Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, April 12, 1844, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated April 12, 1844 Page 1
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WW NOT THE GLORY OP O JD S A H BUT T XI H WBX.PARB OP ROME BY H. B. STACY. BURL I GTO, VERMONT, FRIDAY, APRIL 12, 1844. VOL. XVII....X". 45. nnres is found in tlio clrop.!ngs of tlio puul-try-yind. Mul since tlicso form but a small portion of ilia farmer's stock, mul nre never rcpar (lecl as a principal source of immure, their further consideration may bo omitted. It may perhaps bo here added, that as from their nature hird-droppings run quickly into fer mentation, with warmth and moisture, so they net quickly and are quickly done. They aro more allied to sheep dung than to other manures. Their mould not being great, droppings of poultry require to be mix ed with decayed vegetable matter, or loam. To this class belongs the manure brought from the Pacific Ocean, under the name of Guano, a Spanish woid for excrtinieiit, New England farmers can find cheaper sources of sails, to which the main value of guano is owing, and therefore, reader, wo shall detain you no longer on this point. Section Tenth. Mineral Salts or Manures. Having thus considered the salts derived from the animal, let us now proceed to those derived from tlio mineral kingdom. Among these we shall find some whose action is sim ilar to that of the animal salts. That is, they are true nonrishers of 'plants. They afford, by tho action of the growing plant, the same elements as the animal salts. Of this nature is saltpetre. Now. rcadei, 1 want j on to understand by saltpetre, not on ly that well-known substance, but also that which has lately been much used in farming, South American saltpetre. This differs from common sallpetre by changing its potash for soda. One slep more ; I want you to un derstand by saltpetre, not one salt, bin, in farming, a class of salts ; that is, a number, having the samu acid, which may be combi ned with several different bases which all act one way. Sallpetre being a salt, of course must he composed of an acid and base. Tlio acid is always aqua-fortis or niliicacid. Tlio base may be potash, or soda, or lime, or ammonia. These all may be called salt-petre. In forming siltpotie, it is generally that variety which contains lime and aqua-fortis which is procured. So .,,,,1,11.. f-..rnifrl l.u :, rn' l,r,w il, ..... l lr "s 0 UIKlel'StilllU UK! BCIIUII 01 sails, (111(1 m which she unities her watei iiiL'-iiol. 1 '!lis has been fully explained, the action of II, ti: the CATIIUDKAIi MUSIC. Then i welled the organ up thro' choir and navo The music trembled with an inward thrill Of bliss at its own grandeur ; wave on wave 1 1 9 Hood of mellow thunder rose, until The hushed air shivered with tho throb it gave, Then, poising for a moment it stood still, And tank and rose again, to burst in spray That wandered into silence far away. Like to a mighty heart the music seemed, That yearns with melodies it cannot speak, Until, in grand despair of w hat it dreamed, In the agony of effort it doth break, Yet triumphs breaking, for it rushed and streamed And wantoned in its miulit, as when a lake Long pent anions the mountains, burst its walls, And in one crowding? gush leaps forth and falls. Deeper and deeper shudders shook the air As the huge bass kept gathering hnavily, Like thunder when it rouses in its Inir And with its hoarse growl shakes the low-hung sl;y, It grew up like a darkness every where, Tilling ihe vast Cathedral suddenly, Krom the dense mass a boy's clear treble broke Like lightening and the full toned choir awoke. Thro' gorgeous win lows shone the sun aslant, Hamming the church with gold and purple mist, Sleet atmo-pherc lo bosom thai rich chant, Where fifly voices in one strand did twist Their varicolored tones, and left no want To the dclighicd soul, which sank nbysscd In the warm music cloud, while far below, The organ heaved its surges to and fro. .otcefs Poems. PRIZE ESSAySn8 MANURE. Suction Ninth. (Continued.) Much has been said about tanks, and vats, andurinepilsyind many plans devised for pre preveuting the escape of volatile ammonia. Hut when once the action of ammonia upon is understood, as we have already pointed it out, I am psrsuaduJ, reader, that these tanks, nnd vats, and urine-catts, will appear lo you not only expensive ami ciimbi'isoine, but useless. Your first point i, lo save your nmmnnia, your second is, never to use urine in its caustic or burning slate. If you do, you will as assuredly burn otir crop, as tho phsh only half or a fourth as much, In a Riven time, as they. This is a self evident proposition and let us apply its principle to some of our boasted resources. Vermont has 73,000 persons engaged in agricul ture! nnd no doubt they would feel rather "bully " if you should tell them they were not as industrious as iheir brethren in Ohio, or as intelligent as the farmers nf Connecticut. Hut if they arc so, we cannot escape ihc conclusion, that the same labor that will raise one bushel of grnin in Vermont, will grow two in New York, nnd four in Ohio. The proportion of grains of all kinds, in 1SI0, being, for Vermont, CO, Connecticut 72J, New York 113, Ohio 219, Indiana ami Pennsylvania 270 bushels for each person em ployed. Competition in the raising of grains, there fore, i out of the question. And when such a dis proportion as this exists in the raising of grains, ac companied by other disadvantagis, wo are still less able, lo compete with tbctn in the article of pork, which no doubt pays the farmer of Ohio a belter pro fit at two cents a pound, than It does our farmers nt five. The states occupying the next, or the two next parallels of Iniituilo can doubtless grow wool as much cheaper than we, as they can raise grain nnd make pork, should they attempt to do so. Mr. Jarvis, in ins lato communication on tho subject of the fine vvoollcd Merino, says "That when tlicshccn were ta "ken from the sunny pastures of Spain, where they " were never foildrrid nt all, to the cold climate of " Saxony, where they must be foddered, as here, 4 or "5 months in the year, it was feared the wool would "deteriorate, but it una found it did not." Neither docs he nay it was improve, I by the change. If this be so, nnd our cold and long winter is not necessary in perfecting a fine breed of sheep, or a fine tleecc of wool, then we arc at the mercy of our more favored neighbors, even in this ailiclo. Although Ohio has at this moment more hogs thin sheep, wool is already numbered among tho articles of freight that crowd the"Hoating palaces" of Lake Krie, from Cleveland, Sandusky and Detroit lo HiifTalo. 'I he yield of wool per head of slieep in Ohio is a frnclion 'more than in Vermont, while the cost of kerning is at least one third less than here. In the products of the dairy, the western slates are yet behind owing, in part, to the comparative scar city of female labor, and other temporary causes. Ohio, wiih three times the cattle of Vermont, makes but little if nnv nioic builer and cheese. Hut as rail road, ev.c.. make her access lo mnrkrt more readv. anil ns her population becomes more dense, she will this object also. Ana i no department like ours, with a g from nn excess of enterprise, I . ... !i...i, '.,'' . r but for the want ol it. '1 he woild around u, it I-, .,,, ,i ,.,, ..,,, ,.7, i' ,i, ,i,, ..,, r .n,.n u-rnn,. : lull we. for lenr ,' ' . . . . , THE INTERESTS OF VERMONT. A Lecture, hy 1). K. l'mamms, lioforo tlio llurlingtorl Mechanics' Initlliitc, March 23, 1811. Gestlrmcni . , lu appearing before you to-night, I am aware mat l labor under great disadvantages, for, at tins day, elo quence even is cheap and learning is common. Hut 1 have always kit tho weight of the divine denuncia tion, "In tho sweat of thy brow shall thou cat bread,' hearing upon mo even from my childhood, and cx pecttodosotill tlio lull limit then fixed by the Al nnghly, "Till thou return to the dust fiom whence thou wast taken." " 1 am no orator as Brutus is, but still I trust that, though you may perhaps disa gree with me on many points, tho importance of the subject I have chosen may obtain for me a patient hearing, and vour indulgence and my limited educa tion (which would scarcely have hanged me in the days of Jack Cade) will obtain (or mo all necessary allowance. Of political economy, as nsrience, I know buthltle. Hut tlu ru are some truths whi li stand out with such prominence nbovo the surface of things, that "he that runs tiny read," nnd yet it seems to mo thai even these ate sometimes for n long while overlooked. All feel with respect to Vermont that she is not what she should bo that " there ts something rotten in the Mateof Deniuaik" and yet as it seems to inu her troubles ore nut attributed to tho right causes, and I . ii o ip the proper remedies have not bicn proposed. No sudden and unlooked for 'hock has befallen Ver mont. The thousand manias that have raged else where, earn ing dissmcc to sinks, and ruin lo indi viduals, have passed us bv unscathed 'the fever of speculation in Eastern lands and Western lands, af fected us but little. We built no rail roads to the moon and no cnies in the wilderness. These evils were the result of enterprise run mad, and the Slates most aflected by them arc slowly convalescing, nnd yet wo do not recover. The paroxisms of cholera aro much more frightful than Ihc slow wastings of con sumption, and yet they may not be so difficult to cure, nor ns certain dealfi lo the palient. Ii is true in medicine, at least in patent medicine if wo believe advertisements, that there is no need of un derstanding a disensa in order lo edict ils cure. Hut not so, I believe, in regard to ihe maladies of the stale, although there are even in politics a plenty of nr. liranclretns and Ur. .Morrisons, wnu ineir inn versal medicines. their grtal protoijpc case,Mi. pill mei vi o arc not sullerin l c " V, " , . i , ,d lltr I'cpulaiion becomes more di and Ur. Morrisons, w I, t 1. 1 r mi.-, ,,,,, ;,',, allnltiun , ,w, U,1JC1 ,-and iheir nosiruius hko lho.0 of , ( fc . , J .vpcs.arc only of one In id for aids- of !,!.rir,llllr(,,c;lr, ,,?,,:, .s,nICi ,,Ul no office nnd put my ''sl r " cold climate, compete successfully will, til too lormiiig caustic ammonia arts as would caustic potash, or a lump of stone lime, left to slake upon tin: glass. You want lo change this hurtling or causlic ammonia into mild aiiimnnia, or to combine it with sunn: substance which has not only i the varieties of saltpetre is tho same : and wen; it not fur the peculiar nature of the iKpia-fortis or acid of saltpetre, the explana tion of the nrtinn of this salt might be refer red to the general laws above set forth. Mut the acid of saltpetre is composed of volatil tt,,t ..n-,.et. I.ni mI,. b.... ii fr.i.i. il;,,.r 'Ugrc is. it is nolliing mure nor less tliati awav. Unless vou u.ide.stund. then.' thJ " compound of the common air wo breathe. l.rinriiilos of the;.; actions, and ant.lv them 1 61,1 1"''""-' i,s 11 ",;.V M r too, your labor is all vanity, when on at tempt to save your own or cattle's mine. These principles arc, in number, two. First, lli principle which changes caustic to mild ammonia, is carbonic acid derived from air, or decomposing mould. Second, the principles which render ammonia less vola tile, or wholly fixed, aro certain acids formed ider, vet it is not the less true, the common air is a mix ture of oxygen and nitrogen. Wh it n hi mil and harmless yea, what a healthful blessing is air, not only to us but to plants! It is u mere n.ixtiiie, not a chemical compound, a mere mixture. In every hundred parts, eighty nf nitrogen, twenty of oxygen. Yet II you compel, as natural operations are run- in mould, as sour mould, or certain salts' """'"'V compelling the air to unite chemi which give up their arid to the aiiimoui.i. J c;,ll-v' s" f,mrtu'!" I1'1"' of nitrogen shall Plaster of I'aris does this, by chanin' jls i"u " bily pails nf oxygen, you will form lime for animcnia. Now let us go nito the ! i"l"a"f",ll- lN""' 1 ,lu l"",m to trouble reason of this a little, and see if we can un-! '0,,r lu-'"1 fl"tber with tlio chemistry ofsall derstand it. Very slowly and S1,p)0s,ng 1 !'"". than merely to say, that having thus moisture present, The oil or'vitriol of the plus-1 s,".'"'n vmi the composition and origin of the tcr quits its lime and unites to tlio aniinunia, iiclli of"" '"ids of sallpetre, you will readily and so changes a volatile into a fixed salt. seo' ,,',lt a sllls',"'cu which affords such an Now this is a change which has been of late nhiiiidancfi "f nitrogen, cannot but ho bone much insisted on, and the practice recom-' flcl,')1 10 I'lants. This nitrogen may and pro niended of snowing the stable and barn-col-, 1 -v ,,"t's rrnl somu portion of ammonia in lars, and even the privies, with plaster, to . save the ammonia which escapes in these places, lint it is doubtful whether the sa ving is as great as is usually supposed, for the ammonia arising from the urine is caus tic, it flics of as caustic nmmnnia, that has no enect upon plaster. To pr mutual effect of ammonia and plaster, the caustic ammonia must previously have been made mild. Ilow-cver, this plan is appli cable only on a small scale. Copperas, alum common salt, pot-ashes, and wood-ashes, all act to fix tho volatile ammonia, and have all been recommended for this purpose. But it is easily seen, that, in employing some of these substances, is to buy ammonia almost at apothecary's price. These practices will be followed, therefore, only by those who place the crop and its value upon ammonia. This is a limited and narrow view. The true and farmer-like, as well as the most scientific and natural mode of preserving the ammonia ol urine, is to fill vour yaids nnd barn-cellars witli plenty of mould ; by which I mean truly decayed and decaying vegeta bio matter, as well as loam. There is no mode more effectual, no mode more econo mical. Consider now for a moment how mould formed and forming, nnd ammonia net. Have 1 not said again and again, that ammonia hastens decay? makes mould more easily dissolved! and cooks tho food of plants f 1 hat. action having occurred du ring its progress, acids were formed. Tin: ammonia unites with them, loses its burning properties, and becomes fixed. Tho acids liaving been satisfied, tlio ammonia is actu ally imbibed nnd retained by mould It does not drink it in like a sponge, but tho mould forms a peculiar chemical com pound Willi ammonia. This peculiar com pound, while it docs not render the mould an easily dissolved matter, yet holds ammonia by so feeble a forco that it easily yields lo the power of growing plants. It gives tip the stored ammonia at tlio place where, and . the time when, it is' most wanted. If you remember these actions of mould nnd am monia, it will bu ns plain as dav, that what wn have said of tlio inexpediency and ex pense ol vats and tanks, and iirino-rarls, must not only be true, but is cnnfirmed by the experience nf a host of hard-working, thinking, practical men. In connection with urine, tho dung of birds, fur instance, do mestic fowls of all kinds, and pigeons, may lio. here mentioned. Theso animals dis charge Iheir solids and what wo may term tlieir liquius iiigcuier. I hero urea cooies tho soil. It may outer as nitrogen into the plants dissolved in water ns a very weak .rue, ,,a e sonienuies Cn,,o wrong i lor urn ,,.,, lore ri.a(v acceM l0 mnrkc, n.,rici,llur"al la we mis'i, err, avc,or, sw,, li oso .,ose course ,1()r mus, , ,; , rewarded here than I as been most erratic, line goneem.rd y a luad f lis. lh(,rt, , 0 . ' ,;,., ncar for A nd no w, when we beg,,, to ako up o the know I- a, c,ra v y k 'nnd edge ofthc tact thai we aro I ehind. It seems to me v 0rcngn!, e are ,0 ,(,5,on e y clear In we are hipping up ll.e wrong Imrse. ,. , L.n.e market for ihe ami- i nnrp Tip'i r i i'l'I' 1 1 in I 'l , 7"'""' I SlTfl C"U" ' luce ' Vermont, so that her farmers Jan !?rS 1' . ' . ?" .' ' "',. " 1 " ," I sell for cash lo consumers in their own neighborhood. . ... .. i.,.. . i.u , mi; ., ),"" " 1 nn, , ,ev can still all ,r,l tn nrmlura nrm s i,ns of a 1 "0 1 1,1... lo :.. :!... .(.... : .... .i l it .in t tju.l 111 11 ICS 111 III 19 I1UVV "HI I1C , till.,, '. a tribution to their ingenuity ? Is it any natural advan tage that makes her fisheries more productive than even those of Massachusetts, in proportion to the number of men employed? Is it nnylhing that heaven ha done for her, and denied to us, that has produced all these splendid results! or is it only the chaiuctcr of her people that makes her what she is first in every thing that can give honor to a state, and prorerity to its people. In heavy manufactures indeed, Massachusetts a little exceeds her i producing for her 83.000 artists an average of SC06.59. and an nggregatc of fifty. two millions of dollars, while Con necticut produces but 81 per man. Hut in lighter manufactures, the results of cheap labor and a small proportionate outlay of capital, Connecticut is unri valled. She beats all oilier? in making rameZiingont of nothing. Look at her immense business in sltaw work the stock costing absolutely nothing. Look at her clock trade,at her chair sea ts,oVc lo say noth ing ofthc wooden nutmegs and horn gun-flints. Look at thechcaptiessnnd vaiicty of tlio productions of her bnok.makcrs,and see her peddlers proverbial for Iheir shrewdness from Maine to (Jcorgia. I have been told by gentlemen who have traclled much at the south, that a Connecticut peddler was n.greal an eye-sore lo the planters of Ocorgit nnd .South Carolina, as wele the onion patches of I'iquag to their Dutch neighbors in "daysjang syne." New Kngland must be ihe workshop of America ; and 'Ma'sachuscll, Contuctii'iit, and Rhode Hand are now the workshops of New Knglaiid. Massa chusctts employs more than half her population in tho arts and fisheries; Connrclicut more than one third ol hers, and Uhodolsland, exceeding them both, employs but 1(5,000 in agriculture, to 21,000 in the art", to say nothing of all ner sailors. If we look back for73 years, and note the change in our manufacturing interests, how honorable lo our Reopleand how glorious lo our country. Then we ad a Drilish ministry to dictate lo us, and say " you shall not manufacture a hob nail." nnd now in many things we rival Kngland herself. Could our manu facturing prosperity have been attained without our pohlical independence, I should not hesitate tosny that our country was as much indebted to the one as to the other for the means of suppnting in comfort and happiness a large population. .So far as Kngland is concerned. I think, wiihout doubl, that shu had more cause of alarm when cotton goods were sent to London at a profit, than she had at the result of ihe war of the revolution. Then she only lost a few col onies and gained n world of better customers. Great Hnlain can allord lo lose a batlle now and ilicn, or even an nrmi ; she has plenty more paupers nt homes but she cannoi alTord lo lose her customers, or be deprived of her manufacturing profits. "Touch a man's family, and he may brook it, Hut keep your hand out of his breeches pocket." The first invoice of manufactured goods shipped from the United mates, at a prufit, was the Lexington ari l ooruio 01 a c or ous revo unon 11. ttie real noeoen dtnee and prosrieritv cf our cout.lrv. 1 11c one ming wiiuii above all olhcrs ermont needs, is ihe doing nway with the barter and credit than wo aro now. Ily keeping the nominal prices of 1 speet ns highly him who has min;stercd to the real produce and manufactures above those of our nejuh- wants of life, ns they do him uhu has cut the throat burs, wo deprive ourselves of business and give it to of his fellows, or lived by his wits on the sweat ol tho them. What lunefit is it lo me that I gel S1.50 per , brows of others? day on work for a farmir, ho charges ine25 cents, It milt pur,aps be productive ol good if our wise ,.-i,i, I,., ",,,. ,,v .uniuiui.,,,,.., legislators cou d snatc monev inniigii, aller paling maker for a York shilling? Should I not rather be the gainer by calling the work SI, and buying my po tatoes for w hat he sells ihem to otl.crs I Not only is labor too high, but we do not economise in ils usf. I'vcry thing we make costs us too iiui tabor. This is a fir greater, nnd far morn common evil than the other. We arc nil nwarc that the arliis the agricultural premiums, to stud a well q mlifiul committee to investigate I lie whole manufacturing system of the eastern stales, nnd the facilities posns f il ''y Virniont lor a similar course, and lay the re sult of lluir labors before the people, l'ut water power and good location, lliough very necessary aro 1.01 Ihfffirrnmnm umium ol iinnulacluring success. that guide it over our lulls ; but, 111 cnhcb s.s, siv uni Hint wjooin which Hopes 10 mane ermoiii , , f u . .,.. ,.,: , i ,,i,, 1. ,!, a nourishing and independent s?a,e, bv fostering the . ie 7 lT"Jl ! L I "Z't Xt agricultural interests alone, to the neglect and nt the txpeuse of the olhcrs, is not only unjust but foolish. 'I here can he 110 q lestion ihat ihe agiieulluraf resour ces of ihe state are far belter developed already, th in 01-1 11 iiiji.Tii 1 .reasures or ner m.iniiiaciuring sirei.g.o. And 1 believe all that is necessary, is to have her pre sent condition, and the ranees tint havo led to il, well understood, nnd the energies nf her people wisely di rected, lo make her prosperous and happv. crmont innv not now bo as Indlv embarrassed ns some others, vet 1 believe Imr at tins Silt l.een things as Ihev me. nnd nil innv foresee two results thai must inevitnbly follow, viz: Vermont will hive n sparse population, nnd remain a compar ativdypoorstato. Lord llyronsays, "No ono virtue yet except starvation Could stop that worst ol vices, propagation." So rigid a virtue ns starvation will not be practiced while the gaiden of Ihe West is within a stone's , lliriiw. ..rim ill, limn nine, vn.,-t In Lrn nmrn moment the ,.r i,P.in m I, i. ,;,,: , n,..tr, most uenmciK state 111 l ie un anil mat, in pro-. and fin, cmloylllL.Ml fur. more thin nnv oilier. We h ivn no great "staple, likn I , .If' ,hon' 'us,! llllnK? arc so, and there are certain Ihecoito.i and sugar of ibe South. r the pork and I ""."p? which vvecando no longer ns cheaply ns our grain of iboWe-l. winch nur neighbors will pav us "MgnDors. inert 1 sun reni nns, noui.i ess, ceriain t oin- lltoea..h fr. We bin- ivcrv thing mid nM nothing," """S"."1""1 "o enenp. r inn nicy. 11 uiu and th wsirv roneoii. tie. s .ire obvious t nil I Creator has not given us tlieso.nt ndvnnliiges he has I w is told 11 a 1 ng iii,'. ,y . ! 011 iiii int.-tli- comerreo o 1 oniers. vvesoa nno, 11 we iook over 1110 gent firm, , it., 'uje p , 1 "1 mo f inn r- 111 of Massachusetts nnd Connecticut produce things f.v,,, riencu and tab lit ol a high order are .rrimsile- clitaper than we can. I ut do we know nil tHB l': To such extreme perfection has enterprise carii.d its and whenfores? c know, ind.ed, that labor is Tv.,fi ln tlve tii.-iiiiinictnrc of cotton good-., and on some lovver there, and Ihat they have certain tnclh- , sc, ciaan,ie fc,v0 l9 ,s ltfS ,lw done that ods of doing things by which they make a saving of 1 ,)(, dilUrence of oiicfourth of a cent per vard, ono umo, or economise m 1110 use 01 lanor : uui we nave Wav or Ihe other will give a handsome prutit.or mako never thought of reducing to practice what little we ! jt n"0sina Imsiiicss. know of their plans of doing I), isiness. Ily a subdi-1 ... ",,,' . ".. , , , , , vision of labor they save niu, h. One man does not ,. f 11 ff ,,c '""y 5m"; V' vo,f r fi. ..11 .... Anna i. .1. . .ai. c. .. i. .trtt.rt 1 alio give it to two or Ihrre csiatilHinicnts o! eastern Then nil be does ho pels the cash for when done no waiting or taking barter and Ihe conscquinco is he is better pai I with less wages. Who anion" us is benefitted bv our barter nnd credit system, that is driving nil busbies wollh hav ing out of the state, nnd forcing our young men by lousatuls 10 seek n home nt the Wist 1 1 he mer- chnnt peil.nps sills inoru goo.'s at liiglur prices than nniinfaetiirers on condi tan only thai Ihev should I "go ahead," ns I have no clou' t Clitlti iiden counly 1 wool I it. ten yiars be much the richer for ihc gift. j What a mart f,r indutiy would be al once er(atid : what a maiket for produce; what a call for every I thing Ihat goes to make up the ten thousand wnnls j of a civilized community. Hut how i9 it now? A inn 1 , ,r ,.. . 1 ... .1 i. : 1. , w.iier-iiovver 10 111 n crio'i-stone cannoi oe no cou (, lor lenoy pav : ui 1 .lieu 11c is eooogii i,,,',ii 1 1 . , ,n , ., - 1,1. paid to counlerl.a a .ee l nil, while all we buy of bin. I ' ' f 0 or lO.loll.ir.s n unr. I hey would nln.os costs us more than it ought, nnd not paving when I ,a.n'.,l'n P"."""";"- for the privilege of looking nt we buy, wo are all so-preat fool, a tob uv'mnre than '!,, " n" '""ibb s over the r...ks-a ml jet they wc ought. Where one man is ben, fitted by this state w""Ji r "" w 's ' 11 E""' ' . of things, one hundred arc injured by it, I have no kind I In cone te-ion, let its sum up the wanls of crmont (lt. lo which we have alludtd 1 Let us inquire a moment how the present s'nto r f I, r-he needs to have her barter nnd credit system things is allecting o' r population. Under the age of of trnde exchanged for cash and rtndy pny. twenty, Vermont has an exers of male-, but between , o. She mcds to have the rate of interest reduced mat ngc nno tuny mere are li uou more lenvi its 111:01 frc,m 12 to 1 oropencnt. 3. She needs to have the number of her artists in- cieacd nnd have them employed in making some males. The laws of nature have not been changer1 This inequality is none of her woik. Where, ll.en, .1 to rvin : .1 . . m...' , ,,; 1 m-.i-hi him n VC I e n V iiinijeii III lll.l l.l g SOI ie- are those ti,000 men 111 Die prune of I fe , thing whi, h evn bo sent to ina.kel, nnd not nierrly of every .even of ..ur young men have cmtgra cd- ...nUinirs .ir-h for l,inext door neighbor, and quarrel have gone out from their mountain lion, s to m,i , , f j , h f glad the solnary places of .he far , st-lo labor and , ,,, wanI? )f ,,,,, -nfi!lIl)nr. T) p ,m..mn. " . nir rr . ',,,' kers of I. ynn have no tn ul. eahoul " home patronage." prairies ,f Illinois or bv Ihe far-ofTstreanisnf W iscon- 1 - in and Iowa. Hut this calculation, you will obs-cive, includes none of those who have taki n families with them, who had set up their ho sehold gods in iheir native v allies, and vet have removed even then. Vermont is no doubt iO.OOO families nn! persons, but families poorer for ihc emigration of Ihc last twenty years 1000 families a year ! What a, Irani upon the population ofa small state li! e ours. Is it a spiiit of enterprise that has sent nil ihese young men mil from amongus? Not at all. For Mass ichiuelts has cer tainly ns much of that quality as we; and no sueli disparity of sexes cxiststn her population tn show that her sons have not staved at home. Hut the truth is vye had no employment lo ofler them that was eilbcr vslem of deal, and havini? il stinerseded bv a cash ! resrectablcor rtriifitab'c. nnd ihev souoht it eleew here. circulating medium, so that every thing shall have n ' What avenue is now open in Vermont lo a young man cns.i vn.ue. uui so long ns we continue 10 " sncnu ol common munition, unless lie nave ine a, ivaniages half a crown out of sixpence a day," wo shall never have a cash currency ; and Vermont will continue to tie me pataaiseol uurirs, vv l.eie money will let Tor 12 per con, on ''good securily." Il is so now, .and always will be till we hell more or buy very mud. less Ofthc latter I have no hope, utile ts we begin to make some of ll.e things we now buy. Trade, ns now carried on among us, except ihat with the mer chants, reminds me ofa story familiar lo vou nil, of the man who sold Ins dog for S100, nnd took his pay in .-, Mitnnman, flO n..l. rIM.n f.. n .... .... .1.- ..... ... ..... ..... mt... nc .ui 1 1 it- ii i j a i lie uiv f wealth or wealthy friends? Absolutilj none nt nil. No young man is so mad as to hope to pay for 4. She need-to have her plans if manufacturing so systemized that c can make a given article n9 well and ns low as others call who have no natural ndvantagesover u?. 5. Mie nctiN lo withdraw her lelianec from all pro duction" as aroeles nf export, in which others have a decided natural advantage over us. If the-e change? could l.o brought about, industry would find ready employment and enterprise would be encouraged ; the me hanic would find plenty of employment and good pay; the farmer would find a rea ly cah market for all surplus produce; the mer chant would find more customers and better pay ; and emigration would cease. In the wants which have been enumerate), all classes have nn equal interest. Hut there is one want we have .-.ol noticed, which, to the mechanic- of Ver mont is as necessary as any of those we have men- lionc I, and that is iho want of imiirotemcnt. Wo n larm wtui vvnat lie can malic on uiai larm, as was ,i ,,,,.,... c,, ...... ..-I V... .1... .,tn,,.. easily don.-in.lhe daysour fathers. What better en- of ,,e nnn() .,, far ,ranC(.on, d,,. nf ,llore fensation coi.rngement isihercfor n mechanic? N" cmplnver na,i,,.M,i,l U t.l,l,.r il,.. 1, n.m.m ,,r..t.n,. lint can allord to pay a lourneyman such pay ns ho can lhere is another reason, vv Inch 10 my view makes iho a lord 10 lake, and the consequence is ilia every man an, i,nprra,ilc. r de to the rapid ineie.is.-of is power. Tlio conn, net nre filled by then, nlinost exclusively, and they nre piesing ' , , - in., v n .niuiiit'1 1 L.CUII. iii1.11 lu ill, n lord 10 lake, and the consequence is ilia every man , anl i,nprra,ilc. ,,. ,0 ,,e 'ra, almost vv ho does not cmigraie.ts Ins ow n bossdoing a fortjj;nt.r5 , . Kn0H BC 13 l.tlle business 011 his ovvn accouni,,V trying to bveon , 0U(.r crai,,H , ,,0 great soc al comi the barter p..y ho isobhged to take. 1 hti, msiciil of , by ,,em almost exclusively, and the subdividing the labor, nnd concentrating lhcbisines cliamc 111 nothing that the merrlinnt lrlll ,,.. nf lilm. 1 sn ns to nin!,f evrrv lliinr. ns i-hp.-inlv ns tuieethlp. we

and what he does lei him have, lie charges at least j subdivide the hntine's, and increase the expense of 25 per cent, more for than it is worth. Tho mechanic production by all the paraphernalia of a hundred shops IUIUIII3 me nivur, as 10 price, so nr as lie can ; anu ' wnere mere Minimi no nut ten. tii'-'i s: 1, mis in ..i,s couuty w r, invoig usurious inieu'st, -in, I giving mortgages of their larius as seen nty, while money is worth but four per cent, in -New York. Hut what has eiul.irrassed Vermont? and vvhatnre her true means of relief All who have been ac quainted with this Male for the last thirty years, are aw.iro 111 it great changes i.avu taken ptacu during ihat tune 1 well remember when wheat was e.x portid, but wc now buy our II o 1. Once, loo, we e.x p tried ns'ies, but wedos. tin more, 01 a I least but little. ,v c mice Mi d luiuh, r ill large quantities; and lliough the Canada lumber trade was to the employer mil a game 01 cnanee, ny vv tiieii tar more were ruineil stepfather to us. Oi.r iii.lural advantages arc soch, 1 have no hesitation in Mivmg,that if wisely improved will enabli: Vermont to support in comfort ns dense n population as nnv other slate. While our moun tains stand on their firm foundations, and tj.e limpid streams leap dovv 11 Ihcmuti every ha.ul, Vermont has a waier power never exceeded in ihe same extent of territory. And lliough none of our mountains should ever rival Parnassus, or our streams be hal lowed by the genius of poetry, yet they might turn a great many spindles, and furnish honorable and pro fi able employment for a great man) busy bands. Weluve havu .somc111n.er.il resourc,9alreadvths''ov- crcd by accident or private enterprise, ,V it is shrewdly than made neb, and to the laborers (I olh morally and 1 f 'pccteu mere may lie oners vv men a thorough geo phvsicallv) an Aceldama," a field of blood, yet ! lc;l1 EU"ey ""a1'! develope, should our wi-e legis Ihn trade helped very much 10 swell our cash exporis 'n"'s ,cvi'r fee f" Vlke " v l,(1,vi; ll,cn ,ho nat nn.l i.rnnnl,, miiei, n.nno,. tn,n ihu ...i',n ,h. lira I ml va n lagcs xi qui site, we harcthe native talent stile:' we now sell but little lumber, and tint little '. nnd industry necesary to make us a manufacturing thus every thing comes to have iivn nriees. bv wbirb jockies buy cheap, and honest men pay dear. ie nave seen, ii i misiane nor, saustactory reasons for concluding that our agricultural exports e,iiino( be very much increased. My own opinion is decidedly, that Vermont has reached the zenith of lur agricultu ral prosperity, unless she takes .ome measures to create a home market, so that her surplus produce may be consumed unon her own soil. We mijlitfeed our own people, wele the number double vv hat it is ; uui we ..nisi, in my opinion, give up the idea of reed ing our neighbors. I think, without doubl, Ihat the causes which have operated to diminish our exporis, nave not nil reached their full strength ; but that they will continue to net with greater' and greater force, an I that under Iheir onerntion our rxnnrts will continue to decrease more and more; that if mir em barrassed farmers can su-lain tlntr credit w hile they live, they will do pretty well: and as ihev die. one l,v one, ill.' usurers will swallow their farm's, their son's ..i ... . it- i. Au nr I. n go to .Michigan and Illinois, and th,ir diuglucrs bo I one, the making of glass, ns carried on m this place, l")f T.e:"' "w,ur or studied so and ir. .I--.:. ... - r . . . ..... ,. . ' . . u'ell ..ifiiniipil nr welt pdnenlpil 1 I .ti, ur-iii.u.e. xur meeu amcs enn .,.(. it tn.re nre I l.v, 1 am nrnuu in siv. two ol our own memners, h id far better be kei.t al home. Al these chances. which one bv one have lopped off our resouices, ore but the result of tho progress of events, nnd Iho march of improvement about us ; while some f Iho very causes which have tended to snip us of our incins, have done much to increase our expenses. aqiia-fnrlis. Wo have said so much upon the action of ammonia and nilrogen, that vou will per ceive how important a Dint nitre is likely to i.diirn il,;,! I'h'V in manure. Not only does tho niiiognn ict Here, lint the oxygen, the other compo nenlof the arid, also acls. It acts upon the mould as air itself would. Besides, the mould of soil and manure imbibes and condenses this oxygon in its pores, and consequently Heals a little; so that salliiclre. whether au (led as such to soil, or funned in manure, as it is always, helps to warm a little the soil, liko fermenting manure. So far as Iheso fleets are desirable thov mav bo oxnerted from tho usu of saltpeire. but ibis, reader it you liny xottr saltpetre, is procuring u small eflur.t at a great prico. Tho action of the alkali of saltpetre is not dilTorent from alkali in other shapes; and therefore if vou have money to lay out for sails, let mo advise you, reader, to spend it rather for ashes than for sallpetre. (To be continued.) The following is related by the Central N. Y. Farmer, in connection with an ac count W ihe Hon. DanielAVebstor's farm al iMarshfield : " There is an incident connected with Mr. Webster's porchaso of Mr. Welles, which shows that tlio farmer of Marshfield knows how to select good cattle. lie called on Mr. Welles, and inquired of hi'm what ho would ask for ono of his cows, to be selected by Mr. Wehstor, and was informed the price. tlo went to tho stable where u largo number of cows wero kept, and called for a pail. The attendants wero very much ama.ed at this (uesliuii,nnd watched with interest tho ope rations of the man who had delighted thou sands wilh the exhibition of his talents. Ho began milking the cows, and passed on from ono to another, until he approached the must valuable of tho herd. Tho owner biicanio somewhat oxciled at the manner of testing his cows. Mr. Webster soon sat down by tlio most valuable cow, and commenced try ing tier milking qualiiies, and after milkine a short lime, says, " this row will tlo for it . . sir . . . r me. " xou can havo bur." said tho owner. " but if you ever want.to purchase another cow of mo, I iliink 1 slpill have something to say auotil Uiu selection myself." people. Wc doubtless need more capital, and a great deal mors enterprise more wisely directed. We are not, as a people, of the true New Kngland breed. We belong, indeed, as naluiahsis might say, to the genus "Americana ;" yet are lacking in many of the characteristics of the "snecies" Yankee. We Thoratnls, ilu- rail-roads, and tho steaml oats ihat lack much of his shicwdncfs, and foresight, mid pa have aided in llioilevelopeitient of the resources of the tient industry; bin sull more of his ready adaptation mighty West, nnd brought her into maiket as our to circumstances, his keenness ofperception ns tn the eompeiilor in every department of ngriciillurc, have true advantages of his situation, nnd that reidwrsa deluged us with foreign goods, nnd foreign fashions, I and ability loo, to do any thins; and every thing in ihe changing as often as the phases of Ihe moon, and for, ign fo ilertcs, whose name is absohiuly, " legion," nnd inlo tho cost of whiih.liad 1 ihn means of infor mation, I should not dare inquire. Now, we can no any who are not already too independently poor.and woo Mann ..ign enougn up in tne worm to havo their fall ilisnified with the name of failure. Making nothing that can be sent nvvny to market, we nre shut up here in quarrel with each oilier for I he miserable garbage uf home patronage ; our rivalry ds geneiating into personal ill-will and hate, liken pick of hungry dogs quarrelling over a bone. Any one, to ETA widow lady of tho name of Ilonrv. of Hornby, Steuben Co. m confined in the jail of out combined with or forming part of their V r y " iarK "J "ems iho cause of t ie .,....-.. .. .. ,,, . . . ,nr tlar.lian.il, n turo of iheir food, strongly nitrogenous, he- ipg seeds, grains, ate, or animals, hues, grasiio..., ...., wu -."". ...... wy ,. -- ,;, .M1Il!stPr fmrl, tne.r u,u,,,....B. .c ""'-iTexa., arrived in Wasliiimton Thursday even mania and salts. I ho slroilfest of all mi.h " ' had been placed under her cuardianBhlp. (.apposed she was 6tarved to death. It is more stop the piogress of these things, if wo would7 than wc can slop tho seasons in iheir revolution. lint if wo In vn not the strength In arre-t, we liny have the wis loin to iindetslsnd ihein. Not the fash ions of iho ladi'os' dresses, I .loot mean, no, heaven forefend, nor ihe Merino, Circassian, 1! (mbnz.no, tiro de Nap, Salin, Thibet cloth, Lustre, Muslin de I. line, Alpine, Alp.icca, Chally, Chiisan, they may happen to bo made of. The poet saith, and sailh truly, " There is a lido in ihe affiirs of Women, " Which taken ut tho flood lends God knowswhere." There are in Vermont. 120,000 females, and 230, 000 dollars must bo below the cost of the printed goods and shoes bought each year for the whole nun. oer. y ...is sum pernnps one nan goes 10 our c i? urn neighbors, nnd the reiiininder to France nnd l.iiginu.l. 1 lieu comes uupiinted goods ol all bortg uiadH in the cistern stales, so cheap that some varie ties will bear exportation lo F.iighind, itself, nnd all so low that our farmer's daughters havo long ago thrown away their vvheels, nnd choose to buy cotton instead ofurikiug linen cloth. Hut why atlemi.t nnv computation? We have no data from which to judge with any certainly. Hut we all know ihat no ankle of female apparel, which it will do for a washerwoman lo wear van ho mule in Vermont, imles., indeed, some few of our farmer's daughters are siill so far behind the times as tn knit their own stockings, when ihey should bo studying French and taking lessons in music at n fashionable boarding-school. Let us glancn for a moment, in imagination, at the progress of a Ver.nonter in ibis life. At his first ad- . . ... .... ; i . i ,e,-i . .uiu una ore; lining wo. ui, ne is emu ; ani i venture- to ny no one nrtiele uf that first drn-s was made in Vermont. Knidish llannel. Irish linen. French lawn or print, constitute Ihc druss, and a Russian dia per fastened wilh a Victoria pin, and his piirioticap panl is complete. His infincy is rocked, (il may be,) ma vvinow craole; all 1 know or which is, that it was nul undo in Vermont. IIi chil Ihood is tickled wilh i do toys of Italy and France-, or perhaps amu sed with tliu gaudily colo.cd picture books of London, l'hilau. Iplna or llo-ton " Goody Twoshoes," " I'uss inlloots"or soino other equally valuable literary work. " Some larger plaything gives bis youth delight; A little louder but as foreign quite;" and so on through life. Art is not called on tn ad minister to a want, or to gratify a desire, but it is done by a tax on Vcrmonters, for the : benefit ot somoniher people. Tho carriages and furniture of the wealthy; the tools of the mechanic ; the plainest crockery on our tables ; ll.e clock ihnt marks the lime ; Ihecbnir seat wosit on; ll.e bread wo eat ; the hooks we read; tho enecis we sleep ... ; an, nu are nought Irom oth ers. A X ermonter cannot pin Ins shirt collar, or but ton un a garment, ur t"ht his fire nf n mnr.iin... tint he employs n foreign mechanic and sends ell" Ihc ensu u. pay nun. And how. and bv what means nre wn tn nsv r.ir nil this foreign labor nnd mnteiial? Why, forsooth, we nre nn agricultural people) We ra.so grain, and make pork, nnd beef, nnd builer, nn lcheeso; nnd wo export, too, some few articles of tuanufaciurc, and, UU31l.CS, UICID O I.UI fj.rill BllllMe, WUOL. Lei us look for n few moments nt this question dis passionately, and sec whether Ihesu resources ran be increase I ; or, even, if we arc ur ll.il they will not diminish still more. We have said, I believe, if not I will say il now, that no ono can nllord in An ilmi which liocnnnol do ns chenply ns any one else; or, to he. Hiiro explicit, modern ininrnveinenl has nimlesll men practically near neighbors, and hrnughl us into cause of thrift, which distinguishes that wonderful animal. Hut we a re descended Irom the same stock, whose ruliti.' passion, the veritable Deidrieh Knick erbocker fciys, is "improvement," nnd we t.hout.1 disgrace our pedigree did we not look about us and exercise ihe common shrewdness ot common men, if we have not the uncommon shrcwdnessof the slock from which we siirung. The dav has gone by when men waited for the forceof circumstances to develope Iho rrs,urces ol their country, l.ven Ihe ilescendinls of the sage burghers f New Netherlands no longer layout streets by cow path-, nor wait, as did the re nowned Wnlfcrt Webber, never dreaming that land was good for any thing but raising cabbages, till the corporation made him a rich man in spite of himself, by cutting up bis garden into building lots. How would Wou'er Van Twiller or Wdhelmus Keift I eas tonished could ihey be pern lit ted to return once more lo ihe eat of their former greatness, could ihey pass iiirougn vvaii.Btreei or ivronuvvoy, ami see ine eve deuces which notion r on every hand, of Yankee inflti dice, and Yankee enterprise, which havepasse'el over it could they uiiioiu the great xxestein itnitwny, or lliel'rolon Aqueduct, or stand nu the llaltery and compare the naval nichitccture of n Liverpool pack I, oi the taper proportions of a modern ste-ainer, wilh' Ihe ship Coed Vrow CO feet keel, 60 feet beam, and bU lect in ttie hold I Hut to return. The Creator'has given certain great natural advantages lo our country; and, to each, par ticular part oT i lie land, something peculiar to itself, Hut how differently have the (Idler cut portions im proved their share of the blessings of heaven. We have spoken of ihe cotton and sugar ol the South ; these, with tobacco, form their great staples. These arc all articles of cxnort. and have a cash value every where al home and abroad. One al least of these articles, and that the important ono of cotton, the South could never have exported but for Yankee in genuity. They owe it no doubt to the cotton gin of xxiiiinoy that ttiey can grow cotton in competition wilh ihe world. Hnl there are other advantages from which New Kngland has rrnped a rich harvest, that all the .oulhern sea-board might share wilh her did Ihey possess Ihenece-sary enterprise. In commerce nr the fisheries what ndvnntage has Massachusetts or Connes lieut over Vupinta or C.aro linn, save cnternrise and industry. And what adian lages have ihev over us in the manufacture of wool, hardware, glass, or, in short, in any of the results of ingenuity and labor Ihe application ol water power, the use of fuel. &c. &c. save this same enterprise? Tho industry, I contend, wc have, or might have, if there was the nope ei reward to call it lorin. The fisheries of Massachusetts emnlov 1C 000 men and their income annua Iv is not le.a than five mil lions of dollar-. In the ouifil of these fisheries she it very little, if ot all indebted to any one t.eynnil her own limits: nnd the return is not in something that has no rnsh value, (like a large share of the products of our lator,) but all the returns of this outlay find a ready cash market. Connecticut employs in this, branch of industry 2.000 men, and ihev brine her home annually two million gallons of oil, GCOO bids, pickled fish, 1,700 quintals ol dried hah, and 8157,57'. worm ol whale uone. From Ibis great field of nroductive emn'oymenl wo aro exdude-d by our natural situation. Hut is it location ihnt ennl.les ll.e Imlii-a of Connecticut lo pro ilueeannun Iv 82T.fi.75n wnrih , f straw bonnet", while thoso of Vermont make but 82,000 worth, or thai gives an average of S 130 for each peron employed in ihat slate, nnd but 822 for eneh person here? U it her location that enables her dniry. women to produce 12 per cent, more butler nnd cheese from the snme ni.t.i her nf en. lie. nnd her former's wives and daugh ters to rniae 911 worlh of poultry per family, while While this system has beennursued ihat Ins drain ed ourstate of over 1.000 of her population aniunlly, we have -.11 the while indirectly employed not less than 3000 foreign artists, nnd have sent on" not less thin a million and a half of dollars annually to support them, ami have had in our pay n corps nf 700 merchants at home, whose duty it has been to ran sack the earth for the latest made folly, and cater to our morbid nppelitcs for the latest fashions of France nnd Kngland. Thus cutting our throat with both hands filling the West wiih ihc choicest of our -ons, to outdo us in agriculture, and al the same lime send ing nil' all the money we can raise lo pay foreign workmen, nnd lo support the manufacturers of oilier stairs nnd other countries. We have said something of the comparative respect ability of trade and labor. I., t us now glance for a moment at iheir respective results on the pu' he pros perily, and inquire w Inch conduces most lo ihe happi- Messrs. Smith At Wilkin's, with the investment ofa capital of S15.000, give constant emplov mint to forty men, and produce annually S 53,000 worth nfan arti cle, of which the outlay for foreign materials is small, while nil iheir productions have a cash value, and cither bring ihn amount of money inlo the slate or save our pnving il out. We need but visit the vicinity ..f.liur works, witness the flourishing appearance of makcahving in such circumstances, needs to have every thing around, couni up the niulntiideof families ine uncommon surowdness ot tile man .s hoys who, i that arc ditectly or indirectly support, it in coimori ny when locked up alone in n room could make fifty the employment they furnish, nn I " guess" asnear ns cents each in swapping jack-knives. we can Ihe amount of money paid In our farmers for Vermont Ins 13 000 person employed in Ihc arts the ncccssari, s of life, which here find a market, to ind Connecticut but 10000 nnd lliough wo produce form some estimate of how ui"(li iho wise investment but $130 per man to iheir tJ3;0, yet we must r. mem- of S13 0P0 liny do for the good of mankind in general, ner nun our nominal puces are much higher than and nf llurlineton in rai titular. Then, on the nth theirs; so that wo do really make much lets midget er baud, we have merchanis wilh ns hrge capital, ii.ucu iiourer pay. and prolnt.ly doing ns great an annual amoiini ot i u. Our farmers even buy iheir own flour. I heard a stness, and it may bo wuh ns great advantage lo merchant say a short lime since. It Inkesnll their but- themselves. Hut does such nn one furnish employ, ter tn pay for th. ir flour, nnd ihey have lo ruiiind.bt ment for ns much Inbor, nr feed ns many hungry for their calicoes and ribbons. Farmers, nnd Mo- children, or furnish a market for as much produce ? chanics, ton, buy almost every article of mniiufac-, To find employment for a man to give him nn op- tore, lor aany use, in almost every uepnrluienl of life, portunily lo hvo honestly nnd in comfort by his in of somebody out of the Stale; and by n slow but sure dusirv or lo buy nnd use the produce he hns raised, process we arc draining the State of its money, and is a very ddl'. rent thing from furnishing him with yenriy increasing mo cry in naru nines. gew-gaws, or tal.ing the cash some l.ouy else lias Somebody has said, and I believe he was called a enabled him lo e am, nnd sending it out of the slate wise man for tho saying, ''That he who li-arncd wis-, to come hack no more. dom from the experience of others was a happy man ; In the manufacture of musical instruments of nn he Ihat learned it by his own experience vvas a lcise expensive character, a few individunls in this town man, but lie that could learn it from neither of these 1 have made a progress of which we may well bepioud. sources wns a fool." Vermont has hefnrn hr-r ill . n.l i, la l,;,.lt .;ia hni n .hirpre.it tVi'lin was enter. experience oi ner eastern sisters, nod it is rich in les sons ot wisdom, wur own expirunco is yet only negative; I ut it might have taught us before now ihnt our cour-e was not die right one. Tho successful nanulactures ol ihe eastern states are of recent ori tipvvnrd. Like the fabled Cvclops under mount Xt- ni, their struggles are upheaving the whole mass of community. The mechanic arts nre nr xl in the ns (ending scale, and they are lie i e as one lo Ihree of us nlrerdy. Ten years mere, and who can say but na tive mechanics nnv be as scarce ns native- laborers now nre. Silently but surely this ? nglee-nuse tnit-t wotk great revolutions amomi us with reference to la bor of all kind-, and wc should be prepared to met them. Society like wnler will find itsown level. The be-t informed vv ill rise vv lule the ignorant .and de graded must sink, lo compete tor thtir daily b.ead with the latest importation of Ihe pauper lal orrrs nnd mechanics of Ivirope or fnnnd. I in, nn nothing disparaging to foreigners. They come here in pursu ance of the gr.nl law of our being bv which evrry one dors that by which he can brsl enjoy " life, liber ty and the pursuit of happiness," Our country, too, has a j i-t claim upon u ; and every man, when he has become a more intelligent citizen, has done his country a service. Hut what is it that will make ns intelligent Can the mind be properly cultivated by a certain amount ol reatpng or study, so that one liny sav, vv lien I his or that, or studied so and 1 shall bu well-informed or well educated? This wruld be reading as men li'.e medicine not becau-e ihey lovo it, but because ihey hope it mat do them good Such a man's boo1 s will very likely be those most easly taken, the .Sherman's Lozenges of literature, so abundint al the present day, very easily swal low en vv net lu r Ihev do any goon nr no uur read ing -liould be rather like our ,1 lily food. taken, not only becau-e it is necessary, hut because vv,- tore il ; and like that too it must be digested- we musl thin: ns well as read. Much of the food lint now tempts the mental nppetite, is sodiluted, eo' wishv washy," that one tuny swallow it forever, nnd yet, so far ns relates to mental growth and the Irueilevelopemeiil of Ihe inner man, be a mere Ca'vin Kdsou, after all. Hut I am wandering, I perceive, from my original stibj ct, nnd trespa sing nn vour time. 1 close with an apology t pit 1 Inve detained vou so long, nnd to .sohlllo put pose, and with the expression nfi hope that the subject we hive been consideting. may sion arrest th atientim of men fir better qualified to do it justice, and who wield an influence that shill waku up Vi rummers Irom lluir Hip Van Winkle sleep, to n co lsidcratton of mans by which the true interest of the state may be promoted. competition wiih every ulli T people, in every depart-1 the families of the farmers of Vermont average only m.lll ff imli.a.ru ll.i .... ....... . . I a .a -.L rt .... , , .1 .1... Via ma- ' .y-'.-... u niiii, iiiua, rxpeci ID 1 Q1,UU WOrill 1 Ulllier lUCHUUIl tun. Gi.ftui.ai'.i in. iiCauul ,kjin,--lho results of the last 30 or -10 years of experi- .. .. . ... j .. t ... ouujix,, 11 iij iiimty fusses from the fickle and uncertain course of our own gov ernment, and lo nnny more from iheir want of expe- r.eoe-u iii.u .ur iircc's-nry inioruiiu, n, yet ttiey were not discouraged. Many a private fortune vvas lost and many a projector, like poor Jack Fi'ch, died of disappointment, yet still they pressed on, with tho words nl Col. Miller" try Air" for iheir mot- to. Heing nware that hngland owed much of her glorv nnd power to her ciant n.aniifact.irin.. Rvsiem. and thinking not only that " some things can he done ns well as others" but thai they could do them as wen as omrrs it iney only aneie note, limy resled not until Ihey succeeded, or are fast succeeding. They were not contented merely to mike things as iej ihey saw the necessity of making them as cheap as England, and, though paying a higher price for labor, by superior ingenuity ihey have succeeded, at least in many ntliclesof manufacture. Thus Ihev find nleniv of employment at home for Iheir suns and daughters, anu sen, i lucsicrn Vermont lor neip. I Know girls who liavegoncfrom Caledonia county to Lowell, and returned with from three to five hundred dollars in cash ihe savings of three or four years of industry. Hut what field of prodiicliveemnlovmeni is mien m the females of Vermont ? 1 know of none. The do mestic labor Ihey might do, is by fashion undo disre putable, even m .their own father's house. Men may smi'e nt me as visionary, or ns being alarmed without cause, but I say without hesitation, tee comic lone live under thepresent systim of things. Industry has no encouragement, and enterprise no stimulus. Those Ihat have money, instead nf cm larking it in any scheme of produ ctive employment, vest il in bank or other stocks or l-ecp it to shave their neighbors wilh by usury. Labor is degrnding.nnd no man, much less woman, (or ladtj 1 should have said) will work for a living if it can bo avoided. The artist who produces an am cle necessary to the comfort of life is a mechanic, nnd isdcspised.bccaose he vvniks for a living, and paid in that which nobody else will take. Hut tho mnn who goes out of the state and employs foreign artists to make what perhaps we could have dona without, nr, at least, might have made at home, is n gentleman, and must be paid the cash. His business must be re- guroen ns ine most essential ol nny to the public pros perity. His calling is profitable nnd honorable. And if we Can but eel on nf our .nn. I ihin,t l.lo Mi,m.r we have provided nobly for him, or if his counter juniper uiu spenKS in one oi our daughters the gill h tunic , i.' vn, nuiiur. There is one more evil of which I have to complain. And I shall perhaps alarm many when I say that the high prices of all things of produce, of manufactured wares, ana or ishor, are evils, rvoi that we are too STORY OP VICISSITUDE. In the Now York " Asylum fur the Roli 'f nf Respectable Aoed Females," there is a .Mrs. F., in the eighty-third year of her .ag;e, ihs vi. ctf.-ittiiles of whose life have been soniewhit re markable. Horn of respectable parents in Bit Chester, in early life she married a llritish fli cer, nf opulent family. At tho time nf Corn, vvalhs' surrender in 1731, her husband was made prisoner. D.smissed on parole, lie and his young wife returned to litirop,', and spent tlieir time in fashionable gaity tt.l the close of the war. At tins time in tho fulfilment of a promise he had made prcviiuis to marriage, he returned tn settle in this country. Arnvng in I'liil.id.jqlii.i, they were received and entertain e( fur several weeks bv I.itlv l'en.bcrton. . Subsequently, at the Kulicitatmn of tho widnvv ; but 40 men are directly employed in the lf U(J)i Ml)- F()lnorv .10P0 w. lus);lnj .ouls derive iheir subsidence from ibis , brother liavnj; nnrru ,1 .Mrs. I .s sister,) they t.iined bv purchasers of these nrticles. So far ns me clinnir.il excellence is concerned, ll.e pianofortes made here, nn.l. I believe the organs nso, will beat comparison with nny oihers. On the subject of tone and musical merit, I am no connoisseur. "Though I, for my pirt, cannot seo Why siich a contrast there should be, ' Tvvixt tweedle dum nnd twicdle dee," t-el T Mn ere well nnd erstand the ditlerence be tvvcen sending the price of such nil nrliclo lo Hoslon V...u X'nrk nnd thus w itllllmW im? from tWO til eight hundred dullars from theVirculaling cash of ihc neighborhood, and paving out ihat amount of money to circulate through all the arteries of trade and busi ness nmong ourselves. Althoii.'h glass business including women oftn inula i .n,. n,i,i ihnt .he runners of the couuty receive! settled on l.ii iiiL'ston manor. There, about not less than te'n thousand dollais per nnnuni for ! f()Ur years afterwards, Mr. V. died, leaving .Mrs. produce thus consumed. Now I doubt if the whole j.. wl)l ,,iri,(! c:;(ren S.'nkrk'e? ;t4.T, About this tune, news arrived nf the .ale nf home come consumption. Farmers well understand an Cstato in Surinam, in which .Mr. I. vvas in. the ddlerence between selling foddir abroad and hav- forested, for iM-,0(IO sterling', and lh.it Iho iirg it consumed on ihe firm; nn.l is there not quite aVl1js were watting him in the lini da uf an .agent ns much diflerence between selling produce out of Ihe jn janj. p. accompanied bv her friend, stnle, supposing we could find a market not glulleit, .. xi.,....,.nr.. sli.,,l ior Fii.n'n and nnlv mul having it consumed al homo by u busy and in- Mont -oincrv, s.uit l lor Lump , at el ..i ly .in i....n.fc . j nrriinil til I ..nn tn nnrtl I i.i( :n n ...in ,ail m "r.r.'','.frl','J.ln'i.1. nl'l rnir means, the ntrririilluro of the , vailed Holland, that the holts and siibslnnce nf state lei lur produce nil she can, but nt the same ii0 a,,e,it were destroyed, and her p-uperlv lust lime lei ihe pubhc mind be roused, if possdi e, lo the s)ie rom.ttno ,er husband', ( -nds in Ire .v. iii , e.iexdii.L' on something elso than ngri- , . , . , . . . , c, turn 'p oduc.s for export, and let us as fast ns r,.s. anu, ,r a per.,.., o, ivveu y.iour cars, having ... . .. . .. ' . .1 .- I ... l.,...:n i t.,1 linr .Mill, &n,, ii'lm Ii III n i,rn,l t ,.. ru, ,n Sl'ln begin to iiitik('rr.uuo.,iriiir.j;. ii ..s , ' ' , ' , - - each mail for himself, wilh the, leteimination thai he the West Indies, audit ilmi her sens! of ele. will make some one mini mat ne win . uuusier ... i pendenco irksnine, i-hc relurneil to tlu ceun'rv ; some one want of mankind, nnd do it as cheaply nnd u .. fimm jt a CUJ country to what It was u -..11 n nnv I ilv else, and not rest nil he has sue reeded ; and when ho hns done so, let hitu then come tn ihiuk the products of his labor to be vorth some thing, I had rnthrr bo tho inventor of tho simplest im provement m ihe really useful nrlsof eve r -day life, than to have gained the glory of any mere con queror, "From .Macedonia's madmnn to tho Swede." xv I. -i... .la, ,l,i ihnr h w ho succeeded in making (he wood screws of A.neiica heller than those . , ' . ,,!,!.. or invented the common casl-iron SK" when she left it." One daughter went to Mississippi. Tlio eth er became a widow having three children, and poor. She did what she could fur her aged pa. rent, who lietsclf, liil more than eighty years ot age, earned her own clothing by her needle. And now she is contented and thankful, waiting till her change conies in the Asylum in Twelfth htrert, provided by Christian charily for just of tho Knghsh, or invented iho common casi-iron door-lalch, so superior to the Norfolk, deserves belter of his country thnn Stephen Cirnrd or John Jneob .Vurelv prids is not for man. Mow baseless trt llif) nrnilllkeli nf parti. ! Sho whit w-.ib i.nrn Astor? yet Ihe names of the , former, .f not tl1('l' l9 child of gaily, associated with rank, and unknown, are never heard, while those o the Mter lfieii bva) ,,a, ucn,.c Mn ,1,:iM,.r, u(ter fn5."n.5w ends' H, "llmenwne , ,,ink so- years of darkness and privation, is now fed by Z Z on th subject, and be able to know their bene- ho hand nf charity, nut hope is left j ur rath, factor front their scourges 7 When will the false or i,nr.e pHined in the school nf nderifr. glory nf military renown, ttie '"',UL lighted up when the hopns nr th rann u-rr8 . . i - i . . . i i r . - - m - . " - "-i wi ini'"iiaii.siiis. mav are loo i eiotv ni niiiiiai y i " "i - . ne p ai, n (iring price ior u,.inK mat which he catj do I chanics to ship rlocks lo F.nglsnd, at pront, ana well paid for our Ubor t but I believe ihat by a reduc. ' icogueim, and the slitter or mere weaim crnic u, , t e( jf( dpeh a ,!, ,, we . nu be er ban others, and of which ha ran .rfnm. ,k. i. ,h u.n,k..V,.,n nf iha word under eon- lr.i .n a ...v. t.. "r r" .u"' .f m.nVmd. jtnd men berm to rc- Tivuincu. ituicu.u m,i,,. i - .. wwv... . v-. ,,v vt Ivu Hl, ,WUIIUt nG ni.j uS . on f vcucr pom rcuptu iuc v ii"i v n.-..-