Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, August 2, 1844, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated August 2, 1844 Page 1
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--3 Jii. NOT THE GLORY OF CJESAK BUT TUB WELFARE OF ROIVIB BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, AUGUST 2, 1844. VOL. XYIII....X". . BY H. B. STACY. Willi' PUIE SONG. " 1 Tlie'B.iston Clay Club, sntne monllis ago, of- fercd a prize of fifty dollars lor the best song in ' ' ... it t- honor of Henry Ulay, suoum uo v. . ... tntho lime of "Tho bravo old Oak." li nasi Wn awarded to John H. Warland. formerly Editor of the Clarcniotil Eagle, and subsequent-1 ly of the American, a daily paper prinicu in Boston. The New York Tribune of Wednes day furnishes the following copy of this song. It is entitled THE WHIG CIIIEl'. BV J. It. WARLAND, ESQ.. Timc" The brave old Oak." A sons for the Chief the brave Whig Chief, Who hath rcicneu in our nearn iuu , Let tho welkin riiis as his name we sing, And around Ins banner wrong In the darkest day, when iho bold gave way, He uprcarcd bis noble form, , And his voice was heard, like our mountain bird. Swelling high above the storm. Then gather we all. at our country's call, And march in battle array : Let the suneand shout ling gaily out, - 11 ..nUfnr Pi iv! C-AoruJ-nicn gainer ' rtllU lUillCtl l" U'Miiu- .itmi Let the song and shout rintrcaily out, As wu swell the ranks forCuvl When lliofoeinm came, with sword and flame, Sounded forth his voice that day, From the council hall, like the liunipct sea!!, When il summons to the fiay. Like tho drum's loud beat when armies meet. It roused our gallant tars', t As a limner of light in tlio dark midnight, They unfurled the stripes and stats. Then gather we all, &.C. In his tones sublime, rinlivia's clime Heard the rhant e.f Liberty. As, wiih outstretched hand, he hade her stand Willi the nations nf ihefiee; And fSreecc, wilh her isles, and ino-clnd lulu, Where his hand liozzarns led, At his voice awoke as if had spoko One i flier glorious dead. Then gather c all, &c rh, merry and free shall our voices be, As wo pledge out Chieliaiu tni", Whos' deaih'rss namo bears a nation a famo O'er the land and tho waters blue I On the ocean's foam, on our mountain home, Let c.irh heart the call obey, As swelleth llu- shout, and ihe song rings out, For our Chief who wins the day 1 Then gather wo all, &c. In tli i i hair of State, duo none but the great, Tho world shall our Chiefiain w e, For triumph wo must, our cause is just, And perfrct our union be; Lcrv eye is blight, every heart is IL'ht, And the song and shout are eay s For ih victor conies 'nud the rolls of drums, Willi hi gloiious Whb allay. Then gather wcall, &c, CO .11 MUM C ATIO V. THE MORMONS AT KIRTLAND. OMIO.Is w, tothoes r ... . .1.. r imrr? t ..no1 ua. otacv : uurmg me winier ui ioju-'i employed by tho Mormons, in priming tho second nlilion ot the liot ion nuiio or ouok tu .mimiun. . . . t : 1 ha, a good opportunity for observing passing events, nnd for learning something of their previous history, i-eiii.tljs nn- snowing sneii.ii ut cjuii; ui ..... , lions in Kuiland, draw n entirely from recollection 01 ; armed. Sentinels were posted at night in the ouVc what I sivv an 1 hoard while there, tiny, in connection I buildings, and in oilier parts of tho village. The with recent events, bo interesting lo the public i and strictest sccresy was enjoined, thai their enemies so far as it goes, furnish an answer to the question, should not git wind of ihcir preparations! For a Why are the Morm ins, whether in New York, Mis- few days this had its desired (fleet all was peace, souri, Ohio, or Illinois, subjected to such violent op-1 unity, and spirit. Hut so far as I could learn, cither position anu uaireu, wuue me ouauers, iviiuag tt.ii- gious tenets are equally obnoxious, arc permitted to live in peace, wherever ibey locate? After the expulsion of the Mormons from Missouri, their hea l-qtiarters were established in Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, some 20 miles fiom Cleveland. At the time my acquaintance with them commen ced, they had recovered from the effects of that disas ter, and their whole system or scheme was iu full 1 1. Some time previously, their leadcrs-or, operation as iney ier.ncu incni.iiieingii council, or rrcsiucn- or Jcr wcio soon in a more violent agitation, than cy had obtained ihe exclusive possession of a tract CVcr. of land tvvo miles square which was regularly sur-, At'len-th. Smith announced a revehnion lo eslab veyed and laid out as a ''City of Refuge." Ihe land, isll a ,,anU. Tho scheme- took. Murmurs of rebel which was rather poor for agricultural purposes, had ,ion cll;ln::(d t0 ,ouJ .lrl),ausc. Tll0 el.UJlure of u, been purchased without n.uel. rega.d to price, prov.- Slale was in icMn An immedb . ded the owner was satisfied will, a small amount 1,111 dispatched to Cluiubns, to secure a charier, ami hand, and notes, secured by mortgage payable four anma.r , ii,ilacKItl,Ia , tu. bills. 'Iho plates or five years nf"ward,. Tins being done, and the j werccn,,mc(, alld ,,, but , c, " Houso of Iho Lord finished an imposing aiid,,,i u ,. , f, , ,, , , mysterious-looking stone edifice, which in sizi! has few equals in the country great efloils were made to collect their sealtercd forces. Tho cry was sound ed for all true believers lo flee for safety, and come up to tin- " Hill of Zion." Conventions wcie called, and oposiles" wcro actually st-nt forth by sevenlie-, whorallied tho dispersed, and hastened iho faithful lo the great gathering of "Loiter Day Sninis." On the arrival of a proselyte, wilh a hiile money, tho first thing, of course, that ho muif do, was to purchase a lot. Then, if be had any thing left, the leaders had important objects for which his means were urgently demanded s if this failed, ho was called before the High Council, where every thing was cal culated to inspire nwc a id reverence, and in the most ceremonious and solemn manner informed that a rev elation, from lbs Lord of hosts, had been made that his money was required, in some particular w ay, by his servant, ihe prophet. The poor fellow, being thus situated overawed and confounded had cither to yield up his purse, or deny bis failh, in the pres ence of men at whose call he had left bis home, and on whose veracity he had even bung his hope of sal vation, nesides, Smilh wished only to borrow iho mooey, nnd would givo bis note, with all his broth ten as sureties, if desired. Could he refuse ? I never heard of one Ihnt had tho courage to do il. This was the usual mode of receiving cash members. Proper ty was not held in common. After being thus hiitia ted, he had full liberty to take care of himself ns he saw fit, and to speculate upon his building lot, or count up the interest on his note against the high council! j Up to about 1835, tlio Mormons bad pursued n course of policy in their dealings with Ihe world's people, that had established for themselves, especially at a distance, a high reputation for punctuality and fair dealing. They had purchased small quantities of poods in New York, several times, and paid for them with a punctuality that would honor the broad brim ofaqusker. Ilerevvas ncipital onda meanj.toopre nous to be lost, nnd on this credit they swung to the full length of the rope. An nssuciaiion of Iheir principal men tho aforesaid Presidency was formed, and a very large stock of goods purchased. Itefore putting the goods into the (.tore, the leaders divided among themselves such quantity as they pleased enough to supply ibeir fam ilies (or years. I was told by a young lady a con nection 'f the Smilft's, and who at the tirno lived in Hiram's family ihnt he took seven large looking classes, and that his garret was literally filled with cloth and other articles in proportion, and that, in her own language, "it seemed almost toa bad." Others l.i-.j,i. :.. .1.. . terial. to pr hting : e abl shmenti'ln'h- a nroeured A bZTw, . ? 1 T """i procured. A oooKstore was established, and one t2TylZZT left U ,.., j A. u-l.ij . .1.. r.n I; .;.,-" '" '..lna fts, ITir.l.nrf. tn ih. r,ll -r in 1 : uiiicr 'M of the same kind were made in qaiek sue nes sue cession, few or none ol winch, ol cuursc, wcru p."" fur. Apart, at lenst, of Ihn paper, for a largo edition 0f tlio Uook of Mormon was obtained on the same favorable terms, ns I was told by Dr. Cowdery, then r - flitftf mill triMiornl finlitlallinf ascnt. - - - - . assnl ils cli- max for that nlacc. The fever of speculation lit lots . . " !,. 'lnt' had abated, although the half acres of the holy city wcro sini valuc-U al from 200 to 5,000 dollars each, according to location and proximity to inc " House of the Lord." Sumo to or three thousand of Smith's followers were collected together, on the limits of the ullage, and in tho immediate vicinity They had entire control of the town elections, by n largo majority, and consequently had tho office and management of town afT.nrs. They boasted ol exer cising this power so as lo irritate the feelings of the citizens, and to retaliate upon them fur wrongs which the Mormons alleged they were subjected to while in the minority. Tho village had more the appearance of the temporary residence of a wandering multitude, than the abode uf civilized men. JCut less than 100 families passed the following winter in the most sim pic shanties that could be made with rough boards, and many others, in unfinished bui dings, scarcely more comfortable. The people were i lb They came there to sec the "glory of the Lord," not to trouble their beads or inIll3 about what they should eat or drink, or wherewithal! they should becloihcd or sheltered. At j this time there were more secessions than arrivals, Tlicir provisions weio consumed-thcir credit and Jur r-lurn n vcru'':l OI S"mi- 108 ,ncl 01 means for obtaining supplies neatly, Den""' 5 lnvl"3 needed, probably weakened the cf for ought I saw, starvation or dispersion were the al-1 fucl of llls '""'ony on lnlnJs "f ibe jurors, liut ternafrcs to which they were about lo be drivtti,- fro,n 'ubseqncnl iiilmnlo acquaintance wilh him, Murmurs of dissatisfaction, hinls of doubls as to tho loncsly and capacity of the leaders were rife among ; tho commonalty. As specimens: A woman from I the province of New Hrunswick, one day walked into I the house of Joseph .Vniiih, seated herself, and very deliberately combed her hair, nn I otherwise improv ed her outward appearance. When Smith came in, she demanded, by authority of revelation, the "keys of the kingdom," and mi account of his stewardship, pariieulaily in relation to the four hundred pounds 1 that had been ruiinted fiom tho saints in that prov jiuce. .Siiutli, not so tasily dclhionrd, told her bho bad a devil, and must hae the housj. "If you put vour hands on mo," said tho sister, "'you will fall dead at my fict." Smith, notwiihstan 'ing, put her uutjof the houe, and shut iho door, when she drop ped upon her knees, and prayed long and loud that heaven would avenge her cause. Ono morning, just ' beforo daylight, a stout brother, wilh powerful lungs, i ran through the streets crying wilh a loud voice 1 "The glory of tho Lord is coming forth, awoke, je j nations uf tho earth." He said tho devil had got pos sesion uf the town, and ho was trying tu scare him out. Hut net only wcro such wild enthusiasts, as these, dissatisfied, but llicre were men ofinlluence, and even one of the 'J'leclce, who showed symptoms of a rebellious spirit. It was very cudent that sniio jibing must be dune, nnd tbr.t quickly; but what, I could not imagine. I doubted whether the tint t,,fi,iln. T . r,,,l.tna I. .... !.:tl A! '" rs""-' u""u'1" n.tLUILI IIIU riVlll V i, ... .1. . .1 ., . - : nui nui sj. 111 inu urti place 111c usual remedy tor internal insubordination tho cry of mobs, threaten- ca persecution, .:, was resorted to. liitles, "tins, t . 1 , . . . an (.istols were scoured and cleaned, ammunition I distributed, and a war-instrument, somewhat similar , lu ,,,, !, j.npntu lor uiose not uciicr i mini jiorinons or nniitiiormons, there wos not a shadow ol reason for the alarm. Tho surrounding inhabitants had long before determined not to be guilty of violent measures, however strong miaht be Ihe provocation jvery sagaciously perceiving that the fear of persecution from without, was the great bug bear, by which (he incongruous mass vviihin, was kept in subjection. Alld. indeed, ibn Rlrnt.Kn.tii u-n. so apparent, and had been so often tried before, thai it had but a temporary effect. The elements of, lis- 111 collision " said Jo Smilh, " vv liich shall we obey " 1 ne decision was unanimous. The bank went into immediate operation. Its history need not be detail ed. Wilh no capital but a few hundred dollars in specie, and in direct violation of the laws of the state, the only object was to dispose of the bills lo the Lest advantage. To help along the operation, they pur chased a broken bank in .Monroe, Michigan, left 11 small amount of funds :n the Hank of Lake F.rie. Cleveland, and caused notice to be extensively pub lished thai Monroe money was redeemed nl iho Cleveland bank! And so, indeed, it was, u day or two, until iho funds were gone, and a degree ofcon fidenceintho bank established. Then ihe Mormons commenced the redemption of their Jvirtln,l itt. with those nf ihe broken but resuscitated Hank of .uonroe. All tins action was accompanied wilh any quantity of bragadocia. An enormous iron chest was placed in the counting room, ond all manner of sm. nes, as to iho hoarded wealth of the Mormons, of which tho temple was often spoken as evidence, were set in moiion and trundled as far as possible. At this lime, il will bo recollected, banks generally ...tu cu.vuueu specie payments ; was it strange, llien, that tho "Kit Hand SaMv Fund BanlanjnsHtu lion" should follow suit? I can hardlv credit mv memory as to the currency this money obtained, for months, scattered as it vis by no nigiardly bands. The "Saints" with their pockets well filled started in all directions, and disposed of a very largo amount in somo manner. Thus was business and means for the winter fur- mailed, confidence in thelo'dcrs rcslorcd, nndconse. qucntly no more was heard of the threatened muiiny. wvuu in History of holy warst may not ibis wilh uuo ,1 equal jusiice be termed a holy speculation ? The leaders had undoubtedly, (mm their com mencemcnt in Kirlland. intended n . ,,t,. ,1... . porary location only-looking, i ,i,0 .ile, lo tho .a.m. m ino west, as Ihe proper field for ihm operations. Hence their policy in purchasing ,,e land as they did nn long crrilil. Ilefore I lefi Kirt. land, such intention was openly nvowed. Tho loca lion of Nauvoo had been purchased, and the Presi dency vvereeellini village lots there. The next season there was n general breaking up in Kirlland. To pre vent Ihe printing office falling into the hands of the disaffected, it was "purified by fire." Smith left se cretly, ond a general dispersion immediately succeed-ed-a great majority, however, went to the new city of N'auvoo. Tho five thousand dollar city lots, ihe buildings (hereon, Iho streets that had been graded and fenced, all reverted back to tho original owners, or to those to whom their mortgages had been assign- 1 -. -11 .in ""V 0" "" f M""n"y ' bclloo,,'ou'f- lh, too, by un- believers ! ' ' Could ingenuity dcid.. I winu- man mat adopted by the Latter Day Kainta I . -uUp.tUujr uic jailer uay pa inn in k. ri inn r '(!. ...a,.. . .1... t . . niltss Thev Itf n Tn r ' ntn" (nntss. They ,ft h, ,n 4 few yeau. w, h 1 us nva s for commencing operations in IWaois that havo as tonished the world, and placed tho name of Smith at the head of the lis' uf impostors w ho have disgraced poor human nature for the last ten centuries. During the summer of 1837, and but a short time before ho left Ohio, Juscph Smith was arrested at the suit of a citizen of Kirlland, based upon iho disclo sures of two individual Mormons, for instigating an attempt upon his life. The name of ono of theso wit nesses is S. V. Dsnton, that of the other I have forgotten, and am not positive! as to the name of the prosecutor, but think it was Kimball. Dcnlon had been a high priest was a printer, and worked in the office during tho winter I was in Kirtland. He is now, or was a year ago, a proprietor of a nowspapcr in Michigan. The other witness washy trade a black smith, lieforo commencing the suit, they both ngreed as to the facts to which they could testify. The cause was tried before tho county court of Geauga county. Denton tesl'ficd that he and the blacksmith, at the instigation of Smith, Denton, then being but a boy, and conscientiously supposing bo should do fSid service by putting a persecuturout of the way went, aruvd with pistols and knives, near the dwelling of Kimball, and laid in wait for thcpurpocof despatch ing him as ha returned from some place wheru be had been seen that day. The object was not accomplish ed, as the man had returned sooner than was antici pated. The blacksmith, when called upon the stand, unexpectedly refused to testify on the ground of crim inating himself, and was excused by the rourt. The ' , , V" """" "' u ...,9 one., ue.u.i cd the circumstances of tho case, from thecourso pur sued by the other witness, and from some other tri fling corroborating circumstances, there is not a doubt in my mind that these individuals wcie induced by Smith to attempt, and actually did attempt, the aw ful crime of murder. This attempt upon the life of a comparativily ob scure citizen of Ohio, 1 havo never seen exen noticed iu our public journal., while n similar attempt upon t lie life of Governor Hoggs, of Mo , which, from what I luard of their fu lings towards the man, I havo no doubt was instigated by the Mormons, cr atcl nn ex citement lint Ins threatened the peacoof iho Slate, and may not bo satisfied and quieted even with the death of the prophet and bis brolher. A JOUR. PRINTKlt. MR. CLAY'S SPEECH, LCLlVLltED IN T1IK CITY OF RALEIGH, AriilL 13lh, 1811. An Uxlract relating lo the TariJJl Pulicy. This is a groat practical and administrative question, in which there is happily now prevail, ing among the Whigs, throughout the whole Union, a degree of unanimity as unprecedented f, as it is gralilying. From Now OrVans lo this . . . . . . doe es nut assent to the justice and expediency nl I a principle of a tariff lor a revenue, wilh (lis- criminations for protection. On this interesting I r..itn... . : : ... -.1 iiui--.-utii, tuiiiMi -..iiiti'ii", 11 is tiiv itirutisu iu mi- Jruss V(1U, wit, ,1C mIuM fa,ej('n BncorU ty, and with as little reserve as if I were before an auilience in the State of Kentucky. I have long given to this subject the most impartial and deliberate consideration, of which my mind is capable. I believe that no great Nation ever has existed, or ever can exist, which docs nut derive even within itself, essential supplies (if food and raiment and the means of defence. I recollect no example to the contrary in ancient cr modern times-. Although Italy itself did nut alliird all those supplies to Ancient Rome, the deficiency was drawn from her subjugated prov-iticc.--. Great lintain, although her commerce encompasses the world, supplies herself mainly from the little island under her immediate do minion. Limited and contracted as it is, it fur. nUlics her with bread and other provisions for the whole year, with the exception only of a few days; and her manufactures, not only sup. ply an abundance of raiment and moans of de fence, but afibrd a vast surplus for exportation to foreign couutiies. In considering Ihe policy of introducing and establishing maniilacliiresiu our country, it has always appeared to 110 that we should take a broad and rr ensivo view, looking to seasons of war, as well ns to peace, and legarding the fu- tine, as well as the past and ll.o present. Na - tion il existence is not to bu measured by the standard of individual life. liut it is rmiallv true, both of nations and individuals-, that when I . Besidee I'm advantage resulting from domes, it is necessary, wo must submit lo temporary l'u minufaclures iu producing an American and present privations, for the sake of future and competition with tlio European competition, permanent benefits. Even if it wero true, as I augmenting ihe supply of manufactured articles, think I shall bo able to show it is not, that tho!,ml lending consequently to a reduction of pri encouragement of domestic manufactures would c'-'e' io ""l S,- advantage, great as that ii. produce some sacrifices, they would bo coinpen- ' double market is produced both it the ;;iir. sated, and more than counterbalanced, by ulti- j c,'."c "f fabrics for consumption, and in the ! mate advantages secured, combining tivether "' productions of Agriculture. ,tud hmv supe- seasons nf peace aud of war. If it wore Irue that the policy of protection enhanced the price of couiiiioditics, it would be found that their cheapness, prevailing iu a time of peace, when the foreign supply might bo npwn to U-, would be no equivalent for tho dearnnss in a period of war, when that supply would bu cut off Irogi us. I am not old enough io recollect Iho sull'erings of the soldiery and population of the United Hutes during the war ol the Independence : but history and tradition tolls us what they wore ; they inform us what lives wero sacrificed, what discomforts existed, what hardships our unclad and unshod soldiors bore, what were retarded or paralyzed. Even, during the last war, all of us who are old enough to remember it, know what difiicullics, and a', what great cost, tho necessary clothing aud means of defence wcro obtained. And who does not feel con scious pridu and patriotic satisfaction that theso sufferings, in any future war, will bo prevented, or greatly alleviated, by the progress which her iiitant manufactures have already made. If (Im policy of encouraging them wisely, moderately, and certainly, be persevered in, the day is not lar distant when, resting upon our own internal resources, we may be perlectly 6ureof an ahun. daut supply of all our necessary wants and, in this respect, put loreign powers and foreign wars at defiance. I know lhat. from extreme suffer. ing and the necessity of tho case, manufacture!-, in the long run, would arise and sustain tliein selves, without any encouragement from Gov. urninent, just as a i unaided infant child would learn to risu, lo btand, and lo walk ; but In bolh instances, great distiess may bo avoided, and essential assistance derived I10111 the kir.dness of the parental hind. Tho advantages arising from the division of tho labor of the population of-a country are too manifest to need being much dwelt upon. 1 think the advantage ofa hnmc, as well ai for. eign Markets is equally manifest ; hut tin homo market can only be produced by diversified pur suits, creating subjects uf exchanges, at home as well as abroad. If one nortiou of tho noun- lalionof a country be engaged in t'te business ' lnanufi":luri"2. It must derive ils means of subsistence, from the agricultural products of the country ill oxchane Tor their fab., cs Tbr 1 amkkets undek a TAF.IFF. s ,. . . 1 he great law whitm regulates tho price of commod.tiC, i of supp y and de naml -, the price exceeds tlio demand, tlio price falls ; if tliu demand exceed the supply the price rises. Tins law will bu found invariably true. Any augmentation of supply is beneficial to the con sumer; but, by establishing manufactures in the United Suites nil additional supply is crea ted. Airain, another principle, universally ad- milted tu bo beneficial to consumption, is tlio principle of competition. If Europe alone sup- ply the American consumption of manufactures, ! ..tiii'fiu tin, unj'ijr a iiiuiiuJuij' ill Mink alii.)'!-' That monopoly, it is true will bo subject to the competition which may exist in Europe ; but it 1.'. ......... .... ......... n t .. l.t ... ........ ' would be still restricted to that competition, Ilv the cxisloiiccmf manufactures-, in the United State?, an additional competition is created, nnd this new competition enters the American Mar-, hot, contending for it Willi previous European I conipetit 'rs. The result is-, an increase in the aggregate of supply, and a consequent reduction in price, ttut it has' been argued that the la. brics manufactured in America take tho place only nf so many which had boon before manufac tured in Europe ; that there is no greater con sumption in ronseiiiioncu of the home mantifac lure than would exist without it ; and tint it is immaterial to the consumer w bother the theatre nf manufacture be Europe or tho United State". Hut I think this is an cxtremly contracted and fallacious view of the subject. Consumption is greater in consequence nf iho existence of man ufactures, at home. They create a demand for lalor, which would not exist without them, and tlio employment of labor cieatea an ability to consume, vv liu h would not exist without it. (low could the American labor employed 111 minli facturos, at home, supply ils consumption of European conimnd.ties, if it were deprived of that employment 1 What means nf purchase would it piw-soss ! It is iu vain to point to agri culture: for every department of tint is already producing siipeiabumianlly. It cannot be ques. tinned that the chief ctusc of the! reduced price of Cotton in the excess of production. The price of it would rise, if l"si wero produced, by ilivei tniLf a portion of the labor employed 111 its cultivation to some other branch of industry. This new pursuit would fuiiiish now subject' of exchange, and those who might embark 111 it, as well a tho.-o who would continue in the growth of Cot'ou, would he both baneliltcd by 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ,1 1 exchanges. The day will coum and is not far distant, when the South will feel an nn peralivi! neies.ty voliiutari'y to make such a di vers on of a por ion of ,ts labor. Considering the vast water power and other facilities of manufacturing, now wasting and uu- I employed, at Mm south, and its possession at home, of tho choice of the raw 111 Unrial, I believe the day will come when tho Cotton region will he the greatest manufacturing regiouof Cutlou

in the world. The power nf consuming manufactured arti c.lus being increased, in consequence nf the do-ine-itic establishment of 111 inuf.ictures, by the wages nf labor which they employ, and by the wealth w Inch they create, there is an increase also in tho uc and cnnstimpation nf'Cottnn and other raw materials. Tu the extent of that in. tere.-t, the Cotlon grower is directly and posi tively benefitted by the location uf manufactures al home iii.-teadol abroad. Rut suppive it wore true that the shifting to a certain extent, of the theatre of the manu factures, from foreign countries to our own, did nut increase consumption at all, and did not augment tho demand for Cotton, there would bo no just ground uf complaint with the Cultnn planter, and tho most ho could say is-, that it would bo a matter of indifiurcnri; to him. ,111 tint would happen to him would be, ;i substi tution of a cerlain number of American cus tomers, for an equal number of European cus tomers. Hut ought it to be, can it be, a matter of indifference to him, whether any portion of Ins inllow-citizons 111 Hie United Mates are 111 a state of prosperity or ndvursiiy .' If, without prejudice to him, his own countrymen can ac quire a pirtoftho wealth which arises out of the prosecution of inaniifacturinj industry, instead of Ihe foreigner, ought ho not to rejoice at ill Is it to him a matter of no consequence that a certain amount of wealth, created bvunnufac- turos shall be in his own country, instead of being 111 foreign cuu itres ! If here, i s intlu. once and rffec's will be felt, duo'tly or indi. rectly, in all the departments of human busi ness, and in a greater or less ilegr'c in all parts of the country. It becomes a clear addi tion to the aggregate wealth of the nation, in creasing its icsources, and forming a basis of tax. ir""""'1 T 111 u-01 war or poaco " uoccssary. A "Ari:r-T- 1 n"r ls llle '"'y n,ll0r murkoWn tlio con dttions of ils proximity, its boing under our con trol, ami its exemption from thu contingency of war ! Il has been argued, however, that wo sell no more linn vvo should do if wo wero deprived of tho homo maikct. I have shewn that to bu otherwise. Tlio importance of opening nuw markets is universally admitted. It is an uhiect of Ihe policy of all nations. If vvo could open a 1 new market for '1(10,000 bales of cotton with any foreign power, should wo not gladly embrace it! bvory one owns the benefit which arises out ot various markets. All who reside iu the nuigh- borhood. af largo cities or market towns, are sensible nf the advantage. It is said that our nnnufactures absorb only about 100.000 bales of cotton, which is a very smill part of the total crop, liut suppose that wore thrown upon the market of Liverpool, already overstocked and glutted! It would sink the price far below what it now is. Franco consumes also about 100,000 hales. If thu market of Havre were closed and that quantity were crowded into the market of Liverpool, would not the effect bu ru inous to tho cotton grower! Our American market is growing, annually increasing', and, if the policy of the cuuntry can only become firm ly fixed, the imu will come, I h ivo no doubt, when the manufacture of cotton in the United States will exceed that of England. I do not desire to see any market closed, domestic or foreign. I think it our interest to cheriili and cultivate all. Uui I believe it to be our indis pensable duly lo afford proper and reasonable encouragement to our own. Hut it must bo borne in mind that, although cotton is by far the most important of our agr. cultural products, it is not Iho only one. Whore should vvo find a market for our Indian com, if it were not for the existence of our inaiiufacto. rios! Wo Rhnuld ubs..lulely have none. My friend .Mr I'ettigrow, who sits beforo me, can Mud 110 market for his corn in North Carolina, because his neigbors, hko himself, are occupied in producing ii, Nor can we find any in foroign countries. Hut he meets with a good, suro and convenient market in Boston and Providence, and other Northern capitols. Whoro should we seek a market for the flour, provisions, and oth er raw agricultural produce now consumed by our miuufaclurers I If the present business were destroyed, they would be employed them selves ip producing cotton, corn, provisions and other agricultural produce, thus augmenting the quantity and incvi ably lead.n- to a furthe dt ,n,i uf p . cs. rittcEs uNnr.n the tamef. It lias been contended that tlio effect of af fording legal encouragement to domestic man ufactures is, to cnbanco the price of roinmodi tinp, and to impose a tax upon the coniumor. This argument basbcen a thousand times refilled. I has been shown again ami again, that the nrjc0 f amost every article, on which the sys tom nf encouragement has effectually operated, ,as boini reduced to Iho consutnnr. And this was tho nncessarv otinseiiupiinn of that law 'if supply and demand, and that principle of com-! petition to which I have beforo adverted. It was foretold long ago by my.-ell'atid other friends nfllm nnlti-i It 1 1 1 if i ji i i v.iin wn anneal ln rllctl,. jt js m vaj that wo take up article art,c,. and comparing present with former ,,rjccis, sh0w the actual and gradual reduction. The free trader lias mounted his hobby, and he has determined to spur and whip him on, rough shod, over nil facts, obstacles and impediments tint ho in his way. Il was hut the other day, I heard one of these freo trarlo orators addressing an audience, and depicting, in the most plaintive and dolclul lcnn, the extreme burdens and op. pres-ive actions arising out of the abominable Tariff. Why, sajs he, fol'nw citizens, every 0110 of you, that wears a shirt, is compelled to pay six emits a yard more for it than you other, wise would do, in order to Increase tho enor motis wealth of Northern capitalists. An old man in the crowd, shibhily dressed, and with scarcely any thing but a shirt on, slopped the eloquent orator, and asked him how that could be.' for, says he, hive a goo I shirt on, that con me only 5 1-2 cents per yard, and I should like to know how I paid a duly nf 0 cents." Those ingenious and indefatigable theorists, not only hold all facts and experience in con tempi, but they arc utterly inconsistent with tlieiii-elve'f. At one time they endeavor to raise Ihe alarm that the Tariff would put an end to all foreign commerce, and thus drying up our nrin.1 ministration of tho government, when we are cipil source of revenue on imports, it would bo-! not engaged in war. be raised exclu-ively on fur come ncce-ary to ruort to direct taxes and in- eign imports, and in adjusting a tariff fur that temal taxation. In proce-s of tim-, however, purpose, let such discriminations bo undo as their predictions worn f ilsified, and the bystotn I "'ill foster and encourage our own domestic in- was tountl to produce un abundant revenue ou-iry. nn panic mignuo uo s.u.sueu won i Then, thev shifted Iboir ground ; the Troa-urv , tariff for revenue and discriminations for protec said they, is overll nving ; the Tariffis the cause', Hon. Iu thus settling this croat and disturbing and t 10 system must be abandoned. If they 1 question, in a spirit uf mutual concession and of had have taken the trouble to enquire, they j amicable compromise, we do but follow tho noble might have ascertained ihit, although Eegland .example of our illustriou3 ancestors, in tlio fnr is the inaiiiifactiiriti!.' nation in the ! matioii and adoption of our present happy con- world, in amount, extent, and variety, she nev- erthcless draws a vast revenue from custom-. 1 Allow 1110 to present you, fullow-citizens-, with 1 another view of this interesting subject. The Government wishes to derive a certain amount of revenue from foreign imports. Let us sup. po-e the total annual amounts of imports to be 8100,000,000 anil the total annual amount of revenue lo be raisid from it, to ho S'-'O.OOII.OOO. Is it at all material, whether that S'iO.ODO.OOO be spread, in the form of duties, equally over tlio whole, lliu.wi'j.lKtu, or that it be drawn from some 50,000,tlt)0 or more of the imports, leaving the rest free of duty ! In point of fact, such, has boon the case for several years. Is not a compensation found, or the duly paid upon any article, by the eveinptiou Iroin duty of another article: Take the wearing apparel ofa sin-rlo individual, and suppose you hive a duty of 8- to raise upon it ; is it of any consequence to him whether you l.ivy the whole 82 upon all parts of his wearing apparel equally, or levy it exclu. sivcly upon his coit nud his shirt, leaving the other articles freo! And if, by such discrimin ations as I have described, without prejudice to the consumer, you can raise up, cherish, and sustain domestic m iiiufar.tiires, increasing the wo 1 It Ii ami prosperity, and encouraging the labor of tho nation, ought it not to bo done ! 1 the result 1 widely different. The tenant We are invited by tho partizins of the doc- who there pay five pounds sterling, per trine of free trade, to imitate tho liberal .exam acre, annual rent, and finds appliances, ob plo of the great European powers. Eng'and vvo tains' not only a conifiirlable living hut wealth told, is ahando g her restrictive policy, and adopting that of free trade ! Iverland adoi, ....I f c . i.p, . '.. ..I -nl." "I."' .,: . V .UU IlUt l-Wtll K1H.-,, . IIW-V l.t O t IIIV.II s.'AtvlUIIU an article of prime necessity the very bread which sustains human life 111 order lo afford protrctu n to i-.tiglisli agriculture. And, on the singlearlicleof Amer.c 111 tobicro.Eiiglaml lev ies annu illyai. an.ountofrevonu,, equal to the whole amount ol duties levied annually by tho U.nled Sra.e upon all the articles ofimporf frnin all the foroi.-n nations f tin. world, inc.imlin,, l'.,ih,od That" is-her free trade ! And a for France, we ivo lately soon a H'atn paper from one of her igh function irit.'s, conipl 1 ning in botinr terms hi of the AmertCiu TanlVol 13 lvi, and ending with formally announcing to the world that France steadily adhered tu the system of protecting French industry! Hut, fellow rrtlens I havo already detained you too long on this interesting topic, and yet I have scarcely touched it. For nearly DO years it has agitated thu nation. Tho subject has been argued and debated a thousand times, in every conceivable form. II is tune that the policy of the country should become seltlod and lived. .Any stable adjustment of it, whatever it may be will bo far preferable to perpetual vasrillation. wrimn ontvi ilnlnrotinnil. Irtltnr. nttl.irt.ri'.n i.i.,1 commerce can accommodate Iheni-nlves accor- dingly. Hut 111 dually settling it, the interests nf the wnoie union, as well as nil its parts, hoiibl bo duly considered, in a paternal and 1 fraternal spirits. The Confederacy consists of twenty-ait htato-, besides, territories, embrac ing every variety of pcrsuits, every branch of human industry. There may be an appa rent, there is no real, coullict between these d . versified interests. No ono sec turn, can rca-onably expect or desire that tho common government uf tho whole should bead ministered, exclusively, according lo his own po. miliar opinion, or so to advance only its interests without regard to the opinion ur interests of all other parts. Iu respect 10 the tariff (hern arc two schools ho'dmg- opposite and extreme doc trmcs. According to one, perfect freedom ju our foroign trado with no, or very low duties, ought to prevail. According to the other, the restrictive policy ought, on many articles, 10 bo pushed, by a high and exorbitant Tariff, lo the point of absolute prohibition. Neither pirly can hold itself up as an unerring standard of right and wisdom Fallibility is the lot of all 111011, and the wisest know how little they do know. Tho doctrine of freo trade is a concession to Foroign l'ovvers, without an equivalent, to the prejudice of homo industry. Not only vv.lhuul equivalent but in tho faro of thuir high duties, restrictions and prohibitions applied to Amen, can products, by furoigu powers, our rivals.jeal. tins of our giowth and anxious to impede our onward progress. Encouragement of doniebtir I industry is a concession lo uur tellovv citizons, to those, whoso ancestors shared 111 common, with our ancestors, iu tho toils of the revolution; to lliuso who have shared with us 111 the toils and sufferings of our day ; lo those whoso pos terity are destined to share with our posterity in the trials, in tho triumphs and glories that await them. It is a cuneesn'on to those who aro bone of our bone and flesh of our flesh, and who in somo other beneficial term do miko equivalent concession to us. It is still mare , it is a concession by the whole to the whole ; for ovory part of the country possesses a capari. ty lo uianufacturJ, and every part of the coun try more or lets docs manufacture. Some parts have advanced farther than others, but the pro. "ress of all is forward and onward. Again, I asa what tu to db none in tins con- fltet of opinion, bc'wee-"he two extremes which I have stated! Each believes, with quite as PRACTICAL EDUCATION LN (JEN much confidence In the other, that the policy ( EUAL. which lie espouses is the best for tlio country. . . , . . . Neither has a right lo demand that his judg-1 1 llu firs l""lU ere 10 K'v ' nient shall exclusively prevail. What, again I ' cancel and salutary views of human life, ask, is to be done 1 Is compromise or reconcil- which occupy middle ground between rude iation impossible ! Is this glorious Union to he noss and effeminacy, and, being at lliu same broken up and dissolved, and the hopes of the time liberal, will counteract the prejudice' world, which are concentrated In its file, to be , 0f contracted minds. It is, no doubt, adifli- mastcu auu uesiroycu ,rever i ixo, .en, w . ,- cu, m;l(.r ,0 corr,c, corrupt public sentl izonsno! ho Union must be preserved l U i , .an(J W1L. U ;, s'0 ',lc cl.ildre.. tho nrtmn nf tltn nt tlna nnhln roll latp. I ... . . 1 the name of the people ot this noble old State tho first to announce the independence of the UniteJ Slates, by the memorable declaration of Mecklenborg, and which has ever since been among tho most devoted and faithful to the preservation of this Union : in tho name of the people of my own gallant State, and in the name of tho whole people of the United States. I feel authorized to say, that this Union will not, must not, shall not, bo dissolved. How can this unhappy confl ct of opinion bu amicably adjust ed and accommodated I Extremis, fellow citi zens, are ever wrong. Truth and justice, sound policy and wisdom, always abide in the middle ground, always are to be found in juste milieu. Ultraisin is very baneful, and, if full vved, never fails lo lead to fatal con-cquence. We must reioct both the doctrines ol free trade and of a high and exorbitant Tariff. The partisans of each must ni?ke some sacrifice of their peculiar opinions. Thev must find sumo common ground 011 which both can stand, and reflect that if neither has obtained all its tlesuos, il has secured something, and what it does not 1 eta in has been trillion by Ids friends and countrymen. There are very few who dissent from the opinion that, in time of peace, the federal revenue ought to be drawn from foreign imports, without resort ing to internal taxation. Here is a basis for ac commodation, and mutual satisfaction Lot the ainuntit which is required for an economical ad sinuiiou. 11 was inai neiiign spirit niae prusi- ded over all thoir deliberations, and it lias been m thu same spirit that all the threatening crise: that have arisen during the progress of the ad ministration of the constitution, have been hap pily quieted and accommodated. PRODUCTIVE FARMS. To a person not familiarly acquainted wit'.i tho history and statistics of English ( husbandry, the extreme productiveness of the ,u nis uf that country, will appear incredible, , ;v,.!lrv nine tenths of the cultivated land in B j , al,d Ireland, ure rented to ' . , . f , . c , on" "1,u. W usu,,ll from fol,.r to fivo pounds sterling, per acre annual rent Where is the farmer in this country, who could live under such u burden 1 Here n farm comprising a hundred ucres, is often rented for one hundred dollars, and even at this rate, the lenenl lias a hard task. Tho cultivation, even where there are a large number of acres in grass, will little more pay the rent and tuxes ; but in England from ,1,,. tirostuciition ofa cullin" which hen- ' would doom him lo want and misery, and ultimately, death, unless assisted by Iho -own' In 181 1, Mirwin estimated the produce of mm English farm of 899 acres, .3,578, or 533 (jOO ! The quantity of manure applied , ,3 74t , , (,.,js j . ,nn-n .1 .1 v 1 .1 , 11.'?.j01.,l,H "l 'W '"'"" "-' rent of tins lanii lo be 512, per acre, and the . c" manure aud ils application S12 more, a nil ll to tins sum wo auu, lor interest or ex ' petises, taxes, and the various contingen cut expenses of cultivation, etc., S12 mure, vvo shall find, upon striking the balance, that thufo will remain a profit of $10 the acre, amounting in the gross aggregate to the sum of S10,000 clear gain to thu tenant in a sin gle year ! In tlio vicinity of London, a bay farm comprising 1(50 acres was rented 1 he ren- I ,,, ; ilti. liisi.-inrp. w:i SI2 per acre, amounting in tlio whole 10 $1,920 per year. A very heavy expenditure was required lor manure probably as much ns many a iNew . I England s I "ivo for England farmer would have beet, willing lo 1 give lor the land, and yet tlio tenant succee j ded, and has since become wealthy and with no other income than the produce ot tins farm. In Ireland, a poor tenant hired an acre of land, erected his cottage, purchased manure and farming tools, and tlio first season clear ed all expenses, and had a balance of .8 loft. And yet that Irish peasant, in addition to the expenses and outlays above enumera ted, had a church lax to pay, and to be at the expense of purchasing his own seed, and maintaining n family of four besides himself and wife. The frugality of tlio Iiish poasantry is prnveibi il. They want nothing of luxury, mill aro as contented, nnd far mora robust, with their faro nf simple milk and potatoes, than ihn New Eiiglaniler with the best and most "nuti'ioiis" viands he can procure; but there was something mora than mero frugal ity at the hollom of this man's success Them was thorough cullivalion a thing which in New England may bo said to bo wholly unknown. This is a "mystery," and thu only ono. A pnas int would havo staiv ed lieiu on forlv acres ! Nr.w Patent. A palont has been grant ed for securing corks in iho immlhs of bot tles without using iwjno or wire, as nt pres ent. Two holes aro in tho nock of iho bot tle under tho rim, in a right line with each other. A muiallie pin, pointed at one end and turned round at the other (so as to form a ring suitable for withdrawing tho pin, when it is desired to draw the cork,) is passod through the holes and cork, thus keeping il securn in tho neck of the bottle. Br.lVi Weekly Messenger, Thn Globs says tho election of Polk se cures the Immediate Annexation of Texas. True enough. The tob Is lo secure the flee. lion of Polk. A. 1. Tribune, will be so also. It is the business ol a wisu system of education to remedy this evil. 1 lie young should lie tauulit to entertain a healthful self-respect, which lies half-way I ('tween fatso humility and foolish pride. No less should a generous desire nnd digni fied pursuit of distinction bo inculcated, which again keeps the middle course be tween a stupid indifference to thu opinions of others, and a vain-glorious passion fur shining. In these respects the habit of the popular mind will present no small obstacles to education. Thu virtues of active or business life, by means of which property is acquired, aro industry and economy, midway between drudgery and a passion for dissipation, and avarice and prodigality. Thn young should be taught to value la bor and property as means for ihe supply of wants, and never to regard them as the end or the object of life. The importance of these considerations to our thrifty and money-making community is frequently recog nized by writers anu public speakers who have the good of the public nt heart ; but still the mighty throng rushes on in the pur suit of vvealih, and the voice of the preacher is scarcely heard amid the buzz of the eager multitude. It behooves, then, the educators of youth to assail this evil at its root. '11 connexion with industry and economy, the young should ho lialiiliuled lo a lovo of order, which comprehends regularity and punctuality, and occupies middle ground between rude insubordination and a listless pliublenoss. indicating a total absence of an independent will. ln theso highly important concerns of hu man culture, the example- of the educator should furnish the most suitable and efficient process of education. Without this neither instruction nor admonition will be of any avail. The earlier you begin wilh habitua ting the young lo these virtues, the more easily and completely will you succeed. Bad habits in these respects, are not easily shaken off in later life. To the proprieties of life, which compre hend personal cleanliness, posture in sitting or standing, nnd to politeness, thu young should ho accustomed in early childhood ; but nature should never be sacrificed to thn conventional rules of politeness, or, in other words, artificial forms or affected manners should never usurp the place of that grace fulness of deportment, thai sttidiousness to gratify and anticipate the wishes of others, to promote by even the most trilling atten tions to their comfort and enjoyment, which are dictated by 1111 amiuhlo disposition, or more correctly, by a thoroughly and well educated heart. Iu this particular also, px amplu and habit will bo effectual. But, from what has just been said, it is evi dent examples should bo chosen with care. The notion that by with society the young should ho educated for society, is an absurd prejudice. It is a business of good education 10 raise the young above th follies and caprices of fashionable life, and to give them strength and independence ot character, to adopt such manners as are dic tated by a sound judgment and an elegant taste, however those who are slaves to con ventional rules may sneer. Tho design of ibis general culture for lifo is insensibly to habituate the 011ng lo thoso virtues which ronslitufo the basis not only of the culture necessary lo any particular pro fession, but of every higher dcvclopeniont of character. As the stibjret here discussed is, in gener al, well understood, we have considered ourselves justified in treating it quite briefly : the ntoio so, us it is one on which much valuable matter may be found in tho writings of Dr. Franklin, Blair, and others who havo labored for the general improvement of men. Female Education. Hannah Moro has truly remarked that "to kmtw how to grow old gracefully" is one ot iho rarest attain ments of life. "When admirers fall away," continues Miss More, "and fl allerers become mini', the mind will he driven to retire into itself; and if it finds no entertainment at home, it will be driven back aeain upon iho world with increased force. Yel, furgelling ibis, do we not seem 10 educate our daugh ters exclusively for the transient period of youth, when it is to malum life we ought lo look 1 Do wu not eilucile them for a crowd and not fur themselves ? fur show, and not lor usu J" Tlio following sensible remarks upon this subject, we abstract from the 'Port Foli..:" " When a man of senro comes to marrv, it is a companion he wants not an artist. It is not merely a creature who can paint and play, sing and dance: it is a woman who can comfort and counsel him j one who can reason and reflect, and ft-H and judge, and discourso nnd discriminate ; one who can as sist him in his alfurs, lighten his sorrows, purify his joys, strengthen his principles, and cducato his children. Such is the woman who is fit f.;r a mother and a wife to bo helpmate for a man, and 10 'train up a child it) tho way ho should go." The Gtni.s. Thev think onHymen.and can't help sighing. When their lovers for sake thorn, they can't help crying. They sit at the window, and cnn'l help spying. Into privale matters they can't help prying. To got each a beau thty'can't help trying. Their tongues, when together, they can't help plying. At ihe mirror they can't help twisting, and turning, and tying. They crev up their corsets, bring on consumption, ed can't help dying. Whig. Tho termWhig" it Mid to have been given to the liberal party in EngUa by the royalists in Cromwell's time, the ini tials of its motto, which vs " M'e. Hon In God." W. H. I. G. '