Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, June 14, 1844, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated June 14, 1844 Page 1
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NOT THE GLORY OP CJOSAR BUT TUB WELFARE OP ROME I) II 11 L I N G T ON, V E R M 0 N T, FRIT) A Y, .1 U N E U, 181. VOL. XVIH....N". 2. BY II. U. STAGY. my k it r :: Wiiddsl thou bo a liicncl tnno 7 'I In u iiiul ii'iick nml liolil When riatit is t ' lie done, Ami (ho Irmli is In bo Inlil i Wi mug 11 1 fricmlhlto smilo When lliint! heart is lnt wilhin, Making nn truce, with fraud or gtulo, Nn compromise with fin. Open nf eve uml speech, Open nf hcatt anil hand, Holding tliuic own Itnt as in trust Kor lliy great brother hand. l'alient nml stout to boat, Yclbcaring not forexcri Gelillu to rule', nml slow lobind, lake lightning tu deliver 1 True to thy father-land, Triiij n thy own truo lovos Trim tu ilime nltnr nml thyciecJ, And thy good God above. l!ut with n bieol scorn I-'n r futh sincere as thine, Thmali lea of u attend iho player, Or m ire the pomp the shrine j Hp, in inhering! linn who spike The word tint cannot lie, " Where two or ihreein inv name nicer, Tncr" in the midst am 1 1'1 I bar the not from f uuV wot, it vere in vain 1 Inalienable heritage Since that primeval ."tain ! Tlin u isest hive been fools The surest Mumbled sine: Strive now M i.hi I -or f ill'n, arise I I us'; thro nor for nn re! Tin do, "'l thou shalt I nit Closely my heart In thine ; Next the dear love of God above, Such fi leu J on o.i rili, be mine! THE II 12 V. JAMES CAUGHEY. This rov. gentleman, who, fur tin; lust six months, ttas liccn pleaching ;i I n ot daiK in thi! Wesleyuti Methodist Chapels in this town, hus at I" n 1 1 1 concluded his l,ilior here, and we understand leaves Hull to-day on a visit to llllddorsfll'ld. As thirinsj his stav here tin1 greatest ?rnsa tion his been I'li'.iti'il anion.: the religions port ton (if tlin inh ihitanls c j ) ci.i 1 among the Methodist ; ami as notwithstanding tho strung prejudices exhibited in .siiinii quar ters up hum him he has manifestly obtained the confidence nml oslcem of groat nuiiihcis of our towns-people, wc feel assured thai a slight notice ol'his visit will not bu unaccept able lo many of our readcis. Tin; llev. .lames Caughey is a nnlivu of Irol.tinl, hut in 1'ii'ly liln emigrated to Ame rica, whore, at thu ago nf seventeen, ho be came i eligionsly impressed, and, after duo prep n ation, he w as ordained first a (loan ami then an elder of the Methodist I2piscn Church of llio United Stall's. In the au tumn of IS40 he visited Cmada, and on the IDlhJoly, lSH,he embaikcd at Halifax on hnird the steamer liiilanuia, which cm lied him safely lo this country in the iinusuullv slim t space of tun (lavs. After d.i.s stay at Liverpool he went lo Manchester, where tins Method st Conference was sitting, ;tnd where he m n'e the acqnainlnncu--atiiong others of the llev. Win. Lonl, at that time located in Hull, who strongly invited him lo this town. Mr. C.iug'.i-y, however, had then determined on vi.iting Irelanil, and uecoid inply proceeded lo Dohlin, whcie he landed early in August. Iii-'.his city he made many Jriends, and remained lliero till ihu 7lh .Jan uary, 1S4-J, when hu went lo Limerich. After iihout two months stay ho left Lime rick fur CurU, where hu leniained lo end of July. Mr. CaiiL'hey thin visited liandnr.i a short time, after u hich he camu over to England.- Liverpool was the first town ill it he ..,, , i itl inn! ii'i i iiiikt-iiiiiii. I lite visited in Ins country lis a pieacner : and he . . , ,. ,, , , -i .i .. i. c . i .i . r c 3l'inoJ Willi the inlelleclua 1 '., , ... . , , ... i i lllOlllllS, l UJIIl UlYfljlUUI HU Ul'lll IU Ul't'US in accordance, with ihu piessing invilalion of tlin llev. William Lord then stationed theie. While in Leeds, ihu llev. It. Thompson, Siipeiintcudunt of llio East Cii cnit in this town, invited .Mr. Caughey to visit Hull. Accordingly, afler a brief lour through link land, Prussia, Germany, France, Switzer lane, and l!':1giiim, that gentleman, on the 20th October last, anived heie for the first time. On the :2:2nd ho pi cached a seimon in thu Wesley Chapel ; ho next preached a mouth in George-wird Chapel ; then pi each cd again in Kingston Chapel ; on tho 28th ult. ho preached at Leeds ; next Sabbath be purposes preaching in lliiilileisiioiu, and al ter a shnrt stay at Slluflield, and a second vis it on thu continent, wu undvrstand it is Mr. Caunhcv's intention to leliirn to America. '. ' , i . i i ii Mr. Cni'diev, we uni ers and, has pieac bed iur. viiii."1 i ' I I i HU'l nut ess Mian one iiiiiiireil and liny limes uii - uui ii-aa -"ii. ring his stay in Ibis town. During tho last week tho llev. Mr. Oaiigh- cu or mon... mugs,,,,, o e, ; ., .-M , g,1V0rllnl0lll, pnnciples of their na-. Stance,) tho lullcr looked round, and in Wesley Ca .pel ; afterwards six weeks .,. t(,r suM( Jf th became paralyzed will, terror. The monstei Walt ham-street Chapel ; tin. sly, p to I y t)alacll,rsllnd priMcij.lus not been '"s 0,1 ''lu P" f "hen the S.: , U LCa s rr,:; brined, ,,,, whom .hey lorer, feared,-""". nryu m his assist- , , ,i i . ... "'" I'm-i'ii"' i rami'iiii uiuveii uni i iinouiiuui ev ore irlu 1 fuiuuill sermon al t lie various ( , , ., " . cha els in the town in which he had occupied , 1 " " u,.' , 1,0 J"y- fM- ' conclu E null it during his slay here. On each ' "'"'"S '' 1 l'vo been hero I nn. piiipn won. . j havo bad many fi lends, and much n ensure occasion the greatest eagerness was manifes- , j ted to get aduss,on ; several ,r es we ro km knnn,onouo ortwoevei., ,gs,.o l avegonu ,m and who an, nut ,o the clnpel hrcc hours ihu cum- ( T( .ncncomei.tof.ho sery.ce, and lung before ,.tnks f)jr ,;ik1ll, his opporluni.v of meet- s.xo'c ock .. . i I i-1 o w u u n os . ; M.iivii.ei i hi ti iililfini nifnii cl:iiwl in I..-..UO. .1 .,.M.o.u.u - ing room. On I. .day morning a breakfast-hastily got up- oi l ail nanus ni uio .ev. geuuem, , ...!- ..In... in lint iiriini milium til III, I .Alii. IUUA ,.,ii-. ... ...w f o.. ...... w. .-. am, saioou o, no 4 ' l,wi,,r,,Is of ,wu l,uml,L'1 il. It was announced clninics' Juslilnte. i persons were prcscnl that Mr. Caughey would deliver a lecture on tint subject of education among thu Wesley- inis, and, accordingly, as soon as tho cloih na i iiiiui u v ii iiiiu il nvillil aiuiQ mm i.i ... - The H.'lr M nlio fsimenotoml ijiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiH me nt, so that Hull with thu, exception of Dublin stood first among iho touns he had visited, and he should ever lememher it lilt the most graleful feelings. Ho ihen alluded lo tho great pleasure which it gave him lo take pait in any meastnes having for their object tho better and more general education of tho Methodists ; hut he icgretted that in Hull, so far as ho had seen, iho educational movement had not met with tint general, that hearly support which il meiited. He thought thu reason for this apparent luke warmiH'ss was that the movement was not midei stood. Thoio was, he thought, some general mistiudei standing that it was a move ment drs'iimcd for the lich and thu wealthy of the Methodists lhat thu poor had nothing to do with il. If this general impiession was lo prevail through the connexion, befell sine that tho iWetlioditt educational plan would never succeed. Il must be removed. It must be shewn lhat it was a scheme for all classes ; they mint bring up the poor vtiih their pence, sixpences, and shillings, as well as the lich wilh their 5, X 10, X'2Q, or .100. Without it was mado a popular movement unless thu Methodists, ihrougl tliu length aim ureautii oi mo laud, wine got i ,on lln,,ss , rt!.i ppnhiition in her lace, to undersland it thoroughly and have an nf- Gradually ho came lo think of her at other feciion for il, it could never succeed. As ' times tliiin when writing sermons, and (o soon as every poor man fomnHliat tho scheme wiah to see her on oilier days than Sunday; was fur him as well as the lich, tint instant , lnt tin, weeks slipped on, aiul though ho fan would their meetings be crowed instead ol' cied that she grew paler and thinner, he nev thinlv nllendcd; then and not befole t.r m,lstc,.L.( ,esolulion enough lo ask her would it succeed. Tllo lev. gentleman then mnw or sct,. , SH,ak vvj,, ,r. jv ,()sf. alluded lo the gre it ell'oits the unhid foil- I silent slops, however, love h id worked into liibulions which had been made in Ameri-lhis heart, and ho mado tip his mind lo seek ca lo secure a good general system of edu-ja.r acquaintance and marry her if possible, cation ninonc the Methodists of that country, when one day hu was sent for lo minister at the establishment of numerous colleoes in lliel.i funeral. va.ious seclions, in.l of a university as the! Thc r,C(, of ,,,,, 0 wa. o s.l)e Iiul centre. iMr. Ciughey then alluded to the 1 1, ,,i ,w,b..,l ,,,., t,,, vj.,,,,1 ... .,r,..r ,,. i.,,. vast cap biiiiies of tlin 1 1 1 1 1 i i : it mind. Ile said " Let thu brute live .... . . first years ol ils existence. Itnt the mind of , , , , man i :, when pioiiei v carei or, constant y '.ii. . ' growini; ; it ep mils and gne -o long as it hath life, am m, i, and vigor. None ever went to the full cxlent of the ca puhiliiy of mind ; even in no one science has man been able to say " thus far canst thou go, and no fiiither." Man his the capabili ty of knowing. God has not given that ca- paiuiiiv oi Knowledge lo lie dormant, (.ioij has given nun a mind capable of improve ment, and has given subjects for ils exercise ami duvelopemenl he is lo acquire knowl- iiL'e. Ho is to think ; hu is to know; and thus having iho capability of knowing, hu is to have subjects ol knowledge presented to him, aril thus may go forward to the highest scale of intellectual improvement. Thoio is ono impoitant tliouglit cunuecteil with I lie subject of education, and that is, thai howev- i i much the human mind is c.ipoblu of it- primiHg in alter lile, I bcliuvo it is generally admitted noihing can maku up lor Ihu loss of education at that eaily time of lifo when tho mind can so easily icceivo il. It is at i unioriunateiy ovei i.alana insult and lell lhat the proper lime of lifo when intellectual "veihoaid. i be sea being loleiahly calm, acquirement will not injure llio physical and iho man nn excellenl sw iminer, no dan heallh hut when both g'o on harmoniously 1 "or u:ls "I'P'chend on his aecounl. The fust together, that our attention ought to bo m, 1 nialu and lour ol lue eiew piepared lo de ed to. if I had timu this morning, 1 think I SL',!nl1 " llls ""istauce in the captain's gig, il would need but a wrv shoil aiginnenl on llunS il'ilL'" lm ""'"'K ii' 'Ii" lury the physical anil inlellJctual constitution of 01 lllu luotnunt, the boat was carelessly low man lo'preve that there is a kind of phvsi- ()rt!(J u.v lllu nl". 111111 'IU l'V were cal disability in afler life, both connected , lumiersed. No timu was of course Inst in with tho brain and other poweis, which getting out another boat, hut beloie it could would throw a bar in iho way of his intullec- 1,0 '""eied, tho man in the lorelop shouted r i it 1 l. I l t. I ... i. i Mill advancement. Phvsicalene rgv is com- .,,,1 i.l ll. nrimMr'Hir VOlir IIVOS : -' ' lime ol lilo man can bear llio slrong excile- inent occasioned by tho acquisition of know I odge ; he can taku impressions uioie readi ly lb in in an advanced age. What is it exalt, thu civilized man above llio savage, above tho brute ? It is education connected I wilh the iminnitalily of llio mind. Men niaj siy what they will nhuiil llio natural gifis of the mind, but there is moio in education th in in iho natural talents of most men." The rev. speaker then adduced an instance from ancient history of the Lacedemonian offer ing, as hostages lo a conqiiuiing power, fillv ol their chiel men well-gionnded in tin pnnci pies of a foieign nation rather than their own. If then, hu said, tho heathens attached such importance to tho proper education of their youth, how much moru did it become llio Christian parents of this land to sou thu . . .. ( 1 i using noiior; i ion wcro p o pel v ami re g- . . ., , ? mils V educated. lie ilid then bono that the 1 ' . , , .. '. . ,. measures nnie loL-nn hi- lln Alnllin, lisle u.nolil succeed, would lake hold of llio syinp ilhies ( h M ,,,,,, ,lu last n.eeliug of . ...... 1 .... o Uu khui i si,,,!! 0V(!. .munl ,,, ,,i4 ,, i bluss (Jod for what I feel, and I thank God f()r hi killl,s, t(JlV!irds n.u in this low.,, and f f.,um'ss ho ha, .undo me . J ... , (m) ;,,,.( ori,llrill lny M)J01lrll lure.- Ilelievo inu it is u.v sinexue, in)' ..ari.est. wis , ... . . f . . v ... iu iiioui 1 1 1 1 u ii iii ii ii ijijiv eiui uny i uiu well, and may God bless you all." After a low words from Dr. Sandwilh, a hymn was sung, prayer again offered up, and llio company separated. of On b i, day ovoning Air. Caughey deliver- s oil Ins last sermon in this town in (.real . Tlnii nlou-stiect Chapel. It is almost mi- i. ueccessary to stalo lhat long befoio tho com mencement ol thu service tho chapel was crowded to excess. At tho closo ol tho ser mon tho greatest excitement prevailed, and so earnest wcro great masses of tho congre gation lo imJ farewell anil shako bands Willi, Iho preacher lhat it was with tho ulmust dif-' ficuliy hu could bo got out of iho chapel. I Mr. Caughey has, for the last two or threu lays, been paying u visit to Mr. William I'itld, grocer, ill ibis town, having returned from Leeds on Monday last. Hull (ting.) Advertiser. AN AEFECTING INCIDENT. Tim following touching incident is from tho Now Mirror. 'An eminent clergyman ono evening be came iho subject of conversation, and a won der was expressed that ho was never matri ed. 1 That wonder,' said Miss Poller, ' was onco expressed lo tho reverend genlleman himself in my 1 lea ri nir, mid hu told mo a sto ry in answer which 1 will tell you, and per haps, slight as it may seem, it is the history of other hearts as sensitive nml as delicate as his own. Soon afler his ordination ha preached onco every Sabbath for a clergy man in a small villagu not twenty miles from London. Among his auditors, from Sunday to Sun day, ho observed a young lady, who always occupied n certain seat, and whose close at lenlion began insensibly lo grow In him an ohjecl of thought and pleasmc. She left Ihu church as soon as the servicu was over, and it so chanced that he went on for a year with out knowing her name; but Ids seimon was not written without many a thought how shu would nnnrove it. nor tireached with satisf ic- .tui... i. ,i . . . i. . '. . e i . f-' " illlll'll ,U lUfliSW II il 1 1 r 1 1 L 111 HIS I I'll .,;,. I,,. i:r.. il m.. c i iimi i,n ii. iii:tiisniiiiiiii;iiiii'iii!iii ihu service, and another cleigvman ollici.iled ml ..Ci.,.. i. i iT.... c.i ...i. "ii'i iiiii. I oiiii nils iMiiiiru, ui'l lillliei IUOK i,;, ..-i . . . i i i c i- n asioe an I ann miiiio lnr inv mtr inn m:iiii I f I".l.., tui im fniii.t i ....:..i ii... : i. ii " mil n ui'j iiiiiiiiisi; in n-ll , ... .. ,,, .. , '. , , name with her last breath, and he was afraid a concealed affection for him hadlmiiied her to the grave. Since tint, said the clergy man in question, my heait has been dead within me, and 1 look forwaid only to the time when I shall speak to her in Heaven. " A SHARK !" I had heard and read so man)' marvelous stories about tho rapacity of tho shark, that I fell somewhat desirous of an oppm tunity of judging of the truth of the yams w illi which thu sailors e'nlertaiiied os gaping landsmen. My curiosity was not long iingralified. Wo were within view- of tho coast of Madagas car, when it became necessniy to taku in water to fill cmplv cits' s. While a Portu guese seamen was employed in ibis duly, he ""'" : ;l -uaru : inane naste men, lives !" general rush was m- ;i i i... lll!MI lllilllO 111 1IIO sides and how of the vessel, which, by this lime, had been put about and llio spais and rigging became ut most crowded with anxious spectators. A hCt'11,! ul l,!;"1'11 iuIitcsI piesenled itself to ol,r v"-'"' ulniosl every man s cheek be canio Id. inched vt ith horror. Within iiboui twenty feet of llio fust male, w ho was swim ming towards thu vessel utterly unconscious of thu pioxiinity of ibis dangerous neighbor, wasan, whosu extended jaws wcro already prepaid! In engulf his unsus pecting victim. On seeing us point at soinu object behind him, (for hear ho could not at prey, tho slink mule for another of the snuggling men and succeeded in laving hold . . i .. 1 1 i . i . . . in a pour lenow nameii .mirews, who couhl not swim, and who was supporting himself on a hencoop that had just been thrown over board to him. An imploring look and an ag onizing scream, lhat went lo iho heart of ev ery one present, told us all was over with the unfortunate man : and ihu next minute the calm and mirror-like sml'ico ofthu water was crimsoned with blood. Tho lomainder of thu party reached tho boat in safely, but the fate oflhur companion, and the narrowness of their own escape, had such an effecl upon them lhat two of llio number were confined In iheir hammocks for nearly ton days after. When thu male, who happened to ho ono ol them, rose from his bed, his hair had turned as while as snow. Life in thc l'anks. III a city woll known lo every body, if they can liml out the name a poetical' go nitis was hauled up before a poetical magis trate for kissing a girl ami kicking up a dust and ihu following interesting dialogue en sued : Magistrate. Is your namo John Jay? J'risuncr. Yes, your honor so ihe people say. J. Was it you that Kissed the girl and raised the alarm '. Yes, your honor, but I thought it was no harm. J. You rascal ! did you coma hero to muko i hymes ? J'. No, your honor, hut it will happen sometimes. .V. Hu off, you scamp, get out of my sight. J'. Thunk'eo, your honor, then I'll bid ydu good night. N. I. Union. M.wtniAcr.. In marriago profer llio per- son before wealth, virtue beforo hoatily and ihu mind beforo the body, then you luivo a (wife, a fiiund, and a companion. J'cnn. , "'ivii (tin iiti mm ijii, VllLilll'U HI I SPEECH OF MR. SAMUEL S. PHELPS, IN Till: SK.VATB, KIJuiiuAUY 10 AM) 19, 1911. Mr. l'r.EfincNT: I cannot concur with the honorable Senator from Maine, in reg.inliiig this discussion as idle and Useless. So far as it.s purpose tiny bo to carry conviction to the mind of any Sumter present, I ant aware that thu elllirt is hopeless. Hut, sir, there are rea sons, cogunt reason, for probing the subject to tho IniUimi. Whatever may ho our decision tip. on this great question of national policy, an ap peal lies to the great body nf the American peo ple. That appeal will assuredly be taken ; and Iho period is very rapidly approaching when it must bo decided. However inrougroiis it may appear to the honorable Senator, that we who are accustomed to receive instructions from our coiixtituuiif V, and to nay to those instructions tho highest def'-rence, should, in our turn, nfler.t to instruct ilium, yul hu will agree with mo that they wlins'i; representatives wo arc, ami to whom e are accountable, have a. right to know the reasons which iufhiuiirc our conduct here, and to hu possessed of all the material which we reg.nd as important lo our correct judgment. There are other reasons why we should bo silent. The question involved in this dcbito is of vital and paramount inlcrest lo the American people. It bus at the loot of your national economy and your nation il policy. It is llio cardiinl principle upon which your legislation must turn, and upon which your national pros, purity depend'. However we may disagree as to the merit or Ihu fruits of the protective poli cy, theie is hut one sentiment as lo the impor tance of Ihu sill jeel Milm.itled to your conside ration. The soualor fioin South Carolina (Mr. MeDuTHi:) regards this policy as pregnant with the ruin of the country, wlnlu I, on the other hand, consider it the only means ofthat conn try's salvation. Sir, this subject constitutes tho fundamental iIiII'tcucu between Ihu great parties of the country, and will form the principal if not the only isuu between them m . ' . , .' , , , t in American pie. upon it depends not only I uiu a i inraciiiii" coniesi. unon tin? i ecision 111 me result ot tliat contest, hut Iho character ol your lutnre legislation and nobev. and. in mv judgment, the hopes ami destiny of iho nation. I laving had the honor 1 1 a seat here when the tariff act of 1(3 1'J was passed, and behoving now, as 1 d.d then, the policy exhibited by I that act forms the only Iriielnsis of venrn.i. I tional policy, and 'vour-national prospeiiiv. 1 feel bound, by the ohl,-gat,ou of thu highest st sacred, and n ,.,,o,. ,. , , Ion- - ii ,..' ; sacred, and impoi.ois dnlv, upon all occasion; and under all circumstance--, to maintain and delonil it. The senator from South Carolina propo-es not merely a repeal or modification uf thai act, but llio utter abandonment of llio pro tcctive policy, cither in the form nf duties im piscdfiir the uncntiragemeul of doine.stic indus try, or nf discrimination for lint object, how ami former. Here, then, wo are at issue ; and I propose to examine the Senator's rea-ons for ah indnuing a policy w hi 'h originated w ilh Ihe origin of your d'ov crnmunt, has received the ap prnbition and support of your early statesmen and patriots, and has boon until lately steadily adhered to, and lor substituting a new, untried, ,..,.! HH .,,,, ,UK-,, ie.i,.-,u....i,.( ,-,1 ,v ,,. pi", and which stands at this moment n' war with the experience and condemned by the com biuud judgment uf Iho civilized world. The honorable Senator has denounced the act of 11 is a foul and faithb'.-.s mutilation uf the compromise act ol ISli:. Sir, when Iheso words fell upon my ear, they struck mo as the mere cflervo-cence of pa-sion anil excitement, and as mil eating s inph-, what noonu who list ened to the honorable Senator could doubt, that the sentiments expressed by bun camu warm from the heart. Hut although the Senator was not understood as impeaching the mo.ives of those who sustained the act oi 1 U, yet that he 1 intended thus tu characterize thu tendency and , legitimate operation ol tint ac: is not tube doubled. Sir, 1 voted for the act of 18 W ; and I did so knowing lint it conflicted with some of thu pro. visions in uio ccieoraieu compromise act, as that act was jnteipreled curtain quarter, I h it my course in that particular was loul or faithle-s 1 cannot admit. .,y. I will endeavor i,i dr., ,.,,. tr-.ii, i. ii,.s I, ..,.- .1.1.. .i... i... .'- ... x. iiwiiiii iuii; u 'iiuiii llliU 111 no ,ot,.r,,r,.i , ,n i.i ti.s, , i .... i.i". i- i .-f . ' menus can piisiaiu lor a liniment, can its nrovi sinus be brought intu conlhct with thu act ol 161 '2. l."t us analjzo Ihe actof 18:):t. It provides 1. Pur cash tint ies, ami the home valuation. Until thosu luatures a,u preserved in thc act of 1 IV!. Vi. Il provides that "such duties shall be im posed, for Ihe purpose if raising such revenue as may he necessary for an economical admin istration of thc (loverinueut." lly this I undersland tint tin wants ol" ll.e tJoverument are to be the limit of your revenue from imposts, nr, In other words, that

no duly sh ill he levied for prote.-lion merely, which is not required lo meet the calls upon vour Treasury, and which shill produce a sur plus revenue. Will any Senator in-ist tint the nggregito amount of duties imposed by the act ol Is' IV! transcends lhat hunt! lias' your in come exceeded your exp' nditiire .' Have you a surplus revenue, or are you at this moment in debt lor Iho ordinary expenses of your (Jovern iiiniit in tune ol peace! The honorable Senator insists t' at tho high duties imposed by that act dimim-li the revenue, and advocates a reduction of dunes with a view toils increase. If this be Ins purpose, ho rerlaiuly will not contend that the limitation of the compromise act has been transcended already. The great contimersv, in relation lo tho true import of Iho act of li'.V.i, h is been, with respect to iho proceeds of tho public, lands whether they should go into thu U'leasury lo meet your ordinary expenditure, or should bo distributed to the States, and the wants of your Treasury should hu supplied exclusively by imposts, it is unnecessary lo discuss this question now. In an evil hour we were compelled to yield the distribution, in order to obtain Iho only measure calculated tu relievo iho distress of the country and to avoid tho impending bankruptcy of the (I'oAorninout. Wo vveru forced to adopt, prac tifally at least, thu Southern construction of the compromise; and having done so, there is an end of all complaint on lhat score. The residuu of the compromise act, which provides for a gradual reduction of duties, to be complule an Ihu HOlh of Juno, 1B1V, bad al ready taken ell'oct it had exhausted itself it ; fundus ttfich -a dead letter. There was no longer any thing hero to violate. Tho only provisions of that act designed lo bo permanent are, the home valuation, tho cash iiavmanls. and the limitation of imposts lo thu exigencies of tho Treasury. All llio rest Is milter of detail, intended to carry out those principles. Twen ty per ccjit. ad valorem was assumed (erro. ueously as the result has proved) at an adequato rale, and upon that aasumplion the duties wero reduced accordingly. This rato was found too low, and was necessarily raised, to conform to tho criterion furnished by tho act iteolf. Sir, Ihe only aspect in which Iho act of 1812 can un orotigm into collisiun with tho compromise act, is lo forco upon thu latter the ci nstruction mat it was designed to limit the imposition ,,i,i; r .i j. i ' t uu.ii-o iwiuiui iiiuiuaiivi iu uiu ram ui iwuniy per cent. This rate of duty seems to bo a great favorite with some Senator's. It has boon de nominated the natural rate of impostthe lie plus ultra of linanriil operations in the region of customs. Whence this innjion was derived I am unable to conceive, and I am very sure I shall never bo informed. Sir, tho natural and proper rate nf duty scorns to bo that which is graduated to thu financial necessities of llio country. I know of no principle which requires tho imposition of 'JO per cent, if tho interests of the country do nut demand it, nor of any which would limit us to it if Iho wants of thu Treasti ry transcend it. Jlut the argument drawn Irom this provision of the act is based upon a more technicality. That rate having been assumed as allbrding a sufficient revenue to meet an economical administration of tho Government, the duties were reduced to that rate, and there they woio left. Tho provision, that from and alter tho :30th Juno, 18 1'.', such duties should ho payable, was no more than completing; tho reduction, anil leaving thu mattur to the future action of Congress1, w hich was evidently con teinidatcd by tho act. If tho provision bo re garded as imperative upon a future Congress, it abrogated and annuls the prominent feature of tne compromise, winch docs lurm-li an intelli gible rulu for the discretion of a future Congress, to wil : "Thc graduation of their imposts to their financial wants." If it prohibit an increase of duties above the rate of twenty per cent., it leaves no room for the exercise of that discre tion, and the governing principle of tho act bo ceinos impracticable. II nt if this construction is fa-toned upon the act of 18.'):), tho provision ilsulf is a nullity. It becomes an idle lurtilu attempt, on the p?rt of Uio-lJu Uongrcs, to limit and ahridgo the con stitutioual power of their successors a piece of legislation, if legislation It can be called, which no body is bound to retrard, and no body will regard. No Senator will claim this power for the 12'JJ Congress, or for any oilier. Gen tlemen may taku their choice of thu horns of the dilemma. If they admit construction of the act, and concede that tho provision lor the rate of duty yields to the p ir.iinoiiul consideration of the wauls ol the Govei niiienl, then there is no .1 :.. .l. I .... r to ... , :..l. nu poi wiu iii me i.iw oi irom inu priuci iit.s r ,(1,r,r,m..0 if. ,,. ur h . they insist upon the opposite construction, thu law becomes a dead letter, and must bo aban doiied as nugatory. Sir, the charge of a foul and faithless viola tion of a solemn compact by the l!7lh Congress has gone forth lo the world. I have deemed it du, '"'".i C'".'c'" a"J '! "jyulf 0,10 h" volc;1 fo,r ,h;' la4V- " rcilu . ,l'u .einW- l'"- sir, I cannot leave the subject here. I have something more to say in reference to this fa mous compromise act, which is so often pres.-ed upon us, as trammelling our legislation, and controlling us in tho exercise of our conscien tious judgment in the discharge of our high du ties here. Let the construction of that act bo what it liny, I h ive yet to learn that, as a Senator on this floor, I am not at hherly to vote lor its mod ification nr repeal, or for any subsequent act of legislation which shall supersede and annul it. .Much is said of the sanctity ol the compromise of its imperative and binding character. Can Senators lell mo whence these qualities are de rived ! Sir, I regard this law as a mere act of ordina ry legislation, subject, like other laws, to be modified or repealed in the discretion of Con gress, w henuver in their opinion tho public weal requires it. Whether it shall remain in furcc, or be blotted fioin thu statute book, is in my judgment a question of expediency only. I re-' cognise in it no imperative or binding obligation winch shall conlhct with thu free exercise of a sound legislative discretion. I do nut admit the powur or the right of the 'J-,'d Congress to limit or abridge, or tramnel, the constitutional pow ers of their successors. That they might bind us, by grant of charter, on any act of legislation partaking of the nature ol a contract, and bring ing into existence vested private rights, is read My conceded. I'm in respect of measures rest ing on considerations of expediency and public policy, and having for tbuir object the regulation of public all'nrs alone, I dunv that they could j chain us down to any cour&u of policy which thev in their judgment might deem expedient. Thev exorcise thuir legislative nowor. in their I ........ i. ; . i. ..... i I "nil UISI.IUUUH, in nil II UU"llil.lll uitlilivu, u. .1..... ..i.,i,. ... .I.,;. n.,n i ... 1 ' 3 . . . . i . and their own consciences, and when they had donu so thuiy transnutud to their successors and to us that power, to be exercised in the same manner, as fully as they possessed it.ueith. er impaired nur abridged. The act is called a coi'iproiiu-e. A comprouiisu ot what .' U! con dieting opinions, like that which occurs m every unpoilanl act ot legislation a compromise ne cessary open lo enahlu us to act at all, but rust ing, alter all, upon considuratioiisol expediency alone. Sir, there can lie no compact wilnout the as- s'out of parties. If their act is viewed as such, by whosu assent am 1 uouiiu 1 l nan not tne boner of a seat hero when this celebrated act was passed. My own personal assent has never been given. My predecessors, opposed thu pas. sage. 'The voice of the Statu which, in con iio.xioii with my honorablu colleague, 1 have thu lunor lo represent here, as expressed in buth those Halls, protested against it. 'Tho act was imposed upon us by iho will of tliu majority, by furcu of legislative authority, as a legislative act. This was its origin, and on this fouling it stands still. There let it stand, as a moiiuiiiuut of mu tual concession and good will and let It bo maintained, if it bu maintained, at all, not upon thc fallacious and mistaken atributoof peculiar sanctity, but upon the moru rational and tunable ground that it was enacted m wisdom, and in wisdom should bu retained. Sir, 1 am willing lo abide, for Iho present at luast, by thu principles of I understand them. 'There is in my judgment, no necessity for departing Irom ilium ; fur I behove that, un der existing circumstances', they allow sullici en: latitude lor such a course ot policy as will meet the wants and secure the pruspeuty ofthe country. llut, sir, it is further objected to the act of 181V, that it is unconstitutional, because it is pro. tectuu in Its character. 'The Senator from .Now Hampshire has labored hard, but very unneces sarily, to prove that iho duties imposed by it wero arranged with a view to sustain thu industry ul the country. Sir, it was that feature in thu bid which commended it lo my judgment, and secu red my support. Had it nut been trained with n regard to this lundjineiital and necessary jirmci pie of national economy, it would not havu re. cehed my vole. I go lurthor, and say openly, and without qualification, that i will veto lor no measure which disregards or is hostile to the pro. lective policy. 'This subject of tbn tarifl'has boon complicated by thu cuiilhclmg and Inconsistent objections raised by Iho advocates ol free trade. In one section the act is because it is protective m another it duos not afford protec lion enough. 1 propose to examine those ob. jeclious separately. Sir, I assert tho constitutional power of Con. oress to impose duties for tho purpose of pro. lection, and protection alone, irrespective of tho bnancial exigencies yi mo country. And 1 lound iif'"suu",,l v "r " i'""c' "-o"""" merce. and thu newer lo lew a revenue con. jointly. When the Constitiilion was framed, I this subject was well and maturely considered. , to llio interests of commerce alone. 1 would go Tho power lor which, t contend was asserted by I further, and take in lbs great and paramount in the first revenue law enacted under it, and has tuiests of agriculture and manufactures. Ho never until a very recent period been denied. ; desires the greatest op.msion of commerce. What was tho origin of this power to regil- I would rogubalo it so as to maku it a profitable lato commerce ! lSeforc thu adoption of the j commeice, condirting to the prosperity of tho Constitution, tho power was possessed by the whole community, rather tlu.u evhau-ling 1 10 several States, as sovereign, hide pendent "com-' resources of our productive industry. lie omits munities. It was bold by them lull, ample, absolute, anil unlimited BU'uclto no restric tion or qu ihfication, anil tailing in no respect short ol Iho "oinliipoteuco of Parliament." Whon that instruniunt was adopted, the po ver was transferred to Congress, without abridgment nr limitation, to be held as the Slates had held it, and is now vested in that body as full and perfect as it exists in tho sovereign legislation of any independent nation upon earth, to be ex ercised in a sound legislative discretion, guided by the pole star of all our deliberations, thc pub lic weal. It was a concession of exclusive ju risdic.tion, leaving no residmn or remainder in thc States. Unless, then, tho power is pusses, sod by us as fully and amply as they possessed it, this strange result is produced, by the attempt to Iraino a more perfect system of gov. eminent, a power inherent in every sovereign community, and essential to its prosperity, if not 1 to its national existence, is abrogated, amuhila ted, and lost forever. If wo possess it imperfec tly only, and can exercise It but partially, the power, lo all practical utility, is es-entially lost. The existence of this power ill thu several Slate sovereignties, giving rise, as it necessarily must, to selfish and conlbcting regulations, was one of tho principal causes which led to tho adoption of the Constitution and the establishment of this Government. The concentration of it m one body, where its exercise would bo controlled not by local and partial considerations, but by a more catholic and comprehensive regard for llio interests of all of a great and united people was onu of the great purposes of our glorious Union. Can it be conceived that the statesmen of that day, deeply impressed as they were wilh tho necessity of a moru perfect and efficient control over commerce, should, at thu very mo ment when Ihcy woiu endeavoring to give it form and consistency and energy, have sought to cripplu the power or hamper its exercise oir, Ihev tell us in the letter siilooittio tho , Constitution to Congress, that "the Irieuds of onr'coiintry have long seen ai d desired that the power of regulating commerce should be fully nml cffertuaUii vested in the General Government of thu Union." Here is no allusion lo a partial or limited exercise ol it, nor does tho Uoiistitu lion itself contain a syllable pointing to its limi tation or abridgment. Senators will look in vain there for the indicat'ons of any such pur pose. The power to levy a revenue by duties or imposts upon imports or cxporls, being confer red exclusively upon Congress, stands upon the same footing. It was transferred from the Stales as they held it, and the same argument may be applied to it which I have already appli. ed to the power to regulate commerce. ' These two powers, being united in the same body, may be exercised conjointly. 'I ho power to regulate trade may be exerted for the purpose of revenue and that to levy a revenue for Iho regulation of commerce. Tho power lo levy imposts was ta len from the Slates and conlerred upon Con gress, obviously because, it could not be separa ted from thu other power. Such a separation would impair them both. It has been very boldly asserted that Congress lias no constitu. tional power to levy duties for any purpose ex cept for revenue ahum. It would bo most ex traordinary it lhco two powers, so intimately connected in iheir nature, and vested in the same body, cannot bo brought to bear with combined inlbiunce upon the great objects of legislation. There is certainly no restriction ol the revenue power in the terms of tho Constitution, lis language is, Congress shall h ive puivcr to levy duties, mposts, &c, "to pay the debts and pro. vide for the common defence and gvmral welfare of Ihe United States." These are broad terms. The intention of its framers can not be mista ken. They conferred the power to regulate cninii.erce ; and how was it to ho regu'ated ! ISv such means as are usu il, apjiropri ite, and nlU'clual. Tho imposition of duties is, and ev L'r "ls V.0C"' , , " ' m-'. l''."vorsal , m,,li,e' . j""""?.11' civil.zcd nalions, ot ellecting that fib er lias been, the 'led. Iluing aware ,- , , .r . ,, . .1 .1 conferred that power as ancillary to the other I low was com mere How was commerce lo bo regulated without resort to the usual means ! And why was the iower to levy duties conlerred exclusively ami without restric'ion, if it wore not to be exercis. ed for the ends to which il has been made sub. servient, wherever commerce and revenue ex ists ! After all, Mr. President, I readily admit that this ouestioii is at the present moment, ami in tho existing state of things, one rather of spec, illation than of practical unporlanro, 'The lime may come when it will bo otherwise. If so. Senators may rest assured that the power which 1 have assoiied will not ue surrendered. In the present condition of the country, its commerce and its revenue, I am satisfied that a tarilli ade quate in the aggregate to the financial wants of the (loveruuient, with just and proper di scrum. nation, would allord lo our agricultural and manufacturing industry all the protection we losiro, and all which in the end wnuid prove beneficial. Should we transcend that limit, 1 havo my fears that an unnatural and artificial state ol things would be produced, and our pur pose would bo defeated. Mr. President, I was gratified to bear the honorable Senator from South Carolina express his opinion in favor of discrimination. 1 con L'r.atulate him and thu country upon tho aban domneut of the absurd and impracticable notion of a horizontal tarill". Such a sy-tem never has been and never will bo adopted, Di-crimina. Hun is necessuy to llio purposu of revenue, as soui-i articles will bear a higher rate of duty lb, in others. An indiscriminate duty would iu s j cases fall short of tho revenue which might be derived from an article uf importation, and iu others defeat tho purpose of revenue, by operating as a prohibition. It would be at the samo lime unjust in ils operation, by imposing unequal burdens upon different portions of tho country. llut tho honorablu Senator, in applying the principle of discrimination, dous nut go far enough. Hu stops satisfied with consulting the interests of commerce, leaving other and mere important branches of industrial pursuit lo shift BPf nl,j treasures-atid, with cold nnd hearllets for themselves. Hu has put a raso which will ' sell'uliness, leaven utK'iing, nn i in thai event ruintsl illustrate most happily thu diHarouco between people, wilh all their ereat interests, nsriculiural, us. Ho supposes that an article is charged with I inanufacniriur;, nnd shift far ilieniselvcs. us. no cu,.,., v.. ... . ..?.., ,.111 1 Such wnslhe relief wluchihey proposal. Ill per cent, dutv, a d lhat -J per -cent, will . . ' ' ' , , , . . r f ., .,, v,,.i,,ir. Thus he. isuo wns fairly fumed. We had ailed producoau equal amount of revenue, because K frulla of ,,081,,,.Tri.lstlry. ,hlir illMl.rne Mt the reduction of the duty would dollblo tho un-' moro,,an perhaps anvoiher m-nsuroof an infatuated portatiou. To thu purposo nf p'vuuuc, then, It i policy, contributed 'o thai asloiindincrevoluuon which is utterly unimportant which rate of duty you so speedily followed it. It mull hardily he expected select. Hut the Senator would taku tho small. , of a WIur Congress m adhere to it. No third couiso .. i r..i.s vv-i... ... I With i viw to the inter. wi'1 proposed. .None but by the ingenuily ofiniin. est rate. hy so ! ith a V low to I of frt.c iradennd ils theories wo had hadenouah-yes, ests of commerce. Here, Ihun, ho talcs m" mor ,, enough. Sir, wu adopt ihecood old poli leavo of tho purposo of revenue, and consults rv ()f proieei'iDii a poliey eoeval with your Govern other interests. Hu is governed .n thu cxerciso nient. Tho wisdom of iho inea-ure is apparent m of this taxing or revenue powur by a regard to j the reviving prosperuy of ihe country, tho commercial industry of the country, with a Lotus look n liillo further into ihecaue which view to foster and encourago It, and in doing so produced the. hsas'crs of ihe country. To discover , , ! . , , 1 the remedy, we must comprehend heivd What was adopt practically the prinnplo of the protective i( ,..,',,,, ,, ,r,lle,'i.s revulsion whW, pros policy towit; that imposts aro to bo law, not ,talcj nm) ell nigh ruiinsj ihia people? Senators with a view to the greatest amount of revenue 0n iho other sulo have beretofoie lold us ii s alone, hut also Iu other impoitant interests, af. overiradini; not nmoiig ourselves, which could pro. feeling Iho general prosperity. Thu Senator is duto no uni reult-nor the excessive cxpouaiion of right thus far ; hut ho confines bis foslering care the more important branches ofthat Industry moru important, because they arc tho basis of your commerce. You cannot engraft a prosper ous commerce upon an Idle and unproductive population, and all experience has shown that a people who cherish only one branch of industry cm never bo extensively commercial. Tho principle of protection has always been exten ded to commerce. It has been a favored inter est With this Government, from its foundation to this moment. We have uniformly legislated for its encouragement, and have expended im mense sums for its protection. There has been hut a single oxceptian to this policy, and that was a resort In the system of reciprocity treat ies, the operation of which has been severely felt hv vour navifratui'' Interest. Bo far, tho prinr.ijdn of protection has been nbindoncd, a partial experiment Ins been mado of the freo trade theory, and the folly of the measure has been most fully illustrated in the i onspquence. Can the Senator find a distinction m princi ple between one branch of industry and anoth er.' Will he extend the fostering care of leg. islatinn to the one hundred thousand people en gaged in commerce, and will ho deny it to tho millions employed in agricultural and manufac turing pursuits ! Is it constitutional lo protect the small interc.-t, and not to protect the great or! Will he protect the fruits nf our domestic production, as exhibited in our commerce, and deny it to lhat mass of labor whieh gives birth to and sustains that comtiierce.and without which coiumercu must binguih and diu ! Mr. President, I will now proceed to ronsidcr the merits of the act of H Vi, as a question of ex pediency. I lie rscnatnr Denounces tne pnucy oi th it law', denies its expediency, and proposes its repeal. Sir. in judging of Ihe merits ol that law, we must look lo its origin to the exigency winch called it forth to the origin an 1 ualuru of the evil demanding a remedy. We can then iuil ro ii'hiiibor the remodvbo annronriatc. When tins act was passcu, we nan just gone inrougn the most extraordinary political revolution winch this nation bad ever experienced. That revolu tion wasproduced by the storm of adversi'y which had visited and desolated the country. Vour commerce had been annihilated, your infernal trade had ceased, industry in all ,1s various pur suits was suspended, and your resources dried up. Vour currency was dormguil, confidence destroyed, the prodiice of tho country rotting up on your hands, property of every description de. predated, your nation and your people were in volved in debt, and general bankruptcy, both na tional and individual, impending. Alarm and despondency prevailed. Vour people were reap, ing thebitlor fruilsofan ill.judgcd natioml policy and ofmisgiilded legislation. Thu convulsive agony which ensued produced lhat revolution- When the 27th Congress met, it met under tho tremendous responsibility imposed by the dis tress, tho expectation, and Ihe demands of the country. We were sent here to rescue that country from approaching ruin, to restore her great interests, to give new life to her industry, anil redeem her irom tne consequences ol the rcckle.-s and fatal policy of those who preceded us. Should we disappoint the expectation of tho-e w ho sent us, wu knew tho consequences -wo should be hurled from our seals by an indig. n nit people. Our beads (politically speaking) would pay the forfeit of a lailure. All admitted the necessity of action, prompt and vigorous. We proposed a protective Unir, a bud; tho dis tributioii of the proceeds of the public linds, and i bankrupt law. Thu last was a temporary and very hunted measure, intended merely to relievo a class of citucrs who bad been crushed by the calamities which had befallen us. The distribu. lion of the proceeds of the public lands was in tended to give relief to tho States in iheir cor noratu capacities: but neither of these was re garded as reaching the mot of thu evil, or ade quate to the great end proposed lo restore the lo-'t prosperity of the nation. Tho bank was never f n especial favorite with me. 1 have ever regarded the question of the currency. Mubii i nos.itui.iiioii. A m pc r currency you mist have. 'The iucreaso of your specie circu. hitiou, lo keep pace with and siipp'y the rapidly increasing wants of this gro.ving community, is impossible. Were you able to do so, you would lerangu the commercial operations ol the world. .Sir, wh U is your paper currency ! Nothing but he representation of your credit : and that cred it, whether public or privr.te, rests upon your re sources, and the use you makoofthcin. 'The pa per of a baiw is but llio iinhod ed rrciht uf tho community which deals with it, and depends for its credit, and ultimate redemption, not upon tho specie Iu the vault, but upon tho pecuniary res ponsibility of those to whom thu hank lends its credit. If you would havu a sound rurreiicy, you inu-t look to this foundation. Let your pro ductive industry, (ihu true source of wealth,) in ill its variety of pursuit, find full and profitable employment. Let it bo well rewarded, give it prosperity in all ils walks, clothe it with pecuni ary responsibility to meet its engagei leuts, and rely upon il yourcurreury will taku caro of itself. Vour banks and your currency will be sound, if sustained, by a 11 jur.shingand solvent communi ty ; but neither can be sustained if this basis be wanting. Iliad no expectation lhat any regula tion of the currency within llio power of legisla tion would allbnl admpiatu relief. 'The derange ment of tho currency lay at thu surface of things the evil to bo reached at the bottom. Th deficiency iu the revenue pointed to the measuro which, iu my judgment, was the only measuro cilculatedto revive tho hopes of Die country. And tint measure was a revision ofthe tariff, and the adoption of such a system of imposts as would raise the revenue to the standard of our expen diture, and at the sainu time, by a wise discrimi nation in ils arrangement, revive thu industry and energies of Ihe country, and thus restore tho foundation of national prosperity. This was tho Whig policy. And what was tho policy of our adversaries 1 Ad herence. In ihe sub-Treasury that odious measure, which had been so recently and, so einplmically con demned by tho American people. Their policy ws to collect thu revenue itl gold and silver, and, by the aid of iron diesis an I s'oue mulls, lo. k it up secure ly fiom circulation. Tint Ihu (lOVTrnmenl should