Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, June 21, 1844, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated June 21, 1844 Page 1
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n n a t, o s v or o n n a n t? ? v n 3 a r, p a n n op n o m e JJV II. tt. STAGY BUilllNGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, JUNE 21,1844. VOL. XVIII....N0. 3. v 11 SUalMUIl. Vao rain is o'er. How dense nnd bright Von pearly clouds reposing lio I Cloud above cloud, a glorious sight, Contrasting n idi the dark bluj sky 1 In grateful silence, earth receives The general blessing; ficsh and fair, Kick flower expands its hub leaves, As glad the common joy to share. The eoficn'd sunbeams pour around A fairy light, uncertain, pales 'il.o wind Hows cool ! the scented grousd It? breathing odors on the gale. Slid yon rich cloudo voluptuous pile, T.iothinks some spirit ol the nir Slight rest, to r,nzo below a while, Then turn to bathe and rovel there. The sun hrea'.i 'ortb j from on" the sccsa Its rloat'CT veil of mist in rlunj j And cli lite wildcrnrss of (Veen W ,th troinldins dropa oflijjht I- hung. N-vv "K7.e on i'r-inre--yct tho rami '.wois liic. by breezes fann'J, I i '-.iani, level;-, t .-she came, I'leali in h:r yojtli, from tiod's ownhind. I' -r the rich' mvt of lint voice, ,nf b r utiids from r-.Il ! 'low, above; L'.l clU lurchildri.il to rrjobc, And round thom throws her in::; cf love. Prink in ber inflecnoo! I.-.rv bernCare, And "I1 '' " ti'i- ot v:m Desire, Il.fi . to iiie-ib; holy air, And 'mid tin- Mvi.13l1.-jht expire. courrsui? oj i m: uldsh ai.i:js. Pome ten years sinco I spent n calloc va cation i.i t'ui town of Weymouth, Norfolk, cr it., j.I.'as. .ui!i thoro, i utt.;idcd Ol, .. led J lie I ' 11 V. I 111 in' nd 1,1 1 "iic Jiindty moiiiinj at what -va; c.l- cl.l Weymouth moo!;:'; hut-so, :.nd crwitt. Ironi tliu vceraul.. rarl' . .rtoti. About th, s.. Cast. l i". . .-ill i " v.- , uiiu t -i u c 1 ! i.: t'r. (.1 " rtlc:nr.R. ) .iicttio:; ' -.:.'. t-j ..i: 1 "s.: !-.dy '1 the i.!-o:-a tict;ii..i!:t..r.:j i I ;.-J :r:. rmcd 1110 tlr.t I,;: Uorurt :. ir i.ir pastor ',wn ho ,..,.;3 about twcti of r.co, nncl that !io h ".d bcrr. par' in t ny kvty yoaw. 0' at -brr in: :liunters could ft-. . pr-stcr ; bi.t tint c!i:- ccul'l veil 10 ; liij j ri.'scrstor, tlio Rbv. ?.'r. Sir.iili, . ! luaiid Mr. Norton lird filled tl:s i pt.lpit for tlio Ijnttor part of tlio ltiil years. r.ir. ."jniitli," said rlis, " was ;:n rxccl iinn, and a very fuio preacher, luit lie 11 a s.. lent lr ' I i.ii notions of Ininsolf und : .... .'c 1 i. 1 . ti.nv in o' .. i', lie '.vas sonictliing of cr.it. ' i iij tiny, said sho to n:e, "ii nristo " to illus- tr' f1 oj .. Iihlc th-- rbartrtii, l- 0J .. Ilhlc til ..iV.I, I V. ii f li cf old rir i; ta t.iat n! I' ll in ' ( j him:. !f mid o.:ie r iur p .;-:on; of two il'-rnir." 1011. Mr. ..11111111 ii.'i.i d.iii v 1 . U. - be cou. 1 dl s : . ' tli 1 I 11". . and t drcsr 1. is (ll'i- oldest of l!ir.:e di-Ojl.tLU -v, tins other's nanio 1 h -.vo forgot . o was tiio adniiiatisn of nil tlio 111J t'.i" envy of .ill tlio belles of tlio j ..round, Unt v'nilo two careful oar of tlio parson's f.imily woie lioldinj 1 -llur.; 011 tiia subject, it was rumored . 0 yo'.:"; - hv-y-rs ( tMuk both of tlio ri. 2. ! Q-i-ocyO " 'r' Cianch iU. -nis, ttcrp p.iing thoir ad 5 to ill'.' i'-i-'i I'-uitlis. As every man, won' in En-1 u. ni: c. iij ol a coimliy parish in Aew is acquainted '.illi . hatcver takes plji i-s. in lh" parson''; family, all tin- circum stniv. 3 of llio com Jijp soon Iransnired. Mr. Cr.;tich iv.s of a resfiectal'ie fi-oiily of so.iie a jte, was considered a young man of 1 ji'-oiiii--, ciii ..it jgeihur worilivfl the r.lli anco h- so-ir;!'l. 1 1 3 was very acceptable lo Mr. i'aiit'.i, and was greitad by hi nd his family with giv it respect and coidialily. Ilo na- rs-eived bv tho oldest daughter as a lovei ; iiod v. as in fact a young man of much rcspc uibiliiy. lie afterwards rose 10 llio dignity of Jud-je of the Court of Common Pleas in M :ss,iLlrHLtts, and was the father of tho present Hon. Judge Cranch, of tho District of Columbia. The suitor of the oilier daughter was John A ianis, who afterwards became President of the United Slates. Hut at that time in the 0. jii of Mr. Smith and family, ho giva bnt slender promise ot tho distinction lo which h." afterwards arrived. His pro tens' jns were scorned by all the family, ex cepting tlii, young lady 10 whom his addres ses werts c--i)i.ci..lly directed. .Mr. Smith showed hii.i tome of iho ordinary civilities of the houso, but ho was not asked to par take cf tho lipsnitiiliiics of tho table; and it IS luj,.,. t-.l ll.-fc L'- I. ...-. ...... rlnnm n I - sbaio with his m. ster, tho neglect and nior tific ti m to which ha whs subjected, for he was frcnaeiulv seen shivating in llio colJ, und pn twi.ig the poslat tho pastor's door, ol" long winter evenings. In fine il was report ed thai Mr. Smith had intimated to him that his vt-Iti were unacceptable, and he would do hir.i fjvor by discontinuing them; ho told his daughter that John Adams was not worthy of her ; thfl hii father was an honest tradesman and farmer, who had tried to ini tiate John in the arts of husbandry and shoe niahi.ig, but without success ; and that ho had sent him lo college as a last resort. He, in fma, begged his daughter not lo think of making an alliance with one so much be neath her. Mis Smith was among tho most dutiful of daughters, but she saw Mr. Adams through it medium verv different fiom that which her father viewed him. Sho would not for llio world offend or disobey her father, hut still John saw comUhiiig in her oyo and manner which seemed lo say " persevere," and on that hint he acted. Mr, Smith, liko a good parson and an af fectionate father, hud told his daughters if thoy man led willi his approbation, ho would preach each of lliem a sermon on tho Sab bath after tho joyful occasion ; and thny should havo the privilege of choosing tho text. The espousal of the ddest daughter, Mary, airivctl, ami slio was uiinoii 10 nir. raiicu in tho holy bonds, with tho approval, tho blessings and bono'liciions of her parents and her frioink Mr. Smilh then said, " my du tiful child, I am now ready lo proparo' your termini ; what uo you seiuct nir nexi 01111- liavo .icloctcd tlio latter pan of the 'IBd verse of lh- 10th ch.ipior of L"lo : ?Jar; halh clwscu thai oml ja, I 11 kith shall never be taken frahi her." "V.ry r-ocd, ny ihoijliter,11 said her fathar; and so u scimon wad preached. Mr. Adams persevered in his suit in defi ance of all opposition. It was many years after, and on a very different occasion, and in tcsistsoco of v?ry different opposition, that ho uttered tli-so memorable words, " siul: or swim, live or die, survive or perish, zivi ;n.i heart and hand to this measure, lint tliou 'h tho measures wore different, the sniiit vns tlio same. Uesides, ho had already ccrricd tho main point of attack, the heart of tlio vauiiTlauy and ho knew tlio sinronuer of tho cit.'-lcl must soon follow. After the usual h.-sitation and delay that attend such an uiiiilearant affiiir. Mr. Smith, seeinn that rcsUtsncc u-: fruitless, yielded tho centeslcd point willi as much grace as posiblo,us 111a- uv a nrudeiit lather has ilone, Oeloro anil since th. t tin!". Mr. Adams was uniled lo thrl lovJy Mi 1 Sniilli. After llio niarriago was over, and all things wcio settled in quiet, Mr?. Ad,. oi.i ivniarlu-U lo her lather, "you preache'd M ry !. sermon on tho occasion of her iii.irn :jt', t.'on l you preach 1110 0110 likewise. 1" " Vos, my dear girl," said Mr. Smith, "choose your text and you shall have vo -r s rmon." " Well," said the daughter, " 1 h '.ve chosen tho 3'id verse of llio 7i!i i:h-.it.r of Luke: For John the Jiapti.il ca in neither eating bread nor drink iitg wine, and ,je say he hath a devil.1" Tho oli'. h".ly, my informant, looked 1110 very erchly in tho face whon she repeated this ps-s-jre, and observed, " if Mary was (ho 1 lost duliful daughter, 1 guess the other Iii.l tlio mo:t wit." I could not ascertain whether tho last ser mon ?aa over preached. It nny not ho inappropriate to remark, hoiv well these ladies justified the preference of tho distinguished individuals who had soiifht them in marriage. Of them it will h.irdly he extravagant to say they were re spectively an honor to thoir husbands, the I'Tast of their sex, and the pride of New Er.gLuJ. Mrs. Adams in particular, who, f. 0.-) tho -Lvated position in which her hus-b-r..l ..a: placed befoio the world, was hrcu;ht b.:iorc tho public eye, was supposed to hdJ tho same elevated rank with the t!' z-.r., that Mr. Adams did anions the iiion, end sho is reported to have rendered her h.'shantl much assistance in his multiplied labors of tho pen. Cincinnati Chronicle. HKJTS TO FARMERS. In a treatiso 011 Productive Farming, just issued from tho press, the following observa-i-iina ocu . " It la ! s.l.l.. ..a ,1, nniinal lif.i; in-vthri- minis bur cbilil exclusively v.'.lh arrow-root it becomes fat, it is true, km rlas 1 it h rickety and gets its leelh very rlo.'Iy, and with difficulty. Mamma is g noraiil, or never thinks, that her offspring cr.nnot make bone or what is llio saints thiiifr phosphate of lime, the principal bulk of Loin, out of starch. It does its best ; and were it not for a little milk and bread, pai haps now and then a lillle meal and soup it would have no hones and 110 teeth at all. Farmers keen poultry; and what is true of fowls is truo of cabbage, a turnip or an car ol wheat. If we mW with food for fowls a suf ficient quantity ofegg-shulU or chalk, which thay eat greedily, they will lay many more ejMS than befoie. A well-fed fowl is dispo sed to lay a vast number ofej'gs, but cannot do 'o without the materials for tho shell?, how -;vjr nourishing in other respects her food may he. A fowl, with tho best will in iho woild, not finding any lime in the soil, nor mortar from walls, nor calcareous mat ter in her food, is incapacitated from laying anv et'cs at all. Uet larmeis lav siicii lacts 1 " "v os these, which are mallersof common obser- vation t) heart and transfer the analogy, as they justly may do, to tho habits of plants, which are as truly alive, and answer as closely to evil or judicious treatment, as their own horses." Tun Ovnr.ri.owixc op tiii: Mispissiiti. The editors of tho Courrier des Etuis r. , .., ,n;., . ,1,,, u', :,. Kiw, who . now t avel ing at the est, in a letter dated the 24th May, gives a descrip- tion of tho ruin occasioned by the recent rise in tho Mississippi. He says; "I havo just descended llio valley ol Iho Ohio, from l'ltts burg to Cairo, a small town lit tho junction of the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers; and have come up the latter river as far as St. Louis. The spectacle presented during my -nj-iH'. '.omu lino continued scene of de vastation, infinitely vaned and horribly pic Itiresq'ie. Owing to tho recent rains, tho waters of tho Mississippi and its tributaries, havo attained a height m Inch is unpiecedeii- ted, except in thu year 17So, when tho wa ter rose some tberty loot above their ordina ry level. The extent of inundated lands, the number of log cabins carried away, and of anini ils swallowed up, aro incalculable. From Cairo to l. Louis tiro seen only aban doned farms, animals Hunting over praiiics which havo become lakes, and no longer offer lliem pasture. Sheep, oxen, horses, and c.illlo of various kinds must now seek their living on tho waters liko the ducks, who are the only inhabitants that readily accom modate themselves to tho altcied stale of things. Tho Mississippi is frightful ; its stream, rapid enough always, is now a tor rent, and iwico tho powerful steamboat which carried us, was compelled to yield to tho force, of iho current. Tho ghosts of whole forests float, with arms and hair erect, through this roaring abyss, and tho steamboats are, at every instant, obliged to arrest their pro gress, lest they slriko too rudely against theso uprooted giauis. Al St. Louis, the quay called iho Lovec, is submerged. Houses aro abandoned, 1 1 1 p water reaching the second story. Tlio inhabitants of llio small town opposite Si. Louis havo' lied to the fields, and tho vessels, instead of following thu usual sinuosities of the liver, cut diioctly acmss lols, sometimes can ving away a chimney un llio top of a tree. Rut fortunately thu wa ters aru abating." It mav no bo generally known that boiled nettles aro an excellent thing for feeding and lalioiiiug ducks. S P F C II CF m, SAMUEL S, PHELPS, OH XHZi TA3tII-'JL IN THE SENATE, FUBHUAItV 1G AND 19, 1911 (('or.cludcdA It is said, that by withdrawing your support from tho laborers of l-juropo, you cloprivo them of tho ability of nurchaMinff and consumhijT your cotton. !o it so. Will not the employment of your own laborers contcr a corresponding abili ty upon them 2 If nnc hundred thousand pen plo are sustained in l'uropo by your demand for cotton lanries, will not llio same number ue sus taincd hero ! and will not their wants, both of tho raw material and (if tlio means of Bub.ist. once, bo as groat ! Nay, thoy will bo greater, inasmuch as the American laborer is better fed and better clothed than the European operative. Sir, the idea that tho establishment and c.Mcn- sion of our cotton manufactories would liavo a direct and inevitable tendency to destroy thu do. mand for tho raw material, is to 1110 a paradox, which I would thank tho honorable Senator from .South Carolina to explain. lie has spoken of a paradox which troubles him, and which I will endeavor lo explain in duo fcuason. The Senator speaks of ruin to tlio cotton interest Ironi this source of tlio necessity of giving up the cultivation, because we aro providing fur its consumption, lie seems to think, that if we manufacture for ourselves, Great llritain will want none of tho material for her consumption, and wo shall need 110110 hero. And then, sir, how is it as to the cotton necessary to supply other markets of the world 1 If Great Hritaiu supplies them, she must get the material from u--, if she cannot got it elsewhere. And how is their consumption to be afflicted by the inquiry, whether the manufacture for our uso is to bo carried on hero or in Kuropo 1 Whether Groat llritain can got tho article cheaper elsewhere than from this country, is a problem which time must solve. Ifthere bo ilan. gcron this score, theniuttcllectu.il mode of oh. viatintr it is lo secure to ourselves, by fostering our domestic establishments, tlio foreign mar. kot, and thus secure not only tho sale of the raw material, but the profitable employment of our surplu-i and otherwise useless labor. 'Phis pro. cess lias commenced already. We compete with Great lirilain in South America, in China, tho I'ast and West Indies indeed, everywhere where a nniket is to bo found, sir, which isi best to content ourselves with a bare compe. tition for tho sale of tho raw material only, and that in the ports of our groat and only rival in commercial pursuits, or to enter boldly into a competition, not for that material only, but for its value enhanced by our labor, and one in which wo aro not at her mercy ! Does tho Senator imagine that such a competition, tend ing directly lo transcend the demand lor the fabric, to an overstock of the market at the haz. ard of the manufacturer, will diminish the do mand for tho raw iiu'erial 1 Sir, I have liitrh authority for my position. A distinguished citi zen of South Carolina, lato a member of this body, once said to me, "Sir, your protective sys. torn will fail you your policy is wrong. ou must bo a manufacturing people, but you must ci.i.L- n fni-oiirn mai-kpt ; w 1011 VOU have Secured that, your prosperity will sunn ujiuu . basis." Sir, that distinguished man was right in his advice in the last particular be had ad vised ns to hell the cat. I agree with him, that if we can secure the foreign market, wo aro safe. Hut ho did not advise us how we were to secure tho foreign market, without first so- curing our own ; nor how we could success fully compete wi h Great llritain in tho groat j mart of the world, if we suH'ored her to slide and crush our manufacturing energies at homo, Did that sagacious man suppose that this coin-1 petition to which he limed us, and wiucli was to give us permanent pro.-pcrily, was to .sacn lice the interests of Ins native State, and blast the hopes of her sons Sir, in the Engli.-h market wo should have to competo with llraz.il, Texas, indeed every country capable of growing cotton. How lar the llritish East India iiossessious may hereaf. tor supply that market, wo are not now able to determine, but 1 warn tho Senator that the in. lerests of the Northern manufacturer and the Southern nlanter aro identical, hot him see to i', that in dotroying the former ho does not sacrifice the latter al.-o. Revolutions aro no ! now things in the commercial world. Cotton Ins taken llio nlace of indiiio as a Southern , ......11 i. ...ii .,.:.,.. !... .i.-t ' , l-U n' , all vo shared the same fate Mr. President, there aro other objections to tho policy of the act of 181'.', addressed rather tu the prejudices and selfish passions than to the sound judgment of men. The old story of " taxinir the many lor tho benefit of the few," 60 olton told and as 0II011 reluted, is renewed. l,a r0llil"r irom aow lanipsnire, assuming that the duly enhances the price of the article L tw of tw ,, Mt ' Blld irofM,illg , dt.a, ; hcfi jrrlVelv proceeds to give us I 0 a rrnCj(m the enormous burden laid upon the people of bis Slate by tins 1111 st oppressive tarilf. Ho tolls us that thoro are iiOO.OOO poo plo in that State; that the consumption of iron there is equal to an averago of twenty-live pounds to each soul ; that a duly of three cents per pound is equal to seventy-live cents to each person, and amounts in thu aggregate to the huim r,r JS-'.'i.OOO. being more than four times tlio whole Stale tax. I lieso aro racts which will not bo disputed. Hut what uso does ho make of them 1 Why, ho assumes that the cost to tho consumer is increased, ami his constitu ents taxed to that amount. Without tho aid of this assumption, erroneous as it is, his facts arc nut wortli a straw they luriiish no aid tu his argument, and lead him to no such conclusion. Tlio Senator is most unfortunate in his illus. trations. Will ho permit me to substitute for his assumption certain other facts, which 1 com mend to his especial attention. The most com 111011, nay, universal use of iron in that section of the country, is in the form of cut nails, thu duly 011 which, by the act of lSl'J, is thrco cents per pound ; yet the article can lie dougil 111 the ullw'e where I the fur three and a half cents the i j'lininl. Deducting the three cents for tho duly, tlio cost ot tho articlo would Ue ouo.li.ul coot ! Does tho Senator really imagine, that if this odious act were really repealed, tho price would tall to that sum j llio liouoraoio ftenalor also adduces leather as a further illustration of the burdens imposed on his people. Hero ho is equally unfortunate. Ho elates tho duty at DO to :! per coot. Ho has not told us the amount paid by his constituents, but has left that to ho guessed at. Now tho fact is, that during tho last two years for which wo havo returns, not a notind of leather has boon imported, except a small amount of morocco. No duty has boon levied, Tho manufacture at homu has equalled tho coiisumntiuu. lie will nut contend that the price of the articlo has been raised by this nominal duty. Sir, tho Sonalor rould nut havo solectcd two articles which would havo so happily illustra led thu fallacy of Ins assumption. Thoro is nut an articlo manufactured in this country to any extent which has not boon made choapcr to Iho consumer. It is not truo tint iho tax is uni- formly pa d by Iho consumer. It depends upon thu ratio ot demand and su former increases the Prico ri: I vorto u too cao, it tills upon tho consumer, sometimes Iho producer, ami often upon tho intermedials holder, and not unfrcrpiontly upon all. The Senator from South Carolina argues that tho importer adds Iho duty to the cost, tho nier chant adds his profit, the country dealer his, and so on till it fails ultimately on tho consumer. If the articlo bo one of necessity, and you have no competition at home, I admit such is the case. Hut if you will sustain your homo man ufacturer, what is tho result 1 This cumula tive process raises the cost beyond what it can bo mado for at homo : tho article is unsaleable except by a reduction of price ; and thus tho duty falls upon the foreign manufacturer or importer, or both, in reduction of their profits. The Senator from New Ihinpshiro tells us that in l.ugland tho price of cofToc fell upon thu reduction of the duties. Hero ho is unfortu nate again. Coffeo is not produced in England, and no raising of duties could prodtico domestic competition to keep down the price. Ho selects an article to which the protective policy could not bo extended, either in that country or this. Mr. President, tho uniform effect of competi tion is to reduce prices. But you can have no competition unless you protect your domestic establishments. The Americanymanufactiircr cannot competo with the immense capital of England. Foreign goods aro thrown into our market, and sold at a great loss, which tho for. eignercan hear; and thus the price is reduced, and tho domestic manufacture crushed in its in. fancy. The market being thus yielded to tho foreigner, he makes amends for bis loss. Nor is this all : ho has often on his hands a surplus, which the ordinary maxims of trade rci'uiro should be sold at .my price. After all is sold which can be sold at a profit, the surplus is forced oil" for what it will bring. The object of protecting duties is not to give the manufac turer at home great profits, but to protect him against this operation. It is to sustain the weaker party in tho competition. The Senator from South Carolina cannot un dorstand how it is that wo desire protective du ties, while wo insist that the effect is to reduce tho price of tho fabric. This is tho paradox which he desires explained. Sir, the cxplana. tion is easy. The manufacturer, if sustained in his enterprise, is enabled by the greater skill required by experience and by improvement in machineiy, to manufacture cheaper at the same profit. That skill and that improvement will never bo attained, if you suffer iihn to bo sacn h'ced in tho outset by the weiahtof foreign cap- ital. Domestic competition will prevent great prolits; and as the manufacture Is matured, and becomes cheaper, tho price of tho fabric is re duced to the consumer. Thoro is at this tunc nearly three hundred millions of capital in tho United States invested in manufacturing operations, and the annual production is computed at two hundred millions. Is not this an interest worth protecting 7 There aro twenty millions of sheep in the United States, and the amount of capital invest ed in real estate depending for its value upon tho growth of wool is immense. All this rests upon the success of that branch of manufacture. The opponents of the protective policy have resorted lo many ad captandum arguments to render it unpopular. It is represented, not onlv aristocracy of wealth, disregarding the interests of the farmer, favoring the rich, and oppressing the poor. Appeals aro made to sectional feel ings ; tho people of the North are told that thoy aro taxed to fill tho pockets of tho sugar planter of Louisiana; thu people of the .South, that they are laed lo support tho manufacturer ol the North; New Hampshire is reminded that she is taxed upon salt and iron, which are not found thoro ; and tho farmer of tho West is taxed lor uie oeueui 01 1110 wool grower 01 llio East. nir, mine great variety ot interests, ot pursuit ; and production, 1.1 this widely extended .country - of ours, with all its variety of soil and clnnato I and resources, it is impossible to find any 0110 1 branch of human industry in which all are equally interested. If these sectional consid erations aro to prevail, and tho peculiar inter ests of no 0110 section can bo the object of your legislative care, tho whule, with all its great in. torests, its means of prosperity and happiness, must ho abandoned. It is onlv by coiisiihing the interests of each portion, that the prospc-ilty of tho whole can ho promoted. 1 ho senator lrom Aew Hampshire assorts that three millions of dollars are annually taken from the pockets of tho people, to sustain the

sugar planter, and sixteen million? as a tax up on the necessaries of life, " which the people might have, if it wore not for tho protective system, for precisely sixteen millions less." This is an unfair mode of stating tho question. The sixteen millions is needed lor tho support of the government. Suppose tho duties taken off; the revcuuo must bo had, and how will the people bo gainers if they get these necessaries i.t an expense loss by sixteen millions, and yet are compelled to pay that sixteen millions into tho Treasury in the most odious form of taxa tion ever adopted a direct ta ! Sir, tho true mode of stating the question is this : If your revenue is kept within tho limits of your neces sities, is the mode of levying it by duties, grad uated with a regard to the productive industry of tho country, more burdensome to the people than a direct lax or imposts laid without refer ence to that object ? Much in naid of " tho rich and the poor," as if our legislation was fur the rich alone, and all the burdens fell upon tho poor. Sir, the great mass of tho people of this country are neither rich nor poor. They are in a com! linn to command the necessaries-, the comforts, and tho conveniences of life ;, but they aro all, more or less, in debt, and dependent upon thoir daily industry for tho comforts they enjoy. It is for this class of peo ple that wo legislate ; and if taxation is imposed, as it must be 111 somo form, let it be in a way that bestows the ability to meet it. While wo impose burdens, let us cnusu't the moans of those who bear them, and let us foster the re sources upon which we draw. Sir, tho poor man, if sucli thoro bo in this country, is the man whose daily labor is his only rcsiiurco. Is Iho policy which gives him employment, which pre lers him to the foreign laborer, adverse and op pressive to him ? An cllbrt is also mado to convince tho farmer thai his interest is sacrificed to that of tlio man ufacturur. Tho Sonalor from New Hampshire takes this "round, and. as an illustration of this charge, adduces the article of leather. Ho tells us that tho duty upon 'feather i. from till to Uo por cent., while that upon hides is only live That if ho bull, his hiclo, ho gots but live por cent, additional : but if ho buy the leather made of it ho pays UO to !13. I havo already slated that none is imported, and ol'courso tho pricouf learner is not allected by tho duty. Jiui sup pos-oa duty is imposed upon thu raw hide, ol U) to a.r per cent., to givo tins farmer protection, not a single additional hide would be produced in tho country. No man raises cattle for the sjko 01 the hide. Hut the supply in this coun try is not equal to demand. Wo import yearly I four millions worth of this article, (raw hides.) If, then, a duty were imnosed uf Ii0 to U3 pur cout., upon thu Senator's own principle, it must bo paid by tho consumer ; and the fanner would apply. When tho , have lo pay 'M to 35 per cont. tu llio manufac-1 ises; when the ro-'turor, and tho samo upon tho raw material, bol tSooiethnw It falls, that mi would bo taiad CO to 70 por cont.on this necessary article. Did tho domestic supply equal tho demand, and tho foroign articlo come in competition with it, tho caso would ho differ, ont. This is a very fair illustration of the force of this objection. Tho tax upon salt, also, is a grievous burden upon tho poor. The whole amount imported is about six millions of bushels, Iho duty on which is about two cents and a half lo each person in the country. What the poor man pays, who needs it only for his table, I have not computed. Tho Senator from Now Hampshire has also alluded to Iho articlo of wool, as exhibiting the partial operation of the tariff of 19 It!. This ar gument is addressed particularly to tho people of New Hampshire and Vermont his constitu. outs and mine. Ho has alluded to certain res olutions of tho Legislature of Vermont, which I had the honor to present, demanding eipial pro. lection to all branches of industry. He approves this principle; but he labors to show that iho in terest of tho wool grower has been sacrificed to that of the manufacturer. Sir, I thank the Senator for his allusion to tho people of that State, and to this their prin cipal production. They will always bo gratified to learn bis opinions, upon this or any other topic of natioual interest, although they will not fail lo subject those opinions lo the severest scrutiny. Should he bo disposed to enlighten them, I commend to his first and special atten tion his political friends in that State, nine tooths of whom aro decided protectionists. They complain not that tho act of 1812 is based upon thu protective policy, but that it is not protcctivo enough. 1 trust his first ciriirt will ho to convince them that this last objection is unloundcd. Ilu states that the wool grower of Vermont is protected by a duty of 5 pur cent., but for his ow 11 "produce, in a manufactured stale, ho pays from tio to GO. Tho Senator has mistaken the duty. On all wool which comes in competition with the growth of this country the duty is DO per cent, ad valorem, with tho addition of a specific duty of three cents per pound. If wo assume that the average price of wool is (it) cents, which is as high as tlio market has been for somo years past, tho duty is -10 per cent. ; and this is precisely tho duly on the woollen cloth. The raw material has always boon deemed equal in value to one half the fabric ; in other words tho labor of tho manufacturer is equal to tho value of tho material. Il is a com mon practice to manufacture the wool of the farmer for half iho cloth. As, then, the wool grower and manufacturer contribute equally to the fabric, and aro equally interested, thoy receive equal protection. If further illustration bo necessary, let us suppose the duty to bo added to the price whieh each receives. Tho fanner receives from the manufacturer forty per cent, for the duty, and the latter, upon h's cloth, when sold, receives the same. Forty per cent, on tho cloth is equal to eighty on the wool, Tho maiiufactuicr therefore receives 80' per cent., which ho divides equally with the farmer, retaining -10 for his labor. Coarso wool costing less than seven cents per pound is Btibject to a duty of 0 per cent, only. This species of wool is not produced in this country. Tho only complaint on this head i.", thai l.v adminimo or coarse .urn nnc, and by importing 11 i ,. filthy state, and other devices, a portion of wool ,f" this ou.ilur ciown ill tho country is introduced under this low duty. If this is done, it i-. an invasion of the law, and not tho fault of tho law itself. If that bo defective in guarding against the invasion, I trust the Senator will unite with u.--, and remedy the de feet. Hut this defect, if it bo one, has been vastly overrated. That tho act of 13 I'd has given efficient protection lo the wool grower is apparent, from the immense falling elf of im. portatiau. In the year ending September '!0, lSIJ, wo imported over ten millions of pounds, costing less than eiirht cents, and amounting in v.,uo to s? ('.33,000. For the year endhi" Sep. tember. 13 Ki, tho importation is about two or two and a half millions of wool, costin" not over seven reni. .,ml .n,n,,t; i,7..:. over seven cents, and amounting al the timi 11111111 prit-o to from 8110,000 to 175,000. Now, it is certain that a largo amount of corrso wool, of a kind not raised here, is consumed here; and if wool of the value of thirty cents is introduced in this way, it is clear that a very small portion of tho mass costing not over seven cents can -f I.k liner quality, certainly not over one-fourth or one Inn.. '.nj W,L., wu consider, further, that three pounds ol thi-i arc equal to only two of native growth, it follows that not more tha'n 8100,000 worth, oven at thirty cents the pound, is iiilioduccd in evasion of the law. Hut whether the quantity bo more or less, if the law bo defective, let it bo amen ded. Will tho Senator adviso us, if tho protection bo insufficient, to abandon it altogether ! Sir, if this bo his policy, and this bis advice to the peoplo of Vermont, I can assure him in advance he will inaKe no converts there. 1 he resolu tions from her Legislature, which I had the honor to lay upon your table at the present ses sion, protest against tho repeal of this law. That Legislature was composed principally of farmers men engaged in this identical business and they knew well that if this protection is withdrawn, their business ami their state are ruined. The Senator advocates tho catiso of the fanner, but he would withdraw protection from tho manufacturer. If you destroy tho manufacture and the home market for your wool, what will you do with it ! Send it to Euirlaud ! You will there meet with coinpeti- tion from Spain, Germany, South America, Aus tralia, the Levant 111 short, too whole world and that with 110 choice of mirkels, as England must in that event become your only market. The policy is absurd. Sir, il is in vain to attempt to convince the people of that Stale that the duty upoirvoollen cloths is an oppression upon them, for the ben elit of the manufacturer. I am a wool grower, and profess to know something of the matter; and I know that lor every dollar which you 1111. pose upon mo in the shapo uf duty upon tho cloth 1 wear, you add ton to my income How should 1 ho tlio gainer if you relievo mo from this paltry tax, and at the same time ruin my business and destroy tho value of my proporty 1 This is not my vlow only, but the opinion of us all. If you abandon the protection, and rum the wool.growing interest, you sacrifice tho Senator's constituents, and mine What can wo do! Wo cannot make bread-tuffs in beef and pork, and even hi the produce of the dairy, we aro already rivalled, even in our own mar kot, nay, even in tho heart of New-England itself, (ISoston,) by tho productions of tho moro fertile and genial regions of iho West. There is an over production of these articles, oven now. Sir, there can ho no mistake hero. If this policy he not sustained, Now England must becomo a desert; that fair portion of vour country, to which you aro no much indebtoil for what you are, must he abandoned, ller nidus- tnous and thriving population, her talent, her enterprise, and her moral worth, bur social instl. tutions, surpassed by nono, if emailed by any upon earth, will ho lound there no more. The fa'irest portion of the heritage which God .u ry from which has gone forth so much of tho elements of your national power, prosperity, and happiness, must 00 uruKuu up. tier sons, whose onorgy and uuterpnso havo already founJed Stales, and buit an umpire in thu WeM, and who luve carried your commercial unlcr- priso to every quarter of the globe whero tlio 1 'hnfl, comfort, happiness, prcvnilcd to on extent an sails of commerce cuuhl waft it, will bo called t) . V "'known, and unequalled 111 the Imtory of tins abandon the place of their nativity their domes, j KrnraW'mrcl "ife inVustX, tie lirosides, and tho temples of their God, and , nu a competent and full reward. An immense pub seek a new homo with the retreating and perse- he thin was cxtiiiuuislu-d, nnd your Treasury was euled savage upon vour remote Western waters overlhiwun:. Wo hail pursued .tlio policy which com- Ininir illniiiaiiltiw nwl ilii.irillotmriivn rh.irnr. nini sensu and tho common juilirm.ait of tho world losing themselves a id thoirdisti nctivc char c. uJ ,lci, i:ana herself has lone practised, tor 111 a now mass, and leaving behind then tho w,lldl , atIJ uf wl(h ctty , institutions of thoir fathers institutions which exuiplion, arc at this moment iinitalunr. Hut in this in their new condition would never ho replaced, statu uf iiiie.xaiupkd national prosii-nty, when your Docs tho Senator from New llamp.hire desire this ! ct the Senator lrom South Carolina, his co-worker and associate in the cause of free trade, predicts it. lie presents to our imagina tions a stranger familiar with the present pros. icrity.mil happiness of New England, revisiting that region alter an absence of ten years, during which his freo-trado system shall havo been in operation, surveying the ruin, and uxclaiining, " what demon of wrath has visited this once happy country, and spread over it the desolation which surrounds me !" Does the honorable Senator expect by this appalling picture lo so. duco us from our political faith, and win us to his theories 3 If the abandonment of tho protective system is to lny war.to our remit ry. to exhibit its eliiicts in the grass-grown streets and the de serted and mouldering ruins of our fair towns, does he expect us to join in promoting this work of desolation Hut the Senator from Now Hampshire Ins pre sented his objection in another light. He insists fiataduty upon the article received by tho far mer in exchange for his produce is equivalent to a tax upon his produce, and therefore tlut he is doubly taxed. I agree with him, that it is not im portant whether wo consider tho matter in tho light of a tax upon the foreign article coiisiiinod by him, or the production of his farm given in ex change for it. Hut I lannot agree that in cither aspect he is doubly taxed. It may be one or the oilier--it cannot bo both. Hut sir, this argument is no bettor for being turned into this shape. It depends as before, upon the assumption that tho duly imposed upon the foreign article enhances tho price lo the con sumor to tho extent of iho duty. The reasoning is this: if the cost of thu foreign article is rela tively increased, it is equivalent to a reduction in that of the domestic article. I have already en deavored lo expose the fallacy of this assumption. It is, I suppose, the eiiorrnots tax upon iron, lea ther, &c. which wo have already discussed, that constitutes the tax upon the farmer's produce. I will not repeat the argument, further than to say that if the article is made or produced or made at home, the duty on it when imported will not enhance the price, because it is kept down by domestic competition. If an article be one of ne cessity, and ii not produced at home, a duly would enhance the prico; but it is not a part of the protective policy to tax such articles. Hut suppose it is truo tint tho tarill'of 1912 is, as the Senator supposes, a tax upon the production of Ihehirincr ol 3U to 10 per ceni. 11 11m rcineuy mic tho Senator propose J Why, sir, to repeal your duty upon foreign fabrics, (for this constitutes tho tax), ubandon the idea of a domestic market, send your productions abroad. To the producer of wheat and other provisions in the Northwest ho says, go to Kng land for a market. Hut he forgets to tell lliem Hint Knglantl will nol receive a pound of it if she can avoid it that she will tako only under the pressure ot ne cessity, when her own supplies are exhausted, or -limit in ho iui.Imvpii then under enormous duties. That flour 1 subject to ailiuyui no ,., r, pork -10, beef 73 to 60, bacon 73, bullcr and cheese 30, iVu. Ho fort;cts, also, to till them that the domestic market 111 New Knl.inil, su-taincd by this protective policy, iswnith more lo them lh 111 all the markets within Iho llritish dominions. YVi.ll, sir, what will the wheat grower L'am liy adopting tlio b'eiiatoi's ad vice! Why, heijets rid of ibis imaginary tax of 30 percent., but, by sending Ins Hour to Kngland, ho subjects il to a duty of 30 or CO; which hoof course ins to pay h'unstlf, as r.nghsh wheat and Hour aro not taxed. IIo cannot, therefore, add ihodtitv lo tho price. He sells Ins dour, brimis homo iho ballanee uf tho product lift after p iymjr tho duties; nod lure ho is met by a collector, who demands the 30 per cent, not in tho shape of a duty, but of a direct tax for thu support ol'hn own flovernnient. How much think you this farmer will have left to purchase British eoods, afler pjyingeosts and charges of liausporting his produce across ibe Atlantic fifty per cent, to tho llritish IJoveriiineut ! Tho Senator would disstnde tho American farmer from paying the 30 per cent, du ty for the support of bis own Government and a homo market, but persuade him to pay 30 to a foreign (toy. eriiin.Mit. and subjui-l him-ell'to a direct tax at home for the 30 per cent. If the farmer attempt to make his way ihrougli I'anadi, ho is no belter off; iboex peiisu is greater, and the duty tlio same. IIo may send his wheat into Caiml.i, where it is subjected lo a duty ol three -hilhnis sterling per quarter.or 7'J cents for every cisjlit bushels. It must bo m iiiufictiiri.fi j il.nr.. 1.1 11.1 uaiioinluctl, and when it arrives in Lug. I.lllll 11 IS Slll.JlLlt.i l ..., ."""V1 "n -- as it is called, i-ouiim-uciiig with live shilling-) sterling the barrel. The whole duty, provincial and imperial, bv way of Canada, is about twodohars the barrel the eMienseoftransportolioii by way of the St. Lawrence exceeds that by way of New 1 ork, by three shillings and six pence sterling, (31 cents,) unking two dollars and fi'diivfonr cents 011 tho barrel trau-poricd thai way be-'ides the loss of tlio profits of manufacturing. Such is tho free trado winch r.ugland ten !ers tis-sucb her policy a poliey which sho will not abandon. v,. .i..,i.. ..rfrpn ir.nle is out of tho uuesnon there is no such thing upon earth and our only alternative t... ...... ir-i.i.. wiih l.ncl.md ourselves, nr IS HI II'UUUIIU .--.n- - - . permit her to rcguhlo it for us, in such a way as sub serves her purposes and promotes her interests. Mr. President, il is with 110 small degree of surprise that I havo listened to the remarks of honorable Senators on the other sido of this Chamber, advocating upon this subject Hrilish doctrinos. Senators are ready to beard the lion in defence of Maine or Oregon ; hut upon this question, growing out of the only particular m which the interests of the two nations can seri ously como in contlict, (our great commercial rivalry,) they aro prepared to adopt theories manufactured in England, liko her other fabrics, for tl,., American markot theories for our adop. tion and "iiid.ince, but which she never puts 111 practice. Moro especially, that tho Senator from New Hampshire should be found advocating doctrines so much at variance with tho practical economy of the people ho represent. Iho peoplo of Now Hampshire havo preserved more of tho oarly habits of tho settlers of Now Eng. land than any other portion of our people, and thoy exhibit to tho eve of the traveller more de cided proofs of competence and comfort, consul, ering their advantages, than any peoplo that I 1 r iinnn onb. Thov are an industrious nnd pcnnnmical uoople. who make tho most ol their resources, and practice tho very economy which tho friends ol Iho protective policy auvo. cato ; yet, strange as it may sooui. meir voue, as expressed heru, is uniformly heard protesting against tho doctrines which thoy have ever so st'uadily adhorod to at home. Thoy will adhere to them. Tho Sunator cannot dissuade them. Ho may talk of tho tax imposed upon the article ofbii.Mr, but will ho persuade them to abandon the manufacture of tho articlo from their forests, and look abroad for what their own industry will supply at homo ! t 11 .!.. nrnteelivo no'lCV has bcCII HlO .'1 r .1,.. ..,',,, I,, nnd it ever must be. Of 1 XVU; n Vvery term of reproach; .. .1. . ...!. i. nli.ifiiwi voralu arv of the any-living language, ye. it ranno , b sleaken s any iviiig mug ,lea . riir, 1 ,t,,e the prediction J,, ,,o distinguished individual who has been styled I (, Vcrv iiisilv. ns I think) the father of the system. Unit who may jn-lly bo d-nommateil Us nrueii ma most etlleient advocate, w-ill yei hvo m see Ii m j TfT' b V.mC n I '! ' "' i,fvc.i roucriiv.' From one end to tho J;,";;" of ' ',. wllU,y Vxtendedempire, 111 nil ii variety ofpursuit, prosperity, public and privaie, eouipeieiwe, larilfof IBM" vv-ero cnaclolj and win 1 m. . 01. nur experience 011 uiissmijiw. - . . ., M r, ircslde, ,asl.enn began with tho Oovernmenl-it .was 11 rsivmu 11 , . - Noilimer but from tint period down to 181). 1 no - ''' """". " llislre69 .,.,,,1 ,ile ct ..m ,.f iqm mill 1 ii a ii.im itiuiu nnu roiourccs win- rupuiiy caucu uuo ocuon, your pro- duciioiiuml your wealth were increasing, a new light siiuuciiiy must 11 pen ns lrom iiiouuiu, a uiscovcry was made, that thu people of the North, through their energy, their enterprise, nnd their sagacity, had, from the pound when theso qualities were eulogized by Kd mund llurko. biforo Iho Revolution, down to tho pre sent day, excited the wonder nnd tho admiration of ibe world, yet know nothing of the principles of polit ical ccouuiiiy. Though they had peopled a wilder lies'., established an empire in tho West, and extended I hi it navigation nnd commerce to the farthest oceans, yet ibey knew nothing uf thu elements ot national prosperity. And bow was this discovery matloT Not by prac tical men, uuided by their own sound judgment nnd sagacity, nnd aided by expermcoj but by specula ting upon tho theories of writers upon political econo my men whoso thrones wcra adopted to the condi- ti.nt wrtlio wlJ n-orld, wi.. ...ih.r Is.iow HUI tllOUglll of the policy of a new nation starting into existence, devilojiing lis resources, founding its establishments, nnd maturing its policy. .Sir, these Inws of trade, of which we hoar so much, seem to have been regarded like tho laws of nature, ns mimulablc and irresistible. They nro but tenden cies, liable to bo inllucnced nnd counteracted in their operation, by a thou-and accidental and contingcnl causes. They nre never to be relied on without a cart ful consideration of the peculiar circuni-tnncei of tho people to whoso poboy they nre about to be applied. These circumstances aro various. The condition of an old people, whoso population and trade hnvo arri ved at their maximum, vvhoe resources nro fully de veloped, whoso relations with nil the wotld are fixed, is widely ddH-rent from tint of a youn'' people, ad vancing rapidly in the cour-e of national progression, with n papulation not yei filled up, yet increasing in an unexampled ratio, a territory not yet occupud, and resources not yet developed, norns yet fully discover ed. Tho first. "lagc of civib.-ition is undoubtedly, agri cultural; but in process of tiineotber objects of indus trial pursuit must bo sought thu people become man ufacturing as well ns agricultural. Commerco may exist ton certain extent 111 the agricultural state, or to fit ns it is sustained by agricultural production ; but all experience has show n that Ibe full commercial ca pacity of n peoplo is never fully attained until its pro diictivo industry is brought to bear upon other resour ces and other modes of production. liut the discovery was made, in defiance of all ex pcrience, that your protective policy was a ''tax upon tho m iny, for the benefit of the few ;" nnd in tho faco of tho fact tint youwercat that moment llio second commercial nation on Iho globe, and tlio rival of tho first, that il was hostile lo commerce. It was also discovered, tint to regulate conimirco was to let il alone 1 that the policy of a nation as well as of an in dividu il was to pay no attention to your relative out go an, I income ; lint tho power oflayinga rcvenuo was conferred for the mcro purpose of defraying your expenses ami that il was lo bo cxerri-ed, not with a design to foster yortr industry and cnll into action your urn... l..,r wiihmit rn.ird to either. Theso onin- In.ia iinr.irltinnfrle nrevniTrd. and in an evil hour tho celebrated compromise acl was enacted. The pro tective policy was gradually noanooneu. aim yout piu Icciiveduties gradually brought down 10 what vyas called the "revenue standard." By the withdrawal of vour nrotcclion. tho products of foreign industry were brought into successful competition with your own, nnd the country was inundated with foreign goods. liven before the rcmiclion was complete, 1110 iounon tion of your naiional credit and your national prosperi ty was undermined. And bow were theseforeign com modities procured 1 Here, sir, permit me to notice an Uemciit In your 11 itional economy, which tho celebra ted writers so often iiuoiidtlid 1101 contemplate, nnd w hich your own statesmen have too htllo regarded. 1 allude to that universal system of credit peculiar to this people, the necessary and inevitable consequence of your rapid growth, nnd without vvbicb your pro gress must have been arrested. These foreign com modities were procured on a credit, to he paid for, nol in the Hour, beef, pork, and other productions of the agricultural portion of these Slates, for these England will not receive nor in the tobacco of Maryland and Virginia, for this article is subjicied by her to nn enor mous duty but in thu only article which she re ceives under a moderate duty, your cotton. This ar ticle, which constitutes so great n portion of your ex ports, was the means, and almost the only means, relied on In meet you. engagements. This immcnso amount of uiitmrlaliou was received, not in exchanco for vour own productions exported, but on a crcdit,iti anticipation' f the proceeds of your crop. And thus a cliiin of indebtedness was created, beginning with the Knghsli capitalist nnd K'nglish manufacturer, pass ing through ail ihu gradations of trade, down to tho ultimate consiunci of foreign articles to the cultiva tor of iho s i . the laborer, bv tho sweat of whoso brow the nic-ins of payment were tu be wrought out. Vour whole country, with all its resources, ih labor of vour Inn. Is w pro mortgaged, and lint to tho very Powir whose si-Hishness and arrogance aro so often undo tho ihenio of declamation here that Power, great cs it is, against which you wrro threatening SiAt.'i'jJ.vv'tl'i'J'si's the event proved, voq had Jo.Drqv. vale credit. Ill ibis stale of tliinjs. through the depre ciation of colton 111 the foreign marker, to which, in the fluctuations in tlio commercial wuriu, mat iirucio is so In! le, or from sumo oilier cause, (it is immaterial what,) your expectations were disappointed, your means of payment wire tut short short, yourcxpor latiou was exhausted, and the debt was not paid. There wa-but 0110 resource lift, the gold and silver in the vaulls of ynur bin'.s. The debt must be paid ill specie, but all the specie m the country fell shottof its amount. No sooner was il demanded for expor tation, linn the alarm was taken the binks wera obliged to suspend, and fortunate it is for tho country they did so. Had they done otherwise, jou would havo been literally a bankrupt nation. But this step prostraled your currency. Tho cold and silver was locked in the vaulls of your limits, and vour paper currency had lost ils vitality in the loss of eonfident-e. Tho liusiiie- of the country was suspended, proper ty of eviry description was depreciated one-half, and this indebtedness which pervaded every class virtual Ii. ,l.,id,!,-il. And whero did theshoek fall ill its creat es! force! Upon the fsouih upon the cotton plan ter, it was necessarily, unavoin iiny so. u inn ar ticle of production was alone relied on 10 meet th.J immense debt, the planter must be in somo way re sponsible for il. Ho must either be nndeihe ultimata debtor, ns the consumer of llio good imported, or his bills drawn upon llio b isis of his cotton must bo pro cured. In cither event, when tho nniirinated fund laded, the recoil fell first and heaviest upon him. Thu Southern banks were the tir-t to suspend and the last lo resume many never did so. No belter evidence can bo had of the i-otidiuon of nny portion of this poo pie. than thu rendition of iheir banks. Hut what followoH No sooner had the elastio energies of llio co intrv begun to rise under tho press, ure, Than a second revulsion followed. Tho failure of tho corn crop in Lnglind struck down agnin tho prico of your great staple, for it diverted tho capital invested in it to the continent in search i f breadsiull's. Tho ll.inkof tho United States having loaned liberally to this South, which was largely indebted to it, and knowing that the cotlon was thu only mean of reim bursement, became largely interested in Ibe article. Tlii has been called 11 speculation. Call it what you please, it was llio onlv means of satisfying llio mi nisiisr ilt lit due the institution, nnd which the ins'ilu lion in luru owed 111 l-'.uri.pe. Tins experiment fade I. llio nrlielo was depreciated, and the revulsion crusbtd lint mammoth institution, and many minor ones with it. , Sir, had yon produced wiiliui yourselves a port .,n of llio fabrics imported Ironi abroad, the debt would not have existed, vour credit would not liav ban pledged, your banks would not havo suspendi .1, lur your" currency been destroyed. Had your urn. Let been a homo market, iho f uluro of tho com ci . in l-Inglaiid would not have nflieted it, nor would n liavo 1.....T, lir.i.K.lit will, 111 tho direct operntiou of the tluc tualioii of r.urapoan ciminorro. Tho peonlo 01 New Lngland were less affected by theso revulsions an nny other portion of llio rounlry. Their banks w ao iho must stable, and tl cir currency tho sounded This was owing to tho doui 'siia market. The tiie'.o ofilu ir operations was smaller nnd more quickly per formed. The trade was brought nearer to thn prin ciple of rxchnngo of commodities, less 111110 affordel (or tho intervention of contingent causes between tba eonliaclion of thodebt and lis payment) und, so far as limy exchanged the production of tlio soil for nr'i i.i..a nrdoini atin maiiiilncture. llio dictation as 1 In cid nllogethcr beyon 1 tho reach of any lluctuatin.' 01 embarra'sfinoiitiii Kimpenn atl'aiis. our cxpenonce sin -, etnharrnssment und ol 18U inspired new . 'fho denarluro from the protective pn, tho country, icy was ihei tu.anauni rn11.11 nrnll thn nvil wo havo encountt r return to il is your only tlfeciual remedy.- day V " My dtur lalher," sum Wary, "1