Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, July 12, 1844, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated July 12, 1844 Page 1
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xtt Wrt NOT THE GLORY OP CJBSAR BUT THE WELPAKE or ROME BY II. B. STACY. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, JUL Y 12, 1844. GOD IlIiESS VOU." I've listened to the cold farewell The careless, short good bye, When not a tear of sadness fell. Or tributary sigh. I've felt the pressure of the hand At purlin;, 'gainst mine own, The severing of a happy hand, That long in love had grown, Hut never did they wake the thotieht, Thy sweet " God bless you " fondly brought. It osketh for a mightier power, To guard the loved one here. When in the dreary tempest hour, Thou art not nigh to cheer. A Grin reliance on his care, Who rules above the sky, A truslingncss, that looks to share The watching of his eye A hope that they who loved iheo well May in his favor brightly dwell. " God bless you "in long after years I'll hold it to my heart, And check the quick and bitter tears, That from their fountain start. I'll merit, with a soul breathed prayer, In trustinj fervor given, That great, alt-mighty, watchful care, Which thou hast called from heaven ; And as I breathe it to the skies, Thy sweet " God bless you " will ariso. The" "auction." A SKETCH FROM HEAL LIFE. nv jamhs nr.ns. Tt was a tempestuous night, the wind whis tled fearfully, and hail stones whose size threatened to demolish the windows, rattled against them with a pertinacity as if to test their strength. In the parlor of a fine old fashioned house, beside a rather comfort less tire on such a night, were seated the fami ly of .Mr. Sunderland, consisting of himself, wife, d uighter, and faithful innid servant, a heavy gloom more of sorrow than of anger, rested on each brow, not even excepting (hat of die maid servant alluded to, from whose 'agor glances ever and anon cast toward the family group, the close observer would have noted the deep interest she took in the cause of their grief. j The picture was a melancholy one, for' virtue in distress has no liilit shade to relieve I it ; all around and about it is dark and som bre. The sensitive artist would have thrown aside his pencil, if the subject had been pre scnted to his view as wc have described it, and his heart would have received an impres sion which ho could not have transferred to canvass. ' To-morrow,' observed Mr. Sunderland, 'is the anniversary of the melancholy death of our dear Henry to-morinw will bo (en years since the vessel in which ho sailed was lost, and all on hoard perished all, all." ' Alas,1 exclaimed his wife, as the tears coursed their way down her cheeks, 'to-morrow will be a melancholy day.' ' Indeed it will, for tn-murrow this house which belonged to my father the furniture which time has made, as it were a part of ourselves, associated with many a pleasing event in our lives, is to be sold torn from us by the unrelenting hands of creditors ; but, thank Providence, misfortune, not ciime lias reduced us to this stage of poverty.' ' Will they sell everything, I'a can wo secure nothing?' asked tho daughter. ' No my child unless with what little mon ey a friend has generously loaned me, I can secure a few articles. Ellen my dear, take your pencil and put them down ; first tho sideboard, two beds, chairs and kitchen things. The side-hoard it is true, will bo a superfluous piece of furniture, but it belong ed to my mother, and I cannot, will not part with it.' But my piano, Pa ! must it go V The wife sighed, the father cast his oyes toward the flickering fire, and the daughter was silent. The fate of the piano was deci ded upon. A melancholy patiso in the con versation plainly told how severe wns the al ternative for tho law never studies tho feel ings of its victims when exacting tho penal ty of a bond. Go, Mary,' said Mr. Sunderland, addres sing the servant, to and request the Sheriff's officer, who is watching tho property, to walk into the parlor ; he is not doing his du ty no doubt it is painful to him, as it is distressing to us. Let him have a seat at onr (ire, and a cup of tea for it is a severe night., I ' It is indeed a fearful night,' observed Mrs. Suhderland, 'and wc have behaved rude to this man.' ' Mother, I mado a fire in tho room where lie is, but ' Speak out child it was the last stick.' I Father it was ' Mary returned with tho officer, a polito' gentlemanly man ; for such should he tho character of men who have to perforin a part of the drama oflifo, not unlike that of the inquisitors of old, whoso province it was' to torturo by tiio rack, with this difference, I however; theirs was a 'physical' torture I ours a 'mental' one, administered with all 1 the nicety and precision of 'legal justico !' , The officer politely accepted the invitation , and endeavored to cheer his victims, by enumerating many cases of a similar kind, equally poignant and distressing. Thus thnj evening passed heavily and cheerlessly away. On the morning of thu contemplated sale, there was to bo seen a crowd of people flock- 1 ing to tho house of Mr. Sunderland. Some 1 out of sheer, heartless curiosity, 'friends' of j the family who came with mockery on their lips and empty purses. Others with an intent to purchase, but no ono among lho crowd shnwpd the least desirn lo aid, or sym-1 patlnse with tho distress of tho family. This is the world ; wo laugh at tho misfortunes of our fellow creatures, and even mock their distresses, by witnessing in silence their suf ferings. The aiictioiuer was now making his arrangements, by flourishing his hammer, rolling his oyns and using his tongue. Tho motloy crowd gathered around liiin. Tim house was put up first, it was accurately de scribed free from all incumbrances, and "bjf.ct lo but vory small ground rent. It w started at fivo thousand dollars. Thoie "ra several bidders, hII of whom scorned anxious to purchase it. Seven ittMits-tnd five hundred dollars was at last hid, upon which the auctioneer dwelt for a moment. Mr. Sunderland compressed his lips together, and muttered to himself, 'it cost my father fif teen thousand dollars.' 'Seven thousand five hundred dollars. Going going ence twice three times for tho last timo go ing' 'eight thousand ' 'thank you sir going at eight thousand once eight thou sand twice eight thousand three times- going gone what name V 'Clifford,' was the response, and nil eyes rested on a tall, noblo looking man, who" had remained silent during the rapid bidding of tho speculators anu who as the whisper went round was total stranger. ' It is cone,' whispered Mr. Sunderland to his wife as he pressed her hand in silent gnct. "Wo liavo no home now.' Now, gentlemen, cried the auctioneer. nc win Mm 1 1 lis sine uonru, in regard to ...ttl ..M .1 "II 1 . which I am requested by tho creditor lo say mat it is an old iatntiv piece, and it is the wish ol (lie owner to retain it if possible. 1 merely mention this as it is known to vnn under what peculiar circumstances the things are sold.' Tliis had tho desired effect noonoseem cd willing lo bid against tho unfortunate man, who started it at ten dollars. Twenty was hid by Mr. Clifford : twenty-five from Mr. Sunderland ; fifty from Mr. Clifford si lenced tho anxious parents, and tho family piece of furniture was knocked down lo the new owner of tho house. A gentleman that stood by remarked that the act was n cold, heartless one. ' Was it?' sarcastically ask ed Mr. Clifford, ' then, sir, why did you not buy it for him?' Mr. Sunderland was much affected at this littlu incident. ' He htilo knows how much he has lacerated this heart. Hut I will pur chase this piano for my child.' Ho stepped up to .Mr. Cliffoid, and told htm tho desire he had to purchase the piano for his daugh ter, and he hoped ho would not bid nainst him. " 'Sir,' said the stranger, 'I will not de ceive you, as much as I respect vour feel ings, and the sympathy of this good compa- cip , i cannot, nay, win not aller the il eler. j mutation made when I entered this ' And nrav. sir. what mat. i. I- ? (II Sli. ' ' " - i o pnrcn ise everv tlmi!' in it. .....I i.. heaven I'll do it, though I pay double pi in' '."J I Strange,' muttered Mr. Km dnrlo, ,1. . I ho found his family in anothhr part of the roo m. Tim stranger fulfilled his promise, and actually bought every thing, from the house itself down to the very axe in the cellar ! After tho sale was over, and the compa ny had retired, Mr. Clifibrd requested llie auctioneer to walk with him into an adjoin ing room. After the lapse of a few moments they both returned to the pailor, where the family still remained. Thu auctioneer look ed around, gave a knowing smile wished them all a good day, and as he left tho mom ho was heard to say, ' I never heard of such a thing.; a pel feet romance, ha ! ha ! ha !' 'You are now,' observed Mr. Sunderland to Mr. Clifford, ' the owner of the house and furniture they were once mine let that pass.' ' I am, sir, for the time being, vour land lord.' ' I understand you, sir, but will not long remain your tenant ; I was going to observe, however, that there were two or three arti cles which I am anxious to purchaso that side-board, for instance is a family relic I will give you tho fifty dollars, the price you paid, and I feel assured, under the cir cumstances, you will not icfnso this favor?' ' I cannot take it, sir.' ' Obdurate ungrateful man.' . w. . I"' i . .t ' U ill yon not let Pa buy my piano, sir ?' humbly asked Lllen. ' Ho will the price at which it was sold.' givo you ' It is painful for me, young lady, to re fuse even this I will sell "nothing not even the wood saw in tho cellar.' ' Then, Mr. Clifibrd,' said Mr. Sunder land, ' wc have no further business here : i i.-ii . ' I.UIUI-, my near cnun, get vour lionnut that's vour band box-let us quit this ho so wo are I, ot even free f,o, lJ, VH ' '7 a... here, sir-.he Lev of n,v !, :. lost, and I am fastening it with a rone.' ,id I am astern,,- i, with , ' ' " ' Stop, my girl but nieihiiiks I purchased that trunk !' coolly observed tho stranger. ' Mr. Clifford I am not so old, but tint I can resent an insult nay, will, if you car ry this arrogant, and to m'e strange conduct much further ; that poor girl has boon to tne and in 1 no' thu bust, and 1 may si,y t0 (lny friend ; she has remained with" us in poverty, assisted us in our distress not only with her hands, but her purse ; she is not to mu as a servant, but one of my family for there is thank hoavun no such base distinction in poverty that exists in ;i state of bloated wealth. Here, here, with nothing but what wo havo upon our backs the master and servant are equal. Sho is part of my family, and I will protect her from insult. That trunk is hers, mid who daro take it from her? Not you, sir !' Mr. Clifford cast his eyes upon Mary, who at that moment nroso from the floor for a moment they gazed upon each oilier in si lencu ' and sho, you sav, has been lo you u friend ?' " ' Indeed she 5il kimJi nobu , Mr. fcnimlerland.stay oho moment, mv good gi.l, put down tint trunk tnko n seat, madam; permit me, Miss, , mml .. ., chair; Mr. bunderland, will vou bo seated t I hivo ynt something n,()ro ,,, gllv When you requested mo to yield up lho wish I ,J to purchase this sideboard, I told you that it was my determination to buy ii, and I toll you nowthat I will not sell it.' ' Phis, Mr. Clifford, noeds no repetition.' ' Ayn, but it does, and when that young lady mado the samo request for her piano, my answer was the same. Slop, sir, hear mo out ; no man could net so without a motivo; no one, particularly n stranger, would court tho displnasuro of a crowded room, and hear up against the frowns of many, without an objoct. Nuw I had un objuct and that was bo seated sir madamyour attention that object was, to buy this house and fur niture for the purpose- of restoring them to you and yours again !' 1 Sir, is not this a cruel jest ' 'Is it possible?' exclaimed mother and daughter. Amazement took possession of Mary, and her trunk fell on the floor with a crash, caus ing her small slock of clothing to roll out, which she eagerly gathered up, and thrust back, without any tegard to the manner in which it was done. 'The auctioneer,' continued Mr. Clifibrd, ' has my instructions to have matters arran ged by the morrow. In tho mean time you are at home, Mr. Sunderland you are in your own house and I, the intruder.' ' Intruder, sir? Oh sav not that I will tell you what a relief this knowledge is to me, nut i am yet to learn How 1 am to repay you for all this and what could have in duced you, n total sli anger, thus to slop foi . 1 i i . i .. .. 1 . num. in i n inougni strikes me gracious licaven ! Gan it be ? look on me Mr. Clif fordnay, star! not.' The stranger actual ly recoiled from the glanco of Sunderland's eye. ' Look on mo, sir ; has that girl that innocent girl who stands trembling ther?, any interest in this ponernus an nf yours? speak, sir, and let me know at once, that I may spurn your ofTer and resent thu insult.' 1 1 will mt deny, sir, hut sho has.' ' My Father, dear Father. 1 never before saw the gentleman's face. ' bay not so, Miss ' ' Sir I I indeed Father, I ' I Remernbrr ten years back call to mind light haired hov whom vou called' 'Jtrolficr! ' ' Gracious heaven Henry my hov ' ' Is here I am your long lost son !' Need WO add more? Our rn.nlnr.! rnn readily imagine that a morn elm... f,.l fin. blazed upon tho hearth, and that Mary, tho faithful servant, was not forgotten in the general joy which prevailed on the occasion. AN AFFECTING SCENE. The New Haven Courier relates llie fol lowing : in a lawyers ol ice in a rnmntn ,i.. r .!.: O...... I .". . I , . ''V 11 '"ongage tor cloven bun- r.. ..... ... t . ."" was wi.ii.ii a lew days of III! Ilrr MOP. .1 Inn mn... .. .1. .1 uiiiy mi; iii.iii on wnose PI-icu llie mo.lgace was held. mlUI ..,,,1 C 7 ""!m eo'"" " I'" oITh - . . n ?i I III I I I I Mir Mil uvie m ..... I. . I ii 'ij ii nil it ntiiiii iv 1 1 i i :iri- in; was a man x.tticouin in.-, and very intemperate. The lawyer in reply in his inquiries, said that the man who held the mortgage, wauled his money that Iip was sorry, but it could not bo extended. The tears came to the old man's eyes, and after standing a few mo ments, a perfect image of despair, turned and left tho office. IIu ii-tuuied I i; l.r-I it-vlnr that in a few short days his aged and infirm wife and invalid daughter, would have to quit that roof which had so long sheltered them, ami seek for a home, he knew not where. He could say nothing to them about it, it would cause them so much grief. Thu mmt gage became due, and in the morning, earlv, the farmer again repaired to the lawyer's of fice. He pleaded for time, but to' no puts pose.. Overcome with emotion, the old man sank in a chair, and there sat for about two hours, apparently unconscious of any thin" that was passing around him, when a catriage drove up to the door, and a lady stepped from il. Sho entered tho office. After standing a few moments, eyeing tho old man with interest and emotion, she spoke. The old man looked up. ''Father, how do vou do?" " Oh ! Sarah, I nnywell, hut sad. glad to see you, hut sorry for vour I am aged mother and invalid sister. I cannot return to them, for it will be to tell then, t ft t ,luv have no home, and this I cannot bear, it will kill vour poor mother. " Father 1 Father !" said tho daun,ter, "could you live a temperate man, if this'vveio paid ?" Yes! oh, yes, I would, hut.it cannot be, lor I have nothing to pay it with." The father was a Lo'uofoco, and violently 1 f Z . "' , ,'" V,II"B WM " VAT' " ' L , "' m V".1 !)10 J'sl'!?r, 'linrn is the opposed llie l anil. In C,0V" V' "" "''.' kin9 it fron r pocket,) 'of my own hard eainimts. which I havo laid up while working at tho factory. Go home be h ippy and never, no never again raise y our voico against that which has raised you from ruin, and is the greatest bles sing your country can enjoy." Tun Sra "nir. I)r.r, l)nu. Sk." The mean denth of thu sea is, according to La P 'ace, from four to fivo miles. If thn existing wafers weio increased by only ouo fourlh, it would drown tho earth, with the ex ception of some high mountains. If the vol unin of thn ocean wero augmented by onlv onu-cighth, considerable portions of the pre sent continonts would ho changed all over tho globe. Evaporation would be so much pxtiindcd, that rains would continually du stroy tho harvest, and fruits and flowers', and subvert the whole economy ofnattirn. There is, perhaps nothing more beautiful in our whnld system than tho process by which our fields a ro irrigated from the skies, tho liv ers fed from the mountains and the ocean re strained within bounds, which it never can exceed so long as that process continues on tho present scale The vapor raised by the sun from lho sea floats wherever it is lighfpr than the atmosphere ; condonsod, it falls up on the earth in water; or attracted to the mountains, dissolves and replenishes the con duits with which, externally or internally, they arn nil furnished. Bv these conduits tho flow on tho surface of "tho earth, and to tho springs which Iio deep in its bosom, des linod lo supply man with a purer element. If we supposo the sea, then, lo bo consider ably diminished, tho Amoion and tho Mis sissippi, those inland seas nf lho western world, would become inconsiderable brooks ; tho brooks would wholly disappear, tho at mosphero would ho doprived of its due pro portion of humidity; all naturo would as sumo tho garb ot desolation j the birds would drop on the wing, tho lowor animals wnnhl perish on tho barren soil, and man hlmtftlf wiiuin viiner away into llie aiekly grass at 1 his feet. u ...;.i MR. CLAYTON'S SPEECH. Tho following is a verbatim report of the great speech delivered by John M. Clayton, at the mass meeting in Deleware, on Saturday last. We copy from the Philadelphia United Stales Gazette : Prttow Citizkns: The chief object I have in view, in this day addressing you, is to call back jnur attention, and that of tho country at large, from the many distracting topics which now agitate the public mind, to the greatest of all the issues involved in the Presidential K!oc tiou. The great question to he decided by that election is a question of BREAD, a question iwiuwior wc Mian aninuon llie w in s nrinein na ui piuiecuou extended to mo laliorui" classes ol this country by the I'ariffAct of 1812? and adopt in lieu of it, a tariff" ilisoriniiaatingor revenue and against prnterlinu ; a question whether we shall go hack, by our own olimtary act. tn that slate ol colonial vassalage which existed in this country while England held us in subjection, and her statesmen boasted that thuy would not per mit U9 to manufacture a hob-nail for ourselves, a question whether wo slnli now surrender to England one of the most essential blessings re sult ing from that independence for which the Whigs n( tho Revolution successfully contcn. ded. To every r jllecting mjml it must bo ap. parent, that butfjwsubjectscan bo decided to the satisfaction nf a mijurity of the pinole, at a sin. gl-; election ; and it is t'ho old trick of designing pnliticirn, to esrapo defeat upon subjects in controversy, vitally alf-jcting the country, by multiplying the Utua to be decided, distracting the attention of the people, and dividimr the mi" jority on tho dreaded question, by others of info. nor importance, i nese are the tricks of all llie enemies of Whig principles of the present day. i iiofu Kuiiiieiiien are wen aware that a vast maj irity of the freemen nf this ennntrv arn iliri. dediy hostile to the modem I'Vpi; trade doctrines anil as ueritleiliy friendly lo the Whig Tariff of 1812, Olllbra 'illg the Whiir lll inrinln nf nrntnn. Hon t,. home-l ihn-. With their new Dmiocrat. if. doctrines of Free-trade, all the leaders among them are couscous lint they cannot go to trial before the country without incurring inevitable defeat. Within the nnst year, the friends nf the protective policy have, every where, routed their opponents ien ihis nun-inn !,., I,n.. rnlco.l in the election-.. Our friend hm-n nnfmM.l nrnzins anu a ivocates ol liritish interests in this nation. They h ive torn the masks from all the faces of thno"wlm prefer English to A. nvricin labor. The sheepskins have been strip ped from their h irks ; and the wolves, now stand out in their naked deformity. To injure our triumph in this great question, our friends have at lat adop'ed a determination, upon which our widfaro eminently ilcpnmK to reject with srorn, alliance with, or asistanre from, all com.lmys, and urh as proton.! to occupy a neutral position between tin- contending pirties on this question. Tins is a subject upon which the American poo uie can no longer be deceived by pretended friends or by rtietuie. Anil, at this moment, you see the foes nf the American system, con scions of their approaching destiny, if the two issues shill he submitted In the people, are, "'"I uJtty , ril. .1X11 .o,l,,r, pllU; rtllTII- tinn from it tno'lier subjects, nreented for the puipose of exciting popular feeling. Let us guard ngaii'st the wiles of our adversaries. Our situation, at this time, tniy bo compared tn that nra largi- family about In emigrate In the West. Wo hae one wagon belonging to our concern, with an excellent tam attached to it. Wo can carry in it all that is really necessary for onr safely and our liapp'nes". Hut we cannot carry every thing which the caprice or fancy of every member of the family in ly iiuluco him to throw into it. If we suffer every one to pile in, among uur iiHi-cssancs oi me an tne trumpery which he may have nurcl.a.e.l to rnrrv .itl,him. . Klinll Rlinn Hllil Hint tl.nrn nnt 1. fora hundredth pm nf it, and that one tea,n"is utterly uniUeJp haul it. In this stale of things, lho only course left us. as sensible men, is to re. strict the freight in the wagon to such things necessary lo our safely ami comfort, as wo ran eHrtihihtranspnrt. Ilul wo will leavo every one, who thinks he has got the means of trans, pnrtation, independently of us, to lug along what ho pleases ; am! we will promise not to fall out by the way or qiurrol with any friend who may choose to go the journey with us, because he he thinks prnpor In load himself down with- ar ticles which wo are nn iblo or unwillin" to car ry. The w.igun and the whole cavalcade are now before me. about tn start for the West. Henry Clay the drner know- the road well, and by his sid" sits Theodore, rrelinghuvsen, who is a go id guido and ovprioni'cd tMVel'ler himelf. Insiile nl thu wagon I n-e the Proceeds nf the I me riww nanus, u-itii itultei laid or Prol -vtmn to Lome labor, a sound Currency, an economical Administration of the (lorernment, and d vers other good articles, necessary for nur .-.nuiy Hun prosperity, mil mere goes a lellow ho nod, i!ri nig an unbroiien colt in a cart nf his own, tilled up with'IV.cns ISondsand Vcxns,and .Vn). As hn wishes to go along with us, wo shall not dispute with him about his freight ; though I ihiiil; he will not drivo his cart over

i) mountain-' ilns vear ! There comes another iihii, tugging in the reir with a wheel barrow, loaded iln.vii wufltwo hundred millions of 6'oi trniw nt .'Scrip to payoQ'tk: State Debt. lie is a good fellow in the main, ami ilnridml. i ly in favor nl our taking along every article in thu wagon ; hut will insist o i his peculiar notion th it these .Slato Debts inu-t go in company with ii ; and while he works on ins own hook, at his own barrmv, I shill newr quarrel with him or attempt to drivo bun hick ; though, if 1 must ev. press my opinion. 1 think his freight will bo swamped amonjrtho lens of Salt ritor. There comes another lellow, with horses attached to a cumbrous machine, moving on skids, outside of which you may see tlio protruding muzzles of a whole battery of cannon, and tho inside of which is tilled with ammunition, gnus, drums and trumpets, and all the paraphernalia of War. That fello v is full of fight and wants lo go to war with either Mexico or England, or some, body olse, ho id not vory paiticular with whom. Me wishes lo put all thai Ireight inside our wag on ; but when wu satisfied him we had not room for the fifteenth part of il, he agreed to bring it himself, with his own force, ami I am not willing to drive him back, or quarrel with him about his whims; for although he, like the others, has peculiar notions, yet he as well asihey, is lavor of our c irrying every article wo have in our wagon and desires to" accom. pany us as far as ho can to defend and protect it Vender comes another fo'lnw, tottering under tho weight nf a knap-sack, tilled with treatises on Pihmical D'uinity and a thousand Sectarian Controversies. He ardently implored u5 lo givo room in the wagon for all that luggago ; but la was assured that if one-half his tracts should be read on tho road, instead of proceeding in har mony together, thoro would be a general fight among the whole company ; afler which, when Catholic and Protestant had pommelled each other noundly, tho company would be separated into religious factions, and would never reach their place of destination. He was informed, then, if ho would take along his knip-6ack, he must bear its weight, and keep its contents to iiiiiieen ; as me only tract aiiowe ried in the wagon, or disseminated are these which inculcate its widcut and meet liberal other spirit than peace on earth and goodwill among alt. men or all sects, classes and UGHlhUIXATlONS. I can see, also, (let me add) a rival train with another wagon, behind all these, toiling hard to overtake ours, and bound for the same country; where they mean to settle as squat ters for four years tn come, if they can reach it before u. This wagon is a heavy lumbering vehicle, being but a clumy attempt to imitate a celebrated carriage which came into fashion about the year 1800. The horses are old polit ical hack', many of tliem being spavined and wind broken, and mostofthom with the thumps, a disown contracted by them on the long journey up Halt River, four years (e;roiis safes, antl diesis of ilnn. llnnn wlnnlitlm iiiaiuu ii I Mils warrnn vn innu snn hnn. brazen capitals are plainly legible, tho Swi l HLASUIll SEPAuATr.S THE UOVERNMENT MOSI the Hanks, and the People from their own mo.nkv." On many of these massive Hmos. u-n read, " Hard money for the rgice hollers, and uniih. rags jor oiner penjiic." Un llie top of all of them, they seem to h ive piled Osaon Peli on, as if they designed to put all Texas upon wheels, including p.irts of the Mexican States of Santa Fc, Chihuahua, Cimhuila and Tamau Upas, tho whole crowned with the Texan debt of untold millions, by tho side of which, nn thn other p.ickigc, you iiihv read, Xo asuimvtion of mi v..i. n 1. 1 i... ? ..... uu omt isivi.t ui uur own uovernment. Hut tho heaviest weight of all presses i n thn driver's box: whore you may see James K. Polk, of Tennessee, holding his nags, four in hand ; while George M. Dallas sittuig by his side, vainly applies a hickory gaad to the excori ated flanks nf the jnlud animals. The driver shs on a cushion of enormous weight, labelled Fltcc Trade. IJvery part of this vehicle is of foreign manufacture. The very wood of which it is undo, is of foreign growth even the horse snoes were rnaiio by English blarksmilhs ; the harness is all in iniil'actureil nut of English loath or, by English hirness mikors ; all the wheel tire, thn axle. trees, and even the bridle bits, wore imported Irom Liverpool. No American laborer, whether nntivc or natural zed, was al lowed to drive a nail into this wagon. Strapped up in the hoot behind you may see a llroken treaty u-ilh Mexicn, covered over with that " black ilig" which Mr. Butler, in the late Bil timorc Convention, predicted would prove the , '""nrc. moment I ""v P. ei a certain concern, whenever it should abandon tho principle that a majarili tiiuuia goiern. s uinn oi utscarued olli.ie-liolil ers and office hunters sunound the wamm. shouting at the top of their lungs, for " Free l ratle awl I exas," " Iltrd Money and James K. Poll:." There is a little follow, tho editor of a paltry newsnipcr, blowing a penny whistle, la helled " Down with all corporations ;" while an- otner oi the same profession grind-' a hnnlv "ir dy to the old tune of " Jiirain and Corrup tion," and tho "Murdered Coilitian." Near these is another of the same trade, riding on a donkey, while he drums on the dead h do of the Hank of tho United Slates. Behind ionics offa concerto, in which you may hear the pi-awes of narmomous utmocraey chanted, amidst every variety of sound, from the twanging of a jews- harp to the thrumming of a banjo. Whether tins assemblage snail ever proceed lurllior on their journey thin tint Serhonian biv which lies near the sources of Salt River, I leave oth ers to conjecture. Pharaoh pursued the Israel itos till iio was swallowed in tho Red Sea. I leu too good. nat tired just now to loretull the destiny ot James K. l'olk and his followers, liut, jesting apart, let mo return, in all sober seriousness, to the true question, as I have al ready stated it protection or no protection for uie country uremt or no tiread tor the laborer. It is no part of my purpose to discuss that quos Hon at length. J o enable ( 'rs In understand it, 1 have only to refer ther ha last article 1 . 1,10 uri:l1 ""'"bor of lilai', nod's .Magazine. I 0 ' ?,mon7 ,e"ve ''" di.-coursmg on the fol " ,'' , ,"r doctrine of free trade : and We loliv n L-n n.irn trimt it tmv mn. ....1 1 s inn Ol -i -ii- , t.t it .. .... ..r . 1 ... ..j ,v h ...... miu,, wsiut n ....... u uiiuum ... i,i.it,n i, a iwoiitiry inifiori, written by Englishmen for the American mar- market, hngl-sh periodicals, written for llie purpose of being read by American citizens, have done more injury to the cause of the American laborer than any euual number ol publications on thu same subject which h.iveap- peareu m our country. In connection with this subject, tnv fellow citizens, let me say that there are not wanting in the ranks ol nur opponents, men, who have been bold enough to charge Henry ('lav and Theoiiore I-Velmgliiiyseu, the c inseii chain'. pious of Whig principles, with having abandon cd the protective policy, by their votes for the tvompromise Acl ot the LM of .March, lbiM. It is my iiuiy 10 ueieuii ineso my out associates in tho public councils, against - unjust an accu sation ; ami tint duty becom-js peculiarly im porative upon me, when inquiries are constant ly addressed to mo, as they have been of late, in reganl to the true character of thu votes which they gave on that memorable occasion, I cannot answer all these innuines bv letter. I will, therefore, this day, attempt '.o answer them ncie ; lor l seo "A duel's ainins; us ttkin' notes. And, faith, he'll prent em ," and I have reason to hope that this report of wnai am anoui 10 say may roach thuso who have addressed ineso inquiries to tne. I was in tho Senate at thu time of tho nas. sage of tho Compromise Act, was a member of lho committee which reported n, and hail tho best possible opportunity the motives and nb. jeets ol Air. ivlay, in tho introduction and nas. sago of that measure. His aim was not only to prevent a civil war aim tne dissolution nt the Union, but to savk tiic rnoTixnvK rm.icv. I am convinced tint, but for the passage nt that act, the protective system would Invu been sub stantially repealed, moro than ten years ago, and every manufacturer in the country depeu. dent upon it stricken down, I know that nothing is more common than for us to hear certain individuals, who are utterly ignorant of the real circumstances winch exist, ed in the early part of the year 181):), in a spirit nf idle bravado, boasting how bravely they would have defied lho threats of the Nullificrs how resolute they would have proven themselves, had the opportunity been offered them, in hang ing up all lho leaders ot that faction, and-how rejoiced they would havo been in administering, through the swiftly willing agency of General Jackson, a salutary cusligatmn lo what they term "ino iiiiDecue arrogance ami uuiiyiug ot South Carolina." Those and similar remarks .... - I ..u B.. i, . . ii in ii.iiu.iu. cing a condemnation of Mr. Clay lor his agency in the passage of the Coinproimso Act, which tlinv sav was a sacnuce of the nrnleetivH nrm. ciple to provenl a war wilh the nulhliers. With, out doubling tho cnurago or the sincerity ol those who thus often bojst of the superior firm ness and more manly bearing which they would have exhibited, at that crisis, I will endeavor, briefly, to show you that these gcntlamen are ignorant both of tha effect and meaning of the the act, as wull as of tho objects sought to bo secured by its author. It is quite a common error, that the act itself proposes a nnriianiat i arijj oi i:u per cent, on '.a to ue cars hi '. ii "", mu iiuuiuiuio i iu any consiueraoie amount, tor any thin" hke " llTu u7 ikkuciii, wouio prcitr on the marchofdutles, and the final testing place at which their Pr v,uf. We. had approached theory i?, 3.tS.?u"i IM6. relisvnii cHtraUn, in .me raiun tn umir,, ,.,UUOo0o yv mo sci.i vctge ot national Usnttiuptcy, and but for the. h. . sense,aud breathe no "halt ceisc, and M.nd unthanftd and unclMPge Win; rs.olutton of WiO, w-h'ch had c! li .11 I .he C Md Iftll. "h N-lkV?" able forever. At this day, gentlemen of intel 'Sence, professing to understand and discuss the legal effect of this act, often speak of it as a law, the great object of which was, by a system of gradual diminution, to reduce the duties as they stood under the act of 16:12, to an univer. sal Iovieof20percent.,at the expiration of nine years and four months. In other words, they regard the Compromise Act as fixing one rate .... uuii.mii; amnios irom anu aller llie yum oi June, 181-', that rate being 20 per cent, ad stipulations or pledges on the part of I lie authors .wi..-iji , rtim as rn ia n iifr pertain mntlinrr ",Jl mat no higticr rates or duty should oier, after that day, ho collected bv Iheironeral government. This supposition, preposterous as it in jon nave tioubtlcss observed, is an opinion quite commonly oxnrossed. and that too. not un. Irequontly by grave legislators nn the floors of vougress. That the enemies of Mr. Clay should have so expressed themselves is a matter lo he regretted; but when tho friends of tho TariiT, anu tno very men who proless the utmost con fidence in the rectitude and consistency nf that great statesman, fall into the same error, it is high time their mistake should hn corrected. It is perfectly true, that the first section of uie act tixes 20 per centum advalorem as the lowest rate at which dutiable articles should be admitted, after the :iO:h June, 1812; but the third section of the act provides, that, from and after that day, "duties upon imports shall he laid for the purpose of raisins? such revenue as may be necessary to an economical administra. tion of thegovernmont ;" and also tint such do- did the friends of protection to home labor con ties shall be assessed oh theAnm initiation rind sent tn such fl rpdni-.tion nv-nn fur .i ttmitnl no. payable in cash. The leading principles estab. lished by the act were, first, that after the 30' h 1 "ib answer nnjlit bo a vcrv fhors or.e. Under ihi of June, 1312, a sufficient revenue should be : circiim-tances in which wo me then placed, it was raised from import duties alone lo defray the ov-1 l'olJ'able '? lho m,"'13 of u.ose who voted for the Com ..e '""'''J promise, that, unlt-si wo accented that, we should U,B "'"eminent ; secondly, mat no more revenue should be so co ected than should be demanded by an economical administration oi mo government ; thirdly, that the host pos. ihlo guards against frauds on the tariff should he established by the adoption of the new sys tem of assessing the duties on the home, instead of lho foreign value, and making tho.-o duties i South Carolina, by her oidinmce of Nuilifi -ation, payable in cash. Whether these duties, fr,,m h d openly defied the Gjneral Government, nn-1 re which all the revenue for the support nf .mvern. ' , -, ,,?t-nn d"iies 'houM becolle.Pd within her ,..,,, , i, j ... i , , I , r t . V,,, '"nils. It is ea-y, nt this day, after the s orm has mont . s to be derived, should be fixed at 20 pl..-d over, lo sped; of her resistance a. a thing per cent., or at oO per cent, or any other rate, which could hive been eaily crushed by iheexbibi wi, nf course, a subject left fur the future con. '"o of a linle firmness. 1 have never doubted, nor sidoration and action of Conn-res, whenever it ''" 1 believe tint Mr Chy or anv of his friends ever should hedis-cmoredtlnt the minimum rale nf A1"" 'r0 PT'r .f '!-'3 B-n'"eB ' aP'X nn , .,,, ,,i ,i i, ,i n . .. , . i . sufficient to enforce for the line the col ection of tho -0 per ccnl., adopted by the first section of that ( ,1 ,tip3 on mpnr,., in !epite nf nil the threatened ho,. Dill, v as insufficient for the support nf govern-, tihty nf Somh Caroliin. and all other enemies of tha men.. iNotniiig was further Irom the intention of those who passed this law than to attempt to prevent further h-gislation, discriminating with I1"mo Lor-,n, the co;?n- men:. iSothing was further from the intention f, .1 'c, r cy nl a delect of revenue from duties of 20 per cent. I have over rogardad the tariff pised by me lyiiusiess hi ijki, as a substantial compli. i. ance, in most respects, with this plcd"0 in tin - f,,,.,....,.,. v.. i! .i... - " , ihn 1, ' -i l ! , oxcl)l"m ,,n') hive rendered the piotcctive system Inteful to our liat lav., while it levies duties on imports to sup. I i-ountrvmcn, as the exciting raue of civil war, and port tho government looks to the proceeds of incapably of tieim; maintained, rxi-ept bv the butchery the sales of tho public lauds as an auxiliary for f American citizens by American hands. I never that purpose ; while the Compromise Act i'avc. ' ?"i 1,0 nm nrm'' l.";!,eve' lh',, an' sn.c,'1 r'slm tome nt I tlimmlit I .:,,! c - . i can be long lunntnin'-il in n government like ours, if It 1 r i xotei!for"' anJ tn.it cannot I e upheld without civil war. The friends every ntlier fr.oml nf tha prnlcrtit-o system, at j nf the Compro,,,,..,, m il.o firm l.rticf ihii the prutec i nn.i JiC' as,,!imi assurance, that, after live policy was entitleJ to the confidence and support ...v -iu.ii in June, 13 j., ino jinu f und should cease to be regarded as a source of revenue and that all the real wants of the "overnment ,.,.1 ,avo . ' 11 ,mne,,",,,e, should be supplied exclusively faiTuZ"1 Z.toofW oinnrt-. neenjn.t cn .... ....... ...... e i. i1 , . , V . . ...... ..... ov, ua tu jtviHv nanus, aim payable tn rash. I o under understood I in cessj temporaneous with it. Mr. Clay's Hill to ilis-' limine me j proceeds of the sales nf tho Public :i" th" States- which mssnd i,.,i, n' "'", ,i V-seil both I engross about the amn inw it-it t, Lauds among nouses ot i engross about the same time with -ni.pi.njj.-i.- iibuii, was uy us regardml as. part and parcel of one great revenue and fin in. cial system, which wo desired to establish Inr ' tho benefit of the whole country. While leni. I porarily surrendering tho Land Fund to the I .States-, to which it riehtfullv helnn irnil. in thn I il... ... If . . judgment nf the Congress of 15:i;j, vve provided, ' in int.- woniprumise Act, that there should bo a lay fixed at which, in accord tnco with a sug. ,'estion previously made by General Jackson !iitii--olf, the Land Fund should for over ce ie to be reguded as a source of revenue by tho Gen. oral Government. It is true, lliat we should nave acted more wisely, as tho event proved, by incoporating the provisions of a Distribution Bill in the Compromise itself lint who could have supposed, at that day, that President Jjck-on would havo vetoed a bill which carried out his own suggestion. Neverthless, he defeated that great and salutary measure of Distribution, bv means whicji no e:id can ever justify, lie ie'. tiisod to return the bill with his objections, to the House in which it originated unquostiou ibly because he had reason to believe, that, had he complied with this, his constitutional duty, each branch of Congress stood roadv. bv a vnin of two.thirds, to make the bill ,i law, in spite of ins veto. I have said, that the tariff of 1313, is in my view, a substantial compliance, in most respects, with thu principles of the ConiDromiso Art. ami tho pledges given in that art on tho subject of .1. i..: .ft... .- . - uie ruuuiaiiuii ot liui es irom anil a inr tl... .-Pit 1. of June, WW. Hut it was not a compliance in all respects. In my humble judgment, had tho tarifl'uf 1SW been passed strictly in thn cmrit ot tho Compromise itself, it would have been a better tarilf inr protection than the law now in force. It would have better guarded the reve. nue against frauds in the foreign valuation ; and it would more effectually have checked nv. sive importation, which is one of the "real cur. sej of our country. The distributing oPthe Land l-und among the States, contemplated by the Compromise, and temporarily provided for by the Lind Kill, would have put an end to llie agita tiou of lho question of protection form-n, - ,ii the principle avowed ami ust:itn,l I.,. i. !!.... that, in layingdiities for revenue, discrimination siiouio always uo made in avor of irmii an incident lo revenue, would havo I.e..,, . uea aocirinc oj ine country. lo show that this onmion is u-nll r,, i.i , I w....U,IUIlll, iei us suppose mat unngress. on ilm sivk .,r june, io,, u.iu resolved to make a taritl-slrict. ly in pursuance of Hie compromise. Tho latter directed, that, after that day, and nut until after that diy, duties should descend i ,.)i.r i . i . r - - " ilui-tiou, not of 10 per ceil., but of Me jvf half ., .ii -It ,pr c-'"'-. left arier the .list ol Dec. 183. and t,,t reduction bo l) IUI IWIII.UII IIIU IIO pm tuui.uii inuiioii-u vaitio ot lho jutports. un Uss a, lhu ,. , , rmonuo fri)) ., ' ,', Lmmi.i I,.. ,n.ol..n .,. .... . '. . 13r. 0 1,1 tlon of ,,0 Govern.i.ont. No v ,'v r. . ...... j.... ... . . hninislri slnn.l ll.o facts on at that day ! We had arlinlly incurred a national debt ol moro than 800,000,000 al that very time, under tho operations of a In-'her tarill than HO percent., and that, ton, wnh"lhe aid nf all tho land fund, ami b ink stock, and bank dividends besides. Our revsnuc had sunk I sn Inm llii.l Iha i-railn r il I w wv.i.iiwi-i ing naiioii was, at lint very moment, in tho most deplorable condition We had borrowed on that credit till forei rnnrs would not lend u an.ithpr .lnlLis VJ i . f ! I . . .). .! her dollar, and in our own tiWKei, the ti per cent, certificates of tho loan ivubuiimuiD iii i.iciHjr yvdm, count not lie Mml stand liiis stibijcf, ns it roil!" wis 1 IO"", 'inni-na sat. tvo! the protective principle itself, l-V those friends with whom r ' " 'vo1 '" "crt the horrors of a civil conflcl, and thn t, R ,,r ii. fi i s.. iu .1V0 lnc oxciieu and dc uded men who were rush- the p issage ut tho Compromise Act, it is no. I inn inf. these exirPin,-i r nm tl, m,.,..... r irv to recur to some other nroceediinrs con. I their own t !!'. In the miJn of nil ihri n,nni, Whig Congress tn decide our fate, we should at that moment have boon in imminent peril of na tional repudiation. The depressed state of pub lie credit was one nf the contingencies anticipa ted by the friends of .Mr. Clay, at the paeaige of the compromise, and we now know ice are right. We foresaw that the duties never could descend to 20 per cent., if that pledge to raise the duties to tho standard of tho wants of tho Government. given in the act, should be fulfilled ; and our hope our belief was that before they cM descend, by the operation of tho law, to 20 per cent., men of all parties, seeing that the Government could not be supported on that principle, would confess old errors, and join with us, under happier aus pices, in so adjusting the tariff as that, while tho wants of Government would be supplied from import duties, ample protection, as incident to tho revenue, would b" freely accorded to us, without further strife. If, then, C.ngress had, at that time, raised the duties to the standard then fixed by the compromise, wo should have had a tnrih" which would more effectually have protected homo labor than the act of 1812 ; be cause, although the duties would have been for revenue, with only incidental protection, (the very principle nf the act of 1S12,) yet thoe du tiou, without llie aid of other sources of revenue, icon. have been still higher than those of 13-12, and their collection far Letter guarded against frauds. But the compromise act caused a cradual re. duction of duties until the 30:h ot June, 1812, and the nucstion remains tn be fln-iwnrt-il "whr riod 1 " me to snhm t to the sneedv dtsirnctton of the whola . inmnrnr-iiirmtr ini.rri. limit la iim. mill. ml Ipci ihnt, in the nnsncr to this question, the icircuinstnncrs ' "": 1 "nv " nuuueo simuiu uo un--iiy yjpiainco. position of many of our fellow-citizen in llie South, and of nut a few elsewhere, to the whole pro!ectiu policy was unp'irnllele I in the histoiy of ihis country. Aitrie time o the tiiissnne o this aw. ihevio'.unt od. 1 protective nolicv. Hat n is due to truth to sav. that. 1 prou-ctive policy, lint it t due to truth to sa ' ot llnl t',ne- SouthJOarohni had manv svmp I . " fl'w adhl ren'?' ln.nll,1cr P"isr.'f the Znz n .iv nany sympathers, pan's of the conn- collision, which in-gut icnninaie in nmusiiea ana, in tint event, nnv man tolerably npannin'.-d wilh ilia Amer. i-nn character, rouHnnueip.ne, ijiite es well ns I can llu 1? - ', "m!'st,' Tn,c"'. " T01 ""langer th 1 Lnion, as I firmly behtve it would hive done, must 1 v,lrl". people, anu vvouia grow up nnd es- '"l'?.' "Sfcu.in Jheir affections, if a violent civil strife 1 i'is inuy, tu stiusiue ; anu uiey consen-ca to ! gradual reduction of duties lor n limited period, with a view """'i 'h"n pri-sin; upon ih- ntttniion of the friends i 0f,Pr"'ecii-)ri, there wisnr.oiher surma us in llie face i which is to i oiicn foa-mten jr -veiloolied. At the verv c-ommenwment of il. es.n of that ' nv., ...i.i-t. i .i n.. ...... ' Coot-rem whirl, ii, net. Pre.i-li.nl .T irt;sm. Hi hi annual mess-ixc, threw off llie cloak i fa j-idi- ijiis" tariff", nnd openly arrayed llie whole pnvvt-r of the Rxi-runvi liuain I the pioii-cnve system Then, for 'lie first ti-ne, we heard from linn ill iler'anr tint ' etpeii.-nee, our h-st null- on ihi h" nu - -snbji'cts, in ide It tloulitf 1 vvlieilier Un-a '-i . ' thi system are not ciiiiitetlial-inctsl nv i , w bethi-r it did not tend to V g'-i, in ill- a nrii-p'irii in nt our couutryineil a spun m ni.i-.in- tent and j..;ilouy tl.inacraia tn thr stability uftxe Union ;" " that a taritl' designed for peip.-n.el pro. tcction had entered into the minds of but few of our statesmen, and that (ho must they had anticipated was a teiuporiry protection;" anil "that Ihois who look an cnlarced view nf the condition of our country, must he satisfied that the policy of protec tion must he ullimetely limited lo those articles of domestic mamiMture which aie iudispenjible to our safe'y in tune ol war. These and many other declarations against the ex isting Tanll'i.i lho l'rssideiu's Annual .Message, n. inosl nisi anlaiieously airaved llie miv.-s ol his party aijmnsl tho piott-clivu policy throuuhout the whole country. It it-quired.uj guttd setr to predict its (ate, if some cdiicilliiury lueasjio were not spiedily adopt, cd by its I'rieiiJs lo .illay the cMstunj exciieinent. The 1'iusideiit's .Message iauist thuTantl was coin inuuicited to Confess, at thai session, on the -1th of December,; and with sueh expedition did Ins parlv iu the House of ftepresentatives act on tint occasion, 111 pursuance of his sug-jestions, thai on the 'sth ol" the samo month the Uuioiimtce of Wnysiunl Mmii ripurted a bill lo npcil the existin-; Taritl, and m lieu thertol to ci!lect a revenue ol bui SlC.jUO.WU by nil imposts on I'ottijju iiiercnandise, the average duty on which as proposed in the, bill was ubout 10 per cent., and that to be assessed on the foreign valuation. 'Ihis bill, which was sometimes called Mr. I'cr ptandi't bill, but winch was really a intas ire emana ting troiu llie ICxeculive, wasaciually lui odvanctd on n. pass ue iu the lluusj, at tho tune the Comprom ise was under consideration iuthe Senate; uiidnaliiial passijje iu the Huuse was no longer problematical. It was a measure winch, It' euccereuu, could nut f ill i to prow on iiiiiuedialc deaili-blow lo Uie whole protec tive policy, lis pussae had been forced thiough the Coiuinuiee of tho vv hole on tiie stale of lho Union, aller an tiicllectual cd'ort by thd Irieiuls of American Induslry to luipe-lo Its ptuaresa ; wlien.un the '.'jdof 1-Vbruiiy, ldJi, the tutiids of I'lotecuou m the Sen ate nude llie Un tti'url in their power lo arrest its duwuwurd tendency, and lo stay lor so long a limu as possible, ihe hand which vva txlcmled tor Us de struction. Al thai critical uioiiieiit, the nucstion for them to consider was, .not .mibelv now hcch pno- TECriON WAS NECESSAHV FOR llOJIE I.ABOR. BUT HOW jicch or IT cocld oc sAVtti, 'J'liu bill iii the House, backed as il was bv lho power of the Kxecutive. nml lho public sentiment in us favor daily uicrtasiiig, in consequence ol the President's denunciations ol the then exiilma Tantr, mighl be temporarily arrestejby tho action ol a few Senators ; but those very Sella lots saw, that unless some luniproui'se could be ef fected, while ihey retained llicir slender and very pre-t-iuous majotity in lho Senaie, the ultimate liiuniph uflhd destructive s skin, and Hut, loo, at no distant day, was inevitable. Tune can never ell'ica my vivid remcmbranc-of lho anxious responsibility tell by ni)6el and, ibo.o who ucted wuh uie al that moment. I cid uot rely upon my o n judgment alone, nor upon that of my associates in llie .Venule, lor Ihe course! should adoi t. 1 sought the ii J ice ol one who was u cuueii of in.' own sia e, and who stood, al Ihe time, at tho htnd of the niaiiiilactuiiiijjiiiicrcsl of the country, u man vvhosu exteusivo and ininuie rcquaiutuncti with the whole su jeel of lho I'anll'uus noi exceeded by that ufany other man iu the nation une who hud em barked larfely in inanulactutes himself, and who was deeply inteitsted lor uther uiaiiulacturcrs, and, with al, one whose exulted chaiacier as n man of pure, u. miotic, and liouesl puipose was unsurpassed. I r ler lo the Into I.. J. Uu Pout, of the llruiidyvvine. At with me on lho t-ubjevi, and, after lully vveulnnc ill ... .. I....U . j' . ... i.b wuu.o ... .isiiiuiuii io oavtM t ,u i-iniii-iot-ws hii;ii suiruunuca us, noxiously ailvi3e'1 'e 10 accept the Compromise, mid to exert my6Cl' f Hee.xprt.sed .irons l'l"ehenian that wo i-ould carry lho L'ompromiw, in ihufaeeof the nval mc-a.utc, which olKrcd better lerui. to the enemies of proimionin ih.i House; nd ""v - i' i ni'ici.iiicu iu u.iii mm iiiooe wao lurj b.eo