Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, January 26, 1844, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated January 26, 1844 Page 1
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1 jjy Ay a- NOT TUB GLORY OP CiHSAR BUT THE WELFARE OP ROME JJ IJU LING TON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, JANUARY 2(5, 184.1. VOL. XYII....X0, U. BY H. . STACY. Wc republish tlio following very liamlsomo lines, for tiio purposo of correcting a rather important mistake wliicli occurred in con nection with tlio former publication. For tlio Hurlinston Tree Press. MX IIS On the death oMis Jcua Ann Whitney, late of Waterlury, 17. Mctliought a baml of nngcls hovered o'er A little group of kindred souls that stood Atound a Inppy fircsi !e. I'acli angel, Prom Clod himself received hissolcinn charge, To keep, preserve, defend each soul from harm ; To follow each through all the devious Paths' of Life, and sifcly moor them ill The port of Heaven nt last. Full well did they Fulfil ihtir weighty charge. Kach watched with Joaloiii care the happy soul entrusted To himself; and each wi'h oihct ied. To make them Mcit- When stoi ms of sorrow rolle.l, And grief oppressed their hearts, with nuxious brow, And heaving breast their guardian angels Sought to calm their grief, and ease the pangs They felt. And thus on 1 fi-'s uneven track They journeyed on, joyful and glad. Put seel that angel band are now confused. And each upon the other looks in doubt Which way to fly, what course to take. The anxious lcoks, the half-drawn sigh Arc bin the outward signs ol inward grief. And bark ! a oice from God's eternal throno Comes down. 'The budding rose must quickly Reach its full mammy, lis beauty J.osc, and moulder in the dust. The flower Must droop and die." What consternation Kills their anxious breast! 'WlioT 'Whichl' 'What?' They all with one content Kspousivc cry. "The one that's best prepared," the voii-e replied. In deeper doubt they stand, each begging still, That hisjiccuhar charge iivght yet bo sp.ncd; Kach wishing slill that death might find his charge Prepared. Kni-h fearing list this Himmons Came to toon. While thus they doubling stand, An angel, that, lill now wis "irco observed, Concealed behind the rest, with modest mien, End heavenly look stood up. "Take mine," he said; 'tT.ikc.IunA Anns" anil quick as thought away He flew, ami 'ncitli her spiead bis golden wings, To catch the roso as troui it stem i! fell. And plant it in. the realms 0 Paradise. The damps of death now gathered on her brow. She look her father's hand, and on him turned Those eyes that knew alR-clum's look alone, I.ustious 11 iff willi immortality, And Hiel. Her guirdnn angel flew Willi lightning's -peed up to the routt of Heaven, And at the throne of find his spotless elrngo Presented. The .lodge benignant Miiilcd, And said "well done," "enjoy the bles-cdne-s Of Heaven." "Tiead the gulden struts, and drink The Crystal founts of Paradise, unceasing." Mellioujht a golden cord let down from Heaven, Still brand thoc hippy souls together, K'en through the rem immortal bloomed; K'en though their pride ami joy was pone. Such power l- ill II, that it uwaly Jr..,.. ll.... l.mnnla lltr happy home, and made the world look as The distant star lint licinhlu in our eyes. CI.IO. xiic mas or i'.iar.! &. of stony POJNT. Palo vision, what art llioul I.o, From lime's dark deeps, Like a wind It sweeps Like a win 1 when the tempests blow j A shadowy form as a giant lorin, it stands in the midst of an armed hnt ! The dead mail's shroud on its awf I limbs ; And the gloom of 11s presence llie davbght dims, And the tiembling wurld looks 011 nrh.i-t All hail to the Si.uI.or inn JIioutv Past! Jubilate! I'ram tlicnzi. Hist! It is slill niglil, tlio clear sky nrch cs nbove. the dim woods nro till around tlio field, and in tlio centre of tlic meadow, rest ing on tliu grass crisped by the autumn,! frost, sleep the worn veterans nl 1 1 its war, dishoai toned by want, and wearied down by tlio day's march. It is still night, and the light of the scant v fire falls on wan faces, hollow1 eyes, anil sunken cheeks ; on tattered apparel, muskets unfit for use, and broken arms. It is still night, and they snatch a feverish sleep besido the fire, and lav tlietn down to dream of a time when the ripe harvest shall 1111 morn bo trodden down by the blood-stained hoof, when tlio valley shall no more bo hunted by the Traitor Refugee ; when Liberty and Freedom shall walk in bioadclotb, instead of wandering about with the unsliodden feet, and tattered rags of want. It is slill night, and mad Anthony Wayne watches while bis soldiers sleep. He watches beside the camp-fire. You can mark his towering form, his breadth of shoulders, ami pre-enunencu of chest. 1 011 can see his face by the twilight of the fire iliut fm'B mill, ilm hold forehead, the marked eye-brows, over-reaching the deep hazel eye, that lightens and gleams as he ga7.es upon the men of his band. You can note tlio uniform of tlio Revolu tion the wide coat of blue, varied by tlio buckskin sword-belt, Horn which depends the sword that Wayno alono can wield thu facings of the buff, the buttons rusted by thu dews of nights, and the march- worn troopers boots, reaching above his knee, with the stout ron spur standing out from each heel. Hist! The night is still, but there is a sound in yonder thicket ! Look! Can y6u sco nothing I No. To night is still: tho defenceless continentals sleep in the centre of tho mea dow all around is dark. Tho sky abnvo . , a, - , ',. , w r.tnar lint ttm ctore men torlli nn Imlit mi.. ...' 1 .... . .1 .... 0 ,. x nu winu sweeps arouiiu 1110 meaoow mm in 1110 meaoow u ni 1 11 .1 1 and ind.st.net it sweeps i.nd all silent and still. I can sec nothing I Place your car to tho earth. Hear you nothing. Yes yes. A slight sound, a distant rum bling. Thero is thunder growling in the bosom of tho earth, but it is distant. It is liko tho murmur of tho ocean, ere thu terri bio white-squall sweeps away thu commerce ol a nation; hut it is distant vury distant. . .. .1 V " . r nvn In Ho tlltcknt snn win urittunni 7 1T l..l. C..1. .1 . I . n ,e th.cket-seo you no.li.ng ? -thero is ;, f...n gleam l.ko the l.ght e-fly. Ha ! . lightens ... the night, I ver.ng gleam! It ,S tho flash oft , . ... . 1 es of the fire that quive swords tho glitter of arms! Tho night is no longer still. " Cluirgo upon thn rebels ! Upon them over thornover them no quarter no quar ter!" Watcher of tho night, watching over tho land of the New World, watching over the fot tunes of the siatved children of Freedom, what see you now 1 A band of armed men, mounted on stout steeds, with swords in their uplifted hands. They sweep from thu thicket, they surround the rebel host. The gallant Lord Grey rules at their head. His voice lings out clear and loud, upon the frosty air. " Root and branch, hip and thigh, cut them down. Spare never a man heed never a cry for quarter. Cut them down charge for England and St. George." And then there was uplifting of swords, and butchery of defenceless men ; and then there was liding over tho wounded, and tiampling over the faces nf thu dying. And then there was the cry for quarter, and the response " To your throat take that, damned re bel." There was a moment whose history was afterwards written, with good sharp swords on the vissago of dyiifg men. It was the moment when tho defenceless Continental sprang up from his hasty sleep into the anus of the merciless death ! It was tho moment when Wayno groaned aloud with agony, as the sod of I'aoli was tlooded with a pool of blood that poured from the corses of the slatighlhred soldiers of his hand. It was the moment when the cr for qnailor was mocked when (he tebel 1 clung, in lis dispaii, to the stirrup of the UriliMior, ami clung in yam. it was tne 1 moment when the ga ant Loid Grev, com- . ,. ., ,,, . . ij. V, ; t , municant ol tho l ino Apostolic Church nl Ki,..l,md. educated in the faith of Jesus schooled in thu doctrines of mercy, hallooed his war dogs on to the slaughter, and shout ed up to the star-lit heavens, until the an gels of God grew sick of the scene " Over them over them heed never a cry ! heed never a voice ! Root and branch cut Ilium down no quarter !" It is a dark ami troubled night, and the voice of blood goes up to God, shrieking for vengeance! It is morning, s.ul and nli-iclll' llinrliintr -mil tlm fn-..l en iilin.i in e climu over thu field" which was. vesterni .'ht. a!'" green meadow tho field thai is now an Aceldama a field of blood, sliewn with heaps of the dead, aims torn fiom the bod ies, (!es hollowed from the sorkels, faces turned to thu earth, and buried in blood, ghastly pictures of death and pain, painted by the hand of Britain, for the blight sun to shine upon, for men to applaud, for the king to approve fur God to avenge ! It is a sad, a ghastly morning, and Wayne' stands looking over thu slaughtered heaps, surrounded by the little hand of survivors ; and, ns he gazes on this scene of honor, the voice of blood goes shrieking up to God for V(, ,..-, ..mi mi- i.noio ui' die .slain bul. en tho portals of Heaven with their forms of woe, and their voices mingle with the voices of blood. Was tlio voice of blood answered 1 A year passed, and the ghosts of the niur lered looked down from thu pottals of the Unseen upon thu ramparts nf Stony Point. 1. :.. ..: .1 .1 1 1. .. 11 is Mill oiiu, .11111 HIIJ M.ll IUUI CIIOIIY .1.,... .,.,.,., ii, 1. .....! il... ...,,1 ;., t. null 11 uimn 1111; ijiuiiii UMi -uii , itn-i in inu . I . . . . 1 . dim air of night tower the rock and lort oli' Stony Point. t he lintishcrs have retued to rest Thev sleep in their warm, quiet bed--. They sleep with pleasant dreams ot American maidens II 1 1 II I 111 HSU II V II I l.il HIS HI i 1 1 li; I ll-ll II III II Hit. IIS 1 dishonored, and Atne.ican fathers, with grey hair (lalililed in hlooil. 1 hey shall have merrier dreams anon, I trow. Ave, aye. All is quiet around Stony Point: tho sun tine! leans idly over the wall that hounds his lonely walk ; ho gazes down the void of dark ness, until his glance falls upon the lnoail and magnificent Hudson. lie hears nothing, he sees nothing. it is a pity for that sentinel, that his eyes are not keen, and his'ghince piercing. Had his eve-sight been hut a little keener, he might have seen Death creeping up that ram part in some bundled shapes he might have seen the long, tailor-like, fingers of tliuSko-lelon-God clutching for his own plump Bri tish throat. Rut his eyesight was nut keen mote's tho pity for him. Pity ilwas, that sentinel could not hear a liltlo whisper that went fiom two hundred tongues, around tho ramparts of Stony Point ' General what shall be the watchword.' And then, had the sentinel inclined his ear over tlio ramparts, and listened very at tentively indeed, be might have heard the answer, sweeping 1111 to tho heavens, I1U0 a voico 01 IjIOOU 'Rr.MCMimii I'aoli 1' Ho ho ! And so I'aoli is to bo remem bered and so the Voico of Blood shtieki d not in thu ears of God in vainl And so the . vengcanco of I'aoli is creeping up the ram ' parts of thu Fort? Ho ho! Pity Lord 1 Grey were not hero to see tho sport ! j ura s I he sentinel was not blest with supernat- 01 hearing : ho did not seo figures creeping up tlio remparl ; ho heard not their whispers, until a rude hand clutched him around thu throat, and up to thu heavens swept the thunder-shout 'Rr.Mr.Miiui Paoi.i !' And then a rmlu bayonet pinned him to llie wood of the ramparts; and then the espl.iu- I I1UII Ul IHU t .. ido of the rort, and Us halls were filled with silent Avengers and then camo lirilUhcts ... 1 r...... .i.t 1....1. 1 losi'MiU iiijiii men nuns, m v uie iiii-ii iui , ., ,... ,?. and And through tho smoke and tho gloom and the bloodshed of that terrible night, with the light of a torch now filling on his face, with the gleam of slailighl now giving a spectral appearance to his features, swept on, over heaps of dead, ono luagnificient form, grasp ing a stout broadsword in his right hand, which sternly rose, anil sternly fell, cutting "isili m uui. 11 lirilishers down at every blow, and laying '" n'ong l'" floor of tho fort in the puddle ... 0 . . ... uf ,(;ir (m' ,,, , ,lortl. cit.osts of LUoli sl.oi.t ! Aroyo u, d , 'Sparo me-I have a wifo-a cl, not tern Sparo me I have a wife a child .1 wait my return lo England! Quarter Quar ter.' 1 I mind mo of a man namoil Sainiiro ho bad a wifo and child vim nuu uiiiu .1 iiiowioi uiu .ion irrov-hairod wailing his return from iho wars ffl'SSSK Such quarter I give yon Rumemhor I'aoli!' ' Sp.ue mo (platter !' , How that wonl hisses through tlio air. .' Itenieniher I'aoli I' 1 I have a grey-baited father. Quarter 1' ' So had Dauiilon at I'aoli 1 Oh, remem ber I'aoli 1' 'Spare me you sec T have no sword! Quaiter !' ' Friend, I would spare theo if I dared. Hut the Ghosts of I'aoli ncrvo my arm we had no swords at I'aoli, and yu butchered us, hey shriek. Oh, Remember I'aoli I' DANA'S I'Rl.i: KSSAY NUKES. ON MA- Ihtracl from the Report of the Committee appointed by the Trustees of the Jhtss. Society for Promoting Agriculture, to award the Premium for the best Disser tation upon Manures, and their applica tion to the various Hoik hi this Common wealth. The author of the following Essay upon tlio application of Chemistry to Agriculture, is known to be ono of (ho most scientific and best practical chemists of the country ; a man of genius; a gentleman, too, who has done more to advance tho scienco of Chemistry as applied to Agriculture, than anv other man in America. It Is intended , )0 written in plain language, such as must fjrm(,s can UM(1urs(:lt)(l, if thev give their ..... , 1 ,1 .. attention to it. The principles laid down 1 1 generally such as nro well established, and no longer doubtful. The gieat object, however, of tho Essay is, to hi ing into more general notice a theory, and a practice grow ing out of it, suggested some years since by thu author, which has teceived the sanction of some of our practical farmers, who have tried it under his direction. I If the author is correct, common peat, when mixed with soda, potash, or ammonia, tliu proportion given by him. would be, oil most soils, equal, as a fertilizer, to tho common in. mines used by the firmer. Should his views be heieafter fully sus tained by experiment, it will lead, we think, to the gieatest improvement th.it has ever taken place in tho Agriculture of the Slate. A cotd of peat eatth can often, with us in Massachusetts, be obtained from tho mead ows, as easily as a cord of manure from thu ham-cellar; and onu dollar's worth, or twenty pounds of soda ush, would, .iulhuI in 10 tho iioihoi, iiiiiKu tho one equal to the other. Tho theory on which tho author founds this practise is, that potash or soda may bo substituted for each other and for ammonia in the compost heap, without deti iinent. To this theory we cannot, at present, sub scribe. Rut whether thny adopt this theory of the author's or not, most of our farmers . , . . -It . . 1 l' .. wno may reau mis i-sMiv, win, u num-n-, . - . !....! .1-.. I ..I..... C. ...... .w. I ' ' ,.us., J,r' ., r , ,1 , ,, 1. We therefore recommend, that Hio So- cicly's premium of One. Hundred Dollars, . , T 1,u B'" Dr. Samuu. L Da.va, for thu best Dissertation upon Manures, and their application to thu various soils of this Com monwealth. E S S A Y . Suction F 1 it s t . Clearing and Hrcahhig up, and making Compost. There is ono tiling settled in farming stable manure never fails. It always tells. There are no two wavs about it. Thero is hero neither theory, nor speculation, nor misgiving. " Muck it well, master, and it will conns light," is an old proveih. It is considered a fact so well established, that nobody thinks of disputing it. Thete is idvantago in asking why uiirn-varil manure never bills. 1 no answer is easy : it con tains all that plants need for their growth. If wc know then what plants contain, wo ii 11 i.i. mi can easily ti;ll wnat is in manure. 1 lie whole doctiinu of manures, then, falls into two plain principles, on which hang till the iw and the "projils" ol agiiculturu : 1. Plants contain anil ncod certain substances which uro essential to their growth. L Manure contains all those substances which plants want. If, then, wc would find out what it is which manuro contains that makes plants grow, wo must first find out what a grown plant con tains. This cannot bo done without somo little, a very little, knowledgo of chemistry. Do not be stattled, reader. I suppose thai you may know nothing of chemistry no, not even its terms. As a very sensible man, who wrote letters on Rolany to a young lady, said, to encourage his pupil, it was possible to uo a very good uolanist without Knowing onu plant by name, so is it possiblo to he- coino a very good agricultural chemist with out knowing littlu nioro than thu chemical names of a very few substances. You know nothing of chemistry, it may be, and as little of law ; yet you will go to law, and learu sonic ot its terms, by a dear-uougl.t export euce. Thu law terms tiro harder to learn than thu chemical terms. Now I fear that somo persons who have followed mo thus lar, will shut up tliu hook. It i, thuy say, all stulf, book-farming, and beyond us. If nuu may not undetstand what matiuio is without this learning, we may as well begin where our fatheis ended, and tha'. was where our forefathers began ages ago. Ry a Utile law, however, picked up as a juryman, or witness, suiectuian, town-clerk, lusitco 01 selectman, lown-clert .1 1 iiiu :ni.i.- i"- -v " j - ! .1 ii-i 111 1. in mad men do come to utideisland .1.., ..iii.i mir i'iiic tin Iiii.irniir :ili in. what a lawyer means when ho talks. So, Ion, by a 1111111 ciienueai i:iik, a man may a littlu chemical talk, a man learn what a chemist means when hu talks 1, ,!,. ., ,,.,. . ,,,! ""'"" ""-. -i ,0l!,sh' .'"""-("l' old friends; thu very names make us feel at homo again) alumina. magnesia, iron, man ganese, and silo.v, sulphur, and phosphorus, Here is a long list. Long as it is, perhaps it will be thought worth learning, when you aru told that these are the names of all the substances found in plants, every suhstanco winch they want, uut 01 lliese is made every plant. Every part of every plant, from the hyssop on tho wall to tho mountain cedar, contains somo or all of these. He not disheartened. Look over, reader, the list again carefully ; see how many are old names of things which you know. Of the foitrleen, you know nearly one-half by name and by nature. .Thcsn are, potash, soda, lime, magnesia, iron, sulphur. Per haps you will add, that you know carbon is coal, or ratliur coal carbon. You have heard, from some travelling lecturer at your town jycuuni, that oxygen and hydrogin to gether form water; that oxygen and nitrogin foim the air you breathe ; that nitrogin anil hydrogin form ammonia, or sal volatile, w Inch gives the sharp smell to the smelling bottle. Ilesides, thu thing has been said so often, that you must have heard it, that chlo rine, tho substance which blceches in bleach ing salts, united to soda makes common salt, or if chlorine is united to ammonia, sal am moniac is formed. Now, by chr,nges and combinations among these fourteen things, nature makes every thing wc find in plants. iMany ol these aro invisible to us, as is the air. The substance called chlorine, norhans 1 you nave never seen, nut 11 you ever smelt it you will never lorgct it. Jt is often smelt in a piece of bleached cotton, when opened in tliu shops, it gives the smell to bleaching powder, used to disinfect the air during cholera and other diseases. If you could see it, it would appear merely a faint yellowish gicon air. It is all-powei fill on vegetation. As it forms a part of common salt, say half its weight, wo may dismiss the further consideration of it by saying, that, in some shape or other, chlorine is univer sally diffused in soil and plants. The list above may he divided as follows! first, the airy or volatile; secondly, the eatins ami tais tiiuniv, 1 1 to alkalies : '"iiithly, the mil. mini Unly the third 1 nun 10 inn uivisions require o lie uxp ; limed , ,1, r.i ti 1 . n 1 . 1 1 or delined. 1 ho subituncos called potash I and soda, are termed alkalies. They am said to h ive alkaline properties. Touch 1 I r .1 I . . . 1' your tongue with a bit of quick-lime, it has a hoi, binning, hitter taste. These utu 'called nlkaliuo propeilies. Resides these, ! they havu the power of combining with, ! and taking the sour out of, all sour liquids or j iie'ids thul is, tliu iicmI und tlio ulkati neu 1 trali.e each other. This word alkali is of Aruliio oiiglii 1 lis w,iy itiiinu shuwi 0110 of tho propeilies of alkalies. " Kali" is the Arabic word for bitter, and '"ni" is like one word super wo say fine and sttpci fine ; so k-ili is hitler; til-kali, superlatively hitter, or truly alkali means the " dregs of bitter ness." I wish, reader, for your own sake, as well as my own, that you should fix in your mind what I have said about alkali anil alkaline properties. Alkali is a general term. It includes all thoso substances which have tin action like the ley of wood ashes, which you .. , . . , . . , , (KM (ill- cn.m. 111:1 . Ulir II I iic 1. 111 t? I1..U...I ....p. .ma miin iiown urv, you Know 11 lorms pot.ijp. iow lime fiosh slaked has llie alkaline properties ()(-1)llt Wf.;ikc.ri mi(J S() ha's ,ho cal- cillc,( mll!,esia of thu shops, but in less de- greu than lime. Hero we have two sub- ' .t.l .. :.. .1. . . 1 . 1. 1 . 11 i.

siiiiiLos, i-.iiiinv 111 uieir iook, Having alkaline properties. They aro called, therefore, al kaline earths. llut what wc understand chielly by the lerni alkalies, means potash, soda, and ammonia. Potash is tho alkali of I mil plants ; soda is the alkali of sea plants ; and ammonia is tho alkali of animal sub stances. Popish and soda aru fixed, that is, not easily raised in vapor by fire. Ammo nia always exists as vapor, unless fixed by something else. Hence wo have a distinc tion among alkalies which is easily rcmetii beied. This distinction is founded on tho source from which they are procured, and upon their nature when heated. Pot ash is vegetable alkali, derived from land plants; soda is marine alkali, derived from sea plants; ammonia is animal alkali, de li ved from animal substances. Potash and soda aro fixed alkalies; am monia is a volatile alkali. Potash makes soft soap witli grcaso, and soda forms hard soap. Ammonia lorms neither hard nor soft it makes with oil a kind of ointment used to rub a snro throat with, under tho name of volatile liniment. Hut though thero bo these three alkalies, mid tun idkulino earths. I want you to hx in your mind, reader, that they all have common properties, called al- aline, and which will enable you to under stand their action without more ado about their chemistry. II10 inflammables, or our fourth division, are sulphur and phosphorus ; both used in making friction matches. Tho phosphorus lirst takes tiro by rubbing, and this sets the sulphur burning. Now, the smoko arising Irom tlieso is only tho sulphur and phospho rus united to tho vita! part of tho common air, or oxygen, as it is called, and inflamma bles, lorms acids, called sulphuric mid phos phoric acids. So if you bum coal or car bun, it is well known you form fixed air, or carbonic acid. 1 hat is, by burning, the coal or carbon unites with tho oxygen or vital part of common air, and forms carbon ic acid. Tho heavy, deadly air, which arises from burning charcoal, has all the properties of tin acid. And now let us seo what these properlies are, All acids uiiile or combine with tho alka lies, alkaline earths, and thu metals. When acids and alkalies do thus unite, thuy each losu their distinguishing ptopcrties. J huv form a new- substance, called a salt. It very important you should fix well in your mind this definition of a salt. You nro not to confine your idea of a salt to common sail. This is a capital example of tho wholo class. It is soda, nn alkali, united lo an I. ...1.1 l.! . .. I. .1 . 111:111,01 iniuiiiit.', in, iu sjoai 111 tne lerius tlm mni iiiinlllnililii in innrl ntr. ..-M Q sallpetio is a salt. It is potash united to . aqualnrlis. Vet in sallpetro you perceiv of, neither potash nor anuaforlis. ' Tlieso havo , .1 : 1. - uiiiiuu men muruuiurs uru iieuiranzcu uy .,,, cl. other. They have formed it neutral1 salt. Our list of substances found in plants is inns reduced Irom things which you did not know, to lliings which you do" know; and so we havu saved the trouble of learning more of their chemistry. We have reduced the uirv or volatile- into water, formed of oxygen and hydrogen ; of vointiiu alkali, lormed ol nilroL'en and hy drogen ; or into acids, as the caihonic, form ed of oxygen and carbon as tho sulphuric, formed of oxygen and sulphur as the phosphoric, I'm mod of oxygen and phospho rus ; and having thus got water and acids, these unite wiih"all the alkaline, earthly, and metallic bodies, and furm salts. To give you now examples of these, I mav mention Glauber's salts and Epsom sails. Glauber's salt is formed of soda and sulphuric acid ; Epsom salts, of magnesia and sulphuric arid; alum, of alumina or clay, and sulphu ric acid ; green vitriol, of iton and sulphu ric acid ; white vitriol, of zinc and sulphti lic acid; plaster of l'aris,of lime and sulphu ric acid; bones, of lime and phosphoric acid ; chalk anil limestone, of lime and carbonic acie. These are till examples of: salts that is, an acid, or a substance aciing the pa it of an acid, united (0 an alkali, met al, or earth. We have thus gone over, in a very gener al way, enough of chemistry for any one to understand tho chemical nature of manure. You see, leader, that with common attnntion nestowed lor an evening s reading, one may learn these chemical terms and their meaning now, Having leained 1111s nisi lesson, Met us leviuw the ground gone over, and fix 1 onre and lor all these fust principles in our minds. Let ns do this by a practical ap plication of the knowledge we have gained. (To bo continued.) MR. RIVES' LETTER, We copy tho following Letter from the Hon. Wim.iam C. Rives, Senator in Con gress from the Stale of Virginia, as we find it.in the Richmond Whig. It has produced quite a sensation in Virginiii.i, at Washing' ton, and elsewhere. It is nnl another indi cation, superadded to thoso which wo are , -iii, lin, imIIi. . i ... ...e. - J '.' 11 run 111 1111 iiuiiiii. ijiii upon to . 1 ,,. .. . icadeis, that the public sentiment, 111 every .. .. t,,r is'M sottlmg upon Mr. Cl.vv, as I'0 lllu-sl suitable candidate for the Presiden cy, and that all those who aro influenced by considerations of public spirit and patriotism , will ultimately fall into tho support of that distinguished Statesman. I'rom the Itichmond Whij. asiiingto.v, .Ian. 1, If) I J. Jlr lively Dear Hit. : It teuuw lo lie now ilelliil ,., , .t . .1 . . spit led that iho country is to bo call..,! 11 no 10 roirnei 1110 solemn decision nmiumn. ceil by it in la 10 upon the demerits nf .Mr. Van Huron's adinini.-tralion, and to re-lore him to power, without a Military atonement for tlio past or pledge of amendment for the future. The indications which have been given hnio, suite the assembling of Congress, are too mgiuuVant to bo mis-understood. The ('onventitur at Hal. tiinnro will have nothing to do but to rn'ilor and proclaim the edict of the caucus in tlie'Can itol. In this state of thing--, aro we. who have so often testified in the face or the world our deep and earnest convictions nf the fatal and demoral izing tendencies of Mr. Van Duron's whole sv.-. torn of political action, to statu! aside with fold- arms and to Minnie into an iiiL'lorious. I h:.d almost said, treasonable neutrality, because of some dillercncci of opinion on questions of pub. ic. policy Irom .Mr. Clav. which a wisu snirit .,f moderation, and tho recognized arbitrament of the public will, are daily narrowing in inagni. tude and extent I humbly think not. I'ho election of Chief MaL'istrato of thn 11a. tion is ono of tho--e vital proccses provided by the Constitution of the country, fur the ponoili. ai regeneration ni our system tiy a Iresh itifu. 1011 into 11 01 uie elements nl popular health and virtue, in which no good citizen unless 1111. dor ci.cuuistanres of a vervnecuh.tr character, 1 - . . . - ' . . ' can nroner v re use lotaku a mrt. :nu . 1.1 1 in nv. tent of his nilluonco and example, a decided and etiicient part. H lien llie vast moral and po litical influence of the office, as well as its di rect attributes of positive and controlling power, are considered, it can never be a matter of in. Iillurence, or even of an eoua bilanco of conn. tervailing motives of preference or objection, who shall fill it. There is always a choice ; and though the making of that choice mav Mtno. times bo embarrassed by conflicting considera tions a rising out of a want of entire coincidence of opinion with either of the opposing candidates, 11 is oniy tne more mcumueni on us to deter, mine our preference with care and deliberation, iii-coriung 10 uie nosi lights 01 our understand ings ; atul, when once conscientiously formed, fearlessly and unhesitatingly to act it out. In tho approaching Presidential contest, then. wc ought not and cannot be neutral ; and if, as everything now indicates is to be the case, that contest shall bo between Mr. Van Iluren and Air. way, l havo as it t lo hesitation in siying that there is but ono lino of action by which we can acquit ourselves of the full measure of our duty to the country; and that is, waivin" all minor considerations, to give a manly and deter, mined support to Mr. Clay in preference to Mr. Van Iluren. For myself, I can conceive of no greater calamity to tho nation, or deeper dis credit to the causo and very name ol nnnnlar government, than the re-election nf Mr. Van Hu- ren w ould be, after the signal and overwhelming majority by which ho was so recently deposed from power, upon the fullest canvass of hismea. sures, policy, and conduct. Tho host of vindictivo passions which follow- in the train of restored Ciovornments-.thn Clowns of hungry retainers, pleading tho merit of past UOFl'lpOil. U'tin lil-ri.;3 fiim-i p.l l.inUi... .1... 1 . . . .. ,..1.0 ...1 11 him in 1. in 1 1 11 1 ni? row aril of their fidelity, or indemnity for sacrifices and losses incurred in tlio common cause the in f.ituated and pertinacious attachment to ancient abuses tho arbitrary and solf.willed habits mir. lured in the former possession of power tho commitment to favorite but pernicious schemes of policy, havo all concurred to givo a sort of proverbial currency to the remark of a celebra ted r.nghsli slatesinan and historian, that tho worst and most dangurous of all revolutions is a restoration. I'hatall those evils would bo re alized lo the widest extent, and in their most tin. mitigated virulence, in the restoration of Mr, an Iluren, none can doubt who havo been at tentive observers of thu selfish and vicious s)s. tern of party policy exemplified iu thn creed and conduct of himself and his friends, or who have not forgotten that tneinorablo motto of party ra. pacity, bo boldly emblazoned on the shields of his chosen followers, which, in prnclaiuilii" " to the victors bo ting the spoils of victory," shame I le6S,y l)oil"(-'d to the olhres and public trusts of Fox, in his history of James II. tlio country as the rightful plunder of political warfare. Hill, to return to tlio remark I have already made. Could any thing inllict a deeper wound on the cause uf republican institutions, than siicli a spectacle of levity and instability on the part of the constituent body, as would be exhibi ted in the restoration of Mr. Van Huron, after the overwhelming condemnation of Win Bdminisrra. tion, pronounced by the almost unanimous elec toral voice of the country but three Bhort years ago Would it not render popular government itself a " by.word and taunt " among the nations! In 1910 the American people, upon tho fullest and most deliberate hearing of both Hides of the political controversy of the friends as well as of the opponents of Mr. Van Iluren recorded llieir votes against linn uy such a majority as never before signalized the retreat of any minis ter from power, and was till then utterly unpar alleled ami even unapproached in the history uf our Presidential contests. Of the twenty.six Stales comprising tho Union lie received the votes uf but terun, and all of these (except one) among the Finallest of the Confederacy ; of the 2!)1 votes of tho Electoral Colleges he obtained but (10; and of the popular suffrages, a majori ty of M5,(l(l!), out of the free and enlightened cit izens ut America who voted in the election, gave in their accumulated verdict against bun. And yet, in tho lace of this solemn finding of the great inquest of the body of Uie nation while the echo of tho general voice which pionounced it, h.-.s not yet died upon the ear a bold attempt is made to induce the people to take back their own settled and well considered judgment, and, in elevating again to the highest ulfico of the Ucpiib'.ic, Uie individual whom they had so re routly and deliberately deposed, pronounce a llagrant i-etitenre of stultilicalion and uiconipe tence upon themselves. 1 know not in what light other minds any view such a proceeding; but to 1110 it seems a contemptuous sporting w ith the sovereign constituency of the country a sheer mockery and insult to the public in Iclhgonce. And by what moans is Mr. Van Duron to be again resented as the legitimate and anointed candidate of the Democratic party ! Not cer tainly by the will of thu gieat body of the party, w ho, wo have overy reason to believe, deprecate and deplore tho madness and folly uf the act, lint In; llm snrrnl 't , i il iitlit.itt1.i nrrniir-u uf mi f- constituted conclaves and caucuses, controlled with absolute sway by a few bold and adroit political managers. J run no risk in saying, that if the individuals composing the parly thtoughoiit the Union could be interrogated, upon the mir dire, to say whom they would prefer as thu I're-uleiitial nominee of the party, three fuuiths of them at least, and probably a far larger proportion, would unhesitatingly declare their prelurenco fur some new candidate. And yet, in utter contempt of tho popular sentiment of the narlv. and disdainfully rcioetinir the onlv equitable a's well as practicable mode ot arriving at iho will of tho majority, through the medium ol a fair, equal, and Uniterm popular rcprcscn tatiun in the nominating Convention, the friends of Mr. Van Iluren, (holiing on to that old machinery of party discipline and subordination, derived to them Irom the cunning order of the Jexuitp, l li 1 011 1 1 tho bloody Jai-.obiuical Clubs uvcunr, iiiiijuii iiiu UIUIIliyditl.UUIIlll.Ul OUIUS ut Koiolutionarv France, by which one or two acme spirits arc enabled lo suppress the will ami control tho movements of vast and entire bodies of men,) imperiously declare that he, and he only, shall be tho candidate of the party. Is it not time that honorable and patriotic men, as they respect the dignity of their own char actors, the privileges of freemen, and the sacred principles ot Republican (loverninent, choiild unite in ono generous and virtuous struggle to overthrow, ell'oc'.ually and forever, the lyrrany of a system which, if now submit ted lo, must finally convert our noble popular institutions into tho worst of all dominations that of an unscrupulous and sordid party oligar chy. And what arc the wise and benignant tnoas tires of administrative policy which are promised us as the Iruits of Jlr. Van Huron's restoration 3 A return to the glories and blessings of the Sub Treasury system a renewed war upon the currency, cummerce, and business of tho coun try ! Just at tho moment when, by the mere fact of the withdrawal of the hostility of the Government, and that 11s medicatrix' nalura winch is inherent in tho energies of a free, en terprising and industrious people, all the busi-nes-s puihtnts of the nation are regaining their ! !,roM"-,r"y ;,ml activity, and the currency and 1 UC'UK 01 mo country are iiiuing their llrnniir :llu li:itlli-l liii-nl. nrtiru ttnmr i In I... 1 ' 1 . s ,., tu again thrown into confusion, and we are to be re-plunged into a chaos of wild and pernicious experiments, simply to nigiiahze a remorseless party triumph, in the coiisuiniiiitiou of a meas ure openly at war with every great practical interest 01 iho community. And to this would be added, by a natural and necessary connexion, all that long train of congenial abuses which so ingloriotisly illustrated tho era of .Mr. Van Iiu ron's former administration multiplied schemes for extending Kxecutivo power and Presidential patronage ; profuse and profligate expenditures of public money ; the impunity and protection of iaithless public officers, purchased bv the merit of their party services ; a now brood of defaulters, ot the iloyts and the Harrises a raco the entire disappearance of which since IS 10 is ono of tho proudest proofs of the justice and necessity of the change then decreed by the voice of the people. Hut it were vain to attempt an enumeration of the teeming abuses that must over attend the fundamental heresy of Mr. Van Huron's political system, which, instead of regarding government as a high and holy trust lor the gooit 01 11 1 0 country, sees in it nothing but a job to lie ailuiimslercu tor tlio ueneht of a jwtij, of which the President is tho head and gruml almoner. Now, 1 would ask, what is there to be npnre licuded from Mr. Clay's election, which oiiL'ht to have thu weight of a leather in the scale. when compared with the fatal and destructive evils, poisoning the vital elements of republican freedom and virtue, as well as the essential sources of national prosperity and happiness, which wo invu every reason to believe would inevitably follow the restoration of .Mr. Van Hu- ren ! We shall, doubtless, have piraded before our eyes, in stereotyped horrors, the old thread- bare apparition, ol the Tiirij)', the Honk, and Distribution. On tho subject of the l ard1; I do not hesitate to say that Mr. Clay's crffJ, developed in his recent letters, is in every res pert as just, as sound, and unexceptionable as that of Mr. Van Huren, and his practice infinitely better. Mr. Clay did not vote lur or approve the tariff of ls'Jr'. consigned to an odious celetritv. under thu naino of tho Hill of Abominations, which Mr. Van Huron and his friends carried by their voles. It is ratliur an unfortunate coiuci. deuce, considering tho professions of Mr. Van Huron, that all tho Tariu" which havo boon ino.-t complained ot in tho nnuth, one their ex htencc upon tho statute book to the votes of himself or his friends. It is 110 want of charity, then, but tho result uf the most candid and deliberate consideration, when I express the decided opinion that Mr. Clay is far tuoro to ho relied upon for a prarti cal adjustment uf this delicate and complex subject, on terms just and salisfacturv to all sec J interests by the golden rule of mmleralion.whichl ' is tho only pledgo of permanence and stability tions ol tlio Union, (harmonizing their various in any arrangement that may be made,) tha Mr. an Huron. The wise and temperate spirit so strikingly exhibited in Ins letters which have' been recently given ttfthe public,- sustained by his well-known influence with bis friends,- anil his own high and unquestioned character for frankness and decision, is a guaranty which i"' portion of the nation will lightly regard Vltll rcjDCCt to thn Itnnl. tC llii. rnnnli. fttintl 1'. reduced to a choice between tho odious and crindinu Sub-Trcaiury Scheme and a National Institution of l-mance, properly cuarded onanist abuse bv Iho itn' ous restrictions of its charier, as well ns by a Mellaril I ubhe supervision and control, I do not believe that the sober judgment of the people, under the pressure of such nn alternative, would findnny cause of rjmr ril Onanist lllusnwbn. frpp rrrun rnnaliliilinnnt rMti tiilln-s on tlio subject, should go for the latter, in pre nit in.,.- iu uiu iiiriuer. Ann a 10 tne instriiiunon ot the proceeds of iho Public I.nnds, thatniamUneces sanly and evidently adjourned, a a practical qiirs. tion, until the revenues of the nation, f.-onmnn-il wnk its expenditures mid tngagenvents, shall be mnvirv dilFi-rcnl situation from that in which they now ore. or are likely to be for jt-ars to come. My own mill vidiial opinions on these subjects have been so often nnd fully stated that I 'need not repeat them here What I mean lossy at present is, that these nrei sues cither hvnothelical nnd sneenlniive. nr nen-mli- cd by equal nnd opposing con'iderntnuu on the other side, nnd should not divert Iho mind for n momenr from tlioe hichcr, nnd more urcent and vital ques tions, which nro the true tts's of n sound and enrrrr' decision in the pending Presidential election. 'lhor lesis 1 nave nircauy averleil lo. They are such as arc insfperably connected with the puritv, character, nnd prcierintion of the f!ocrninent itself, and in my humble iuiluiiu-nt, arc overwhelminnlv conclusive against the pretentions of Mr. Van Uurcn. As little shall wo permit oursolins. I trust, tit bo " frightened from our property" by the old and hollow expedient of a sensless and arbitra ry use of parly names. Those who arc so prone to ring the changes nn the nomenclature of Ted eralistand Republican would do well to remem ber that they havo men, reading and inquiring men, to deal with, and not children. Try Mr. Van Huron and .Mr. Clay by anv tost derived from the authentic history of political parties in this country, or by the standard of those great principles which exist in the essential elements of our popular institutions, and Mr, Clay stands before tho world the far better Republican of the two. In that groat array and struggle of the two- parlies of the country (among the most memo rable in our history) which aros-c out of the con troversy and war with England in 1812, w here was Mr. Clay and where was Air. Van Huren ! Mr. Clay gallantly loading the Republican hosts in tho Iloiiso of Representatives, and sustain ing the administration of Mr. Madison with all the energies of his patriotism and eloquence; .Mr. Van Huron uniting with the Federalists to deposu that illustrious man from power, and to supplant his Administration ! Try them again by that standard which Mr. Van Huron himself, in a most celebrated speech, delivered in the Senate of the United States in 1825, declaring' to be the true and legitimate distinction between the Federal and Republican parties tho one seeking to extend, the other to restrain, Execu tive power. The public have not forgotten the various schemes so sedulously devised or coun. tonanccd by Mr. Van Huren during the whole period of his Administration, and fully exposed at the time, to augment Executive patronage, discretion, and power; and nothing, surely, has more eminently distinguished the career of Mr. Clay than his constant and persevering ellhrts to restrain, anil to provide new dikes and securi ties against the enlargement or abusiv e pvprrim of the pow ers of that department of tho Govern tnont. Judging them, then, by Mr. Van Huren's own definition of political parties, as correct v laid down by him in 18.23, but totally lost sight of in his subsequent practice, let the sober and minimal juugmeni cu me country decide whic'i is the Federalist and which the Republican. It is impossible for anv reflectin-r man to ran. template the actual and prospective condition of the country, without seeing in it already the germ of now difficulties and troubles, w'hich may, in their approaching development, a"itato our glorious Urnon to its centre. Tho Oregon and Texas questions in our foreign relatinns ; at home, a deficient revenue, with all its ordina. ry sources pressed up to their fartherest jrroduc tne limit, and some of them, there is reason to apprehend, ueyond ; the tariff controversy reo. polled, with all tho conflictino- interests ami m- eion which never fail to be awakened by it ; and, added to these, the rekindled fires of the aboli tion excitement each and all of them are ques tions which carry in their bosom the fearful ele monts of civil discord and intestine strife. Tho worst and most dangerous aspect they present is, that all of them bring into immediate and op. posing array, if not into angry and hostile colli sion, the Eectional interests and feelings of the different geographical divisions of the Coufedo. racy. Whose, at such a moment, is the mas-ter-spirit that may have power to still the rising tempest, before it sweeps with destructive fury over the face of our yet happy Union ; or, shoud mis prove nopeiess and impossible, whoso the commanding genius "to ride th whirlwind and direct the storm 7 " To preside over the des. times of a great Republic, in a crisis of such complicated difficulty and peril, calls for some thing more thai the arts of tho mero party poli tician. It demands tho highest moral and mtel. lectual qualities of the statesman couran(. self-possession, elevation of character and oTe- vations ol views ; a nobleness and generosity of nature that attracts confidence, nnd can insuiro enthusiasm ; the spirit of persua-iou and thu spirit of command combined. IH thn annals of tho country, in some of tho darkest moments which have ever lowered upon its fortunes, bo consulted, and they w ill answer whether Hen r.y Clav or Maktin Van Huren is the man for such a crisis. I have thus, my dear sir, with the frankness due to our relations of friendship, personal and political, given jou my views on a subject which is soon to absorb so large a portion ot the public attention, and to which no good citizen can bo indifferent. I Matter myself they will meet your concurrence, and that of our Republican friends who have acted with us in the trying scenes through which we have passed; but, in any event, I am sure they w ill be received by you w ith the kindness and cordiality, in the spirit of which I pray you tu believe ine, most truly and faithfully, yours, YV. C. RIVIX Col. Edmund Fontaine, llanoier. In the speech alluded to, (made on tho 12tlj February, 1323, on the power of the Vice l'resi dent, as presiding officer of the Senate,) Mr. Van Huren comments on the "attempt" of .Mr Adams, in Ins inaugural address, "to trace tho origin of the tivo great political parties," i' which," ho adds, "havo divided tlio country from the adoption of tho Constitution to the pre sent day ;" anil, after rejecting Mr. Adam's the ory, he gives his own in the following words: " I hey (the two groat political parties of Fed eralist and Republican,) arnso from other and very different causes. They are, in truth, man ly to bo ascribed to the struggle between two opposing principles, tint have been in activo op eration in this country from tho closing scenes of tho Revolutionary war to the present day tho ono teeklng to absorb, as far as practicable, all power from its legitimate sources, and con dense it into a single head; the nihor, re antagonist principle, laboring as ns- duou.'v t. r,ist enoroachmenu. and limit the exteui of Exerutne authority."