the rou curiciice of the Senate, to restore diplomatic relations between tho two'countries. Under the pi.'viMon of tin nc of Congress of tho last session, n Mini-ter was despatched liom the Uni ted Slates to Chinr, in August of the present year, who, liom tho latest accounts we have fiom him, was nt Suez in Euypt, on the 23th of Seotoml .er Inst, nn his route to China, In le'jmd to the Indian tribes reidin- u iiliin nnr jurisdictional limits, the greatest vigilance uf the Gov ernment has been exerted lo preserve them nt peace .....u.. iiH.-iiin.-iius, ami io inspire mem with leelings of confidence ns lo the ltlsticc nf tilts (riv.iminnrit and to cultivate friendship with the border inlmhiinnt. x ins iias li.ippnj succeeded io ii L'leat extent ; but il is n subject of icgret that ihey sillier theimches in some instances to bo impo-ed upon by unfit! nnd designing men and this notwithstanding all the ellbrts of thu (lovcrniiiciit to prevent it. I hcrcccipis into the Ticaury for the calendar year every proper expedient will be resorted to in onlnr to bring the negotiation, now in the progress of re. aumption, toaspecdy and happy termination. In the meantime it is proper to remark, that many of our citizens are cither already established in the ter ritory, or are on their way thither for the purpose of because ot llie individual sufiering attendant upon it. The eiiects are far more extensive. The Crea tor of the universe has given man the Earth fur his ever, llierelore, shall make the first or anv part of it a scene of desolation, affects injuriously his heritage, and may bo regarded as a general calamity. Wars may sometime be necessary ; but all nations have a common interest in bringing them speedily to a close. ' The United Stales have an immediate interest in seeing an end put lo the state of hostilities existing between Mexico and Texas. They are our neigh", bors, of the same continent, with whom we arc not only desirous of cultivating the relations of amity, but of the most extended commercial intercourse, and to practice all the rights of a neighborhood hos pitality. Our own interests are deeply involved in the matter, since, however neutral may be ourcourse or policy, we cannot hope lo escape the cflects of a spirit of jealousy on the part of both powers. .Nor can this Government be indifierent to the fact, that a warfare, such as is waged between those two na. lions, is calculated lo weaken both powers, and final ly to render them, and csneciallv the w..nlc..r .,r it,,. two, the subjects of interference on llio nnrt f ...... iiiuiu puweriiii nations, which, intent .iu.unuiii;; utcir own peculiar views, may sooner or later attempt to bring about a compliance with terms, as the condition of their inlerposition," alike derogatory to the nation grantiii" llieiu and detrimental to the interests or the United States. U could not he expected quietly to permit any such interference to our disadvantage Considering that Texas is separated from the United States by u mere geographical line, that her territory, in the opinion of many, formed a portion of the United Slates, that it is homogeneous in its population and pursuits with the adjoining Slates, makes contributions to the commerce of the world in tho same articles with them, and that most of her inhabitants have been citizens of the united States, speak'lho same Ian guago and live under similar political institutions .vim uuiscivls, mis ijuveruiiient is bound by every consideration of interest as well as of sympathy, lo see that she shall be left free to act, especially in re- garu io iier iiome.iic utlairs, unawed by force, and Mii.tiui.-u uv mo poucy or views ol other coun tries. In full view of all theso considerations, the Exec ulive has not hesitated to express to the government or Mexico how deeply it deprecated the continuance ol the war, and how anxiously it desired to witness i s leriiiioauoii. i cannot but think that it becomes the United States, as llio uMnst nf il.n ...,.: publics, to hold a language upon this subject of ail unambiguous character, it is time that the wnr ceased. There must be a limit lo all wars: and if ,,,17 eigni years struggle, has tailed to reduce to submission a part of its subjccls standing out in revolt against it, and who have not only proclaimed themselves to be independent, but ... ..vUi...,.i.-u us sucu uy oilier powers, sheouhl not to expect that other nations will quietly look on. to their obvious injury, upon a piolraction or hnslil! ...... ...... unueu ciuicti mruw on their colonia dependence, and established independent govern- meiiis: anu oreat iirilain, after having wasted her '."' S '"" ""'pi iisuuuue lliem lor a less pe riod than Mexico has attempted to subjugate Texas, had the wisdom and justice lo acknowledge their in dependence, thereby recognizing the obligations which rested on her as one or the family of nations. An example thus set by one ef the proudest as well as the most powerful nations or tho earth, it could no way disparage Mexico to imitate. While, there fore, the Executive wonl.l .llr ii:.:.' i.i. . Ml. ...1,1. IUII ,V Hi Mexico, or any distuibance ol the friendly relations winch exist between thn i permit that government to control its policy, what ever it may he towards Texas : hut will treat her as preparing to follow and in view of these facts, I must repeat the recommendation contained in pre. vious messages, for the establishment of military posts, at such places on the line of travel, as will furnish security and protection to our hardy adven turcrs against hostile tribes of Indians inhabiting those extensive regions. Our laws should also fol low them, so modified as the circumstances of case may seem to require. Under the influence or our free system of government, new republics are destined lo spring up, at no distant day, on the shores or the Pacific, similar in policy and in feeling to those existing on this side of the llocky Moun tains, and giving a wider and more extensive spread to the principles of civil and religious liberty. I am happy to inform VOU that thn cases u'liirli hare arisen, from time to time, of the detention of American vessels by British cruisers on the coast of Africa, under pretence of being engaged in the alave trade, have been placed in a fair train of ad justment. In the case of William & Francis, full atisfaction will be allowed. In the Tigris and Seamew, the Drilish government admits that atisfaction is due. In tho case of Jones, tlic sum accruing from the sale of that vessel and cargo will be paid to the owners while 1 cannot but flatter myself the full indemnification will be allowed for all the damages sustained by the detention of the Vessel and in the case of tho Douglass, her Majes. ty'i government has expressed its determination to make indemnification. Strong hopes are there fore entertained that most, ir not all or these cases will be speedily adjusted. No new cases havo aris. eo since the ratification or the treaty of Washington ; and it is confidently anticipated that the slave trade, under the operation of the eighth article of that treaty, will be altogether suppressed, The occasional interruption expciienccd by our fal low citizens engaged in th tho fisheries on the neigh boring coast of Nova Scotia, has not failed to claim Mio intention of the Executive. Representations of mo siinjeci nave ueen nniie, but us yet no definite answer to those lepreicntations has been received fro'rrnirc British Government. Two other subjects ofi(mpnrnlivo minor importanco but nnvcrtheless of too much consequence to be ne,' lected; remain still to be adjusted between tho uvo countries. By tho treaty between the United Slate and Groat Uritnin, cf July 1815, it is provided that no p .i uum-s siimii uu luticu in ciiuer country on an Biliele imported Trout tho other, than on tho same articles imported fiom nny other place. In 183G, rough rice, by net of Parliament, weto ndmitted from' the coast of AfricH into Great Uiitain on tho payment of" a duty or ono penny a quarter, while the same arti cle from all other conntiin.. in,, !,,,!; ,1... I T .,:.. i States, was subjected to tho paymcntn duty of twentv filiillinua r... - ... ...v b u.ju.nur. wur iiuuisicr at j.ondou has from time to tlmo biought this subject to tho con iderution of the Ilrllish Government, but so far with out success. He is instructed to renew his iciiresen borne years smt o a claim was preferred ngninst tho ilrilish Government on tho part of certain American merchants, (ot the return of cxpoit duties paid by thorn on shipments or woolen goods to tho United States after the duty on similar articles exported to tber countries had beon lepealed, nnd consequently ,.. . uiiuucrciui convention be tween llie tWO rations, SecUlinnlo IK i.nnlitv in ciil. oases. Tho principle on which tho claim rests has icing suicu ucen viiiiiauy numitlfd by Great Britain, but obstacles to n settlement have fiom liino to time been interposed, so that a largo portion of the amount claimed has not yet been refunded. Our Minister is now engaped in tho prosecution or the claim, and I cannot but persuade myself that tho Ilritish Govern ment will no lonrrcr delnv it. nilmci.i.nni t i D .. ' . J ......... . am nappy to say that nothing fiat occurred to dis- eeu millions of dollats : mid thu cxneniliiiin... I'vplll mvo of payments on tho public debi, will have been about twenty-three millions of dollars. I!y the net or lSli!,u newnirangeiiiontor the INcal year was made, soiimt it should commence on llio 1st day or July in each year. The accounts and estimates for the cur rent fi-cal year will show that the loans nnd Treasury notes made and ijsncd before the elo.o ol" the last Congress, to meet the anticipated deficiency have not been entiiely adequate. Although on the 1st of Octo ber last, there was u balance in the Treasury in con sequence of the provision thus made of $.'.,,!IN)ti42. G7, yet the oppropriotions already made by Congress will absorb that lialance,;and leave n prnliablc "defi ciency of two millions of dollars at the close of the present fiscal year. There are outstanding Treasury notes to abunt the amount of four millions six hun dred thousand dollars ; and should they be returned upon the Treasury during the fiscal year, Ihey will require provision for llieir redemption. I do not, however, regard this as probable, since they have obviously entered into tho Treasury or the country, and will continue to form a portion of it, if the svs- icm now adopted be continued. The loan of ls-11. tier tho control nnd at the disposal of Govern ment, no one can reasonably doubt the entire ability of the Government to meet its encase ments under every emergency. In seasons of trial and difficulty, similar to those through which we nre passing, the capitalist makes his investment in theGovernmcnt stocks with the moit assured confidence of ultimate reim bursement; and whatever may be said in a period of great financial prosperity ,such as ex isted for some years after 1S33. I should re. gard it as suicidal in n season of financial em barrassment either to alienate the lands them selves,or the proceeds arising from their sales. The first anil paramount duty of those to whom may be entrusted the administration of public affairs, is to guard the public credit. In re

establishing the credit of this central Govern ment, the readiest and most obvious mod" is taken to restore the credit of the States. The extremities can only be made sound by pro ducing a health' action in the Central Gov ernment, and the history of the present day fully establishes the fact, (hat an increase in the value of thu stocks of this Government will in n majority of instances, be attended by an increase in the value of the stocks of the States. It should, therefore, be a matter of general congratulation that amidst all the em barrassments arising from surrounding circum stances; the credit of the Government should have been so fully restored that it has been enabled to effect a loan of seven millions of dollars to redeem that amount of Treasury notes on terms more favorable than any that have been offered for many years. And the six per cent stock which was created in 1S-12, has advanced in the hands of the holders to nearly twenty percent above ils par value. The confidence of the people in the integri ty of their Government ha? thus been signally manifested. These opinions relative lo the Public Lands do not in any manner conflict with the observance of the most liberal policy towards those of our fcllow-dilizer.s who press forward into the wilderness and are the pion eers in tho work of its reclamation. In secur ing to all such their rights of pre-emption, the Government performs but an act of retributive justice, for sufferings encountered and hardships enuurcu, and nnds ample remuneration in Hie com furls whicli its policy assutes and the hap piness which it imparts. Should a revision of the Tariff, with a view to Jievennc, become necessary in the estimation of Congress, I doubt not you will approach thn subject with a just nnd enlight ened legnrd to the interests of the whole Un ion. The principles and views which J have heretofore hail occasion to submit, remain unchanged. It can, however, never be too often repeated, that the prominent interest of every important pursuit of life requires for supe'i) iiunnanoncy nnd (stability in legisla tion. These can only be attained by adopt ing as the basis of action moderation in all things, which is as indispensably necessary to secure, the harmonious action of the political as of the animal system. 7n our political or ganization, no one section of tile country should desire to have its supposed interests advanced at the sacrifice of all others ; but Union being the great interest, equally pre cious to all, should be fostered and sustained; by mutual concessions and thu cultivation of that spirit of compromise from which the. Constitution rlselt proceeded regulated, and whatsoever causes its deprecia tion, affects society to an extend nearly, if not quite, equal to the adulteraticn of the coin. Nor can 1 withhold the remark that ils ad vantages, contrasted with a Bank ot the U. States, npart from the lact that n bank was es teemed as obnoxious to the public sentiment, as well on the score of expediency as of con stitutionality, appeared to me to be striking and obvious. The relief which a bank would afford by an issue of 15,000,000 of its notes, judging from the experience of the late U. S. J3ank, would not have occurred in less than 15 years; whereas,under Ihe proposed arrange ment, relief arising from the issue of $15, 000,000 of Treasury notes would have been conrummatcd in one year: thus furnishing in one-fifteenth part of the time in which a bnnl: could have accomplished it; a paper medium of exchange, equal in amount to tho real wants of the country, at par value with gold and silver. The saving to the government would have been equal lo all the interest which it has had to pay on Treasury notes of previous as well as subsequent issues, thereby relieving the Government and at the same lime affording relief to the people. Under all the responsi bilities attached to the station which T occupy; and in redemption of a pledge given lo the last Congress at the close of its first session, I submitted the suggestion to ils consideration at two consecutive sessions. The recommen dation however, mot with no favor at its hands. While I am free to admit that the ne cessities of the times have since become great ly ameliorated, and that there is good rea son to hope that the country is safely and rap idly emerging from thn difficulties and embar assments whichevery where surrounded it in 1841, yet 1 cannot but think that its restora tion to a sound and healthy condition would be greatly expedited by a resort lo the expe dient in a modified form. Tlic, operations of the Treasury now rest on the act of 1780, and the resolution of 1810, and those laws have been so adminis tered as to produce as great a quantum of good to the country as their provisions are capable of jielding. If there had been any distinct expression of opinion going to nhow that public sentiment is avetse to the plan ei ther as heretofore recommended to Congress, or in n modified form, while my own opinion in regard to it would remain unchanged, 1 should be very fur from again presenting it to your consideration. The Government lias originated with the States and Ihe people, for their own benefit nnd advantage; and it would be subversive of the foundation principles of the political edifice which they have reared, lo persevere in a measure which in their ma ture judgments they had eilher repudiated or condemned. The will of our constituents, clearly expressed, should be regarded as the light to guide our footsteps , the true differ ence between a monarchical or arislocratical government and a republic being. I hut in the first the will of the few prevails over the will of the many, while in the last the will of the many sliould be alone consulted. The report of thu Secretary of War will bring you acquainted witli the condition of that impor tant brunch of the public service. The Army may be regarded in consequence of lite small number of the rank nnd file in each Company and I'eeiment. as litllu more (ban a nucleus You will be informed, bv the rcnort from ' around which to rallv the mililarv force nf thn the Treasury Department, of the measures ta- country in case of war, and yet its services in ken under the net of last session, authorizing ' preserving the peaco of tho frontiers tiro of a the re-issue ot Treasury notes in lieu nf those i most inipoitant nature. In nil cases of enicr then outstanding The system adopted in cencv, the reliance of the country is nronorlv pursuance ot existing laws, seems calculated placed in the milili.i of the several States, and to save the country a large amount of inter est, while il affords conveniences and obviates danger and expeuse on the transmission of lunds lo Uisuutsing agents. refer you also to that report lor the means proposed by the Secretary to increase the revenue, and partic ularly lo that portion of il which relates to the subject of the ware-housing system, which 1 earnestly urged upon Congiess nt its last .session and ns to the importance of which my the of ex amounting to fjij,C7,Uo'e, falls due on the 1st of" opinion has undergone no change. Juviewofthedisordered condition of nue be materially increase,' i, n. :n i... . currency at Hie time, and the high rates ol probable deficiency for theservicu of the fiscal year clnnf,J between different parts of thu country, ending June 3f)th, 1513, of upwards of about four , 1 felt it to be incumbent on me, to present "to "tiT Vi, . Mlle consideration of your predecessor, a I he delusion incident to an enormously piepBsive ,i . .J'1" i i paper circulation which gave a flcTon. vYluo ! I'!'"?''' conlltct.ug .n no degree with the every thing, and simulated adventure and specula. 1 "'"'"ullon, or with the rights of the Stales, tion.trj-.ari!rsrwagant extent, has been happily sue-' and having the sanction, not in detail, but in cced.bythe substitution of the precious metals and principle, uf fcomc of the eminent men who i,iiier nrom nijy redeemable in sneein. nn,l ii,,, re values have disappeared, and a sounder condition or things has been introduced. This transition, al. though intimately connected with the prosperity of tho country, has nevertheless been attended with much embarrassment to the Govemmeni. i ii. financial concerns. So long as the foreign imor. ters could receive payment for their cargoes in a cur rency of greatly less value than that in llurope, but fully available hero in the purchase of our a.-ricul- iiir.ii proline ions, their prolits being immeasurably augmented by the operation, the shipments were r' "-" - i-ii lira in il l liMinrririitMit lw. superabundant. Hut Ihe change in Ihe character of , ".umi.iiiiiii iroiiiini! nominal and apparently real value in the first stages of ils existence, to ari obi viously depreciated value in its second, so that it no longer answered the purpose or exchange or barter and Us ultimate substitution by a sound metallic and paper circulation combined has been attended by diminished importations, and a consequent fallinr off in the revenue. This has induced Congress, Iron, lc!J7, to resort to the expedient of issuing Treasury notes, anil finally of funding them, in order to sup. ply the deficiencies. I cannot, however, withold the remark that it is in no way compatible, with the dignity of the Government that a public debt should bo created in the time of peace to meet tho current expenses or the Government or that temporary ex pedients should bo resorted to an hour longer than it is possible to avoid them. Tho Executive can do no more than apply tho means which Congress places in its hands for the sunnorl of (!., . .i . l,r il l r ,f - itv, anu y .... .ui-guuu u, uiu cuumry anu lor the pre servation of Us liberties, it possesses no power to levy exactions on the people, or to force from them contributions to the public revenue in any form It can only recommend such meosures as may in his opinion be cajled for by the wonts of the public service, to Congress, with whom nlnnn ,...!. .i... power to "lay and collect laxes, duties, imports, and exercises." This duty has.upo,, seveVal occasion heretofore been nerfurmpi!. Tim nrn.,t . or things gives a flaltcring promise that trade and commerco are rapidly reviving, and fortunately for the country, the sources of rnvnnnn i'. i.: opened in order to prove abundant. mio B tan anticipate no considerable in crease in tho proceeds of the niili ; lis lands for reasons perfectly obvious to nil-i mr beverui yeais to come, yet the public lands y wiiio-! exis . states have long sinco declared ho would do as V.n.l"" BlBrB" to come Hussi., a. w.ll a. whh the oiher noweV ?'"ic.- The high obligation ". ""Wise than he regarded as the foun- mce tho adjournment of Congress.' Spain has been Ihifi i o.uie pur.f.c cred.t. With so large wviinorme. pt the iniicd Jjtatc, a policy which the body of the most fertile lands in llio world u l. 1 ... 11 . .1 H . rt- uiu pieceuen me in me executive oiucc. That proposition contemplated the issuing of Treasury notes of denominations not lessihan five nor more than one hundred dollars to be employed in payment of the obligations of the Government in lieu of cold and silver, at the option of the public creditor, and to an amount not exceeding 15,000,000. It was proposed to, make them receivable everywhere, and to establish nt various points depositoties of gold and silver to be held in trust (or the redemption of such notes, so as lo ensure their converti bility into specie. No doubt was entertained that such notes would have maintained a par value with gold and silver, thus furnishing a paper currency of equal vlaue over the Union, thereby meeting uiejust expectations ot the people and fulfil ling the duties of a parental Government. Whether the depositories should be permitted to sell or purchase bills under very limited restrictions, together with all its other details, was submitted lo the wisdom of Congress. and was regarded as ofsecondary importance. 1 thought then, nnd think now, that such nn arrangement would have been attended with the happiest results. The whole matter of the currency would have been placed where by trie uonslitulion it was designed to be placed; under the immediate supervision and control of Congress. Tho action of the Government would have been independent of all corporations, and the same eye which rests unceasingly on Ihe specie currency, nnd guards it against adulter ation, would also have rested on paper curren cy, to control and regulate its issues and pro led ogainet depreciation. Tho same reasons which would foibid congress from parting with the power over the coinage,would seem to op erate with nearly equal force in regard to any substitution fur Ihe precious metals in the form of a circulating medium. Paper, when substituted for sonem. constitutes a standard nl in llio world un- value hy which the operations of society aie it may well deserve the consideration of Con gress, whether a new and more perfect organiza tion might not bo introduced, looking mainly fo tho volunteer companies of the Union fur" the present, and of easy application to the great body of the militia in time of war. The expenditures of the War Department have been considerably reduced in the last iwo years ; contingencies, however, may arise which would call for the filling up of the regiments with a full complement of men, and make it very de siritllo to remount thn Corps of Dragoons, which by an act ofthe lust Congress was directed to be dissolved. I refer you to ihe accompanying report of ihe Secretary for information in relation to the Na vy of the United States. While every effort has been nnd will conlimiu to ho math" () trench all superfluities nnd lop oil' all excresen ces which from time to tiinu may havo grown up, yet il lius not ueen regarded as wise or inn dent to recommend any material change in an nual appropriations. Tho interests which are involved are uf ton important a character lolcad to the recommendation of any other than a lib eral policy. Adequate appropriations ought to bo made to enable tho Executive to fit out till tho ships that tiro nuw in a course of building, or that require repairs, for nclivo scnicu in the shiniest possible, time, should any emcreuncy arise which may require it. An efficient Navy, while it is the cheapest means of public di'lenc'r, enlists in ils support the feelings of prido and confidence whicli brilliant deeds nnd heroic val or have heretofore served to strengthen and con firm. I refur you particularly to that part of the Secretary's Report which has referenco to re cent experiments in the application of steam aim in the construction of war steamers, made under the superintendence of distinguished olfi I cers of the n&vy. In addition to other manifest improvements in the construction of llio steam engine and application of tho motive power which has rendered them more appropriate to tho uses of ships of war, ono of thoso officers bus brought into use a power whicli makes thn steam. ship most formidable cither for attack or defence. 1 cannot too strongly recommend this subject lo your coiisiucraiiou, niiu uo not Hesitate lo ex press my entiro conviction of ils great impor tance! I call your particular attention also to that portion ol'lho Secretary's report, which has re ference to tho act of (he late session of Conprc which prohibited ihe transfer of any balance of .? r .ii , .. appropriation ironi oilier neaus ol appropriation to that for building, equipment and repair. The repeal nf that prohibition will onable tho De partment to give renewed employment to u largo class of workmen who havo been necessarily dis charged in consequenco of the want of means to pay litem a circumstance attended. esnerialK. at this season of tho year, with much privation nun Buiirnu, It gives mo great pain to announce to you the loss of tho steam ship " Tim Missouri," by fire, in the Bay of Gib raltar, where sho had stopped to renew her supplies of coal, on her voyage to Alexandria, with JMr. Cttshing, the American Minister tti China on board, Thero is ground for high commendation of tho officers and men, fur the coolness nnd intrepidity and perfect submission to disci pline evinced under the most trying circumstances. Surrounded hy u raging fire, which tho utmost exertions could not subdue, and which threat ened momentarily tho explosions of her well supplied magazines, tin officers cxliibitcdno signs of fear, and tlicmon obeyed every order with alacrity. Nor was sho abandoned until the last gleam of hope of saving her had expired. It is well worthy of your consideration whether the losses sustained by the officers and crew in this unfortunate afl'iir should not be reimbursed to them. I cannot tako lcavo of this painful subject without advening to the aid rendered ttion the occasion hy tho Ilrilish ntitltoi itics nt Gibraltar, and tho commander, officers and crew of tho British ship uf tho lino "The Malabar," which was lying at the time in llio bay. Kvcry thing; that generosity or humanily could diclalo was promptly performed. It is by such acts of good will by otic to another of the family of nations, that fraternal feelings arc nourished and tlio blessings of permanent peace secured. The Report of tho Postmaster General will bring you acquainted nidi the operations of that Department during tho last year, and willsuggest to you such modifications of llio existing laws as in your opinion the exigencies of tho public service may require. Tlic change wliiclttlic country hat undergone of lato years in tho mode of travel and transportation has affor ded so many facilities for the transmission of mail matter out of the regular mail, ns to require tho greatest vipilanco and circumspection in order tu enable tho officer at the head of the Department lo restain tho expenditures within the income. Thcro is also too much reason to fear that the franking privilege has run into great abuse. The Department nevertheless has been conducted with the greatest vigor, nnd has attained at the least possible expense, all tho useful objects for which it was established. In regard to all the Departments, I am quite happy in the belief that nothing has been left undone which was called for by it true spirit of economy, or by a system of accountability rigidly enforced. This is in somo degree apparent from the fact, that tho Government has sustained no loss by the'default of any of its agents. In tho complex, but at the same time, beautiful machinery of our system of Government, it is not a matter of surprise, that somo remote agency may have failed for an instant to fulfil its desired office ; but I feel confident in the assertion, that notliing has occitrcd to interrupt tho harmonious action of the Government itself, and that while the laws have been execu ted with efficiency and vigor, the rights neither of States nor individuals have been trampled on or disregarded. In the mean time the country has been steadily advancing in all that contributes to national greatness. The tide of population continues un hrokcnly to flow into tho new Slates and territories, where a refuge is found not only for our native born fellow citizens, but for emigrant from all parts of the civilized world, who come among us to parlakc of ihe blessings of our free institutions, and to aid by their labor to swell tho current of our wealth and power. It is due to every consideration of public policy that the lakes and rivers of thu West should receive all such attention til the hands of Congress ai the Constitution will enable it lo bestow. Works in favorable and pro per situations on the lakes would bo found to bo ns indispcnsablo neces saries in case of war to carry on safe and successful naval operations as fortifications on (ho Atlantic seaboard. The appropriation made by the last Congress for the improvement of the navigation of the Mississippi river, has been diligently and efficiently applied. I cannot close this communication, gentlemen without recommending to your most favorable consideration, llio interests of this District. Appoint ed by the Constitution its exclusive legislators, and forming in this particu lar llio only anomaly in our system nf Government of the Legislative body being elected by olhcrs than lliosn for whose advantage they are lo legis late, you will feel a superadded obligation to look well into their connec tion, and to leave no cattso for complaint or regret. The Seat of Gov ernment of our associated Republics canrot but bo regarded as worthy of your parental cue. In connection with ils other interests, as well as those of the whole country, I recommend that at your present session you adopt such measures, in order to car ry into effect the Smithsonian beipiest, as in your judgment will be best calculated to consummate the liberal intent of the testator. When, under a dispensation of Divine Providence I succeeded to the Presiden tial office, the state of public afi'jirs was embarrassing and critical. To add to the irritation consentient upon a long-standing controversy with one ofthe most powerful nations of modern limes, involving nut only questions of boundary which, under the most favorable circumstances are always embarrassing, but at the same time important and high principles of inaratinie law border controversies between the citizens and subjects of thctwo countries had engendered a state of feeling and conduct which threatened the most calamitous consequences. The hazards incident to this state of tilings were greatly hightencd by the ar rest and imprisonment of a subject of Great lirilain, who, acting as it was alleged as part of a military force, had aided in tlic commission ofan act violative nf the territorial jurisdiction ofthe United States', and involving the mur der ora citizen or the Statu of New York. A large amount of claims against the government of .Mexicorciuained unadjusted, and a war of several years'continuance with the savage tribes of Florida still prevailed, attended with the desolation of a large portion of that beautiful territory, and with the sacrifice nf many valuable lives. To iueiease the embarrassments of the Government, indiiidual and Stale credit had Leen nearly stricken down, nnd confidence in the Gcncial Government was so much impaired that loans of u final! amount eoiild only Lo negotiated nt n consider able sacilfice. As a nccessaiy consequence of the blieht which had fallen on com merce and mechanical Indu-try, tho ship ol'the one were thrown out ol employ ment, and the operations of the other had been jjrcatly diminished Owing to the condition of die ruricncy, exchange between ilillirent pints of tho country had become ruinously hiidi.iirid tiade bad to depend on u depreciated paper currency in conducting its truniietioiis. I shall be permitted to congratulate the country that under atfoverruling Prov idence, peace was preserved without a sacrifice of the National honor. the war in Florida was brought to a speedy termination a lirgo portion of the claims on Mexico have been fully adjudicated, and are iu a course of payment, while jus tice has been rendered to us iu other matters by other nations-confidence be tween man and man in a great measure restored, and the ereditof this government fully and perfectly re-established. Commerce is becoming more and more extend ed in its operations, and mautifieturiiig and mechanical industry once more reap the rewards oT skill and labur honestly applied. The operations of trade rest on a sound currency, and the rate of exchange are reduced to their lowestainount. In this condition ot things I have felt it my duty to bring toyour favorable consid eration matter I of great interest in their" present and ultimate results, and the only desire which I feci in connection with the future is, and will continue to be, to leave the country prosperous, and its institutions unimpaired. JOHN TYLER. Wjsiiiscto.i, Dec. Is'13. C 0 N GRESS. Organization of the two Houses uf Congiess General Ticket Jlcm'jcrs Adoption of ono hour nilc-.S 1st rule Ac. Correspondence of the New York Tribune. Washington, Dec. -1, 1613. This thy which has boon looked forward to from all portions of iho country as that fixed by tho Constitution for the incctiiiir f Cuii"rea has arrived, ami witnessed the assembling of the ','sih Congress at its lirst session, and a "renter progress in tlio organization ol llio two Houses than, in consideration of the suvoral interesting and exciting question? connected therewith, has beon irener. ally anticipated, nnd so great that the President's Message may be expected lo uu unu neiiMO iiiuiu lo-iuurruw. The House or Uei'kksentatives winch was the theatre of the froatixit in. teres), was called to order at l-' o'clock, ,M. by the Clerk of the late House, Mathow St. Clarke, Ksq, who proceeded tocalltho rollnf mombcrs bf Statec. i no names ot uio members ironi .Maine being responded In, tho call of the name of " I'Muiutid llurko" from New Hampshire (in which Stale, together wilhthosoof Mississippi, Missouri and Georgia, it will be recollected, elections for members nf Congress hate been hold by general ticket,) opened the qites. tinn which has threatened .-, much ilil'tinilty.'of th! i.dm issiou or iion.ndnii-ttiritk of members elected in contravention nf the law of Congress, requirin" e.'ec. lions by single districts " Ueforc tho call was answered, Mr. Jolin Campbell nf S. C. (who is well known as one nf the leading Calhoun members of the House) said that before the Clerk proceeded lo call tho nair.es of (ho gentlemen from Now Hampshire ho would ask poruiissinu to call their attention to the second fcctum of ihe Apportionment act viz; that requiring elections hy siuglo districts and to in. quire of them if ihey had been elected in coufurmi'y with ils proviiuns. Cries from various parts nf t ho Hall, "Go on with the call !" -The Clerk said ho had a certificate from Mr. Hurku foiling fotih that lie hail been elected a member of the llouso of ltoprcsontatives from Hew Hampshire. Mr. Campbell renewed his rail upon tho gentlemen themfelicc.but no answer was returned tnia frequent cries of "No! no!" "Go on with llio roll!" &c. Mr. C. s.iitl he did not wish lo delay the organizition of tlio House, but lm hoped that all pa-tics would come up to tho consideration of this deeply per plexing and painful question in a spirit of modcratirn ami with a determination to support the laws nnd constitution of tho country without respect In party or piTlBull.ll viMisiiiuritlliiils. iiu wisueii iiiciuii iu iuti .1 mtoiimou II) tllO I10UFC, upon which in its present disorganized stato ho did not expect at present a vote. Mr. Charles J. Ingnreoll, Kenedy of U. and ethers objected, and aflcr a con. vernation on the subject, Air. U. withdrew the subject for the present. 'l'he calling of the loll was then failher pursued, and being completed, 10