Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, January 12, 1844, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated January 12, 1844 Page 1
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NOT TUB GLORY OF OASAR DOT THE WELFARE OF HOWE BY H. B. STACY. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, JANUARY 12, 1844. VOL. XVII No. 32. Olil) WINTEIt It! COMING. BIT MISS HANNAH f. GOULD. Old Winter is cominirnsain, alack I How icy and cold is he I He care not n pin for a sluvciinir back, He 'sa saucy old chip In white and Mack, He whistles liis chills with a wonderful Lnack, For a jolly old Mlow is he 1 A witty old fellow this Winter is, Amightvold fellow of pjecl He cracks his jokes on Ihe tirrtly sweet miss, The wrinkly old maiden unfit to kiss, And freezes the dew of their lips for this Is tho way with such fellows as hoi Old Winter is a frolicsome Made, I wots He is wild in his humor and free ! He'll whistle nlons for the 'want of ihousht,' And set all Ihe warmth of our furs at nought, And ruffle Ihe laces the pretty cirls bought1, For a frolicsome follow is lie 1 Old Winter is blowing tils gusls along, And merrily shaking the tree I From morning till niaht ho will sinz his song; Now moaning and short now howlingand long ! His voice i loud, for his lungs are strong A merry old fellow is he 1 Old Winter's n merry old chnp, I ween As wicked as ever you'll seo I He writhes the flowers so fresh and green, And bites the pert nose of the miss of sixteen, As she flippantly walks in maidenly sheen A wicked old fellow is he ! Old Winter's a tough old fellow for blows As tough as ever you'll see' He'll trip up your trotters, and your clothes, And stiffen your limbs from fingers to toes s He minds not the cry of his friends or his foes , A driving old fellow is hoi A cunning old fellow is Winter they say A cunning old fellow is he! He peeps in the crevices day by day, To see now wo are passing our time away, And mark all our doings, from grave to gay I'm afraid he is peeping at me 1 From the German of Gauseen. ASTONISHING ACCURACY THE IHliLE. OF An astonishing feature of the word of God is that notwithstanding tlm time at which its compositions wero written, and tlio multi tudes of the topics to which it alludes, there is not ono physical error not one assertion or allusion disproved by the progress of modern science. None of those mistakes which the science of each succcedingngo dis covered in the hooks of thu proceeding; above all, none of those absurdities which modern astronomy indicates in such great numbers in tho writings of tho ancients in their sacred codes, in their philosophy, and even in the finest pages of tho fathers of the church not one of these errors is to he found in any of our sacred books. Nothing there will ever contradict that which after so many ages, the investigations of tho learned world have been able to reveal to us on the state of our globe, or on that of the heavens. Pcruso with euro our Scriptures from one end to tho other, to find then: sucli spots ; and whilst you apply yourselves to this ex amination, remember that it is a book which speaks of everything, which describes nature, which recites its creation, which tells us of tho water, of tho atmosphere, of the moun tains, of the animals, and of the plants. It is a book which teaches us the first revolu tions of tho world, and which also fortells its last ; it recounts them in the circumstantial language of history ; it exlols them in the sublimest strains of poetry, and it chants them in tho charms of glowing song. It is a book which is full of oriental raptures, eleva tion, variety and boldness. It is a book which speaks of tho heavenly and invisible world, whilst it also speaks of the earth and things visible. It is a book which nearly fifty wrilcrs, of every degree of cultivation, of every state, of every condition, and living through tho course of fifteen hundred years, have concurred to make. It is a hook which was written in the centre of Asia, in the sands of Arabia, and in thodcserls of Juilali; in the courts of the temple of thu Jews, in the music schools of the prophets of Bethel and Jericho, in the sumptuous palaces of Babylon, and on tho Idolatrous banks of Chobar; and finally, in the centre of the western civilization, in the midst of tho Jews and of their ignorance, in tho midst of polytheism and its idols, as also in the bosom of pantheism and of its sad phi losophy. It is a book whose first writer had been forty years a pupil of the magicians of Egypt, m whoso opinion tho sun, tho stars, -and the elements, wero endowed with intel ligence, re-acted on the elements, and gov erned tho world by a perpetual alluvium It is a book whose first writer proceeded, by more than nino hundred years, tho most ;ancient philosophers of ancient Greece, and Asia the Thalesca, and tho Pythagorascs, -the Zalucuses, the Xcnophons, andthoCoiv fuciuses. It is a book which carries its nar rations even to tho hierarchies of angles- even to the most distant epoch of tlio future, and the glorious scenes of tho last day. Well, search among its 50 authors, search .among its 66 books, its 1198 chapters, and ;its 31,173 verses, search for only one of those thousand errors which tho ancients and the .moderns committed, when they speak of tho heavens or of tho earth, of their revolutions, of the elements j search but you will find (tone. THE ASTRONOMY OF THE EGYP TIANS. BY Pnor. EDWARD TURNER. Tho Egyptians wore acquainted with tho roundness n the earth, tliocatiso or tho plia jes ana oi mo cenpscs oi inn moon, it is even asserted that they accurately predicted those eclipses as wen as eclipses of lliu sun Yet Thales, who acquired of them tho art of making such calculations, was not remarka bly skilful in this respect t sn that wo must conclude, either that the teachers wero igno rant or that tho pupil has ilono them little credit. A groat number of observations is attributed to them, viz. 373 eclipses of the sun, and 832 eclipses of the moon. This is indeed tho proportion which exists h.-lweci the tivo kinds of eclipses as seen from any ono place; antl,astlio historian onho mathe matics remarks, it is n proof that thoy are not fictitious, hut that they have been really observed. It is estimated that this number of eclipses might under a cloudless sky like that of Egypt or Chaldea have been ohseiv. cd in 1'200 or 1300 years. Now as those observations were made previous to the retail of Alexander, they go back 15 or 1C00 years IJ. U. It is said moreover that tho Egyptians ob served tho planets with sufficient attention to perceive, that these bodies had sometimes n direct, sometimes a retrograde motion, and that they were sometimes stationary. They arc represented as having had tables of these motions. It may even be suspected that they had tho nolion of a plurality of worlds, which M. do Fontenclln has so ingeniously revived. Tkoy called tho moon an ctherial earlh ; besido we know that to havo been tho opinion entertained by tho Pythagorians and tho Philosophers of tho Tonic sect, whose instructors, Pythagoras and Thales, had de rived almost all their knowledgo from Egypt. With regard to tho fixed stars, the Lgyp tians thought that they were fires which by their kindly or malignant influence controlled the destinies of mankind. It wero to bo wished that their astronomical knowledge had been as carefully preserved as their er rors and superstitions. Manetho, an Egyp tian priest, published six books of astrologi cal reveries, and it is a remarkable fact, that ho ha-; produced from the hallowed interior of the temples, only what docs little credit to his country, while ho consigned to oblivion those observations to which tho priests were in tho habit of referring; but which no ono has over seen. Tho Egyptians attempted to cstimato (he distance of the heavenly bodies, and their de terminations are sufliciontly absurd. They concluded that Saturn was removed only about 164 leagues from tho earth, tho sun 123, and the moon 82 distances so grossly unaccuiatu as not to deserve being mention ed, wero ii nut mat me nistor v o tlio errors of tho human mind should accompany that ol its discoveries. Sciences like men have their periods of infancy. When wo behold tho firm step and the rapid progress of tho man, wo aro prone to forget that on leaving his cradle he with difficulty crept along thu ground, and when wo attend to tho first de velopments of the human mind, we ought to regard with somo indulgence, its mistakes, its awkward attempts, and even the false steps it may make, on commencing a carom' in which it has acquired so much glory. Ages accumulate like tho materials of an edifice; tho last ago has no reason to reproach the first ; the stone which is on l aommlt is ol" the same nature with the stone at the base, and the latter contributes to tlio height of the former. But what confers infinite honor on tho Egyptians is their having followed Mercury and Venus in that portion of their orbits where they are not visible, and having discovered their real revolutions: jind they aro the only people of antiquity who appear to have had thu slightest conception of that truth. Should it bo asked whether they wero tho real dis coverers, or whether they had derived tho knowledgo from a more icniolo antiquity; tho problem is one which tho silence of au thors furnishes us no means of resolving: no vestiges of this truth have been found, it is said, among tho oriental nations: indeed a question has been raised whether it can with propriety bo attributed to the Egyptians, be cause Ptolemy says nothing of it in his great work on Astronomy entitled Almas ist, and because Plato who travelled among them and who was instructed by their priesls, in men tioning the order of the planets, places Mer cury and Venus at a greater distance from us than the sun. And vet the discovery of the truth alluded In is positively attributable to tho Egyptians by Vilrnviiis, in his 9lh book; by Cicero in his Somniiini Sripiouisi, ' and by Macrobius in his commentary on that treatise. Some have been disposed to imagine that thu constellations of the Zodiac wero origi nally invented in Egpptata very remote pe riod. This opinion has been advocated prin cipally by Dupius, who conceives that the constellations in question, had a reference to tho divisions of the seasons audio the agri culture of Egypt at tho lime of their inven tion. The sign of Cancer maiks the retro gradation of tho sun at tho solstice : Libra, the equality of the nights and days at tho equinox; the Capricou, a living animal, is conceived to indicate tho sun at its greatest height or at the summer solstice. This sys them presents certainly somo curious coinci dences. Thus for example, tho inundation of tho Nile which begins just after the sum mer solstice, would take place while tho sun was in the constellations Aquarius and Pis ces ; and Tirgo, commonly represented as a woman with an car of corn in her hand, would coincido with the timo of harvest in Egypt. There is however an insuperable objection to the system, which is the exces sive antiquity, not less than 15,000 years, which it assigns to tho Zodiac. As this is historically inadmissible, Dupius has modi fied his theory, by supposing the names to have been given, not to tho constellations in which tho sun was, but to those diametrically opposite to him, which consequently wero rising at sun set at the given epoch. This opinion which brings down the invention of those constellations to about 2500 years B. C. has been adopted by Laplace and several other distinguished philosophers. The scientific nnn who accompanied tho French expedition to Egypt found in somo of tho temples ol that country, representations of tho Zodiac which have given riso to much discussion in Europe, Ono nftho most re markable of them is on tlio roiling of a porti co in tho temple of Dcmhrch. It repre sents the signs of the Zodiac in two rows, six in each parallel to tho axil nftho temple, ono to tho right the other to the left of the principal entrance ; the former all fa co ns if about to cuter tho tomplo, tho hitter as if quitting it ; tho first of thu entering signs is Aquari, and tho last, Cancer: tho Cancer is thrown however on one side out of the line, and its placo filled by a head of Isis partly exposed o the rays of the sun, It follow, from what has been said, that the first of the slims which appears to bo coming otitis the Leon, and thu last Capiicorn. Similar Zo diacs are to ho found in the porticos of two temples at Esuck : hot there ihe head of Isis is altogether wanting, and the bisection of signs takes place between Virgo and Leo, instead of between Leo and Cancer. This bisection has boon supposed by some to have a teferenci! to ihe places of tho solstices J hut tlm supposition is considered by others ns Finitely arbitrary, and would give to these temples an antiquity which other circumstan ces by no means seem to support. Fourier conjectures thai the head of Isis. substituted in the place of Cancer, indicates that Syrius rose hultucally, when the sun was in that con stellation, which took place more than twen ty centuries before the Christian era. M. Biot imagines this to indicate that Syrius roso with tho stars of Cancer, near which tho sun was at tho time of tho summer solstice, and refers tho monument to about tho vcar 700 B.C. There is in the interior of tho tomplo at Denderch another Zodiac, sculp tured on a ceiling, in which the signs arc ar ranged in a circle, and here again the Can cer is thrown out of its proper line, its placo being occupied by a mythological figure, be low which is the symbol of Isis. Biot has at tempted to prove that this circular Zodiac is a planisphere, representing tho appcaranco of the heavens at midnight, or the summer solstice, about seven centuries before the Christian era. M. Champollion thinks ho has deciphered among tho hieroglyphics on the ceiling of the temple, tho word autokrator, which would seem to indicate that the sculp tures in question wero ns recent as tho Roman cmpiic. But this by no means precludes the possibility that thoy may represent a moro ancient sphere. That the temple itself is not of great antiquity many circumstances seem to indicate ; but the question to bo solved is whether thu astronomical phenomena it de picts arc, or aro not, to be referred to somo more distant epoch, which it was intended to record l It is generally known, that tho French mntlimcticians discovered in tho astronomical drawings, at Denderch, compared with the corresponding emblems at Esneh, proofs of an antiquity usually thought inconsistent with the chronology of thu sacred writings. Sig ner Viscouti published some calculations on the subject, which dicw from LaLamlo a sc ries of remarks, insetted in thu " Connais sances des Temps " fur tho year 1807. These authors agree in the conclusion that tho Zodiac of Denderch must havo been formed in the first century of the Christian era or nt least beforo tba year 132 of our epoch. M. Hamilton discovered Iwn facts which tended greatly to confirm the opinion now stated ; the ono fixing the cycle of Ti berius us the period to which may be refer red tho construction of the building ; the oth er affording the most unequivocal proof that the summer solstice was in Cancer when the Zodiac was carved ; whence it follows that the date in question could not he far remo ved from the birth of Christ. Tho cninci deuce here between tho deductions of the as tronomer and tho observations of tho travel ler, is very striking and strengthens our con fidence in both. But tho speculations on the celestial plan isphere ns they assume a wider range havo not produced tho same unanimity. From certain figures introduced, La Landc is of opinion that it must have been composed nt the timo when the summer solstice was in tho middle of the sign Cancer, or in other words about 3000 years ago; unci ho refers us to the arguments ho has adduced in another work, lo 'prove that it was about tho period first mentioned, when tho system of the heav ens was constructed, in which Eudoxtus, 800 years afterwards, and Aratus his follower de scribed the sphere. While however ho at- tributes this antiquity to iho Denderch Zodiac ho has no hesitation in allowing the prohahili- tv that the temple itself, within which it is engraved, may he of a much later date. I rnni reasonings w Inch wo have no timo to detail, M. Hamilton infers that '.vc cannot as- sign to this astronomical picture, any nntiqui - ty less remote than 4500 years ; the period which the sun must have taken to pass through Iho two adjacent signs ol Leo and Cancer ;, accenting lo the annual procession of the equinoxes. Ho admits, indeed, in a note, that by placing the sun in tho midillu of Leo at the lime nftho solstice when this Zodiac was constructed, we shall assign to it only the antiquity of 3200 years; that is, 1400 years before the Christian era. This would leave a spaco amply sufficient for the acquisition of Astronomical Knowledge between tho deluge and the dato specified. Tho reasonings and conclusions of which the preceding is nn outline, have drawn up on their authors a load of calumny, by no means justifiable on any of tho grounds which a generous and candid criticism is wont to assume. Tho positions, indeed, which thoy labored to establish, arc liable to attack from various quarters ; and especial ly because thoy aro founded on a very in correct copy of tho astronomical sculptures which thoy were designed to explain. Dc non, who copied them appears to havo spent but or.e day amidst'lho ruins of Denderch, on a task which would havo furnished ample employment for several weeks; and accord ingly it is now generally admitted that his drawings do not exhibit an exact representa tion either of the Zodiac or the planisphere. Dr. Richardson who had an opportunity of comparing tho French work with tho origi nal, admits tho elegance of tho execution, hut declares "that it is perfectly foppish and not the least Egyptian in its style or manner. It is, besides, extremely incorrect both in thn drawing of tho figures and in the hiero glyphics, as well as in the number of stars which accompany them ; which last are holh fewer in number and differently arranged from what they are found to be in the ceil ing. In point of sentiment it is equally in correct, tlio transcribers having imparted to tho human figures an insipid expression which ouo would not have expected from tho companions of Napoleon, and which is as foreign to the Egyptian character as tho as pect of n child or a coxcomb is to that of the Theseus, the Memnon, or the Apollo." Thn Egyptian Mtronomen occupied themselvcs much with measuring the sun's' diameter. For this purpose they employed different methods which ought undoubtedly to bo referred to different periods. The kings of Egypt made use of thu velocity of a horse urged forward at full speed. They knew thu number of furlongs which the horse would run in an hour: they observed tho distance ho ran while tha disc of the sun was rising abovo tho horizon and hence determined tho ratio between tho diameter of that disc and the circumference of the great circle which tho sun describes in his daily motion. After tho invention of sun dials and clepsidrrc, they sometimes cm- ployed the space passed over by tho shadow while the sun was rising, compared with thu spaco which it passed over in an hour, They sometimes determined by tho fall of water : the same interval and the same pro portion, ''hese methods were without doubt very defective ; but it is only by first at tempts that more successful attempts are produced. It is interesting to contemplate these incipient cfiortsof science : they evince tho same spirit which animates (the astrono mer of the present day : the means only aro dillcrcnt. It was necessary to employ those methods in order to discover that they wero to bo rejected, and if the Egyptians had not employed them wo might perhaps uc still employing them ourselves. Sundials and clepsidra." seen to havo been of very high antiquity in Egypt. It appears that the use of the former precluded that of tho latter, from the determinations of the sun's diameter by those two instruments. That given bv the clepsidrtc is considerably moro exact than that obtained by means of dials. 1 ho former determination was pos itive, as well as the invention or use of the instrument. M. Gogucl supposes that tho Egyptian obelisks were gnomons, and if so that instru ment must have been first invented. The idea may havo been first suggested by the shadows cast by trees, edifices tfce. and art soon added lo it a more convenient form to gether with a greater elevation. Hence those tall, needle shaped masses of stone, called obelisks. Indeed the choice of this kind of monument seems not to have been made without good reasons: ono may havo given lo the pyramids tho form which they have as being the best adapted to resist the action of tho atmosphere, and lo prevent the overthrow of the muss ; but thu elongated form of the obelisks, their narrow base, compaied with their extremo height, give considerable weight to the conjecture of Goguel. Thu erection of tho obelisks is referred to thn age of Scsnstris, who is sup posed to have flourished in tho sixteenth century beforo tho Christian era. The pyr amids, those monuments of the power and pride of tho Egyptian kings, arc likewiso a monument of their astronomy. The largest has its four faces exactly directed towards the four cardinal points. As the direction could not have been the result of chance it follows that at t''o lime when tiie pyramids were constructed, the Egyptians knew how to trace out a meridian line. This is the most complete proof which wo havo of the Egyptians observations. Those great mas ses seem to havo been elevated, and to have resisted the ravages of timo only to attest tho astronomical knowledge of those who creeled tl em. Diodorus Sieulus siys that in his timi they had existed 3400 years ac cording to somu wrilers, and 1000 according to others. Both of these dales may per haps bo a Imitted, by supposinc them to re fer to the different pyramids discovered near Memphis and Thebes, those of Thebes being the moro ancient. Tho opinion generally prevalent among the Mussulmans is that the pyramids were built by Gian-Hen-Gian, universal monarch of the world, before Adam. A higher an ! liquity cannot surely be nsciibed to them, than uy relerring llieir construction to a timo which never existed. Thu Copts s.iv ' that they wero raised previous lo thu deluge, by a king named Sauriu, and lluiy alledge in proof of this an inscription engraved on 1 ono of thu pyramids. All of which proves only that they wero ancient, ami that they I might indeed have had, in tho ago of Diodo- rus, an antiquity ol ti-ilKJ years. Un Ihe summit ol these pyramids was a horizontal area, where Proclius pretends that thu priests made their astroiiomic.il observa tions. But it appears little probable that in a level country like Egypt, thoy would niako use of so high observatories to which the ascent would be so difficult, while in the open field or at least on buildings or edifices of a moderate height, the eyo might easily view tho wholo hemisphere of tho heavens. It cannot bo supposed that they ascended so high in order the sooner to seo 'the rising of tho stars, lor in that mild climate where Iho atmosphere is serene, tho horizon is almost always obscured by vapors which obstruct the views of those bodies until they have at tained somo degree of elevation. Astronomy declined among tho Egyptians about tho commencement of the Christian era. When Strabo visited Egypt, he was shown at Heliopolis the place where the as tronomers had resided :' but those ustrono mers were no more : there remained only iho priests who devoted themselves exclu sively to the observances of religion. Those priests even ridiculed Cheromon, a Greek astronomer who accompanied CEIius Gallus into Egypt, so ignorant were they then, and yet vain of that knowledge which they no longer possessed. They remembered that their ancestors had been an enlightened peo ple, and the source of intellectual light to tho nation of Europe. Thoy pointed out with evident complacency the houses where Eudoxus and Plato had resided during ihe thirteen years which they hero spent in the acquisition of knowledge. These were tho memorials of their past glory : they could boast only of the scholars they had formed. Strabo says nothing of tho causes of this chango : it may bo suspected however that those precautions which had all along beon taken to render the sciences inaccessible, contributed greatly to thoir downfdll. Tho etprit dt corps was impaired even by length of time ; indolence succeeded to zeal and activity. The probability is that they hid no dictionary f 'hair sacred language. Tho meaning of the hieroglyphics being en trusted to the memory was gradually and in sensibly lost. They soon became tho idle spectators of the monumental records which they no longer understood. It may even bo suspected that tho jeal ousy which must havo arisen between tho college of tho priests and tho school of Al exandria effectually prevented all literary in tercourse and all dilluston ot knowledge. Tho priests were nn ancient royal establish ment, and they must have regarded with diss satisfaction tho establishment of the Museum at Alexandria, where foreigners enjoyed the avowed favor of tho prince. Thu priests redoubled their diligence to conceal from the strangers tho little that thny knew, and the Greeks while they vet remained in igno rance, contrived to dispenso with u species of knowledgo so inaccessible, boon however tho genius and discoveries of Eratosthenes and Timocharis gavo them a reputation which effaced that of tho astronomical priests. The latter lost all public consideration and failed not to be disgusted with a pursuit which was to them no longer a source of credit. They neglected to minister at the pilar of science and the torch ol Knowledgo was soon extinguished among them. Krom the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser. EUROPE HER DEBTS. The debts ot Europe, is the subject of an interesting article in a late number of Hunt's Magazine. From this it appears that every nation in Europe, without exception, is heav ily in debt. Each of tho petty Gorman States pays a largo amount of interest. The aggregate of the debts of tho thirty-nine sov ereignties is 10.499.710.000 German dol lars, equal 82 cents of our currency. The English debt swallows up in interest, moro than ono half of the revenue out of which it is to bo supported. Debt about 800,000, 000 interest X'28,000,000 a yor. It would require ten millions a year for eighty years to pay the principal of this immense debt. We extract from the full table the fol lowing estimates of the debis of the larger powers : Average of debt to Country. Debt. each inhabitant r.ngland, S3,!3(i 000 000 France I, POO OOO.nfin. Holland SO0 00O000. ..SJ22 .. SI .. 3C8 .. BO Krankfi on the .Mam, 5 000 COO. liremon 3.000 000 51 43 14 41 33 33 31 30 Hamburgh 7,000 000 Denmark 93.000 000 Greece 410001KX) l,iriu"V 1I2 00OO00 niin,. 457.00(1000 Amria 3S0 000 0C0 Ilelgiuiii 120,000.000 Pjpsl Stales 07,000.000 Naples 12i1 000.000 Prussia, 150 000,000 Russia .f Poland,... 513,000,000 id It o How is it possible for the Government of Europe with such a mass of debts upon their shoulders to adopt a system of free trade 1 In addition to the payment nftho annual in terest on thu above ten and a half million of dollars, the current expenses for the support of royally and the armies and navies by which it is every where upheld, call for a much larger revenue than can bo raised by any system of direct taxation alone. How ab surd then to suppose that they will admit the productions of American industry lo bo con sumed on the payment of a less tax than what is imposed upon the products of their own home industry. Will they lovo foreigners bolter than themselves. Ficon WASHI.STO.V Friday, Dec. 'J'.). The first business before the House was the consideration of the motion undo yesterday by Mr (lidding?, in referenre to the imprisonment of a free negro, in danger of being hold into slavery. Mr Saunders, of North Carolina, made a speech in opposition to tlm motion. Me contended that if lie was a free man, he could easily prove it, and would at once bo tut free. Mr (iiddings replied with gieat force and elo. ipieuce. Ho uisiMcd that the law, as it now e.. luted, was an outrage upon human rights and human liberties, He insisted that it was the duly of Congress to repeal such laws, as, li.iv. in;; been enacted moio than a hundred o.ws ago, piessed most unequally and unjustly upon the citizens of the district,' .Mr Campbell, of South Carolina, contended that tlio motion iiuohed a question of judicial investigation, -villi which the llouo has noth iug to do. Ho contended that no one, not a runaway, had the slightest dillinilty in identify ing liuiiself as a free man. lie hoped it would not be referred, or if it was, it would be to the Committee on the Judiciary. K. I). Davis, of New York, was in favor of referring it to a select committee. He took high and noble grounds, Loco though ho was, in defence of right and freedom. Ho believed that there wero moro abolitionists among tho slave States than in the free. Ho excited tlio indignation of Mr H Hinders, who interrupted him with an angry denial. He was nut in lavnr of immediate abolition. Ho was glad to see the good temper, the forbearance and tho con. sideratc liberality with winch the present House had considered these exciting topics. He hoped the subject would bo referred t' a select committee, who would report a repesl of this law. It was against tho public sentiment of the day. It might not bo repealed now, but it could not stand. Mr Haralson, of Georgia, replied to Mr Da vis. Ho spoke, with considerable indignation, of the manner in which slavery has been in. terweaved into every subject that has come be fore the House. Mr Beardsly, of Now York, (Perish Credit,) remonstrated against the warmth which a sim ple question of reference, like this, had brought out. He wondered what it would be when they came to tho sober business of the session. lie was in tavoroi a rcierunco io a select com mittee, and hoped the law would bo revised. Mr Stephens, ot Ueorgia, was in favor of its reference to the Committee on the Judiciary. Ho regretted to seo so much, over-zeal in a mat. mer ot mere reiereucc. no inn not believe that the rights of the South were in much din ger, let litis reference go ns it might. If lie understood the law rightly, he was in favor of its repeal. Mr King, of Massachusetts, said ho agreed with his friend from Georgia tint thero was no occasion for tho warmth manifested on this re. ferenre, but ho was not with him in favor of its reference to tho Committee on tho Judiciary, L I I t I .. who liao so mucn upon iiieiniiiiius .iircatiy mat tiiey rould not investigate the subject, lie was in favor of reference lo a select committee. Mr King quoted the opinion of Chiof Justice Grant, anil others, urging changes in the laws of the District. Mr Cobb, of Georgia, wss opposed lo th re ference of this memorial, but Baid nothing wort.1.' attempting to sketch. Mr Stetson of New Jei'Y'0?' t0k the same grounds. Here A. V. Brown, of Tennessee, moved the previous question, J'Ut it was not sustained. Mr Adams next obtafred tho floor, and urged the reference. He rcferreu a similar inci dent which look placo in tho aecCi session of the last Congress, where Mr White, if Louis. tana, Introduced Into Iho liouso and pasui law regulating arrests in this District and .Mr read from the Journal tho action ol tlic House in this case. What was the action of tho House then ? Did wo hear any thing of interference with the action ef tho judicial in. quiryl No! not half an hour was allowed to elapse colore tlio House, witnoui a reioronco to committee, without any inquiry, passed a law to release mo man ami repeat mat law. He closed by expressing a hope that this sub. joct would be referred to a select committee, with power to have, not only tlio law rcpeaieu, but also to have this man released. The debate is going on as I close, Payne, of Alabama, having the Moor. Saturday, Drx. 30. The discussion on the reference of tho me morial of the imprisoned free negro was contin ucd some time after the closing of my letter yes torday afternoon. I'ayne, of Alabama, followed Mr. Adams. The principal burthen of his song was, the improbability that the man now in pris on was a freeman. Ho opposed the repeal of this law, on the ground that it would make the JJis trlct a resort of fugitive slaves. Alter he had concluded, Wcller, nt utuo, wlio figures greatly now-a.days on the 1. Q., moved the previous question which, after a noisy con vcrsation between McConncll, McDowell and tho Speaker, was sustained after which the question was put, and tho whole subject was rc- terreu to the Committee on the Judiciary. As some curiosity may be felt as to tho char acter of this Committee, I add the names and politics of its members. A majority will, I think, favor an investigation into the Eiibject and a modification, or repeal, of the law as it now ex ists in the District. Wilkins, I'onn. Loco. Saunders, N. C , Loco. French, Ken. Loco. Dillingham, Vt., Loco. Burt, S?. C, Loco. Vinton, Ohio, Whig. I'otlit, Indiana, Loco. Dickey, I'onn., Whig. Catlin, Conn., Loco. Only three of the members aro slaveholders but only two of tho others aro Whigs so that it is not certain that any lliingwill bo done. This debate was far the most interesting ono that has taken placo since I have been here and ti c general good temper that was preserved throughout, even by Southern mumberr, upon a topic, so exciting, seems to afford the hope that tlio day has gone by for exasperation and preju dicial violence in tho consideration of such deli cate matters. Thero was, now and then, an e.v ceptton, it is true but it was as nothing, com. pared lo what lids been evinced, in previous Con. grosses, upon these topics. Among those who appeared, forthc first time, on the arena, and with great credit to himself, was Mr. Stephens, of Georgia. His remarks wero brief, and to the point and, although the subject was not one that admitted of much dis play of oratorical power, most effective. It was ins maiden effort and no small curiosity was felt to hear one who had been preceded by a re. piitation earned in the lato campaign in Geor gia. None were disappointed with this effort. After this subject had been disposed of, an at tempt was tnado to adjourn but, although it was then past four o'clock, it was voted down, in order to enable Slide I, of La., to introduce a resolution that the House go into Committee of the ll'hole, to take up the bill relating lo Gene, ral Jackson's fine. A two thirds vote having been obtained, Shdell spoke his full hour in sup. port of the bill. Alter which, on motion of Mr Ingersoll, the Committee rose. A motion was made, and carried, to adjourn over until Tuesday. There is, therefore, no session of either House to.dav. There is little of interest, in this City, to com municate. As usual, there is plenty of idle and unfounded gossip but nothing worth repeating. The unscrupulous, high-handed and overbearing conduct of tho Van Hurenitcs.towards the friends of Mr. Calhoun, and also towards John Tyler, is not without its results. The breach oetween tho White House and the rampant frienJs of Van Huron, is open and undisguised. The l'rcai dent docs not liCMtate to express his preference for Cl.n, as between him and Van Huron and he een pies so far as to remove Van Hurenitcs from ulhv, and teplare them with good Whigs. The ginl lot ne is now roersod.-and the "slaugh ter ot the iiiii.vents " is on the other side of the hotin A low days since, a friend of mine ap plied for two appointments for post o'.iiccs in X. Carolina. Although Iho applicants wore avow, oil Clay men, there was no difficulty in obtain ing their appointment, at once. Nor is it only in appointments, tint this evi dence of rhaimo is afforded. Tho Madisonian makes no thstiuUo of this open and unsparing hostility to Van litirenism. in every s-lnpo. Tho old lady that presides over the Richmond Enquirer is agonised at this state of tilings. In allusion to the rumor every where prevalent, that "Tyler is about to shift his vessel and go over to the Clay bark," Aunty Jtilchie entreats tho .Madisonian -'to contradict it authnritaliiely." The old lady is but calling spirits that will not come, instead ot contradictm?, tlic oliicial jour ual rather confirms the rumor. It says it has no idea of coing upon a fool's errand, to ask John Tyler whether ho has formed a coalition with Henry Clay. The Richmond Enquirer next tries lo work upon John Jones's feelings, and to excite his virtuous indiirnation, because Clay and tho Whigs emptied thoir overflowing urns of wrath upon the head " of Mr Tyler. To all this, John replies: yes, aunty, but then "these injuries havo been avenged." We are now quits with tho Whigs. " Tho President is tho same now as bo was in 1810." " lie has suffer, cd by tho assaults of tho Whigs, but they have suffered defeat by assaulting him." While, he adds, " Van Huron's accredited organs havo heaped upon Mr Tyler moro ignominy, and havo inflicted moro injury much more, and far ureal. cr than the impetuous Whig leaders. The latter wero governed by a sudden ebullition of passion tho former deliberately and designedly wronged !" There's a dose, to be sure, for the old lady. How she will roUsli it, remains to be seen. Then again, speaking of tho Van Burcn par. ty leaders, tho official says : " 7Tiese jacobin despots aro as far, perhaps farther astray, than the Whig leaders." So much for tho opin'ons of Tyler's official journal. One word, now, as to that of tho Spec. tatnr, the organ of Calhoun, in this city. " We," it says, " have no smiles at these events, (recent demonstrations of liarmonv in Washington and elsewhere, of which Ritchie spoaks evultingly.) Wo cannot soo in them tho realities of present peace, or tho harbingers of fnturo success." ' Wo seo dissatisfaction deepening, and the shades of suspicion darkening, all around. It is plain that nn the tariff; and the 21st rule, the democratic party are not united and the South, with a democratic majority of two to one, still finds that aUofherdtmntrittie pJicythat i iia to her, i'i at far from heing realized as eier." Lf answci ,o an inquiry from the Richmond Enqui rer, tho Bamo paper says, " we can havo butonc course, with respect to a Convention organised upon the Sytacuso plan, haie nothing to do wtiu it, except! lig on ono principle to reform it ! If this is hopeless, we must turn hopelessly away." With theso signs of division, trouble and dis sensionoppressive, overbearing intolerance, i tho ono hand, and rebellious discontent on (1 other are evident hero at head quarters, our friends aro takins couraso every where : ar.it even in Charleston, the strong citadel of Cal. hotinirrn and nullification, the banner of Honrv Clav i.as been filing to the breeze. 71io Whiffs aro determined, even in South Carolina, to dis pute tho StMo in thn next campaign. he first election will ha early next fall, for the choice of tho Legislature. ?'his Legislature will choo-r tlio Presidential Electors. A ulay Club, Willi this object in view, has bcn formed in Charles. ton and, in the circular they have issued to the wiiiiis tliroutrhout thehtate, lliey oronose that similar clubs be formed in tils several districts of tho State. They, also, propose a State Con vention, in March next, to elect delegates t the L'rcat National Convention in Baltimore. Even Loco Foco members of Congress admit that this feeling, and these clubs, aro running over the State, like wild fire. Moro than this, the gifted Preston, and the accomplished Petti gru, promise to take the field. Let us not, then, despair even of South Carolina. 7'. M. B. Mondav, January 1. We have to-day a fair sky and an agreeable, temperature, the thcrmometor ranging about GO. Lvory body is nn the Aenuc, and the concourte at the White Huuse is very large. Crowds are also paying their respects to Mrs. Madison and tho venerable Ex-l'rcsident Adams, whose fee ble state af health excites a sad torboding in the minds of his visitors, that this may be the last anniversary of this day that this pleasure will be permitted them. New Vcar hero i. extremely unlike the same day in your city. Vho shops are all opon, tho streets aro filled with ladies, and strar.gerF, while tho citizens, with the exception of a for mal call upon the Executive, pursue through out tho day their usual avocations. There is a stronger shade of rowdyism, however, pervading the whole mass, than is to bo seen on ordinary days moro people aro intoxicated, and there is more of noisy and obstreperous mirth. Tem pprance hero has many advocates, but few dis ciples. During tho Christmas holidays, sobrie ty was forced into unobserved obscurity ; and on Christinas day, and eve, the st.-oets of this city, with its small population, exhibited evidences of intemperance at least twenty fold greater than is witnessed in New York on her great Satur nalia, the Fourth of July. It would, however bo unjust to the citizens, to leave you under the impression that these evidences proceed from them alone ; strangers furnish a considerable portion, and the representatives of the peoplo their full quota. Mr. Webster and family arrived last night and resumed the occupancy of his house. It is understood that his residence here has nothing in it of a political character, but has reference solely to tho sitting of tlio Supreme Court, the annual session of w liich is about to commence. It is supposed that Air. Wise, should he wish it, could be confirmed to the vacancy occasioned by tho return of Mr. Thompson. Mr. Spencer, it is now said with a good de gree of confidence, will be nominated for the va cancy on the Supreme Court bench. Tuesday, Jan. 2. The nominations to the Senate remain in statwjuo. No nominations of Collectors have' as yet, been made. Consequently, Rantoul's appointment has, for t'ie present, been withheld perhaps not to be sent in until the end of the session I No appointment of Judge to life Su preme Court of the United States has been made, as yet. Tho difficulty with the President is said to be, to find one, residing within the dis trict, who shall be a strict constructionist enough to suit the Virginia strait.jackcts. Rumors now point out John C. S'pcnccr, as the most promi nent candidate. I see that a wiseacre, who ...ites for the Courier, from this city, foretells that Mr Henshaw will be confirmed, without a dissenting vote. Who tho writer may be I know not but ho is either most wilfully in cr. rnr, or states what he must know to be false. I do not believe that ho will bo confirmed at all much less will ho receive tho approval of the entire Senate. Has tho writer been authorized to speak to each and all the Senate! Docs ho speak for Messrs. Evans, Huntington and Dates, by authority ! Can lie even give tho nanlo of one Senator, H'higor Loco, who has committed himself openly, in favor of tho confirmation of this corrupt niid unprincipled demagogue 3 No not one. New Yeah's Dav. Yesterday, being thu commencement of the now year, the President's House, and the dwellings of tho principal pub lic cdicers.wero thrown open to visitors. Among those, besides his Accidonry, who weru most favored with guests, wero Ex-l'resii'cnt Ad. ams, and Mrs. Madison. It was generally re marked, as among the prominent signs of the times, that, although tho Whigs, as usual, very .generally visited tho White House, it being re. garded as a want of common courtesy not to go, on New Year's day, yet tho Locos did not generally attend. 1'r.ocr.EDiNGs of the HocsE After the read ing of tho journal, Charles J. Ingcrsoll moved to suspend the rules, for tho purposo of going into Commitle of tho Whole, and taking up the bill for tho payment of General Jackson's line. Mr Adams, who desired to bring in a report from Iho Committee on Rules, to abolish the Jlst rule, hoped the rules would no: be suspen ded. Mr Hunt, of New York, asked for the yeas and nays. Two thirds of the House is necessary to suspend tho rules and the vote standing ayes 10.3, noes 47, the rules were Bus ponded. Mr Adams asked leave, by universal consent, to have tho report of the Committee on Rules printed but objection having been made, by Edcund Durkc, of N. II., it was not done. 7he bill for tho payment of the fire was then taken up, and Mr Darnard, of New York, hav. ingthe floor when tho subject was last up, ho ho addressed tho Committee, in opposition to the bill. He contended that tho action of Con gress, in tho matter, was uncalled for, and wrong. His objections to tho bill were forci ble just, and unanswerable and they were ex. pressed in his usual nervous, clear, and direct stylo of argument. Ho contended that tho Court did not exceed its authority ; the power of the Court to punish for contempt is an inhe rent power, and is possessed by every Court. it is imicrciii to tnc constitution oi me court. Afr R. gave a succinct history of the whole transactions-tlio violent and outrageous conduct of General Jackson tho proper course of Judge Hall, under the circumstances and defended tho character of the Judge from the unjust and false charges of Slidell. Mr Birnard was followrd by General Daw. son, of liuisiana, whogpoko st some length in support of tho bill, although he did not confine his remarks very strictly to tho subject before the House. He was full of tho most absurdly fuhnmo eulogium of Jackson. Kennedy, of Indiana, is now bravine-ln behilr of the bill as I close my letter. Ti e Semite was in cwon but a hort tim

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