Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, March 8, 1844, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated March 8, 1844 Page 1
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fent fir fte NOT TUB GLOHV OF C 3 S A n DDT TUB W U L F A K B OP HOME BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, MARCH 8, 84i. VOL. XVII..Xo. 40. BY II. B. STACY. x V. tO Here Is a gem from the March number o' Graham's Magazine. Tho poet in c.xto'ing the "rose of Ceylon's daughter."," forgcts,not tin pearls which arc to be found In our own Now England homes. THE nniDE OP CEYLON. BV E. M. SIDNEY. Tho golden light of F.astcrn skies l he tiiuo wave 01 i tic mninn sea The liullm1, lieivcii-lirn. that floods Theev'ninc nirwilh melody The pearls lint lie upon lliv chi'clc, Like starlieht upon shaded wattrs Arn scarce ns beautif il as ihou, The fairest rose uf Ceylon's daughters 1 Thv hair is darker linn the night, When hrno lins; ,1,t lliu silent seas Thv voire is s iftns sound of late, Or s.inus in (Irr.imv reveries The wirin liaht of thy sunny climn IsroMer thy melting elanccs And tho dirk homily, i f thv check mo richly roseito blush enhances. Oh! Spiin miy talk oflanuniil rvrs And France exlul her vihiiiis fair New England boast tint none with hers In unrest benulv can compare And Europe siy the blight, st maids Are those who Innk on Stambout's waters Uut one i-'lovlicr thin nil, She is the rose of Ceylon's daughters 1 Ol'FERF.D BV THE CHITTENDEN COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 18 4 4. Tor the best cultivated rami, of not le:s than thirty-five acres of cleared land regard being hid to the general manage ment of the farm, the expenses of con ducting the same, tho amount of produce, and tho relative condition of the farm at the commencement and the close of the year, and the preference being given to the most ccunomical and profitable mode of farming, or tint which combines the largest nelt profit per centum from tho capital invested (Including the interest of the estimated value of tl.e firm, and the whole experts uf conducting it) with the greatest improvement in the fertility of the soil and the general condition of the farm, 015,00 For the second best do. . . . 12,00 For the third best do 8,00 For the fourth best do. ... 0,00 All applir.uirvm for th" above premiums must he mide in wr'tinj, a !dres'"l to the Secretary, ' ft at h'l li i ( i''.r' u'vi, r.t- ' ' , til-; li.-ot day of liny l 'rt. Li ich r.ppl-. ml should, in such nntice, stale his rejide.iee and Post Office address. Hae'i applicant slnll, on or before the first Tuc bday ia December next, dopo3tto a written 'iner.t villi the Secretary, containing a gon er.! dt'scriplior of the farm, and ct the Manage rs' :t r.nri produce ll.ereot', the hind ami quality of the siil as nrarly r.s can be ascertained, the quantity and quality of the manure npplied the previous ceum, with the ir.cde of its application, a r.eral doen.iplion of the cultivation the prst, and such other circumstance tclaling to ll.L urevious management of the soil ns may be ni!,io .ed tc have i.iatetinliy affected or modified bj..fcu.,. ,i: i-, -iruo-ona prisi'Ul year a .irtic'.'Ur description or all the a ck kept or. th? farm, and Vi-' method of feerl- inr mid inpni'p'ment, cummer and winter the while nummr of acres l-llcd the liutuber cf acic: i.) meadow and the average qurntily of hay per acre the number of acres in pasture ai.d the condition thereof tho number of acres each of corn, potatoes and other hoed croni, and the ra.' amount of yield per acre the munler of. a oi in it, ol eiey other kind ol grain, am of C ix, am! the average yield per acre of i-,ich a pailiculir description nf the mode of cultiva ting and harvesting each or the fori going crops, with an account of .ha kit d and quantity of seed used, and the lime o' planting or sowing the quantity of grits seed v,vn to the ncre, the time and manner of fowiiir, nuJ the kinds ued the am in n t of butler and rheese made, and the pro ces: of mr.king the quimtity of wool grown, and of what grade the increase in the n umber and in the talue or the stock, after deducting the ex pense nf keeping, over and above the pasturage the kinds r.f fruit raised, tho amount of each and the ues to which they were applied and, as nearly as they can be estimated, the produce of the garden, apiary, and poultry yard together with a statement of the whole expense of con dueling the operations of the firm and the man agemenl of the dairy, appropriately arranged un der the various heads, interest on land, ma nures, seed, team work, labour, interest on value of stock, use of dairy apparatus, ,Vc , i"cc. For the sake of uniformity, labour must be reckoned, including hoard of men and teams and use of ordinary firm tools, at seventy.five cents a day for imn during haying and grain lnrvest and fifty cents a diy at other times, boy's help in proportion seventy.five cents a day tor a span of horses, and fifty cents for a yoke of oxen manure at twenty-five cents a load, of thirty bush els, for any kind of long or unrolled manure, and fifty cents for compost of uny kind, or rotted ma nure, inclusive of the expense of carting and spreading ashes, learhed, nt six cents, and un leached, at twelve cents n bushel lime at len cents, and all other .concentrated manures, as plaster, &c at the cost of purolnse ; in all which cases the cost of hauling and spreading is to be included under the heads of labor and team work The prices of seed shall be reduced In one stan dard, to he agreed on by the viewing committee and made known to each applicant at the time of. tlieir iirst visit. The amount of prnduco is in every instance to be ascertained by actual measurement or weight excepting, perhaps, the article of hay, which if not weighed is to be estimated by the appli cant ; which estimate is to be considered and up. proved or amended by the viewing committee at tlieir second visit, as in tlieir judgment imy be necessary. Also his estim ite of the increase or decrease in the value of stock is at the same lime and in like manner lobe considered by them. The estimated value nf the various' kinds of property shall also be reduced to a given stan dard, which is to be determined by the viewing committee, notice whereof is to be given to each applicant at the time of their second visit. The estimated value of the several farms, at which interest on the land is to be computed, shall also be determined upon by said committee and made known to the applicants nt the same time. In making tlieir estimate, the committee will have reference exclusively to the quality and productiveness of the soil, the advantages of fered for easy and cheap cultivation, and such other circumstances, attending, as may be favo rable or otherwise to larrre nroduction at enmns. ratively small expense. The circumstances of me con ot ine ipim tr, ii,. OWner, proximity to market, expensive buildings, or other local ad. vantages which might increase tho saleableness of the Urni, nut which do not materially affect the productiveness of llie soil, or the expense ofcul tivatinn, arc not to be considered. In order to secur the greater accuracy in tlip details nf their several statements, each applicant w II bo relinked In In i ri an account ei nevsT Willi Ins firm, in uiinuhe sli II m ik. a daily entry of nil expenses incurred in conducting Ins farming operation, utating explicitly in what! manner and to whaj purpose each item of expen- diture is applied. Also he will bo required to' keep n jouiinai. of tho most important facts or circumstances connected with, or relating; to his firming business, such, for instance, as the mode of preparing tho sod for a given crop, the timo and manner of sowing and getting in tho seed, the kind, quantity and quality of the seed used, and whether it was submitted to any preparatory process, ns liming", A.C., the condition of the soil as to being wet or otherwise and the state ol the weather nt the time of sowing, the quantity and quality of manure npplied nnd the time and man ner of its application, the mode of subsequent culture, end such other collateral or incidental circumstances as may be supposed to have a bearing eilher favorable or unfavorable on the production of the crop, ns the depredation of in sects, the appearance of smut or rust, the vicis situdes of the season, iVc And so of each nnd every other department of his farming operations The particular form in which such "account" and " journal" shall be kept will not be regarded as a matter of importance; but the fact that they are regularly and faithfully kept in sonik roini, will be regarded as indispens iblo. And it will be the duty of the viewing committee nt each visit to satisfy themselves by personal examina tion or the manuscripts, that this requisition has been complied with. In I'lTerilliT the nbovn premiums, il ii hoped that an honorable competition may be excited for exhibiting the best cultivated firms; and it is b-lii'Vfd that if this be the case, and the method proposed be faithfully carried nut, much valua ble information, derived from the skill and expe rience of our best practical fanners, will be ob tained; which being embodied in the report or the viewing committee, and the statements or competitors, will be rendered available and high ly ujcful to the fanning community. c.v riF.r.a cr.ors. For thi ivo"' profitable four acres or mora of wheat, $12,00 o. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. do. Eccond best four acre, G,00 I AO acres, sP,0J second beat tv:o acres, 4,00 do. do. do. UO. do. do. one ncre, second best one aero, two acres corn, second best do. 5,00 3,1)0 0,00 d,0l) !.',00 a.oo 1,00 2,0i) 1,00 2,00 do. third do. ror the most profitable aero cf rye, For the second do. do. For the most profitable r.;rc of barley, For the second do. do. For the most profitable acre of oats, 1 or tue second do. do. 1,1)0 For the most profitable halfacre orficld beets, P.,011 For the second do. do. 2,00 For the most profitable three acres or more of potatoes, G,00 do. do. second best do. do. 4,00 do. do. one acre di. do. i,0:) do. do. bpcoiuI best ! do. 2,00 Reward being had to the iii ilitV as well as quantity. Fur the moc profitable bnlf acre broom corn, i,00 (lo. do. ocond best do, 2,01) For Hie mo.-t piofilniile ncrp of peas, 2,01) Kir .- -nd di il i 1,00 F.i. -I .J.-.-..!' .Lie h.K . ere ofbeans, 2.00 nr i'. te-' -,d do. do. 1,00 For the in i :'. profitable hilf acre of flax, 2,00 For the second do. do. 1,00 Rr 'i a tun That crop is evidently most profit able in winch the value of the crop bears llie greatest rati or proportion to the costof produc tion. And this, accordingly, is the principle up on which the premiums on field cropj will be awarded. The quantity of land specified above, is 'n each caw to be in one piece. AuJ the c!"wtiaut bl.nll make a written ttatemciil to the following particulars : 1st. As nearly as can lie ascertained, the hind cri mount of the crop red en it th" p-eviot;i year. tJTetjtriUli'y at"! qiv.jtty orinuinnes..pp!ied, and llie mode of cultivation. 2d. The kind nnd quality of manures applied the present season, and the manner oP applica tion. 3d. A particular description oT the soil nnd of Iho prnceas of preparing it for tho reception of I the uv.d. 4th. The hind, quantity, and quality of the' seed used, and to what process, if any, it was submitted preparatory to the planting or sowing. fith The time and manner of gelling in the seed, the state of the 'veatle'r nr.'1 llie condition of the t-.-:l as to iiluess Tor working at the time ; if a hoed crop, the distance of the rows or drills nsunder, llie distance between llie lulls or plains in the row or drill, and the number nf pi nils 1n n hill ; a description of the siileequcnl cultivation and the tune and manner of harvesting and so- 1 curing the crop, nnd the nmount of product, as certained by actual measurement or weight, after the whole produce for which a premium is claimed is harvested ; and the entire expeus-e of the crop, including cultivation, seed, manure, and interest on the value of the land. Of ma nures, a portion or the expense is chargeable to succeeding crops. OT stable or farm yard ma- j nure, one-third of its value, including the ex pense of carting and spreading, should be charged to the present crop, when spread broad cast, and one-half when applied in the hill. Of plaster nud other concentrated manures, one-half is to be charged to the prehcnt crop, when it is spread broad cast, and two-thirds when applied on tho hill. The valuation nf the land is lo bp subject to amendment by the committee on crops, in all cises where they believe it necessary in order to secure equality among the competitors The laud is lo be inea-urcd and the entire crop hanested and measured and weighed in the presence oftlie claimant, nnd at least three other respectable and disinterested persons, whose cer tificate thereof must accompany the statement of the claimant. Of com, seventy pounds in the ear (it having been thoroughly dried) is to tie considered a bushel, and it is to be weighed between the 2t)ti and ;J0th of November. Of potatoes and the other roots, pounds will bo considered a bushel, and their value, whether fir the table or for stock, will be estimated ac cording to the quality. Of wheat, GO lbs shall be considered a bushel, of rye 00 lbs, of barley H lbs, of oils 3'J lbs, r peas 00 lbs, oP beans 0U lbs, nud or buckwheat -lo lbs. Applicants Tor premiums on any or the field crops will be required to keep nn " nccount cur rent" and "journal" or management with such crop, in like manner as is required of applicants on firms. And the fact that such records were seasonably commenced, nnd in tlieir belief regu larly kept, must-bo certified by at least two rep utalile and di. interested persons. No person may opply for two premiums on the same kind of crop, unless the management of the soil or treatment oftlie crop in the two instances, be in Boino important particular essentially dif ferent. oi nonsr.i. For the best stpllinn, over 3 years old, For the second best do do Fur the best stallion over two years old arid under three, For the second best do over two years old nnd under three, For the best brood mare, particular refer ence being had to her stock, or which there must be with the mare at least one colt on the ground, " second best, For tho best geldinj or niaro colt, over one year old and under three, For second best do do For best bucking colt, For second best do ON CATTLE. For li'sl Dull Iho years old or upwards, For st comi best do do For best yearling bull, " For seoond bet ' do Fo'r best bull cair, For second best do For best cow, 3 years old and upwards, For second best do do $.1,00 3,00 3,00 2,00 4,00 2,00 2,00 1,00 2,00 J, 00 r.,no 3,00 3,00 2,00 2,00 1,00 4.00 ii.OO For best heifer, 3 years old and under three, 3,00 For second best Jo do 2,00 For best yearling heifer, 2,00 For second best do 1,01) For best heifer calf, 2,00 For second best do 1,00 For the cow from which the most butter is made in any two weeks in June, 3,00 For second do 2,00 For third do 1,00 lint no premium will bo awarded unless an accurate statement be furnished of the manner of feeding the cow or cows, the management of the milk, the method ot making tho huller, the time when it was made and the breed oftlie cow or cows if known. Hnth the cows and the butter to be exhibited at the fair ; with certificates Trotn the persons who milked, managed the cream and made the butler. Oves, for the best pair of working oxen over 4 years old, C,00 " second best, 3,00 " third best, 2,00 Srr.K.iis, for the best pair of steers over 2 nnd under 4 years old, 3,00 " second best, 2,00 In awarding the premiums on oxen, particular reference will be had to the close matching, ex cellent training, speed and docility oftlie ani mals, as well as to their general good appearancer on siiEcr. For best Merino Unci;, . . . 5,00 For second best do 3,00 For best three Merino Ewes, . . 3,00 For second best do. . . . 2,00 For best five fleeces of Wool, shearing of 1811, 2,00 Tor second bt do. do. 1,00 ON SHINE. Tor best Doir, over eight months old, 3,00 For second best do, do. . . 2,00 For best Breeding Sow, having a litter of pigs 3,00 For second do. do, do. . . , 2,00 In awarding the premiums on hogs, some refe rence will be had to size and present condition. but Mom: to that form, nnd that proportion nf none nnd otlul to more valuable parts, winch promises the greatest value from the least amount cf feed. o:i MArt.:: sfGAn. The best scmpio of Maple Sugar, 2o lbs. or more, 2,00 For the lest do. do. . . . 1,00 ON HONEY. For the best box of Honey, containing not less then 10 lh.i. .... 7o Tor the second list do. do, 50 Applicants fur the premium on maple sugar m ist furni-h a wruteii stalemcnt nf the whole pruceas of making nud clarifying the same. And claiiinnts for the premium on yhone will be reqinred to furnish a statement of the whole in in ige. nen! of the bees, specifying the num. In r ol sv mn ' , Mi" k mi of hive il. ed, what slr-li i, n pi iv.ded in slimmer, the mode ol wintering, a particular description of the lumirer management, the quantity of hon-. ey obtained, and llie increase or decrease in the number of the swarms or l lie value or the slock, Willi nn estimate as nearly as may be or the ex pense of managing the npiary and or the profits cccruing from this branch of domestic industry. tlUTTEIl ANU CHLESE. For the host 25 lbs. Hotter, $5,00 I' or sect nU best Ho. do. J,Ul) 1' or the best quality and greatest quantity of Cheese from any dairy of 20, or more cows, G.00 For sp'ji ml best do. do. do. 4,00 T'or the heft quality and greatest quantity I'll., a 7mt till)' d'.iry of lim of mnio cows and under twenty, 4,00 For '.econd best do. do. do. 2,00 For the best quality nnd greatest quantity of cheese from any dairy of one or more, and under ten, cows, 3,00 For second best do. do. do. 2,00 Applicants for the premiums bn butter or cheese will be required to present a written statement, (the name being concealed,) nf the time when it was made, which must be between the 20th uf May and the 20th of June for bultcr, and between tlu 20th of June and 111" 2.)lh of July fur cheese ; nnd or the entire management of the dairy, specifying the kinds and number or cows kept on the lariu ; the mode ol' keeping, summer and winter; the time of milking; the treatment of the cows, and of the cream previous to churning ; the mode of churning, summer and winter; if n thermometer is used, the tempera ture nf the cream nt the commencement of churn ing; the method or freeing the butler from the milk ; the kind and quantity or salt used ; wheth er saltpetre or any other substance is added to the butter, and the manner nf laying down and preserving the same. Whether the cheese was made from one, two or more uiilkings ; whether any addition was made of cream ; the quantity of rennet used, and the mode of preparing it ; if a thermometer is used, llie temperature of the milk when the rennet is added, and nf the whey for scalding the curd ; the treatment of the curd ; the mode uf pressure and the time in press, nnd the treatment or the cheese afterwards And the whole amount of butter and cheese made from the first of May to the first of September. ON HOUSEHOLD AND SIIUP MANUFACTURES, made in the county during the current year. For the best piece of fulled cloth 3-4 wide, not less than 10 yds., $1,00 " piece of flannel not less than 20 yds. 1,00 " piece of wool carpet not less than 10 yds. 1,00 " double coverlet, 1,00 " pr. woolen blankets, 1,00 " piece of linen not less than 10yds. 1,00 " piece of linen diaper not less thin 10 yds.. " 1,00 " piece of tow cloth not less than 20 yds. 1,00 " quarter of a pound of sewingsilk, 1,00 " pound oT linen thread, 25 " pr. of knit stockings, " 25 " pr. of knit mittens, 25 " pr. of knit gloves, 25 " fur hat, DO " wool hat, 25 " straw hat, 25 " pr. calf boots, 60 " pr calfshocs, 25 " pr. cow hide boots, 25 " saddle, 50 " common two horse harness, CO " firm waggon, 1,00 " horse cart, 1,00 " " ox yoke, 50 " chain, CO " axe, 50 ON rAnIINO IMPLEMENTS, invented by tho claimant and presenting lome new and useful improvement, or constructed by him and possessing some highly useful and dis tinguishing properly, which sliall render it de cidedly preferable to others of the kind in com mon use, or patented implements, the right for this county being owned by the applicant. For the best plow, $3,00 11 second do do 1,00 ' harrow, 2,00 " cultivator, 2,00 cheese press, 2,00 " churn 2,00 " bee hivp, 2,00 " corn planter, 2,00 " tlirnlnng machine,. . 2,00 " Itorse power, 2,00 " funning null, 1,00 slraw cutter, 1,00 " corn shelter, 1,00 ' horse rake, 1,00 drill barrow, 1,00 " grain cradle, 1,00 Claimants presenting any of the above imple ments for the premium will be required to fur nish a written! description, (tho name of the clai mant to be concealed) of the particular improve ment, or distinguishing property of tho imple ment for which ho claims the premium, together with such explanations as would enable a person not acquainted witli the implement to understand its use and operation. on muiTS, For the best five sorts of table apples, not less than ten of each, 1,00 " second best, 50 " third best, 25 11 three sorts of tabic pears, not lets than six of each, 1,00 " second best, 60 " third best, 25 " quart of plums, . 25 " 20 bunches of grapes, 25 For the best new variety of Apples of su perior quality, not less than three in number, 50 For second best do. 25 For ten best peaches, 25 ON VEGETABLES. For the best peck of table potatoes, 25 " six heads of cabbage, " six heads or cauliflower, " peck n( tomatoes, " peck of onions, " peck of carrots, " peck of table beets, " peck of parsnips, " peck of table turnips, " six squashes, " three pumpkins, " twelve ears seed corn, For greatest number of Turkeys raised by any one person, $1,00 do. do. raised from two lien turkeys, 50 For greatest number of chickens raised by any one person during the season, 50 do. do. raised from six liens, 25 For the most splendid flower in blossom, 50 For the best nursery of seedling fruit trees, containing the greatest variety of Tru'it, not less than one fourth acre of ground, $5,00 For the greatest number or Rock Maple Trees, not less than one hundred in num ber, each tree not less than one inch in diameter, which shall be transplanted this spring and be livinir and thriving on the first of October next, 5,00 Tortile second grealest number do. do. do. 3,00 No applicant will be required to make oath to I113 " Statement." But unless the Committee who nre to judge in the case, shall be fully sat isfied, either by Iheir own personal observation or by the testimony of others, that such state meiit is in all particulars essentially correct, the premium will not be awarded. The premiums on farms, and field crops, will be awarded at the Annual Meeting or the Socie ty on the first Wednesday in January next. All others at the Cattle Show and Fair to be here alter appointed. No premium will be awarded, unless in the opinion oT the judges or thocle'sin winch il is ollereii, the animal or article, (arm or crop, what ever it may be, is woutiiv or such premium. Prize animals" or implements at a previous exhibition, will be allowed to compete for the prizes ; but should the same premium heretofore given them, be awarded they will receive a cer tificate to that efl'ect instead or the prize. The time and place of holding llie Cattle Show nnd Fair will be decided upon, and published hereafter. A Committee of Arrangements will be appointed lo exercise a general supervision and control on the day oftlie Fair. The viewing committee will enter upon tlieir duties to examine the farms that may be offered for inspection, about the first oT July nnd the first ol September, rreviousiy in each visit, a notice oPthe day, as nearly as Ihey may be able to des ignate it, on which they may be expected, will be mailed by the committee to each applicant who must be present nt their examination, and give such information relating to the object of iui:ir visit, as iney may require. All reports of viewing Committees sliall be made in writing, and signed by the members as senting thereto. Should the funds of the Society permit, dis cretionary premiums will be awarded on some articles, not enumerated above, which may be deemed worthy of attention and encouragement. It is also hereby riiovinto, That in case the funds nf the society should prove insufficient, af ter defraying other necessary expenses or the so ciety, to pay th full amount u.rthe premiums or Tered and awarded, such deficiency or sum wanting, sliall be deducted by nn equal ratio rrom all the several awards, and the payment of the balance on each sliall cancel the award. Hut althnngh the Board of Managers deem it prudent to adopt such proviso, it should be sta ted that any necessity for the exercise thereof, cannot exist, if the liberality ol' the farmers and the rriends oragriculture throughout llie county, should in any degree correspond with the impor tance oP the enterprise or with the increasing in terest therein which it is believed is gaining ground amongst us. The utility and necessity of requiring the va rious statements respecting farms, crops, ani mals, articles and implements, will be at once ap parent when it is considered that the exclusive object for which the society was organized, and for which the appropriation in aid of Agriculture was made by the Slate, was the improvement of the condition of agriculture generally ; and that to effect this, it becomes necessary to convince the farming public, firstly, that improvements are necessaiy, and that they can be made, and secondly, by what means and in what manner they may be effected. The first of these may he accomplished by the mere exhibition of a premi um crop or animal, but to render the lesson of any practical use to others, a statement of the means which have been successfully employed is most obviously required. Farmers of Chittenden County, it is for you to say whether this society shall go forward and accomplish its high object of elevating the con dition of our Agriculture to Hint degree of emi nence, of which our natural advantages render it capable, or whether it shall fail of that object If it be your pleasure that the society shall be sustained, you have only to come, forward and give it your countenance and support, and it will bo done. Now is the time to make up your minds. Begin in season, join the society, and before spring opens, let every farmer determine to try for one premium, at least. There is no man that docs not excel in one tiling, in that thing let him show his skill,' and merit the re ward, U. II. PENNIMAN, President. CAL&Njvice President,. Wm. Weston, Secretary. Burlington, February 23,1844. Affecting. " Every thing is arrnnged for your wedding wiili Susan Tompkins," said a Cither to his only son ; "and I hope yon will behave yourself like a man Thom as." The individual addresied was a voung man seated in a chair, despatching a niece of 1 1 read nnd inul isses. His only answer was a sigh, accompanied, by a timid of tears. Tim parent started and in an angry vnicp ili'itiHndi'd -hal nlijeciinm lin cntild have. "Sus hi is lianilsnino anil wealthy, nnd mar ried you must hu sumo timo or another. Your mother and I were married, and why should n't you be, pray I" Yes," finally sobbed Thomas, "hut that's a different case : you married mother but I'm sent out to marry a ttrangt gal " St lected. PRIZE ESSAY ON SMANUHE. Section Seventh. Of the Circumstances which affect the Quality and Quantity rf Animal Dung. That we may reduce lo some general princi ple, easily understood and easily remembered, the facts scattered up and down among the mass of writers and observers about the different qual ity of manure afforded by different animals, or the same animals at different times, let me, reader, request your enmp my while 1 walk into a new department of your chemistry. You may not understand the reasons of this difference in manures ; why, for instance, fattening cattle give stronger manure than working oxen, with out going a little into the mode how animals are nourished. The whole may be stated in plain terms thus : All food serves two purposes. The first is to keep up the animal heat, and this part of food disappears in breathing or in form ing fat; that is, after serving its purpose in the animal body, it goes ofl" in tho breath of sweat, or it forms fat. It is so essential to the action of breathing, lliat we will term it fond for breathing, or the breathers. The second pur pose answered by food is, to build up, sustain, and renew the waste of the body. Now all this is done from the blood. To form blood, animals must be supplied with its materials ready formed. They are ready formed in plants; and animals never do form the mate rials for making blood, We may therefore term this kind of food the blood formers. We have then two classes of food: the breathers and the fat formers, and the blood formers. If we look to the nature of these different classes, we find that sugar, starch and gum are breathers. Now there are three principles found in plants cxautly and identically the same in chemical composi tion with white of egg, flesh, and curd or milk. Now these three principles exactly alike, wheth er derived from animals or from plants, are Iho only blood formers. I sliall not, reader tax your attention further upon this subject, than to beg you lo remember these impurlant facts; First, all food for breathing and running fit, contains only these three elements oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. Secondly, all food for forming flesh and bloud, in addition to these contains ni trogen. This is the gist of the whole matter, so far as relates to manure. Bear in mind as you go on with me, reader, this fact, that all the fond ani mals take, that alone can form flesh and blood, contains nitrogen. The door is now open for explaining why age, sex, kind of employment, difference or fiiod, difference of animal, can and do produce a marked difference in the value or dlfferant manures. And first, let us consider how the quantity is affected. This depends on the kind of food. The analysis of cattle dung which has been given, is that of cows fed on h ty, tint is, herds gr ist, red-top, fte. ("or what is usually termed L,uglisii nay,) potatoes ami water: the cattle kept up the year round. An animal so treated, consumed in seven days Water, Cll lbs. Potatoes, c7 " Hay, 1C7 ' During this time she dropped clear dung 590 lbs., or very nearly a bushel of dung a day. Every attention was hero paid Inaccuracy alr measure ment and weight. The annual amount oC dung rrom one cow exceeds, by this account, that which ii usually assigned. But, as it is a mat ter or some importance Cot the firmer to estimate what the produce or his stock may be in dung, the fidlowing statement, containing the resulls of a large establishment, will probably give that average. At this establishment the cows were kept up theyear round for their dung. It was collected for use from litter, and measured daily into large tubs of known capacity. The average number of cows kept was filly -Your for nine and a half years, During that time, they consumed or beets, meal, and pumpkins, brewery grains, cornstalks, turnips, potatoes, and cabbages, 942,436 lbs. giving an average of green Todder, fir each cow per year, I, i-17 lbs. Average con sumption of hay I'or each cow per annum, 8,1 G 1 lbs. The total dung for nine and a half years was 120,520 bushels, or per cow per annum, 235 bushels. This gives a daily consumption of green food, 5 lbs., and 22 lbs. of liay per con, anu two anil a halt pecKs ol uung per day, or about 5G lbs. per cow, But according to some experiments made to determine how iiiuch the quality of the food af- lecteu me quantity ot dung, it appears that the solid and fluid excrements partiallv dried, were. compared with the food, as follows : In Cattle. Sheep. Horses. lbs. lbs. lbs. 100 lbs. of rye gave dung 43 40 42 " " hay " 44 42 45 " ' potatoes " " 11 13 " " mangel-wortrel (J " " gtecn clover " 9 1-2 8 1-2 ' " oats " 49 51 " " rye 53 My own experiments on this subject gave for 100 lbs. of hay and potatoes as above, estimating both n3 dry, or free from water of vegetation, 32 0 lbs. of dung ; and this estimated as dry, is reduced to5,(i lbs., or2G lbs. of dry food gave 14 lbs. of dry dung. But as a general fact, we may say, that well-cured hay and the grains give one half of their weight of dung and urine ; pota toes, roots, and green grass, about one-tenth. It will be undersrood why the quality of food should affect the quantity of dung. The more watery, the less in bulk is voided, because there is actually less substanc.e taken. And as the animal requires this to form its flesh and blood and fat, and to keep up his breathing, so will he exhaust more completely his food. More going to support mm, less is reiurneu uy me ordinary channels. So when much vegetable fibre exists, ns in chopped straw and hay, then, as it goes but little way towards supporting breathing or forming blood, a greater bulk is rejected. In grains, on the contrary, which afford much of all that the nnimal requires, less is extracted and more voided. (To bo continued.) Inflammation of the Throat cured bv Alum. Powdered alum applied by the finger In the part affected, very seldom fails to ctireln flim iia'ion oftlie throat in a few days. The of. ficacy of this remedy, says tho author, M. Val pean, is as marvellous as it is rapid. Employed tho first, second, third or fourth day, while there is ynt im abscess in the tonsils, it arrests all sympl in? as it wore by enchantment ; the fe ver abates, the swelling diminishes, the appe tite returns, and tho convalescence is quickly decided and completed. By showing that this remedy is as powerful in simple infl munition as in iiifliminition of the tonsils, M, Valpeau hopes that practitioners will no longer hesitate to make proof of its efficacy, and rescue thereby hun dreds of human Deings from the grave. Lon- aon pap. Education. The following brief but beauti ful passage occurs in a late artiele in Prazer's Magazine : Educatiun does not rommn ti,til. tt,a 1 phabet. It begins with a mother's look with . .. . a inner s nuu oi approoation.or a sign ot reproof With ft RUtpr'n rrpntln nrnjaiirs t( llm h.n,l or a brother's nnblo act of forbearance with haudfulh of flmvors in green and daisy mead ows wnh bird's nests admired, but not touch. ed wdh creeping ants, and almost impercepta ble emtnenls with humming bees and glass bee-hives with pleasant walks in shady lanes and with thoughts directed, in sweet and kind- , . . . ly tones aim worus, 10 nature, lo Deauiy, to acts of benevolence, to deeds of virtue, and to the tense of all good, to God himself. From the Rochester Daily Democrat. THE LOST FOUND. VVo had frequently observed a heart-broken looking lad pass by with a gi.llun oil can in his hand. His tattered garments and his molaii cholly face wero well calculated to excite oh. "orvationand pity. It was too evident that the vessel which he held had been diverted from its legitimate use, and that it was now used, not as an oil-can, but as a whiskey juo. Hav ing nenn him pss twice lin one day with his ever-present can, wo had tho curiosity to ac cost him, and did so, by inquiring his resi dence. " I live," said he, "five miles from tho city, on the road." " Vou havo been to the city once before to day. have you not !" " Yes, sir, t camo down in the morninjr, but I could not get what I was sent (or, and had to cnino again." " What was you sent for my lad ! It must bo something very important o make it necus s.iry for you to walk twenty miles in this storm." " Why sir, it wai whisky that I was sent for. Father had no money, and he sent mo to Mr. 'a to get trusted; and he would'nt trust any more, so I had to go home without the whiskey ; hut father sent ,no back again." "How do you expect to get it now, when you couldn't got it this rnnrning!' ' Why, sir, I have brought a pair of shoes, which fumcr sent mother. Mr. will give whiskey for them. He has got two or threepairs of mother's shoes now.' ' Do you like to carry whiskey home my bov!' ' Oh, no, sir, for it makes us all so unhappy ; but I can't help it.' Wo took the responsibility of advising the boy not lo fulfil his errand, and returned hnme with him. Tho family we found consisted of a hmband, wife, and lour children ; the oldest (tho boy) was not more thin ten years of age, while tho youngest was an infant of a few months. It was a cold blustering day. The north wind blew harshly, and c.itne roughly and unbidden, through the numberless crevices of the poor man's hovel. A few black embers occupied the fire place, around which wero hud died half-n.iked e.hildren.and woe stricken moth, or and wile. Her faro was haggard, her eye sunken, her hair dishevelled, her clothes tatter ed and unclean. She was seated on an old broken chair, and was swinging to and fro, ai if endeavoring to quiet her infant, which moaned pitifully in its mother's arms. It had been sick from its birth, and it wis now seemingly struggling to free it self from the harsh world into which it had, but a lew month's previous, been ushered. There was no toar in tho eyo of tho mother, as 6he gazed upon tho expiring babe. The fountain li id been long before dried up by the internal fires which alcuhol had kindled and fed. Yet sho was the picture of despair j and we cnuld nut but fancy, as she sat thus, that hur mind was wandering bac to the happy past the days of her infancy and childhood, and her early homo. Hour thing ! She had given her afflictions and hand to a man who had taken the fir-t steps in intemperance. She had left her homo full of buoyant hopes, hopes never lo be realized to spend a life of misery with a sot. Broken hearted, cist out from the society of her former friend?, frowned upon by the 'guod socie ty' humane, sunken of as tho miserable drunk ard, with no hand lo help, no heart to pitv, s'te very soon became a tipler and a drunkard her self. At the side of this woe-smitten mother kneel ed a little girl of fivo orbix years, down whose sallow cheeks tears wero coursing ; and who over and annn oxelauned, 'Pour little Willie, must you die! Oh ! mother, must Willie die!' and then kissed the clammy sweet from little Willie's brow, covered her face with her tatter ed apron and wept. In tho opposite corner of the chimney, and among tho ashes which covered tho hearth, sat a boy of about seven years, dragging from the half dead embers a putatnu. which ho broko open with the remark, 'Mother give this tn little Willie. May bo he's hungry. I'm hungry tun, and so is sisler ; but Willie's sick. Give Imn this potitoc, mother.' ' No, poor bov;' maid the mother, 'Willie will neier be hungry again. He will soon l dead.' This remark drew all the children around tho mother and the dying child. The tether was sitting upon what was intended for a bedstead without hat, shoes or coat, with his handj thrust into his pockets-, apparently indifferent to all that was passing around. His head was resting upon his breast, ami his blurred eyes were fa3 toned upon the floor, as he was afraid to look up at the sorrowing group who wero watching the countenance ol tho dying infant. There was a moment of silence. Not a sound was hoard. Even the sobs of the little girl had ceased: Death was crossing tho hov el's ihreshhold. Tho vory respiration of the household s-iemed su-pended ; when a light shivering of tho limbs of llie infant, and a shriek from the half-conscious mother, told all that the vital Epark had fled. For the first time the father moved. Slowly advancing io whom his wife was seated, with quiiering lips he whispered, 'Is Willie dead V ' Yes, James, the poor babo is dead !' was tho choking reply of iho niothor, win still sat as at first, gizmg upon the faco of iho little nno. Without uttering another word, the long bru talized father lelt the house, muttering as he left, 'My God, how long !' At this moment a kind hearted lady came in who had heard, but a fev moments before, of tho dangerous illness of the child. Sho had brought with her some medicine; but her an gel visit was too late. Tho gentle spirit of the babo had (led, and there remained for her but to comfort tho living. This she did, whilo we fol lowed tho father. We related to hun the cir cuinsianres which had led us to his house, and briefly spnko of the misery which inevitably fol lows in the wake of intemperance. I know it sir,' said he, 'I havo lnng known it. I have not always been what you see me. Al cohol and my ppolilo brought mo to this depth of degradation.' ' Why not master that appetite 1 You have tho power. Thousands havo proved it. ' Sir, I believe it. I have seen others, as far reduced as myself, restored and inado happy j but you are the first who has ever spoken to me upon the subject, and I had loo strong a passion for liquor to think of reforming myself.' 1 Well, will you not now make the effort J' I will. It has occupied my thoughts during the whnlo morning ; and now, in the presence of Almighty God, I swear never to touch the ac cursed thing which has ruined me and made beggars of my family.' Happy enough to hear this manly resolution, we returned lo the house with him in due lime we h id made tho fact known to his wife and pro ducing a p'ed'e, the whole family signed it upon Ac table which held the body of their dead child. The sceno was an affecting one. Two years had passed, when the incident was recalled to our mind by a shake of the hand from a genileman who was returning west with a stock uf dry goods, which he had just purchas ed in New York. It was the man who sign id THE TEMPERANCE PLEDGE BY THE BODY OF HIS DEAD CHILD. EXERCISE. Many people look upon the necessity man ia under of earning his bread by labor, as t curse. Hut it ia evident from tho structure of the body, that ojcercise is not loss necessary than Inod f ir the preservation of health : those who labor aro not only tho most healthy, but generally tho most happy part of mankind. Tins is peculiar ly tho case with those who live by tho culture of the soil. The love of activity shows itsolf vervcarlv in man. So strong is tho principle, that a hcafthy youth cannot be restrained from activity. Our love of motion is surely a strong proof of ite utility. It seems to bo a law throughout tho whole animal creation, that no creature, without exercise, shall enjoy health, or bo able to find subsistence. Inactivity never fails to produce a universal relaxation of tho solids, which disposes the body to innumerable-diseases. When the solids aro relaxed, neither the digestion nor any oftlie se cretions can be duly performed. How can per. soii3 who loll all day on easy chair., and sleep all night on beds of down, fail to be relaxed ! Nor do those much mend the matter who neat hardly stir about but in a coach. Glaudular obstructions generally proceed from inactivity. These are the most "olisliualo ma ladies. So long as the liver, kidneys and oth glands, duly perform their functions, health U seldom much impaired; but when they fail, it is difficult to bo restored. Weik nerves are al-o the constant enmpan ions of inactivity. We seldom hear the labors oils complain of weak nerves. Tins plainly point out the sources from which nervoii-i dis eases generally originate, and tho means by which thoy may he prevented. It is absolutely impos-nhlo to enjoy health, whero the perspiratinn'is not duly carried nn ; but that can never bo the case where exorcise i3 neglected. When the miller wnich ought to be thrown ofl' by perspiration, is retained in th? body, il vitiates the humors, and occasions the gout, rheumatism, &c. No piece of indolence injures the health moro than tho custom of lying in bed too long in tho morning :mIic morning is undoubtedly the best for exercise, as the air braces and strengthens the nerves. Custom soon renders early rising agreeable, and next lo total abstinence from all intoxicating drinks, nothing contributes more to the preservation of health. Every person should lay themselves under some sort of necessity to take exercise. Indo lence, like other vices, when indulged, gains ground, and at length becomes agreeable. Hsnco many who were fond of exercise in tho early part ot life, become averse to it afterwards. This is oftn the case with gouty and hypocon. driac persons and frequently when their dis eases are difficult to euro. Indolence not only occasions diseases, and renders man use'esa to society, but promotes all manner of vice. Tho mind, if not engaged in somo useful pursuit, is constantly in quest of some ideal pleasures. From these sources pro coed most of tho miseries of minkind. Cer tainly man was never intended to bo idle. In activity frustrates the vory design of his crea tion, whereas an active life is the best and groat. est preservation of health. Oracle of Health. OROI'HOLITIIE. A now material fur roofing house?, lining tanks, cisterns, 6cc, is coming into notice, un der the above name, which, as far as experi ments have shown, bids fair to bo brought into extensive use. The Mining Journal describes it as a lino gritty cenwnf. laid by michinorv un. on light open canvas--, forming a substance rath, er thicker than common oil. cloth, for which pur pose ii is ouereu as a suustiiiue. It is manu factured in various colors and des-iffns, with this advantage, that tho colors penetrate the solid miterial, and, consequently, tho palem lasts as long as the fabric, which is so hard, that tho blade of a knife m iy be rubbed away unon it as effectually as nn a grindstone. In use it forms a continuous surface, being laid in large sheets, lapped on the edges-, and joined lot'ethnr wirii cement itself and generally weighs about 13 ins. to the squaru yard. It can be laid down at about half the price of zinc, and eion conside rably less than slates or tiles; and its extreme lightness and impermeability to water and damp, render it puticularly suitable for building pur. poses, while its portability vvili enable the eini. grant to avail himself ot its advantages ; fur- nisinng nun with a light and durable material for roof, walls, and floor, while it prevents tho harboring of newts, scorpions, hzirds-, and other noxious and disagreeable vermin. A French company for tho manufacture of this labric has been some years in existence, and ia scarce v able to meet the demand. It is r-inctioned by i no government anu trie uoyai institute of France ; and in England it has'been cmnloved at the government work at Deptford ; the Riy al Botanic Society of London havo abo used it extensively in their buildings, and several archi. tects and engineers of eminence are adopting it in preierence io any ot me old modes ot roull--i"S, "Sc. ATTEMPT AT EMANCIPATION. A lair udniiror of tho profoundity uf ac quisition possessed by Mr. Burrilt, of Wor cester lienor known as tho " Learned Blacksmith" seems lo have been bent up on forging for liim tho chains r.f Cupid.' Under the sioiiituro of Cleodora, sho hii iidilressed a letter to tho editor of tho " Christian Citizen," (. new paper estab lished by Eliliu Burrill) regretting in its fi nal clause, that ho " has not given to tho world the best evidence a man cun give, res pect admiration for tho sex," and -somewhat reproving his principles, because, avoid ing mull imony, he has "passed by on tho other side." Tho intrepid Clendora doubtless remem bers that this is Bissextile, and that iho privileges of her sex urn enlarged on this-fourth-yearly epoch. Tim editor replies to the fair ono in ii defence, which tho conduc tor of iho Worcester jEgis pronounces to bo " oiib nf the most comprehensive broad sides ho ever knew lo ho delivered against llie whole rank and file of antagonist force." ila sujs : Willi regard to " tho sofi impeachment" of our gentle correspondent, 'tis true that appearances nre somewhat against us. Out wo assure her, it does not comu from any inaderpiato appreciation of the femalo char acter. Could we have wedded the whole female sez at once, we should have been a married man long ago. Had our learned friend let loose all hi fifty-two tongues at once, thoy could hardly have told with greater effect upon tho ap proaches of the enemy. What woman would desiro a conquest that must ho shared among so many 1 Bos. Trans. 4 I can't sneatc In nuttlir navnr .InnA - ... ....,. ...... Dull, 4 thing in all my life,' said a chap the other mcht . . . -i,i:. ...k- t....i i i " ah a puiib luccuiij;, null lliu UU6II CallOU UJ1CHI to hold forth 'but if unvhrwtv in iKn ..rr.,.,.1 ...ill speak fur nc, I'll liold his hat.'

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