Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, March 29, 1844, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated March 29, 1844 Page 1
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NOT THE GLORY OP OASAR M V T THE WELFARE OP ROME. VOL. XVII.. BY H. B. STACY. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, MARCH 29, 1844. ..No. 43. Kr the Burlinalon Free Press. THE DIU'AUTUHIi. My dear native Home (-tc tlieewelll Linrl of my liirlhl I leave thec now, o'er this Wide world to wander; not thai 1 love thee Les, but duty calls, and I her mandate Mu-t obey. That I lovo thee, who that lnows My aching heart or sees my weeping eyes Can doubt ! Ifcatcn at least inn well attest My ordor of affection. I love thee Why should I not? thou art the Freeman's home, And all thy children prize their liberty s 'Tia dear them, aye, dear as life itself. Oppression may not live in thy gKcn vale Where sweel Contentment reigns with all her train Of good; where every law is just and true, And justly too admini'teredi for e'en The gales that lend the fresh'ninc glow to thy Stern mountain sons that make thy ilaurlitersfair, And Health sit smiling on thy fruitful hills, Seems too, to fan the flame of Freedom's fire. .1 leave thee, my natal soil an orphan I And well I thus may weep to leave the land Where 'nealh the clod my dearest earlhlv friends Lie slumberine. Sleep on my mother, rest Beside my father's tomb, thy mortal part, While thy pure spirit here shall watch o'er this Thy wayward wand'rin? -on. Forul menory clings With close cinbrare to scene of other days, When I in childhood's sunny hours l.ncw nought Hut Pleasure's cup or uhen in after years, With chisi'nrd hopes and ihcek'd desires I sought Hjr turns, for wealth, distinction, fanr or lore Or when with fervid youthful fancy fired, I fondly owned I loved : and now to think They're past, those hours of brilliant cloudless joy Is pain indeed, -l!ut I am speeding on, With rapid pace, from all the happy scenes Of my boyhood's years ; and cennov Th) d's'ant shores are scarce conceivable; Hut ere thy dim, uncertain form is lost Jaitirc, one louring, Iing'iing look I'll take, And bid ihee ihen, adieu ! And shall 1 no'er . Agjin behold thee '(alas, it maybe, That erul turn my steps to thecaenin, My voice will cst es still in dralh, as the Clear placid deep that now I tide upon. But where 1 go I may not find a Iriend On whom to lean my weary aching head ; But, haply, I may lie unlhoueht of and Unwept, bt-neath the willow's mournful shade, With nought to mark my lonely resting-place, And none to tell my sad untimely end I Williston, 3d. Mo., 1841. L. V.. S. Mr. Editor : In looking over the papers of an old friend, my attention was diverted, anil my mind interested by mimic vorv pertinent icmarks upon that most pernicious nml umt dreaded of all ihu evils that infest community Slander. While there are bo many in these degenerate times, hnwmuchsoevorthoy may value their dim reputation, seem to forgot, in relation to others, that "a good name is hotter than riches," the sentiments of my friend im.y not bo deemed " mal.appropos," should you think it proper to give them a place in your paper. Sit am i: it. -Her name men Slander call : t ller nature is. all uoodmss to abur And cauelc crimes contininlly to frame, Willi which, she cuilele s persons may accuse, And Meal away the crown of ih ir good mine. Spencer's J'tiiry Queen. It is ever the tendency of vice to produce pain and misery. This is peculiarly the case with Slander. Other vices may be equally wicked and detestable, yet, few exert a more extensive and baneful influence upon society. Slander is not, like many other vices, codfined mostly to the low and vulgar, or to any particular class of individuals; if it were so, lar loss would ho sulT. ered from its pernicious iiilluncn. Hut, alas '. it seeks its victims in all places, and among all classes in the city and village the splendid palace and humble cottage. It spares neither age nur youth ; but renders the former misora- luminary, upon its southwardly or northwardly course towards tho Folsiicial line, as if intelli gence, as well as light, were centcreil there, and benevolence influenced the radiation of its hoat. It is not strange to nio that men worship pud the sun ; nay, that adoration seems to de: nolo much elevation of mind, advance, mentof intellect. Something of natural science was involved in the purified idolatry, which blessed the cause of summer and winter, seed time and harvest and was to the worshipper a lolicn and l. means of day, and became, by its absence, Iho cause of night. Tho earth seemed to teem as of itself with objects and animation, at least of vegetable life ; but it was the sun, (and they saw it,) which gave form and color to the products. I look from my window now, and the buds that have been almost hidden from sight during winter, are swelling into size, and giving promise of fruit and of foliage, in the in. Ilucnces of the life-giving sun. The west wind comes down to us, chilled by the mountain snow over which it passes, and two pigeons have gath ered in the lea of a chimney, on tho opposite house, and bashing in tho direct and reflected beams of tho sun, are cooing and billing, In Sab. hath hymns of loc. Th? sun has awaken them loo, and all the mysterious fountains of nature are telcased. The mm. worshippers saw thi and other things of like character ; they studied, combined, compared, traced back Iho influences to the mediate cause, and, true to the instinct of the heart, thev adored. Tho altar rose, tho vic tim was immolated, tho sacrificial 11 line licked no tho blood : and man worshipped not the God, but his chariot wheel of fire, that conceal ed the divinity above a wheel instinct with liaht. norhnns. but not of intelligence. There is a movement in the streets below, as if the pop. ulation of the place were inarching to the sound of bells. The inhabitants and tho visiters am going to worship. They have an altar, at which they how, and an object of adoration, in whose presence they stand ; but it is not tho sun, it is not tho light of day. A revelation has been made, and the altar to that luminary Iras crum bled away ; the fire has ceased to burn, and llie worship is forbidden. Yet is not the heat, or the influence of the sun, less than it was nor' is' its lightness dimmed ; it goes forth, day by day, in tho same ?lnrv that marked its progress when it first took no its courso amid tho anthems of tl, loafer lights, 'when llie morning stars sang together.' lluttlie revelation of a higher cause, the source and fountain of all of life and light, has been made. That which was hidden be neath the glorv above tho chariot, 'dim with ex cessive brightness,' has been made visible to faith ; and adoration, and worship, and love, which the uniformed heart poured out to waste before created things, have been elevated to the Creator, and men have risen above the calcula lions of Iho elements of stars and planets, to the contemplation, if not comprehension, of 1 1 im. from whoso hands these orbs were launched in to the illimitable void; types only of Ins power, evidences of his goodness; letterings on the great page of nature, indicative of a spirit be yond, unseen, invisible, yet felt in all his works How poor, how low all adoration seems, that i not guided by this revelation that does not in elude the cause ! When onco the motive, and not tho act, is to bo tho criterion ; when the inn live rather U to qualify the act, then how neccs sary to worship becomes an object that can 'search the heart and try the reins.' It has bee a part of the blessings of this revelation, tfia while the proper vlycct of worship has been pre seiited, tho proper manner has also been disclos. cd. Not the form of tho temple, nor the form of worship those are tho lesser appliances aic outward, hut assist the souse the motive, the blc, and blasts tho budding hopes of the latter. It enters the social circle, where dwell content- 1 principle, and tho end are proposed, and thesi meut and happiness ; as if by magic, the lovely scene is changed, and tho golden chain winch binds friends together in harmony, is broken : haziness flees ae boforo a .pontilonco : bittor feelings of hatred and revenge withered hopes constitute the means of acceptability. All nalurul'm spiritual life, as in physical life. Tl moans directly appl'cd upon susceptible object produce opds , and the neglect loaves desirable ends dependent upon which we may not calcu- atul blasted reputation, arc an i are Jm amiu late. The Lnnidin.r of Ibn Iron M mi- window, is the universal wreck. It enters thrj peaceful , tho consequence of its closure to the direct uge where joy sparkles in each eye. and rays of tho .,, and its shelter in the early twi", every look is that of Kindness and love: the from tho blasts of tho mountain air. Thus phy--akies a moment before so bright and fair, are sical causes favorable, have produced physical t once clouded : blander iias blasted the rcpu. good elR-cts. Tho flock of litllo children which liiuuii i -'"-" ' - " "vnr I now see lilt JOirtr in Hi itavr tl, ro..,l.l '.the look of that eye wii r li once beamed on him with a mother's love , ir the foul breath of Sinn. ..der has sullied his fair iiaine. The sympathizing agonies of heart-broken s.Mers afford him no re lief; and death itself n. .id almost be esteemed a desirable refuge fron such misery. Perhaps Slander fixes its cruel fangs upon ,the lovelier part inn domestic circle; it blackens the unsuhie i ,innv of woman's char acter ; but here I stop he picturo is too sad to paint: character is w man's all : it is the firm Jrock on 'which she am u rs all her hopes ; it is .this that renders her tho ,pt and loveliest of the , creation of God : without t, 6he is like a wreck with its compass lost, ana nit one cheering star 'to guide its lonely pan, along tho boisterous t ocean. Alas ! how succcssfu , ica slander prey upon virtue and innocence! ijmv 0fien does it poison tho cup of bliss, aim dry up its very foun t'ains ! At the contemplation f such evils, the heart sickens, and we turn frorn the picture in 'disgust exclaiming in tho Unjuago of the dra- inatist ; '."T.! Slander, Whose edge is sharper man llUorjwho-c tongue, Ouivenomsall the worma of Ai t whoso breath 'Rides on the posting winds, and a,,,,, ,,,; Allcomers of the world Mngi, Q,.en8i anj Slates; c Maids, matrons-nay, the secrrj o( ,he ,, This viperous Slander entercth." VINUEX. LAY SERMON, The following isono of tlifeeboautiful Ictlers which Chandler, of llie U. S, G!Zattc, usually addresses to his Airm Chair,lcnover uusi. nets calls bin abroad. is a rich gem. HiKnisBORGH, Mitfi, 3, 1811. JWu Dear Arm CAm'r It is a delightful mor ning, a clear Heaven abotje.a, gm) shed. ding down light and boat upon fj that writ upon its influences ; and all things vhich I can ,'look out upon, give token of the,r v,din t0 ig V,wers. Strange mystery, .Hw, t )t so m,ch Wnds upon the rising and jwn-. fi. , of t)iat nit-n . i ilt! Sunday School. Beautiful shellur from tho unwholesome blights of evil communication; delightful vithdrawal from ex. posure, that might nip in the bud the heart's best afflictions, and thus sheltered, they are placed in the light and heat of ih.u ujneil ,i., quickens our higher nature, and makes it profi table to endless beauty. Tho pigeonsnn the op. pnsite roof, (they are there now,) confessed by their movements, delicate and graceful, tho gen eral influence of a vernal sun, into whose beams thoy had thrown themselves. It is thus that animal life acknowledges: and responds ; and shall u it our children, and wc, by placing our. selves within tho operation nfa spiritual warmth feel the quickening influences, and learu Iho good lesson, tho soul of all worship, tho incense that makis every sacrifice acceptable, viz: 'to luvo one another.' I'll go to church, and sec what is tho effect, It will bo a sad commentary on tho revelation of love, to bear the passions appealed to, and prejudices revived, and hatred and all unkind ness provoked. Thine, TUB KUITOR. Nur.MF.o Thkk.TIio nuiiiiog trco llour- ai:a Hi uiiijjiiiuir, lll.ui l) C(tliltur. It IS raised from tho nulii: nurseries, where it ru. mains till llie fifth year, wlinn it puis forili its nrst uiossonis ami snows its sex. It is then sot out nenimuunlly. Tlio trees aro nlantod thirty feet apart, in diamond order a main Irro in tho cunlro. 'I hey heein m bear in tlio eighth your, increasing for ninny vours and thoy pay a largo profit. There is no nutmeg season. Every day oftlio year shows buds, blossoms nnd fruit, in every stago of growth to maturity. The nutmeg is a largo and beautiful tree, with thick foliage and of hticii gri-oii tuiur. i no ripe irmt is singu larly brilliant. Tim shell is clossv black. nnd tlio macd il exposes when it bursts, is oil bright scarlet, niaKing Urn treo onn of tho most beautiful ohjects of tho vegetable world. Deuaea, LAFAYETTE. From Marston ; or, The Memoirs of a Statesman. nv im. waiiner. My entrance but slightly deranged the symposium, unit I was soon furnished with nil tho freemasonry of llm feast, by being culled on to do honor to tho toast of " His Majesty the King of Great Britain." My duty was now done, my initiation was com plete, and while my eyes were fixed on the portrait which, still in its unharmed beauty, looked beaming on the wild revel below, I heard, in tho broken queries, nnd interjec lional panegyrics of theso hyperborean he roes, more of tlio history of Ltifuyetto than 1 nan uvLr UAii:i-ii;u iu luavii my c.iis. Ills nfqjiad been the strniiocst contrast to the calm countenance which I saw so tnin- ijtiilly listen to its own talc. It was Quixo tic, and two hundred years ago could scarce ly have escaped the pen of some French Cervantes. He had begun life as an officer in the French household troops in absolute boyhood. At sixteen ho had married ! at eighteen he had formed his political princi nles, nnd begun his military career by cross iug the Atlantic, and offering his sword to tho Republic. To meet tlio thousand won- deriugs at his conduct, he exchanged the an cient motto of the Lufuyeltos for a new one of his own. Tlio words, " Why not ?" were Ins answer to nil, and they were snllicient. On reaching America, he asked but two fa vors, to ho suffered to scive, and to serve without pay. In America lie was more republic than the Kcpiihlicnns. tie toiled, travelled, and bled, with an indufaligiilile zeal for the indu pendetice of the colonists; his zeal was a assion, his love ol liberty a romance, his iioslilitv to tlio dominion of England an uni versal scorn of established power. But if fantastic, lie was bold : and if too hot for tin frigidity of A met ica, he was but preparing to touch I in i ice with kindred lire, lie refused ink in the French army coupled with the condition of leaving the service ot the K public ; and it was onlv on the r rench am nice in 1038, that he returned to I'.iris, to lie received with feigned displeasure hv the King, ami even put under arrest bv the mm ister, but to ho welcomed by the true sover eign, the tiucen, leled bv the court, the sov ereign of that sovereign, and hti.zaod by tho moo ol t'iii is, already llie sovereign ol tlieni all ; from his military prison he emerged colonel of tho King s regiment of dragoons Wiiili; tins narrative was going on, nun glcil with Dumpers, anil nursis ol Slavonic good-fellowship, I could not help asking my self whether Lovater was not a quack, and tihvsiognnmv a lolly I Could this bo the dashing Revolutionist 1 No plodder over the desk ever woic a more broadcloth conn ti'iinnco; an occasional smile was the onlv indication of his interest in what was passing j irotind him. Ho evidently avoided taking a share in tho discussion of his transatlantic career, probably from delicacy to his Eng lish auditor. But when the conversation turned upon France, the man came forth, and ho vindicated his conduct with a spirit and fulness that told me what he might have been when tho blood of youlli was added to the glow of the imagination. He was now evi dently exhausted by toil, and disappoint ment. No man could be more thoroughly ruined ; bullied in theory, undone in prac tice an exile from his country, a fugitive from his Iroops overwhelmed by llie. hope lessness of giving a constitution to France, and with nothing but the dungeon before him, and the Clash of llie guillotine behind. " What was lo ho done?'' said Lafayette. " Fiance was bankrupt the treasury was empty the profligate reign of Louis XV. had at once wasted iho wealth, diied up the revenues, and corrupted tho energies of France. Ministers wrung their hands, llie king sent for his confessor, iho queen wepl hut l'ie nation groaned. There was but onn fxpedient, to call on the people. In l'S tiiu assembly of llie Notables was sum ironed. Il was the first since the reign of Henry IV. Franco had been a direct and formal despotism for almost two hundred years. Mie liau seen Cnglanu spread I rum an island into an empire ; she had seen America spread from a colony into an em pire. What had been tho worker of the miracle ? Liberty. iroops of boys congregated ot iho corners of the streets. If you would save your son from certain ruin, let him not ho with them. Keen him at home in (ho evening, unless, by special permission, lie is at the house of some jiuliciotis lnenu, wnnre you Know im win only engage in tho fireside sports. y. Do what you Mil lo keep your sons employed. Let play ho their occasional privilege, nnd thoy will enjoy it lar more highly. Employ them in the garden, if you have one, nt worx, not at play, it will do them no harm to perform humble services. It will help you, and help tlieni still more, to have them bring in the wood or the coal, to scour llie knives, to make their own beds and to keep ihem in order, ion may thus ren der them useful, and greatly contribute lo their future welfare.. If you are rirh il is slill more imporlant you should train up your sons in theso habits of industry, for they stand in need of this moral and physical discipline. Louis Phillip, the present king of the r rench, though the son of the proudest and the richest noble of France, was in childhood and youth reuuired to wait upon himself in the perfor mance of the humblest office. It was through this culture that ho was trained up to be one of the most remarkable men of the present ace 4. Take an interest in your cliuilren s employment. A pleasant word, an encour aging smile, Irom a ssmpalliiztng mother, re wards an uflectiunate hoy fur manv an hour of weary work ; and the word and the smile reach her heart, and make a more pliable gentle, mother-hiving hoy. How often w a boy, with such a mother, work all llie af- DANA'S PRIZE ESSAYON MANURE- SECTION IllGIITII. Manures Consisting of Satis. In using tlio term salts here to designate a class of manures, I wish to distinguish be tween these and mineral manures, as they aro usually termed. These manures are similar in kind to the sails whose nction in cow dung we have already considered. They are truly mineral sails, derived from the mineral kingdom, entering into and forming a part of plants, and from this source intro duced into the dung of animals. Their ac tion, whatever be their name, has been ex plained. But the silts composing the sec ond class of manure now under consideration, are not ol mineral origin. Thev are deri ved from the animal kingdom. The source from which they are formed is the living pio cess of the animal body. Thev arc animal sails. Here, then, let us divide the second class of manures into animal salts, which are truly manures, both their base and their acid acting as noui ishcrs of plants and intomin a nomislier of plants, as much so as is car bonic acid. Sr.cTioN Ninth. Of the Causeswhich Make Urine Utllcr or Worse, More or I.rss, and the Moths of Preserving it. There can ho no doubt that the same cau ses which wo have pointed out as affecting the value of dung, affect also llie urine. We have already alluded (in section viii.) to iho four chief eirciimstftiiees lo be regard ed in urine. And first, of its composition. It will be affected by the ago, sex, food, and difference of animal. The process ol form ing urine is the same in man and animals. Now if wo reason here, as we sun ly may. from analogy, then llm eff ct of age and sex upon the quantity of the essence of urine or urea, will appear from the result of one hun dred and twenty analyses of urine, as follows : Grs. of Crea In 21 hours there are discharged by men, J.i'2 l!y women, 'jnt lly old men. from ?G to S3 years of age, 123 l!y children 8 years of age, "03 lly children I jears ofage, 0 It will he recollected that each gram of eral salts. Here, again, reader, you will find rlM is ,,flllll ,0 an llf Ciirboni,te of am that the few facts which wo have pointed out relating to the toed and nourishment of ani mals, will help us on our way in tracing the source of these animal salts. It has been already said, that llie food of animals is divided into two classes that which dues and that which does not contain nitrogen. All domestic animals cat these classes together. In a few words, let us trace their course aftsr the animal digested them. The one class goes lo form fat, or to monia ol llie snops ; so t a healthy man discharges daily about an ounce of this salt. If then other animals are affected by age and sex, as is the human specie, then we may say that bulls and oxen give a better urine than cows, steers better than calves, and a venerable old cow gives neatly as much of the essence ol urine as two calves. Food affects the quantity of water, and thai acting merely to dilute the mine, ren ders it weaker in sails for a given nmoiiiil,! , . , .. .,J,,S 11 in 'iits mi .1 ihvi'ii minium, ternoon to build a play-house, or a dovecot, support the natural heat of the hndv. and ,i t -I . ,i... ,t..:t ..c....i.. cheered with llm anticipated joy of showing I passes off by the skin in sweat, or m mois- Supposing tho animal well "fed, so as to keep it to his mother when it is done. And when , lure of the breath, mid nil ,t, excess, or un- ,,', .(;llr iim, a,.ir of ,is hhm ,, ,1(.s,! he takes her hand, to lead her on and show digested part, goes olf in dung. Tho excess .,, ils le urInu (1,rjvi.s is clm.r vulu(! fi her the evidence of his mechanical skill, how greatly can his young spirit be gratified by a few words of encouragement and approba tion. Bv sympathizing in the enjoyment of vour children, by manifesting the interest you leel in the innocent pleasures thoy can find it home, you thus shield them from count less temptations. 5. Encourage as much as possible a fond ness for reading. Children's books have been, ot late years, so greatly multiplied, that there is but little difficulty in forming, in the mind of the child, a taste for reading. Vlmn ihn tnsln is once formed, you will he saved all further trouble. Your son will soon explore the libraries of all his associates, and he will find calm nnd silent, and im proving amusement for many rainy days and long evenings. And you may have many hours of your own evening solitude enliven ed by his readings. The cultivation of this habit is of such immense importance, and is so beneficial in its results, not only upon the child, but upon the quietude and harmony of the whole family, that it is well worth while to make special efforts to awaken a fondness for books. Select some hooks of decidedly entertaining character, and encourage him for a lime lo read aloud lo you, and you will very soon find his interests rivited, and by a 1 it lie attention, avoiding as much as possible ii ksomo constraint, you may soon fix the hub it permanently. The great difficulty with most parents is, that they aro unwilling to devote tunc to their children, lint there aic no duties in lift morn imperious than (he careful culture of the minds and hearts of the immortal entrus ted lo our care. There aro no duties which we ran neglect at such an awful hazard. A good son is an inestimable treasure: lan guage cannot speak his worth. A bad sun is about llie heaviest calamity that ran he en dured on earth. Let the parent then find lime to 'train up the child in the way iie should go.' N. Y. Watchman. oi nitrogenous iUmi an mat is not requited lm 0rn-out materials of the hodv, the ac for repairing the daily waste of tho body, or ,,, ,, f urea daily discharged may In to increase its growth, also passes ofl in dung, ,lu ,lml, ,,e ',, nr,l0 mine may as excrement. This is a small portion, and Vllrv considerably. We may increase the ns eiiects on urn strengll. ot Hung have been . ,, f s,,,s ;llJ, ncs by p-irticutar food, pointed out. But llm wear nnd tear, as we, )llt c,ln m.vor lm Ccintiiiie-ct long enough may call it, of the flesh and blood, the parts ,() ,.,,.,,. mil,r;av ,. cl;ir.,c,(.r f urine winch are daily and constantly thrown out of ;ls a manrr.. Diffeiencn of animal has also tue uouy as exereuoiis, or om materials, en-1., ,,rr,.P,, 01l ,10 more active, the gre WHEAT CULTURE IN NEW YORK. The culture of in this state, is an important branch of its rural industry. It is a lamentable fact that a large portion of the elements in wheat lands, indispensable lu tlio i i .i ... . . . . r .1.1 . successiui nourisumeni nnu mummy oi im biead-hearing plant, have been taken from the soil in llie millions ot Ions, sent to niai ket within llie last fifiv vears. The owners and cultivators of these lands. know not what it is thev have Inst ; nor from what source the precise! constituent parts of wheat can he obtained. Tilts arti cle, so supeiior for the manufacture of good bread, contains elements peculiar to itself, and hence manures formed by the decompo sition ufany other plant, cannot restore lo an exhausted wheal-fiehl.all the ingredients con tained in a kernel of wheat. Our agriculturalists are consuming the raw material of this invaluable grain, at the rate of al out eleven or twelve millions of bushels a year ; probably not one-tenth of each of the elements of which, or at least a portion of them, is annually restored to the soil from whence all this gram is taken. IViw, as. Heaven will not create anew one particle ol matter, whether the two and a half millions of people in this Stale have an whiindjnce of good cheap bread, or starve, it may not bo amiss for sensible men to enquire, in what way ran every farmer in New Yurk supply his fields with the raw material of this impor tant crop, and so combine them, as to be alilo to manufacture a bushel of good wheat for exportation, at CO cents, and not exhaust his soil ? An elaborate discussion of all the elements that enter into tho composition of the wheat plant, and of the various resources presented to thts tiller of ihu earth, for llm cheap col lect ion of those elements, would bo out of pi. ice in the columns of a daily newspapxil. Suffice il to say that, over 97 per ccnl of such elements exist in ihu atmosphere, in inex haustible quantities. Having made this imporlant discovery, tho French chemists were not long in finding cheap agents to tin applied In tlx ler the circulation, and pass out of iho hodv in urine. This is the point lo which I would call your attention. The undigested food. and the extreniens not containing nitrogen, go off in dung. The food and the spent parlsof the body containing nitrogen, go off in urine. This last, too, is the couise of most alkaline sails taken into the hodv. Thev pass off in urine. Here, then, we come to the subject, quite prepaied to under stand it. The mine is a collection of salts : eienco ol annual tins also , t;i;j. err-u, afri'llilv for llie gaseous ele le qua lily of urine. I h-! lm.)s of .,.,,, hav n)a(J() u(,Htiy olle.laf ..aler the wear and tear of, of Pnaea -mo onc vst fidj Qf wavim. the flesh, the better the urine in working an imals. Where llie animal issl. ill-fed, there, no (liinlir, ilu! urine is still richer, and lh urine of fatlening animals is still more val uable. Henco of all animals, commend me to swine, as manufacturers of ammonia. Cast your eye on the table (in section S) of the amount of urea or ammonia furnished by various animals. No ono exceeds the hog. Mi. conn is snnci.lltv former! Ill' nittnr.. fur tills some are of mineral, others of animal origin. ; ()fliCp. ,,.s everything. His habits re- tint mat which gives the urine its peculiar ' ir(! v,.ry itl(! of ,llU C.S, , fl)(), w)i(., and characteristic properties, is a substance formed from tho nitrogenous food, and term ed uiif. . Now you need hardly trouble yourself lo remember this now name; all I want vou to iindctstand abuut it is, that when forms flesh and blood. He is a fat-former, a mngnziuu ol bird, a real oil-butt, and de- fat and keep up his heat. He returns, of morse, havinrr linhj loan meal to form, fnn- uii.iu is ,-.M.Mu lu ,., iuls , ,um mis n(y .,,, )ri,,S. ii mi I o r lltal,) having lit collar suustancu is changed to ammonia. That is the point to he remembered. In considering mine, theiefore, as a manure, it will not be necessary In point out further tin; mode of its action, ihan lu refer that of eve ry pnimal to ils salts and power of forming ammonia. The quantity of llie last will he tie flesh to form to increase his size, he re turns quickly the waste his body sutlers, us mea, which becomes ammonia. But it is only the still, and quiet, and penned animal, which gives this vahiahlu product. If we would caiiso him simply to produce tho great est amount of his manuluctorv, without ta in proportion lo tlio quantity of urea. There , un jlt0 iircnllril ,is ,,hor in shovelling over are oilier salts ol ammonia in urine, nnd al-; ,,e compr)St m;i)l perhaps no better rule can so mineral salts. These effect hut little the j jjiv.-n, than the Shaker practice of feeding valuo of urine as a manure. It is the urea, I wi, ,.Ullcu u,.,Ves. Having lilllc brains lo essenco of urine, that sbhstance which forms .......lenish or build nn. and not iiuick in his nerves, (Inr he it Known to you, reader, llie MANAGEMENT OF BOYS. 11V lti:V. JOHN S. C. AUIIOTT. A clergyman of much observation recent ly remarked, that the experience of sixty ,e..r 1....1 iiiiu, mat it Hoys had a faithful and judicious mother, thoy wore pretty suro to turn out well, whatever might bo tho character of ihu f.ilher. There are mothers who, from various causes, in rearing their sons, aro depiived of the co-operation of llie father. The following hints are in tended lor the assistance of such mothers. 1. Keep your boys by all means out of the Streets. At Iho proper limes fur play, al low them lo invito soinu of their iiiiigliburs' children into your yard, or permit lliem lo visit thoso children of your Irionds with whom you aro willing they should associate. But let il be un immutable lair, ihat they aro nut to rove the streets in freedom, to play with whatever companions chance may throw in ihoir way. By commencing early and firmly wilh litis principle, you will have no difficulty in enforcing it. Turn a boy loose into llie streets, to associate with the vicious and profane, to lounge al iho corner of stores and stables, and ho will almost cer tainly bo ruined. Therefore, at all hazards, keep lliem oul oftho streets Stick ! Stick ! Stick ! Hero is some admirable advice from Blackwood's Maga zine : " To get on in the world, you must he content to he alwavs stopping where you are ; lo advance, you must lie stationary ; to get up you must keep down. Following riches, is like following wild geese, and you must crawl after them both, on your belly, the moment you pop up your head, off they go, whistling in the world, and you seo no more of them. If you hav'nt the art of slick ing by nature, you must acquire it by art j put a couple of pounds of bird limo upon your o 111 cu stool, and sit down on it ; get a chain on your leg, and tio yourself to your counter liko a pair of scissors, nail yourself up against the wall ofyoui place of business, like a weasel on a barn door or the sign f a ojiroud au,h, ; or what would ho bi"( of all rr.arry an honest, poor girl wtib.'Ut a penny, and my life fur yours, if y" don't do busi ness. Never mind what your relations say about genius, taleiils, learning, pushing, en terprise and such stuff, when they come ad vising' you for your good, slick up to ihem fur a loan of a sovereign' and if you ever see them on your side of the street again shiver mo in welcome ; but to do any good, I tell you over and again, you must be a sticker. Yon may get fat upon a rock, if you never quit your hold of it. ammonia in rotting urine, thai substance which forms ammonia in rutting urine, which alona makes this liquid more valuable than dung. Hence, reader, if ibis is impressed on your mind, you will perceive, that the clnelest things to he regarded in urine, are first, llis circumstances which affect the qual ity and quantity. Second, the best niodu of promoting a change of mini! lo ammonia. Third, iho time renamed for the process : and fouilli, the best Hindu of preserving the! ammonia, when termed, ton will perceive, reader, that all along I have endeavored (u point out the principles on which manures art. If you go by general principles, then for a plain practical fanner, like yourself, would not he willing In do in tho open blaze of iho day. The most judicious parents will never allow their children lo be out al such hours; consequently, tho only companions he can be wilh aro the unmanageable. There is something ulniosl fiundlike in shouts ! which are occasionally heard from such Pointed Sekmons. More than ono hun dred years ago there graduated at Harvard university a man by tho name of Rawson, who subsequently settled in tlio ministry at Yarmouth, on Cape Cod. He used to preach very pointed sermons. Having heard that some of his parishoners worn in Iho habit of making him the subject of their mirth nt a grog shop, hn ono Sabbath preached a dis course from tho text, " And I was the song of the drunkard." His remarks wero of a 2. Do not allow your boys to play out of ""V m,"vi"s cl,arac,er' s! m,,ch 80 mnni' doors in the evening. There is something of his hearers rose and left He house in i the in tho practice of night oxposuro and night plays which seem to harden iho heart. You never seo such a hoy possessed of a genllo and modest deportment. He is always for ward, self-willed, and unmanageable. There is always temptation in tho darkness of tho evening, to s.iy and do things which ho midst of iho sermon, A short lime after wards, the preacher delivered a discourse still more pointed than the first, from the text, " And they, being convicted out of llieir own consciences, wenl out one by ono." On this' occasion no ono ventured lo retire from the assembly, but tho guilty ones re signed themselves wilh as good grace as pos sible, to the lush of their pastor. A man in Baltimore has married a Miss Tongue. Many men havo married into tho Tongue family, but this daring individual has takon a wile who is all tongue. will IS II, , -.,,., 111. I . t with only chemistry enough u. understand a (iVt..unco ot ;llli,nal, hut the season 11U lew oi us lernis, n uiusi uu ipiuo i iii.iiimcss service to point oul to you in detail all the various things contained in urine. All you want to know is this does urine contain, as solid Jung does, water, mould, and salts? Il does. The mould is so small a part, il may bo left out of view. The salts are like those in the solid dung mineral sails and then wo havo tho peculiar principle urea, which fur all practical purposes may ho cal led ammonia. We may, then, with this di vision, present in a lahlo llie cunlpositinn oil tho urine ol various animals at ono glance : Water. Sails. Ammonia. Catile urine, per 100 lbs. il 02 ;5.i3 .). Horse " " " 91 00 5 0J .70 fihern " ' " 1 '20 SB) Unit " " " Oi.60 I Tfi Bill Human" " " 93.73 1.S3 Now cast your eye carefully over this ta- hie; Iho figures alolicu lull's, on llm value of those different liquids. The last column gives the true value. The other salu vary much in quantity, and this aflecls llie quali ty. He aclual amount ot ammonia in hu man urine and callln dung, is about thesame; yet in acluai pr.iclico it is found ihu effects of urine aro nearly double those of dung, Look, now, fur the reason ut llns. In (he first place, the principle which gives amnio nia in urine, runs at once bv putiefactioii in to that stale. It gives nothing else ; wheiu as in dung, llm ammonia arises fiom a slow er decay, nnd the principle which hero af fords ammonia, mav, and without a duuhl does, form other products. Hence ue have a quick actum with the liquid, a .slower one with tho solid. A second cause of ihu bet ter effects of the liquid is, that it contains he- sides its ammonia, a far greater aninunl of) salts, and these give n inoro permanent ef. fuel. The amount of sails in human, row, and horse dung, is about ono pound in every hundred. While tlio urine of iho sarne ani- waving corn. The writer of this lias devoted much at leniioti tu iho snlijeci of diffusing the knowl edge thai already exists in relation lo this tru ly practical science among the farmers of this state ; and especially of imparling this knowledge lo iheir sons. The plan adopted in France, was this ; Tho Government chartered a eompany of business men and leased them some old rural palaces at Brignnn, near Paris, fur collego buildings, and also a tract ol Crown lands of 1483 acres, fur cultivation hv six or seven mantis, therefore, iho food essential to form i Imndrod pupils. The company placed iho wnoic esiaoiisunicnt unuer i lie ruurgc oi .'i. IJr.i.t.A, in 1S29. After it had been in ope ration ten years, M. Br.i.LA reported that the Institution had paid its way, divided 4 per cent, annual interest on the stock, and added 145,852 francs to the productive value of tho real estate. The Government pays the pro.-. lessors on condition that a certain number of pupils shall be received from eacli rural dis trict in the kingdom. After a thorough course of instruction, em bracing alike the science, practice and profit of good husbandry, and extending through, a period of three years, these young gentlemen graduate, go home, and teach by public lec tures and other means, those that cultivate) the earth how lo make two. bushels of wheal to grow on the same land that before pro duced hut one. Will) popihttiou of 30, 0011,000, and on a territory iialv about twice as large as New Yoik, nwiv of science havo taught the French people how lo harvest an nually eighteen times' as much wheal as is grown in our own Empire Stale f In Germany, the science of agriculture it taught in ne.uly nil iheir common school. According lo llie census returns uf 1840, llit hav crop, grown in this Mute in 1839, was vvo'rlh about $30,000,000, As thtvo aro ibnnt two acres in pasture to one in meadow, the whole annual gr.iss crop of New York cannot bv wuilh less than SGO, 300,000, tar king the- rNisus statements fur our estimate. Il would ihu ho difficult lo demonstrate that taking a fair average of all the ti nils in this state, each acre might produce one thiid morn than il now dues, and ut a less cost of labor, if it was wisely and properly expended. Why not open a school, then, soimwhcre war the capital of lliis great stale, and em ploy a lew competent men tu leach lh sriunre, iho practice and the profits of every hvanch of I oral industry carried on in New York ? Why continue to. lose ten or twenty millions of dollars worth of agricultural pro ducts every year wear out oar soil, and drive thousands of out young and enterpris ing farmers away from their native stale, lo. grow wheat in Illinois, anrj by a severe com petition, destroy the value of farming opera lions lo all tint stay behind ? If a practical knowledge- of the science of agriculture be so. valuable lo the people of Prance and Germa ny, where labor is comparatively very cheap, can such knowledge be worthless here, (here ihu expense- of labor is iho great drawback upon llw profits of tho husbandman? If the legislature will do a tillle to aid in establish ing a Slate Agricultural InslHuto, patriotic and liberal individuals will do the iMJ.inee. Tim whoht community will share alike in the advantages arising fiom a large incrCHte of ihu best comforts of life. opium of lettuce-leaves is supposed -to con tribute mainly tu the furiuation of brain and nerves,) the opium-eating hog will return a vast amount of the nitrogen of his lettuce in the shape of ammonia. If now you add to the facts, common to the nourishment ol swim1, tho action of ammonia oil mould, as il has been explained, you will see, that he who neglects to fill his yards with mould, and swine lo convert it, uvei looks one of the cheapest, most effeclual, and certain modes of forming manure, which praclico and theo ry unite in pronouncing the surest element of iho farmer's success. Not only is the uality of mine affected by age, sex, food, x- erts an inlluouco iipun this liquid. I he urine of cattle often contains ammonia ready formed in summer, hut. never in winter, In cold weather the amount uf ammonia, or rather the principle affording it, is less; of ten it is not one-half in winter whit it is in summer. This certainly is a misfortune tu tho firmer, who generally keeps his e,illk up only n winter ; but then it is an argn meut also for the practice of summer soiling Secondly, with respect to the circunislan ces necessary lo. change urea to ammonia ; or, in short words, to fully ripen urine, or li make it a fit manure. 1 hesu alsu deiMind upon tlio .season, in part. It is to be remem bered, reader, that this rolling of urine is on ly fermentation. It takes place because there is a principle in urine whirh brings on fermentation, just as it does in new cider. Now if il is by fermentation that urine rots, it will take place, as nil lermnnlatinn dues, !est at a moderato temperature. Tho cold of winter will prevent il. Hijiko your win ter manure must he allowed lime, as the heal of spring routes on, to ferment, th it the tiriuu may ho changed lo ammonia ; and ev ery means must ho taken lu pi event llni heat rising beyond, in llm in. inure heap, or filling belnw a moderate- temperate warniih. These are ihu circiinist.inees which chiefly promote the change from urea to siminom.'i. Thirdly, in regard lo llie limo in whirh lliis rhingu will take place, it will require at least uno month ; and six weeks are heller. If iirino ho alloviedto tot fur u month, it hilly doubles ils quantity of ammonia. In fict, il would havo contained mure thtn double the ainuiuui.i of fresh urine, had not a portion escaped. This brings us lo our foil r 1 1 1 point. the best mode uf preventing tho flying olf of tho nminoiiM when this change has taken place. (T he ron inuerf.) A nvrrliimt mil remarkably conversant wilh geography, pickeil up u newspaper and sat down lo read. Hu had not proceeded far before- he fiimn to passage- slating thai nnu of his vessels was in j"iip;ir(iy. Jrop. Hidy! jenparly!' sniil llm astonished mer idian!, who had previously heard Ihat the vessel was lost ' let mo see Ihat is some where in iho Medileranean. Well, am glad she has got into port, as J thought il was all over wild her. inals contains nearly six pounds in every htm dred. A third causo of llm gioal fertilizing True. Man. said Suiilhev. is a dupeable action, is found in the peculiar character of animal. Quacks in medicine, quack in ro-1 ' somn of Iheso salts, which are composed of ligihn, and quacks in politics, know ibis, and' A young Miss having been invited M soda, potash, limo, &c, united to an acid acl upon thy knowledge. Thyre is scarcely military ball, inquired, with preat siiunjirfey, formed from urea, in tho animal body. , any one who may not, like a tioul, be taken if all (he young ladies were experttrj to t-n This acid is like iho acid of saltpetre; it is by tickling, " ami.

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