V NOT TUB GLORY OF OiBSAR BUT TUB WELFARE OP ROMB BY H. B. STACY. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, APRIL 20, 1844. VOL. XVII-No. 47. I'Vom the Now lan. THE UAI,H UNCHAINED. Thou in chains, thou renal bird 1 Fettered ami hound like .1 tiling of niinc 1 Thou, k Ii si! chimin toicc was heard, Dleit Jin it, notes with the thunder chime! Thou, whose home is the mountain peak, Thou, who drmkitli the mountain stream, Thou, who wheltest thy Moody henk On the blasted rock, with a liuyhty scream I Chains were made for tho.c who crawl. Over the earth with a slavish soul, Licking the dust 111 a lonllins's hall, Sipping die lees of n lordlma's bowl J Not for the I rave nnd fearless inind, Not for the proud and chamless ones, They who, cnstinifoar liihind. Revel and joy 'mid the wreck of thrones. Not for thee of die tireless wins, Horn in the tempest rocked 111 the storm, Soaring nlofi where die sunbeams fling Glory and I iir ti t on thy kinsrly form Emblem that tells of a nation's fame, Vr0112hl in her banner engraved on her shield, Bearing alolt her mighty name, O'er the billow's foam and Ihc tented field. Glider thy strength, thou bird of light, Fix thine eyes on die god of dav, Spread thy wings for a clorimi flight, Then away to die wooded hills aw.iy 1 I hate given iheo freedom, lliy chains are broke, Thy limbs released, thy pinions fieed, CJeivc the air Willi a might stroke, To ihy mniinlain eyrie I speed ihce, speed 1 (tA bt'iter story of the kind than tin; one below, in rarely met willi. It is from the Portland '.'Vanscript. A FiS II STORY. Showing how materially circumstances al ter cases. Many years ago wlion Gov. Goro sal in llm Executive c-)wur of Massachusetts, Mr. IL, a substantia1! f inner in tliu good old town ..J"4tti... ....... -1..... 1.... ...!... v.lfc "113 l-IIUSt:il II IIHMIIUL'I III UIU VvUllll- ffJl'iilu attending to his duties in that capacity, hi! was frequently invited to dine with tin; Governor, who always tieated him with much hospitality and urbanity. As some lelurn for the Governor's politeness, Mr. B. had long meditated making him a present. But what should it he 1 Govern ors aro not common men, and no common present would answer. Many and Ions wen? the consultations between Mr. and Mrs. IS. on this important subject, hut no satisfactory result was arrived at uulil one day, early in the .Spring, it was announced in the. village th.il a fine salmon, the first of the season, hail been caught hy theDr.icnl fishermen. Ueie v is a God-send for Mr. IJ. indeed ! tliu ve ry thins to present to tin? Governor, and he lust no lime in seeming it, never heeding the enormous pi ire demanded by the captuis. It was a noble fish, a full " twenty pound 1 er," ami in tiiu language of Mis. 15. as she swathed it in snow white linen, ' it was the biMUtentost fish you ever saw.' The salmon was carefully tied up in a new bag, the horse wi hunetsed In the waggon, iiiid lb" worthy roiiiiciluiau anil his piesenl trotted briskly aw.iy down the Boston load. Now, ill those days tee-total societies wete unknown, consequently Mr. B. was not a tee.totaller, if he had been ho never would have stopped thief; limes between Diacut and Tewksliury, to ' wood up.' Nor when lio arrived at Tewksliury, would ho have tar ried at ' W'ilder's Tavern,' where according to a black sign with white letters, 1 Enter tainment for M ill and Beasl ' was alw.iys ready. We will consider it decided then, that he was not a temperance man in the modern acceptation of the term, and follow him at once lo ' W'ilder's.' Under ihe in- lluonco of the three cocktails already taken lie drove up to die door of that ancient hos telrie with a mighty clatter, and throwing the reins to the hostler, requested him to can-fully guard the waggon, as there was a precious freight in the box, and then walking into the house in a majestic manner, as bo came a member of the council was jonn deep in that now forbidden luxury flip. The landlord grinned and hohhed hastily about, the hot poker hissed and sputtered as it was thrust into the ' reaming mugs,' nnd Squire I B. installed into the best room and the best chair, quaffed largely of the. generous beve rage and reflected upon the pleasant recep tion he should meet at the Governor's. But ' the best laid schemes of men and mico aft gang astray.' While tho worthy adviser of His Excellency was thus rioling in anlicipai'Oins of the effect of his present siBe evil spirit flying over Towksbury at tho time, seeking for u chance to do mischief, cast its eyes upon the hostler, nnd seeing at a glance that he was a proper instrument wherewith to work, entered into his heart, and instigated him to do thai which was to make those anticipations vain as an idl show. Prompted by curiosity to see what the precious freight was, and influenced by the spirit aforesaid, the hostler iinlied the bag and drew out the scaly occupint. Standing at the door, sent them no doubt by some other evil spirit, was a fish cart, from which the possessed hustler procuied an enor moussUnllock, which he carefully lied up in the I ajj, and hid the salmon in the hay mow. Having finished his Hip, Mr. B. called for his horse, paid the reckoning, nnd was soon onco more en route for Boston. The groy mare felt he oats, the Squire felt his flip, and right gaily they sped along through tliu an cient towns of Wilmington, Wobum and Medford, and in duo time the waggon rattled merrily over the pavements of Huston. Gov. Gore was sitting down to dinner, when tho door-bell rang and a servant an nounced Mr. 11. of Dracut, and tliu Govern or repairing lo the parlor, found that worthy citizen, dusty and flushed, Ins noso I. inly slu nwig with excitement and Dip. Willi a low bow he advanced, seized the Governor's hand and commenced a set speech which ho had been conning since he left home, May it please your Excellency ,' he said, 1 it is a duty incumbent upon all good cm zens to remember those placed in authority over thorn, " Hero bo paused, for he For a single moment tho Governor felt in dignant, but rocolleriing the character of the donor, ho concluded that some one had pl-ty-ed him a trick ; and walking back to his vis iler, whom ho found waiting with eager ex pectation, remarked in u cool, lndifluiont tone : ' I am much obliged, Mr. H. for yenrkind intention, though your present is no great rarity here in Boston ; wo can get the same any day at the Fish Market for two cents n pound.' ' Get it for two cents a pound, at the Fish Market !' roared the confounded Council man, ' why Governor, ilium's not another Salmon, out of water, in New England 1' ' 1 was not speaking of Salmon,' replied the Governor, in the samu provokingly calm tone, ' I merely intended lo say that I can got in tho market for that price, a belter and fresher Pollock than the one which you have brought me.' ' Pollock be darned !' screamed Mr. B. ' d'ye mean to say the fish I brought you just How is a Pollock V ' Walk this way Mr. B.' said tho Govern or, leading the way to the kilrhen, and point ing to the stiiped sides of the fish, ' is that a Salmon V 1 II was when I started this morning,1 said Mr. B. in it low lellectivo tone. and a fine one too, as ever swam in the Merrimack. Bui,1 he continued, turning it over, as if lo be sure then? was no mistake, ' but it is a Pol lock now sure enough.1 The pride and sphit of tho good old far mer were completely broken. He felt innr tifieil and ashamed, ho could not bear to look tin? Governor in tho face, and steadfastly de clined all his invitations to slay nnd dine. Slowly and mournfully he re-bagged the Pol lock, and sorrowfully commenced his home ward journey. If there was occasion in the morning to ' wood up ' at the numerous tav erns on tho load, tliero certainly was now when returning under such mm tif ing ch cuinstances and when Mr. B. at last readied ihe tavern at Towkshmy, lie was just in that statu and fiame which he thought demanded a strong mug of ' ihler's best flip,1 and so he had it. But while he was thinking it, the mischievous hostler was again at the bag. Finding the Pollock still theie, he withdrew it and replaced the Salmon. Mr. B. reached homo about dark, tired, vexed, and and we must say it, a little drunk. At first he was sullen and silent, nut at last wearied Willi Ins wile s ceaseless enquiries as to what was the mutter, anil whv he was so ' cross and snailv like,' he threw his hat at the 1 Diesstus ' with such i oleuce and filial aim that hu brought down the milk-pot, family pilcher and a small bust of cups, saucers and plates. Ho smiled grim ly at the havoc ho had wrought, and then turning fiercely to his astonished lady de ' What do yer think ! That cursed Sal mon turned into u Pollock hufuru 1 got to Boston !' lI mean jist as I say,' said ihe Council lur, with dignity, 'an if yer don't believe me, go a id look in the bag behind the dour.' Mrs. B. hiuled out the hag, cut the siting and shook the contents on the llunr. Her spouse lonked on with modi nouchaleuce du ring the first i 11 1 nf the operation, but when the Silmon, hulking as hale and fishas he did when placed theie in 1 lie morning i..ll-il out anil flopped quietly down on ihe floor ! it was loo much. ' I). 11 nation seize ihe ci it-tin-! he cried as with one kick of his heavy foot he sent the unfortunale li-h into the bla zing fire, and then laping hold of the tongs he punched him, and eiowded him down un der the coals exclaiming, ns ho danced about in his frantic efforts 'How d'ye like that, you tamal ciittur ! Oh, your a nice fish, you are, dam ye. YmCrc a Salmon in Dracut, Out a Pollock in Jioston 1 bad lost the thread ' and to- uuotlier pause, he had evidently pitched his tunu loo high ' and to . Governor, I am 11 man of few words, but if you will send your hi red man out to my waggon you'll find that tied up in a bag, as will speak louder than words and make you stare, I reckon.' Guv. Goro smiled, and ordered a sorvnut lo carrv the big to tho kitchon ; and repair ing thifher himself, found tho servants staring with wonder at a largo anu uy no means pre Il..11n1 Ifii, I mil m. llwi t'-ilil.. 1 OSS'ISSIIIL! 1 UIIUVI 11114 umi v11 ,nv muiu , From IJhekwooJ's Magazine. A M1IT WITH THE JACOKIX Cl-UIi. 1 no lonowing is an extract iron, a pow erfully written paper 111 the nuniberof Black wood, untitled " Marston or the adventure: of a Statesman." The narrator has iusl es caped from death by iho Giiillotinu.'and in dashing along through dark lanes and alleys, suddenly encountuis a crowd of Sam Cu lottes, who are on their way to tho meeting of llm Jacobins. He is compelled lo join them, and in their company observes what lollows :j We now plunged into the darkness of vast pile, evidently onco a convent, and where the chill of iho massivo walls sliuck lo the marrow, I fell as if walking lluough chamel house. Wu bin lied tin, a trembling ight, toward the cud of an immense and lof ty aisle, was our guide ; and Iho crowd, long familiar with tliu Tay, rushed through tho intricacies where so many feet of monks had trod before them, and wheie, pet haps, many 1 deed that shunned the day had been per petrated. At length a spiral stair bioughl us lo a largo gallery, where our entrance was marked w ith a shout of congratulation ; and tumbling over thu benches and each other, wo at length look our seats in the highest part, which, in both llm chiluiiid the Nation al Assembly, was called, from ils height, tho Mountains, and from the characleis which generally held il, was a mountain of lliiue. In the area below, once tho navu of tliu flame, sat the Jacobin club. I now, for the first time, saw that niemurablo and terrible assemblage. And nothing could ho loom suited ill 111 its aspect to ils deeds. Thu hall was of such extent that a largo portion of il was scarcely visible, and the few lights which hung fiom iho walls scarcely displayed even tho rum liudur. The French love of decora- lion had 110 placo hem ; neither statutes nor pictures, neither gilding nor sculpture, re lieved tho heaviness of tho building. Noth ing of thu arts was visiblo but their rudest specimens ; the grim effigies of monks anil niartvrs, or tho coarsu and blackening carv iugs of a bin barons age. Thu hall was full ; fur Iho club contained ueiiily two thousand members, and on this night all worn present. Vet, except for thu occasional ciies of ap proval or anger when any speaker had con bided, and the habitual murmur of every sunibl.igu, for a host of spectres ; the area had so co lliery tho aspect of a huge vault, the air fell so thick and tho gloom was so feebly dis persed by the chandeliers. All was sepul chral. The chair of the president even stood on a tomb, an antique structure of black marble. The elevated stand, from which the speakers generally nddicssed the assem bly, had the strongest resemblance to a scaf fold, anil behind il, covering the wall, were suspended chains, and instruments of torture of uvery horrid kind, used in the dungeons of old limes; and though placed there for the sake of contrast with the mercies of a more enlightened age, yet enhancing the gen eral idea of a scene of death. It required no addition to render the ball of the Jacobins fearful-; but the meetings were always held at nighl, often prolonged through tho whole night. Always stormy, and often sanguinary, daggers were drawn and pistols fired assassination in tho streets sometimes followed hitler altacks oil the benches; and at this peiiod, thu mutual wrath and tenor of thu faclions had lisen to such a height, that every meeting might be only a prelude to exile or the uxo ; and thu deliberation of ibis especial night must settle the question whether the monarch or the Ja cobin club was lo ascend the scaffold.. It was the debute on the execution of thu un happy Louis XVI. The uiiivnl of iho crowd, among whom I, had taken an unwilling .sent, evidently gave new spirits to iho regicides ; the moment was critical. Even in Jacobisni all were not equally black, and thu fear of iho national revulsion at so desperate a deed slailled ma ny, who might not have been withheld by feelings of humanity. Tho leaders had held a secret consultation while the debate was drawing on ils slow length; and Danlou's old expedient of" terror" was resolved on. His emissiiiies had been sent round Paris to summon all his banditti ; and thu low cafes, the Faohiirg taverns, and every haunt of vi olence, nnd the very diiinkenness of crime, had poured foilh. The remnant of the Mar seilles il gang of actual galley-slaves, who had led the lain inassacie the paid nssas rinr of the Marais, and the sabrcurs of the Itnyal Guaid, who, after treason to their king, had found profitable Hade 1:1 living on thu robbery and blood of tho nobles and piiests, formed this reinforcement ; and their entrance into the gallery was recognized by a clapping of hands from belo v. which they answered by a roar, accompanied with a sig nificant sign of clashing their knives and sa- J hies. Danloti immediately rushed into the Tri bune. I had seen liim before, on ihe fearful night which picparcd the attack on the pal ace ; hut he was then in the haste and effec ted savageness of iho rabble. Ho now play ed ihe part of a leader of a political sect ; and the commencement of his addiess adop ted something of ihe decuium of public coun cil. In this then? was an artifice ; for restless us the club was, it still retained a jealousy of the superior legislative rank of the assembly of national lepiescnt ities, the Convention. The forms of the Convention wem sti icily imitated ; nnd even those .larohins who usu ally led (lie dehate, scrupulously uoio the mess 111 1 in- nesi tuners, linliesiiiere was elaborately dicsseil whenever he nppearei 1.1 Ihe ! limine, and even IJanlnn abandoned the canaille costume for the lime. 1 was struck with his showy stature, his hold forehead, anil his coniinanning attitude. is he stood waiving his hand over the multi tude below, ns if ho waved a sceptre. His ippenrnnco was received with a general bout 1 1 mil the gallery, which hu returned by one piolounil Dow, and then stood erect, ti l II sounds hail sunk. His poweiful voice then rang lluough the extent of the hall. lie begun with congratulating the people on llieir having telieved the Kepublic from its xtcrnul dangers. Ills language at first was moderate, and his recapitulation of ihu per ils which must have lielallen a conquered country ,was sufficiently true and even touch ing, hut his tone soon changed, and I saw the li no Jacobin. " What," hu cried, " are those perils 10 the horrors of domestic pei ft- Iv ( What are the ravages on tho frontier, to thu poison and dagger at our firesides'! What is thu gallant death in tho field, to as sassination in cold blood 1 Listen, fellow citizens ; there is at this hour a plot deeper laid for your destruction, than ever existed in the shallow heads of, or ever could hu ex ecuted bv.the coward hearts of their soldiery. Wheroislh.it plot? In the streets 1 No. The courage of our brave patriots is as proof against corruption as against tear." l itis was luttnweii uy a shout 11 0111 the gallery. " Is il in the Tuilleries ? No ; there tho na tional sahro has cut down tliu trco which cast ils deadly fruits among tho nation Where then is thu focus of this plot where Iho gathering ol the sliirin that is to shnki the battlements of ihu Kepublic where that terrihlu deposilo of combustibles which the noble has gathered, the priest has piled, and thu king has prepaid! 10 kindle 1 Brave citizens, that plot is " ho paused, and looking iiiysteiiously round, uhiloa silence deep as death puivaded iho multitude ; then as if suddenly recovering himself, hu tliun dered out" tho Tempest !" No lunguagn can describo tho shout or tho scene that followed. The daring word was now spoken which nil anticipated ; hut which Damon alone had tho desperate audit city lo idler. Thu gallery screamed, howl ed, roiired, danced, flourished their weapons mil sang Iho .Marseilles and the Caimagnole I ho clul) below wero scarcely less violent in their demonstrations of furious joy. Dan ton had now nrcumplishcd his Usk ; but hi vanity tlursled fur nddilinuul applause, and he entered into a catalogue of his services to Republicanism. In (he midst of bis detail ii low but singuhiily clear vnicu was huard from Iho extremity ol the hall ' Descend, man of massacre.' I siiw D.iiitou start bark us if ho had been shot. At length, iceovciing his breath, he said feebly : ' Citizens, of w hiit am I accused V 1 ' Of the thrue days of September,1 uttered the voicu aga in, in a tone so strongly seiml (hral, that it pulpaniy awed tliu wliulu us malign me What spy of the Girondists, what traitor of the Bourbons, what hireling of the gold of Pitt, is among us?1 exclaimed tho bold ruffian, yet with a visago which, even at the distance, 1 could observu had lost its usual fiery hue, and turned clay color. 1 Who accuses me V ' 1 I1 replied the voice, nnd I saw a tall figure stalk up tho length of the hall, and stand at the foot of the tribune. 1 Descend I1 was the only word which be spoke ; nnd Danton, as if under a spell, to my astonish ment, obeyed without 11 word, nnd came down. The stranger took his place ; none knew his nanio ; and tho rnqidily and bold ness of his assault suspended all in wonder like my own. I can give but a most incom plete conception of the extraordinary elo quence uf this mysterious intruder. He openly charged Danton with having con structed the whole conspiracy against the un fortunate prisoners of September ; with hav ing deceived the people hy imaginary alarms of the approach of the enemy ; willi having plundered the national treasury lo pay the assassins ; and, last and most deadly charge of all, with having formed a plan for a Na tional Dictatorship, of which he himself was to bo Ihc first possessor. Tho charge was sufficiently probable, and was not now heard for the first time. But the keenness and fiery promptitude with which the speaker poured the charge upon him, gave it a new aspect ; and I could sec in the changing physiognomies around me, that the great Ja cobin was already in danger, lie obviously felt this himself, for starling up from the bench to which ie had returned, he cried out, or ralher yelled, ' Citizens, this man lliirsts for my blood. Am I to be sacrified? Am I to be exposed to the daggers of assassins?1 But no an swering shout now' arose ; a dead silence reigned ; all eves wero still turned on the tiibune. I saw Danton, after ;i gaze of total heliilessness on all sides, throw up his hands ke a drowning man, nnd stagger back to his seat, .ilotlung could be more unlurliinate than his interruption ; for the speaker now poured ihu renewed invective, like a stream of molten iron, full 011 his puisunul character mid career. ' Burn a beggar, your only hopo of bread was crime. Adopling the prufession of an advocate, your only conception of law was chicanery. Coming to funs, you took up patriotism ns a trade, and turned thu trade into an imposture. Trained to dependence, you always hung on some one till he spurn ed you. You licked the dust befoic Mira buau ; you betrayed him, nnd he trampled on you ; you took refuge in the cavern of Marat, uulil he found you too base for even his base companionship, and he, too, spurn ed you; you then clung to the skills of Ho bespirre, and clung only to ruin. Viper! known only by your coil, and your poisons ; like the original serpent, degraded even from the brute into the reptile, you already feel your sentence. I pionounce it btfoio all. The 3ian to whom vou now cling will crush Mnxim'diin Robespierre, is not your sidunt, in return, invited them to tho ' honors of a silting;1 and thus reinforced, the dis cussion on the dentil of the unhappy mon arch commenced once mure, and the vote was carried by acclamation. Tho National Convention was slill to be applied lo for the completion of tho sentence ; but iho decree of tho Jacobins was the law of the land. OREGON. Tim following letter is from the Nowburv- port (Alass.) Herald. Thu facts staled and the view it presents of the population of the Oregon Territory, its growth, character and social condition, are exceedingly interesting in tnemseivcs, and they lurmsli 111 our judg ment, a most pointed and conclusive argu ment in support of the position that the ques lion of occupancy by the United States, liould tie left as 11 now stands, and that time nd evenls aie doing far more lo give effecl a the Aiueiican claim, than could nossihlv be done by the direct action of our govern ment. Indeed, we have 110 doubt that a po lice, as proposed by Senator Benton and the immediate occupation-party, to the B.rilish government to put an end to the existing onvenlion on the subject, would be the very worst course that could be adopted, because would immediately change the present omet progress of Ameiicau settlement in that ler rilory ; would introduce measures to disturb ie present tranquil growth uf American in terests and power, by an active promotion of lirilish settlement, accompanied most proba bly by inducements lo thu Indian tribes of iliat quarter to place themselves in an alti tude of hostility to the settlements of our peo- iinil would thus tend directly to embroil present amicable relations of the two heid already lilted up lo tread out the life of this traitor. Maximilian Robespierre, hi repeated with 11 still more piercing sound, 'do I not speak (hetiulh? Have 1 not stripped the veil Ironi your thoughts ( Am 1 nol looking on vour heart?' Ilu then addressed each of the .Jacobin leaders in a biief appea ' Bill and Yarciincs, stand forth do you not long lo drive the dagger into the bosom o this new tyrant ? Collol d'Hcrbois, are you nut sworn to destroy hunt Coutlion, have vou nol pronounced him perjured, perfidiuu and unfit to live? Si. Just, have you not in your bosom the list of those who have pledg ed themselves that Danton shall never be Dictator; that his grave shall be dug before he shall tread on the first step ol the throne that his ashes shall be scattered to tho four inds of heaven ; that ho shull never gorge on i ranee 1 A hollow murmur, like an echo of the mils beneath, repeated the concluding words, I'lio murmur had scarcely subsided when us extraordinary apparition, flinging arotini linn a long white cloak, which he had miner to carried on his arm, and which 111 the dim "hi, gave him the look of 0110 covered Willi shroud, cried out in a voice ol still deeper solemnity, 1 Ucorgo Jacques Danton, you ave this night pronounced the death of your ing ; 1 now pronounce your own. uy the victims of tho 20ih of June by the victims of the IO1I1 of August by thu victims of tin 2d of September by thu thousands whom our thirst ot liluod has slain 1V the tens 0 thousands whom vour treachery has sent to perish in a foreign grave by the millions whom the war winch vim have kindled will av in ihe field of slaughter I cite you to ap pear before u tiibuuul, where sils a judge whom nono can eludu and nunc randelv. Within a year and 11 month, I cite you to meet thu spirits of your victims beloiu tho 1 hronu ol the Eternal. II hugo iissoinbly, ihoy might h.tvu been taken ' Who is it that insults 1110? w ho dares to embrace, in sign of fraternization. The pro Unstopped : not a voice was heard. lescended the steps of tho Tribune, and stalked slow ly through tho hull ; not a hand was riiiscd against him. lie pursued his way willi as much calmness and security as il I had been a supernatural visitant, until ho vu lushed 111 the duikuess. This singular occurrence threw a complete lamp on thu regicidal ardor ; and, as no one seemed inclined to mount ihe Tribune, thu club would probably have broken up for ihe night, when a loud knocking at one ol tl gates, and thu healing of drum's, aroused the drowsy sillers on tho benches. The gallery wiis as much aw ako as ever ; but seemed oc cupied with evident expectation of cither a new revolt, or a spectaclo ; pistols wero ta ken out to be now primed, and tho points and edges of knives duly examined. The doors at lengih were thrown opcn.nnd a crowd, one half of whom appeared lo hu in iho last slage ol intoxication, and llm other half not far from insanity, cnnio dancing and carousing into the body of the building. In thu midst of their troops they carried two bmls covered with laurels the busts of tho regicides, lluvaill.ic and Clement, willi flags before them, inscribed, ' They wero glorious, for thoy sluw kings I' Thu busts wero prr- sunted to the nresidunt. and llieir bearers, a . .... . .... 1.. 1 l.i... ilio p ur 01 jtoissamet nmti;ii mi nm; 1 -....I,-.,,.,, :.. . r rr-iinriii'iiinn 'I'lienro- counlnes. Let the whole subject, so far as the action of tin? two governments is concern- d, re. 111 us 11 is, and the progiess of emi gration and settlement from the ' States ' will quietly decide the whole question in our fa vor, without distiiruanco or expense to the pulilic. Albany Ado. Extracts ol a letter dated Oct. 20, 1843, at W illainalte Fulls, on the river of that name. hich is a bianch of the Columbian river: 1 You will bo much surprised when I tell vou that within six innnlhs there have been reeled here Iwo flour and two saw mills, and between thiitv and fortv dwelling houses. (frame two and three stories high, painted lule.J etc. It begins to look very much ke the commencement of a city, 1 can as sure you. i Here is a great water power here, which, no doubt, will soon bo occupied by mills and faciei ies, and of course will col lect a l.irgu population around them. The population of this country, exclusive of the parly of 700 persons now coming in from the States, has increased at least one third during the pasi year. 1 here were thirty thousand bushels ofwhent raised here the past season ; so llint you can judge something of w hat our people are doing here. 1 wish a large party I cmigianls fiom Ihe Eastern Slates could be induced to come here and settle. If they only knew tho advunlngcs of this country they no doubt would come. The fact is any man willi a reasonable degree of industry, an 111 two years make luinscit perleclly in dependent. Tho climate is good ; we have no sickness of consequence, nnd plenty of employment at tI,5U 10 5-,oU per day for mechanics. Unfortunately, most of the emigrants who have come to this country as yet, are West ern men, who have been used to live upon hog and liominv,' and thev are not content with any country where corn and pork are not the staple products, besides they are not as industrious or moral as our New Eng- anders. Some of them complain that they cannot get the necessaries of life, such as whiskey, &c, but fortunately for us we have the Spanish province of California near us, which answers tho ptirposu of a salely valve lo let off thesu uneasy spirits ; and besides, we aro pretty thoroughly organized here now, so that we shall probably bo able to keep lliesn gentlemen in good order; and if un cle Sam dues not do something in the way of taking possession ol the country soon, he may expect to receive, before long, a Minister with proposals lor a treaty between tho United States of America and ihu Republic of Ore gon. The fact is, wo have been obliged, by the force ol circumstances and the neglect ol tho United Status, to form a temporary gov ernment of our own, with the understanding that when thu United States shall extend her jurisdictiun over this country, our officers will resign their ofliccs into the bunds ol bur agents. Wo have been threatened with an ' Indian war,1 by the combination of three of tho most formidable tribes west ol tho Rocky Muun tains ; and although when united and acting in concert, we are abundantly able lo destroy all the Indians in the territory, slill without union amongst ourselves, they would cut us off in detail. Wo havu also had trouble about hind claims, nnd have-ihe piospect of much more, ns the country becomes more thickly settled. Under theso circumstances we have been obliged to form a government of uur own, und have accordingly adopted the constitution nnd laws of iho Territory of Iowa, with various alterations and additions ; havu chosen an Executive Committee of three, viz: A. Beers, D. Halo nnd J. Gale; a Supieme Judge, Russell; a Secretary of the Teiritory, G. W. Lu Breton , Justices of the Pence, 11 High Sherifl, Legislative Com ... . 1 . . mitico, ccc. wo nave uiso a local and a general Tenipuranco Society, of which the Rev. Jason Lee is President, and 1 have the honor of being Secretary. 1 am also Recor der and Clerk of thu Court; nnd these offi ces with my other avocations, will keep me very much confined. Wo aro now building tho first Protestant Church in Oregon, at this place ; and 1 wish you could induce 10 make us 11 THE DRUID'S ALTAR. Whilo toiling along these wild wastes (in Portugal) I perceived, a Mule way lu my lefl a pile of stones of rather a singular appear ance, ami rodu up to it. Il was a Druidical altar, mid Ihu most perfect and beautiful one of the kind I havo ever seen. It was circu lar, and consisted of stones immensely largo and heavy at the bottom, winch towards the lop became thinner, having been fashioned by tho hand of art to something of the shape of scollop-shells. Thesu wero surmounted by a very large flat stone, which slanted down towards the south, when? was a door. Three or four individuals might havo taken shelter within the interior, in which was growing a small thorn tree. I gazen with reverence and nwn upon the pile where the fust colo nies of Europe offered their worshipto the un known God. The temples of tho niighlv nnd skilful Ronrin, comparatively of modern date, have crumbled to tbedust in the neighborhood. Tho churches of the Arian Goth, his succes sor in power, have sunk beneath tho earth, and are nol to be found ; mid the mosques uf the Moor, the conqueror of the Goth, what and where are limy? Upon tho rock, mas ses of hcuvy and vanished ruin. Not so thu Diuid's stone ; there it stands on thu hill of the winds, ns strongly and ns freshly new us the day, perhaps thirty centuries back, when it was first raised by means which aro a mys tery. Earth-quakes havu heaved il, but its capstone has not fallen ; rain Hoods have deluged it, but failed to sweep it fiom its sta tion; tho burning sun has flashed upon it, but neither split nor crumbled it ; and time, stein old time, lies rubbed it willi its iron tooth, and with what effect let those who view it declare. Then? it stands, and he who wishes to study the literature, the learn ing, and the history of the ancient Celt and Cymbsian, may ga.o on ils broad covering, and glean from the blank stone the whole amount. Thu Roman has left behind his doalhhss writings, his history and his songs ; the (jotli his liturgy, his traditions, and the germs of noble institutions ; tho Moor his chivalry, his discoveries in medicine, nnd the foundation of modern commerce and where is the memorial of the Druidic race ? Won der ! the pile of eternal stone ! Harrow's JSiblc in Spain. them, as to tingled to fix deep and definite principles in the mind of the child, because lie has not immediate use fur them. PRIZE ESSAYJON MANURES. Section Twelfth. Ashes. It is easy to sec, that saltp, whatever be their name or nature, which aro likely lo bo of any service lo the farmer, are those only which ei- iher enter into and form part of the plants, ur which, by tho action of llieir acid or base, act on the earthy parts of poll, or upon the mould. Sails either poison or nourish plants. The fit, like the medicines we take, arc good in small doses ; the fccoud can hardly injure, even by their excess. If we recur to the principle with which we set nut early in this essay, that tlio ashes of plants contain all their salts, then right ly to knmv what tails are likely to produce good effects as manure, we should first study Ike composition of ashes. Wo have in ashes a great variety of substances. They come fmrn iho soil. They form a part of plants. The dead plant returns them again lo their mother earth, or we, losing the volatile parts of a plant, ils mould and ammonia, by burning, collect its sails ns ashes. Let us pee what these salts ara made of. In the first place, you know, all sails are composed of an acid and a bise. The bases are, Potash and soda, Lime, Magnesia, Clay, Iron, Manganese, THE EVILS OF SMOKING. A sensible writer in tho Olive Branch, says : " Of the different habils ol using tobacco, the most exceptionable is that of smoking. In the first place, smoking cannot be indul ged in, without annoyance to others. Bv great care, 0110 may take snuff or chew and conceal from others the disagreeable effect of his indulgence; but not so, with a substance so expansive us smoke. Pocket-handker chief, spittoons, and all other means resorted to in tho former cases, in this, are wholly in effectual. Tobacco smoke is exceedingly volilile, and soon spreads over a great suiface poluting tho air which is to bo breathed by those who hold the smell in perfect abhur enco. Wo recently heard a lawyer argue quite learnedly to show that smoking was an uc- tiunablo offence distinct from a violation of the municipal laws which prohibit smoking in the slrcets. In the latter case this olfuncc though classed among nuisances, was made punishable chiefly on account of the danger which it imposed of an increase of conflagra tions. But the lawyer alluded to, assumed the position of an action for trespass. 'What right,' said be, 'has any one to taint and ren der unwholesome the air, a properly, which wo hold in common and undivided, nnd winch was intended for our mutual benefit If said he, 'a neighbor of initio in any way obstructs the natural flow ot a stream of water which has its channel through his land and mine, or makes the water impure and unfit for its proper uses, whereby I Fufier injury, thu of- lending parly is liable 111 Ihe amount ol dam ages proved. Now whv,' he continued, 'has ihe smoker any more right to pollute a cur rent of air which passes from him to me, and which is essential to my life, and if pure, to my happiness, than tho man in the other case to obstruct or corrupt the stream of water? ISone,' replied he, 'I believe an action lor trespass could ho maintained, and I hope the nggneved will take Iho matter 111 bnnd and bring the smokers to justice forthwith.' As lawyers are seldom charged with acting and advising from disinterested motives, il is pos siblu that in this case, though the reasoning is very clear and the conclusion just, this son of G.imalilu was only intent on what is tech nically termed, stirring up the game, willi a view to an increase of professional business." The acids are, Carbonic, or carbon united to oxygen. Phosphoric or phosphorur, do, 1I0. Sulphuric, or Sulphurdo. Muriatic, essentially com- Silcx, or earth of flints, posed of chlorine. Now if we throw out the carbonic acid, which has been funned in burning, we have ieft in ashes, three acids which are united with the bases, and may form the following salts in plants, namely : Glauber's salt, Epsom salt, common table-salt, bone-dust, a salt of lime, and what wo may term a bone-dust salt of iron, or phos phatc of iion, pla-ter of Paris, or gypsum, cop. pcras, alum, and sonic other salts, which need not be enumerated. Our list comprises the I rincipa1, ami those most likely to be used in farming. Well, now, the lesson lo be drawn from this composition of ashes is this, that there is scarcely any salt orcurring in commerce, winch may not be used in agriculture, instead of those found in ashes. In fact, almost all salts which occur in a large way, as refuse materials from manufactures or other sources, have been used, and all with greater or less success, ai manures. And if you cast vour eye over the acids and bases of common ashes, this seems quite reasonable. It is not expected that a plain tanner, posses-sing little or no cncmicai knowledge, should be able to tell beforehand, w hat the effect of a salt would be, applied to his land ; but if he understands what the com position of ashes is, he may be sure that in any liiantily in which the salt is likely to occur, it cannot be injurious, provided it is mixed up with plenty of mould, and a little nshc, or alkali, which will kill, or neutralize any excess of the poisonous acid. lu ashes, we have one part which may ba leached out, and a part which remains after leaching, called spent ashes. Let us see then in leaching, what part we tase away. First, we take away all the acids, except the phosphoric. Secondly, we take away ncar'y all the potash and boda. WhU is lelt 1 The phosphoric acid, and all the bases. It is evident, therefore, that tho strength of ashes can never be wholly leach ed out, if that depends upon the salt. In Bpent ashes we have nearly all the nnno mist icll ; and besides this, a portion ot what is usually considered tho real strength, that is, the potash. This is chemically united to certain of the oth er constituents of ashes. You cannot leach it out. Upset vour leach. tubs, shovel over your spent ashef, mix it up with fermenting manure, wnerc a picniy 01 nxcu air is yueu tin. ncm is the secret of the value of snent ashfis, so far as the potash or ley strength is concerned. 1 ins exposure to air, 10 caroonic aciu, leis loose the potash, which was chemically com bined with other matters. Water would never have done this. Mark, now, a practical lesson taught hero by chemistry, and confirmed by ex perience. Isached ashes must mxer be used on wet soil, if we want its alkali to act. The close wet roil, perhaps even half covered at times with water, excludi s the air. The carbonic acid of air, that which alone extracts the alkali from spent ashes, cannot here act. There is this other lesson to be learned from these facts, that it is chiefly the alkaline action which is wanted from spent ashes. Hence no one who thus understands the source, and the true valno of ashen, will allow the alkaline portion to tie firtt leached out, unless he can find a more economical use for it than its application as a fertilizer. Per bans no fact speaks louder, that the great action of spent ashes is that of its pot ash, than this, that where we prevent that from hemg extracted, the spent antes arc 01 niuo value. If then spent ashes derivo their great va ne from the potash, much more will tmleach' ed a.shes derivo rtefr value from their potash. Now, teader, the point to which 1 have 11 1 you in these remarks, is Ibis: tint the moreil kaliuo any salt is, the better is il for manure. Hence, as a general rule about the use of salts, It may be laid down that the alkaline salts, that is, potash, pearlash, common ashes, barilla ash es, white, or soda ah, aie the beat. And as these, in all their various thapes, are iho cheap est and most common articles, so you need not run altera long list of oilier saltr. Next in val uc to the real alkalies, are spent ashes, used in a light, porous, open, sandy soil, if yuu would demo the greatest benefit from them. Next lo these conies peal ashes. You well know theso aro of no value to iho soap maker. But not so to you. They show only traces of alka. line power. But treat them as you did spent ashes. Their power, independent of their bone- lust, which is by no means small, and their THE TIMES. The fashions, the plans, 1 had almost said the rage of thu present dav, is lo bring every thing in mechanics, liieraluie, morals, and religion, down to the lest of ihu present effect, and present apparent good. As it God had not wisely ordained that good shall always How from the embracing great, fixed princi ples. We feel that il is a hiss of (into to gio or receive deep, solid instructions ur to enduru thu task ol thinking. How difficult i plaster, which is still greater, and their lime, . .. . I ' I.. ,l.I- lo get men to sit down and read i sober, orig iual, deep book ! Our ideas must all bo thought out for us, and poured into the cur j 11st ns a sung would be. In our preachers, we dcnian I men who have popular talents who can electrify, lighten and thunder, sweep like a whirlwind, currying men ino thu king dom by violence, and before they know it, and move ihein 011 in the growth of giuco by successions of poweiful impulses. Our teachers must bo men of popular address, with tho power of communicating knowl edge, which can bo obtained in the least possible time, and at once bo applied lo us. As if men, in this agitated stales of the which is perhaps tho greatest, lies in the alkali, which is locked up, as it is in spent ashes. Treat them, therefore, as you did tpont ahes, and then peat ashes will, and do affird, alkali. So too coal ai-bes, even your hard anthracite aslio, yield all the substances w hich spent ash. os do. It is easily seen, therefore, when, how, and where, spent ashes peat ashes, coal ashes, aro most likely to do good. Perhaps we may not have a belter placo to state tho fact, thut a cord of soapboiler's spent ashes contain about W) lbs. of potash. When we add lo thin, 117 lb.-, of bone.dust, and about a ton and a half of chalk, or carbonate of lime, which acts chiefly on the sod, and so conic, not now under ennsid. oration, it is seen that there is no cheaper source uf alkali and sails, lo one within reasonable present 01 a ueu 01 some zvy ur uu ids. ,hu s(irnl3 r ,lu ago, without deep, fixed .u.ilnllt tiir II fir fill.- Iinrmlit ful.l r-.illii.f .w,.ir ... . . . . ' .., ... "" principles lor 11 shoct-iiiiclior. I ho waves now. in consequence ot Having spent annul' of ,!Xciiement already run high, and will run S-2000wiihi.i a yeai, for roads, bidges,&c.sli m- ,lur. ,, bu )vh() aclSHS .llc10rin Iewburyport Ileruld. ,,y ()r SMmU sdl()0( ln ,oes n( lry to lay tho foundations of character on fixed, A Shout Bull. One of the Northern cdi. uu,ln ,0. P"'''l''s. -'ven 1110 everlasting world, could cume up amid the lockings and carthis distance of a soapboiler, than spent ash es. They are marl, uone-uust, piaster, anu at kali combined. tnrf, ro'irring to the honors paid 11 1 Richmond foundations of truth, falls short of this duty, to the Princeton's dead, says that ninety minute You might as well neglect lo place anchors in guns were fired betweenthe hours of 11 and tho bow of your sh'qi, as you send her from (To be continued.) Uats at a Hall. A large number of rts were let into a ball room at Philadelphia the other evening, inducing a ronfusion generally and a "getting down stair," particularly. The journcyn e 1 tailors in Philadelphia r takinir measures to form new habili temper- her mooiings, becausu she does nol now need ance ones, at that.