NOT TUB GLORY OF O S S A R BUT TUB WELFARE O T ROME BY II. . STACY. n II II L I N ( TON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 21, 1845. VOL. XVIII....X0.38. HARD WARE. STROMSS Hi CO. novvnllcr purchasers nn ex tensive assortment of sliclfllardvvarc, consisting in part of. as follows, town : ' ' llou-c Trlininlnss. 150 Do. Make'. Luetics, nssoitcd sizes. 3j0 doz. cut ninl wrot iron, tnr. nnd broad Hulls, 1200 iron American " Premium" Screws. Mike's Iv-cutclicon Latches, with 1 rass and rose wood kiioh". Picrpomt if- Hotclikis s Mimrnl knelt-, n new and beautiful goods, with full plate, liall plate, and bronzed escutcheon". Illaku's Morlice'O.K 'Locks. , P. & ll.'s Mortice Locks and Latches, Mortice Luetics, anil stop Litchts. Do Cottafo Locks and I.ntcho, ami Cottage Latches with mineral and Wnss knobs. Plate l.ncl; plated, Ira-s, bronzed, and Jet Key hole IVutchcons. . Patent torn Uaitons.-JapM, Mahogany, Urassand filass Knob.. nraUand Jipinod Cnpbonrd c.itchc-.. Door pulls, for doors gates, drawers, .f-c. Axle pulhe., vorions si7.es. Window blind butts anil lis tenings. Window and door springs, fell pulls, cranks, staple", and springs. Tower. flu spring, necked and monkey tail butts Hat Pins, "a' and cloak do. Sish fi.icnirs, cupboard Locks, brass fl isli bolls, itc. Also, Cutlery. Table and dessert knives and forks, in great van- in .I.,7nnB. alii SCI S II 11 Piece, untllriuir, llread Knives, nun net muu-, , and pocket knives, "Hoc do, mors, d-c. Also, Siiildlrrv and Harness 'I i lmmlnc. Saddle trees Ih:! do, stirrupp, saddle nails and rings. ItiicUes, all si?cs and pain rns, bras" and Jap'd. King-, Terri'l", Oigniid put books, swim Is, Pad loons and screw", ornaments, Harness bill" and snallles, moss, curled Imr.pah nt leather Ilninmcrs, nwl, mcdle", sowing silk, pnnclies, Round knives, zciu web, sirniniugtlo. Ar. AIo, Trunk Maker's Hardware. Trunk board, bra" nails, mink men trunk locks, carpet bar frnnics and lurks, &r. Also, t'arila','e llniil Ware lira"", plated and nnlleublo iron hub band-. Broad and narrow Luc and tull'i", lndh llubber Cloth lii'M and plain, Apron rings, Knobs, Lacennils, Axle n ut", Washers, Whiffle tree staples, hold-back Irons, Varnish, if-c. AIo, Joiner. Caipentrr. anil Cabinet maler's floods Plain Iron", single and donb'e. Chisel", gouge", au gers, auger bill", bcviK try sq nrcs, file", compasses, divi brs, gioild' is, hiiinner", pitent brad awls, plated and iron braces, lull", hand an I panel saws, hak raw., iron "quite-, box wooil rule-, band vices, table butts, bed screw". c. c. AI"o, Kitchen Kiiinlttirr. Fire irons, since pin", gri I iron", toasting irons enameled priserttn.' kettles, copper and iron tea ket tles, sad iron", grin 1 'one". nnshn krtth's, spiders iron spoons, jip'd lamp", iron candlesticks', steelyards, house bells, co lie mill.. vie Ac. A LSI), Miscellaneous flood: (,'lie't hinges, pew dour bulls, back flips, chest han dle", shinier screws, stulihs and plate", pidlocl.s. chest Ioik, cu'iboard lo.k. wood saw", pruning knives, puny knives, tape mcnsinc", hallcr and trace chain", cut brids, tack", cutting nippcis, brad nwl", nutcrackers, horse ri"p", mill files, brnue", planter ins and brick trowels, be nus pipe", copp r wire, rat and nn iseirnps, sleigh ln-11", 'ci liell", bia"snnd pew ter faoeei", in lnse. gif s, t utter tryrrs, horc cards, curry combs, clo ik mil", owl", anger handles, ehissid do, percu"ion cip", powder tlik-, tia tray, hooks nnd hinges, liooksnn I sip!es. slate", ibernioinetcr", s'lates. spoke -hive", drivv slnves, "ind piper, glue pots, "hoe tacks, "hoc pincers, "hoe thread, tluinbh", sunders, iron and brass screw pullies, ox balls, shoe liiumier., if-c ef-e. The ah ive goods wiih miny not mentioned will he sold on very rci.omhle terms Dealer" in Hard anJjnanvuilu.rj.u.oJsatXcwVoiUand Boston iiec I inn 112. mil is icTv9t iMlv, ,10, Ir It, 2(J A C A Rl 1JINSSIA) & i) ')rr es DKMIU, lo infirm thi-ir rmlonirr- ninl the public iri-neni'ly tint ihnr wiriicr stork of (looiN will h" fun 11 I uiuiinlly rlrnivi chm nmi clicap. lucli linipatnl cirulns heen sprn' in fclct'tiiiir. nnd hum; nnde n vnrit'd ninl lunuliful n?nrtnn-nt of the diirercnt kinds of Goods which arc expected to lie fountl nt nur whilst we do not expect to have every thing that is called for, we would siy that nor assortment is bet ter than ever, we nave auueci miny new articles ncv ei be'ore kept, and they were bouuht at low prices and will he sold decidedly laic, lnuc.i lower than ev er sold in town. We would pnrticiihrly itmic nil who wish to Itnv the very best finished Mi hominy framed Looking Gins ecfi, IrirL'C find small ?izes will) one cr i.mi plates, lo look al our n.-wnrmifnt, wo believe we hive the most extensive nmi the xtry rhentn'r1!. tua a xi) cur run pots. Tea I'ols for a few shillincs. In this line we shall of fer Tea l'ots, Candlesncks. Lamps, Cups, Spool Stinds, Cnsiors and oilier llritnuma Idal; Ilrnss nnd l'lited On ids very cheap, purchasers may make n siwns bv looliiiig ni fiurs hi fore tnev buy. fiold nod rtdur rt'ATCIU'.S will be ollered at vTry low jirices according lo pay. Our as'sortmrnt off.a dies' nnd Goiiileuien's Itmgs, Pins, and lhooclu-s, will lej found vcryaitraciive. Gold and Hlono llrncc lets, nf very prclty styles, Also, Hair Ilracclets w ith Gold clasps nnd snnps. A irreal vnriely of Stone llrooches fur Ladies nnd G, nlletnen, Gobi Tliiinbles, Snnns. Clasps, Hir Hoons nnd Hinus. (lotd Chains nnd Keys of vinous p-iilem. A ureal variety of j'ins anu i.ocweis ior our ano noniiiurcs. JUT 4JHIS. A beautiful lot of Jet Hosoms Pins, Kings, Ilracclets, Chains, Snaps, Clnsps, Hnir Pins, cVc. JIM 11 l'JXN. .l c. Gold nnd Silver. Gill. Jet nnd Iron Hair Pins. Head and Neck Ornaments, Itullion, llngle., Heed., .Src. for trimming Head anil .ncck dresses, IJoquit liol.lirs, .'. li ( n 11 r 1. . . A few dozen at wholesale and retail, CLUCKS. 200 of the very best " (Jeromes'" and "Terry and An rfrew's ' Ilrnss f'loeks in fioesl O. G, Mahoomv C;e scs, warranted of the best quality made, bold by the bolt or single very low. G A N F. S A now and splendid lot of Canes of all patterns, Crooks, Ivory and Silver Head, Loaded Heads, oword Canes, A-e. icruies lor t.anes hv trie dozen. iii.ACKixii .f- iiurxiins. Day nnd Martin's Liquid lllnckinit, Pasie Illncking, F.lastic Water Proof lllnckin". Clirisliims V.ov Vftif's I'rfsoiils. A great variety of pleasing Toys, Games, Puzzles, Conversation Cards and Fancy Articles will be open, ed in lime for Beleeimir. WOCR DOSS. Rosewood Work ltoi.es w ill be sold much lower than we ever had ihem before. Shaving Stwps, $r. Oleophane, Chinese and Verbena Cream, Naples, old brown Windsor, white Windsor, Castile, Oxy genated, Naval and Military and all the most appro ved Soaps. 11AX)IIS,- STRM'V, Of most kiodsin use, cheaper than ever. IUIUSII F.S of nil kinds. TKA TIIAYS AND WAITF.HS, of new ond beauti fui naticrns. TAI1LK MATS. Od Cloth and Willow Table Mats. Cop Mais, (Sc. VAIIIJITY. Nursery Lamps. Wooden Spoons, Ilulier Ladles, Cheese Toasters, llread Toasters, Curbng nnd dud l,nn Tnnira. Itiitaunia and r.arlhern Hod Pans. Sick Cups for feeding iho sick, Soap Cups nnd tiishes Tooth Hrush Dishes, Jairlhcrn and Hrilnnnin Suit Cups, liritannia Spittors, Gravy ond Soup Ladles and Sloris. AND WICKS( For most all kinds or Lamps, including the Chemical and Comphenc. . a ....1 mini new articles not spoken nf which makes our stock very full nnd complete and wo are "n'oTc.0 Ta mtiNsaiAiD & imoTuniis, Oils. 3,000 2.500 2.000 1,000 500 Dec.4lh Gallons Pure Bleached Winter and Fall Sperm. ,lo do do do Whale, do American Linieeil, do Olive, .. U"' J.II.PF.CK&CO. SOT NOW." Fainter her stow step Tills from diy to day Death's bind is heavy on her datk'ning lirowj Vet doth she fondly cling to earth, and siy "1 am content to die, hut 0,not now I Not w hi'c the blosom. of the jiyous spring Make Iho wirin air such luxury to breathe j Not while the birds such la) s id gladness singt Not while bright fljwcrs around my footsteps wreath. Sparc me, great CSodl lift up my drooping brow j I am content to die; but O, not now !" "Tho-spirit liath ripened into summer-time ; The season's viewless boundary i" patj The glorious sun hath reached his burning prime i O, mil"! this glimpse of beauty be the list 1 Let mo not perish whilo o'er land nnd lea, With fi'cnl step, the lord of light moves onj Not w bile the murmur of the mountain hco Orcets my dull car, with music in its tone. Pale ficknrss dim. my eye, and clou Is my brow, I am content to diet but O, not now." Summer is gone, nnd autumn's soberer hues Tint the ripe fruits, ami gild the wauiis corn i The huntsman sift the Hying game pursues, Shouts the hi I loo, and wind, his eager horn ; "Sparc tne a while to wander forth and gazo On the broad meadows nnd thcqnict stream To watch in silence, while the lU'iiin? rays f-lant Ihrotmli the fadini tree with ruddy gleam. Cooler the I reczes play around my brow, 1 am content to die ; but O, not now I" The bleak winds whistle snow fjhowcre, fir nnd near Drift without echo, to the whitening ground Autumn hath parsed away, and cold nnd drear Winter stalks on, with frozen tnanile bound j Vet slill lint prayer a-cends "0, laughingly My little brother round the warm hearth crowd , Our liome-firu blasts broid, and hrialit, nnd Inch, And the roof nnirs wiih voice, lisht end loud 1 Sparc tuc awhile, raise up my droopinc brow, I am content to die; but O, not now!" The spring i conic nirnin, the j lyons spring; Agitn the banks Willi clustcrum llowcrvnrc spread; The wil 1 liirddips upon its wanton wing The child of earth is numb-red with the dead I "Thee never more the sun bhine slnll awake, lleaining ail redly through the lattice pine ; The slrps of friends thv slumbers imy not break, Nor fond, fimiliir oiee aroii'e iiriin I Death'" spent shadow veils thy daikene'd brow ; Why didst thou linger 7 thou art Inppicr now !" OF m. GEORGE P. MARSH, OF VT., c a' Tin: Axxr.x.vviox ni'rr.XAs. Peltrered in l!if aise of Htpresentntirrf, It .9, in Cmnmitlce nf tt Whole un lite blalc if the Uniun, Jan. 20, 1915. Mr. Chairman: It is a remarkable feature of ll.e dfbalo in w hich w 0 are engage.l.that while we have ahuudaaiiro ol argument, or rather apology for argument, in snpport ol the pimrr ,.r -. - r.:.... t... t..i.. "S'V l" . " r .. ' ' ' J y ' " hum, iu; nut nciii i' 111 iiir iiir,niin! m i-iii, in gon- eral, quiln ro'uctant enter upon its i.iei-UK, as a question of expediency. I hue waited for some divs, in anxious expectation, that the zeal ous friends of annexation would sla'e fully the arguments in its fivor. It is quite obvious that there i" sonic deep and controlling motive for thus urging the precipitate action of Congress on this appeal to the pooular branch, from the solemn judgment nf Iho Senate, in a matter em phi.tically within its proper eognizince. 1'it, for some unexplained reason, it is not thought proper to declare tins particular motive, or tu en tru-t the House and the na'ion with tho entire argument 10 i.ivor 01 me ron-sonii mot) 01 11100 two independent sovereignties-. Some ob-rure hints Bs ,a-o m , curso of the debate, and in anolher place .1 iiretty full developenicnt nf 110 doubt the most cogent and porsua-ivo re 1. sons lor the measure, lint with the linllian' u. ception of the eloquent gentlonnn from South Carolina, (..Mr. Iloi.-.tns,) and one or two others Ihe gentlemen who Invo supported it, have trod - leu verv gingerly, while passing over this branch of Iho subject. I he gentleman from Alabama, (Mr. ANcnv.) to w hose ability and eloquence I am di-po-e, to render nil justice, jrivo us the other day a sain. nloof the sort nf argumentation, which is relied upon as eUeclual, in cnnstraiiiiii" the support of Southern gentlemen, who might otherwise bo I lisiiosed to act ft nm higher impulses thin a spirit of tlefurc'ice lo local dictation; and the lilobc has declared, that while the Northern Democracy should bo tenderly handled, in dis. cussing both this great subject and that of the tarifl, tho recreant Southerner, who I idiratcd a disposition to emancipate himself from t lie ill Ituence ot sectional views 011 those subjects, should be frightened hack into his propriety, by Iho terrors of public denunciation as a renegado and traitor. A distinguished Southerner once boasted, lint the South ruled us of the Norlh by means nf our own "vvlnto slaves," and tho action of some Northern members of Congress in the Missouri controversy gave too much nun. (enaiice to tho truth of this gasconade. Accord ing to the decree of Iho Globe, the experiment of dragooning, which is alleged to have been successful with the North, is now to ho tried upon tho recusant portion of the South, while the d lublfiil Northern Slates am to ho caji led into the admission of Texas, and tho abandon ment of the protective policy, by fair speeches and honeyed words. The result of thin inter esting experiment in practical politics we shall soon see, anil it will bo a curious speculation to learo, whether it lie easier lo coax a iNorthern er or to roerco a Southron. The eloquent gentlcm in from Alabama, how ever, did not follow the precise line now recoui. mended by the Olobe. Ho was, indeed, sufli. ciently liberal in his denunciations, of faith, less brethren, but was not altogether cnnjpli. mentnry to us of Ihe Norlh. lie informed us that the Southern master ruled his slave hy di. vino appointment ; and from tlie views he ex pressed of the superior qualifications of South, cm men for all official stations, as contrasted with our humbler pretensions, he allowed us to draw the inference thai ho held tho South lo bo also divinely entitled to dictate law to our info, rior natures. Wo of the North e itorlain a ho. reditary jealousy of all who claim lo rulo hy di. vino right. Divine right is tho alleged foundi. lion of the authority of all desnots ; and if you consult the image and superscription of tho com of Henry VIII., or nf Charles II., you will find that even those blond stained and profligate ty rants claimed lo ro!gu " by thu graco of Roil." Hut if wo may rely 011 the authority of certain notes appended to Iho newspaper reports of the gentleman's retmrks, ho inlonded, had ho not been arrested by tho expiration of his hour, t.. give us a ;irr contra statement of the manifold humbler virtues and excellencies of tho people nf tho North. Thoro is something odd, almost ominous, in the frequent couincidences between tho entrance nf gentlemen upon delicate topics, and the fall of tho Speaker's hammer. It has happened repeatedly in tho course of this de bate, that gentlemen havo been prematurely cut oft" In the very flower nf their eloquence, just at mo commencement nt a conclusive argument in support of Iho expediency of annexation ; and I tnllC.il fear tills linhannv hnr.ire limitation I deprive Ms altogether of 'the opportunity of hear inj: that branch of this great question discussed. In olio of the tintcs to the centlnman's, speech, it is said that his remarks upon the North were intended to Invo special referenra to the New Hngl.ind .Stales, or rather to Massachusetts ; and lor the. sake of that ancient, and, until now, roputahlo commonwealth, it is much to Lu la mented, tint the honorable genllomati was not allowed tiino 1 1 in il.oout his hilanre sheet, and show us u hat precise nitintiiit of rrcdit she is en. titled to for levoltitionary services, for the in getttiity of her degenerate sons, the vulgar a rlid. cers c.f the Kast, in lahricaliug brojians, Ken. UirUy jeans, negro cloths cotton gins and big gin?, wooden clocks ami wire mousetrap", as well as "or their punctuality in paying .Southern gentlemen for their cotton and lolnecn. An it is however, Mnssachusella must be content to wear saekcloUi, nnd sit in darWiess, consoling herself as the may, by dreaming of the gentle man's unspoken eulogy, until some more ans. picious and lunger hour bhntl enable linn to be stow upon her the cheering eiii'ouragoiiionl of such just inca-Mirc of I'oiiinieiid.itinn n, upon strict and impartial scrutiny, he shall adjudo her to merit. I regret, sir, that instead of indulging- in a cruiiso of remark calculated neither to convince nor to persuade, the gentlemen had not thought proper to give us the asi-tanco of his eminent talents is di-cii"sing the question of expediency. We. should then haw) had tins, point presented in the fairest light, for I give the gentleman credit for the ability to rniko the nmt of the rr giiinent ; and I am persuaded lint his frankness and sincerity would have scorned to skulk from an avowal ol the reasons which arc most con clusive in the minds of the zealous ami influen tial advocates of annexation. The hislorv of the State which 1, with my colleagues, Invu the honor to represent, has been appe lied to in a manner which seem" to call for some notice on the pirt of her delegation. It Ins been assumed, with great apparent con. fidonrc, that the admis-ion of Vcioiout to the American Union is a pir.to! car-e to the propo. posed annexation of Texas, and therefore sanc tions that measure by the authority of a venora hlo precedent. Hut there is not the smallest analogy between the ca--cs. A sufficient dis tinction is to lie found in the single fart, that by the treaty nf ITS), which recognized I he inde pendence, and fixed the boundaries of the Union, the United Stales claimed, and (Jreat llritaiu conceded to them, jurisdiction over the territory of Vermont. The Unit"il I States never surren-1 dered this cl lirn, or recogmz'd the independenco 1 of Vermont, and her admission was merely the 1 erection ol a pi rtton ol the territory ot the Unt- ted Stales in'o a cnnledorate State. Thus far, then, the ca-o is not distinguishable in principle from that of tho Slates altcnv.irds formed in the Northwest Territory ; and the fart that, in the latter cao, the soil was the property of the na tion, is unimportant, licraun the right of juris, diclion and territory is independent of the fee, am' liny and often dies twist without it. Hut the argument by no means rests 011 Ihe single fact alone to which I have adverted. Tim terri tory of Vermont was originally chimed by both Now Hampshire and New York. Now llinip slnreliid untie cs.ton.-ivo grants of land in the disputed district, before it was determined by royal ordinance li 1707 10 bel-ing lo New York. Now Yoik then aiU'ioptod In set aside the grants which hid been in ido by New Hampshire. This was rcisted by the grtiito, who, howev er, wore willing to submit to the jitrhiliclinn of Now York, provided the New Hampshire grants were coi 1 fl r nn I . The jurisdiction of New York was in fact iwlcndod over the territory in rpies. tiotl. fmltltips won. nr.r mi'.,!, nnd court,: n.. I tnh'i' lied, bv Ihe provincial leg.slaturo of New York, and delegates worn set to tint body by ! the petiole of these mnv con ities. It was onlv upon tho often repeated refusal of New York to recognise the validity of tho New II imps ore I grants, and her dissent from the resolutions of the I'rovincnl Cotigrossof 1771, that the inhah. 1 Hants of Vermont resolved lo declare thorn. j selves independent. Tim fir.i m.;.!-,,, in ,t, it, ,t ,t. rm!l ,'.ollr;K , ,), i.lriMl,ct,o f New York ,,.,,. , , Xew lUmwhire (Jrants, nmi ' ..,o ,..,.! 1,,. ,i, .1, ...,.' r r .1 ! i,..!.,,-,.,, ,.r ,i', e,,,,,, 'i, ,1,,. ...r....,! ,.r v..,.. i York to adont the resolutions of tho ' Provincial (',,-,,,. rriinniimm'j r..-.t ii,.i,r ,.r v... 1 mr Vermont thin early gave a proof ol I ,cr attachment tu the principles and caiuo of 1 .Mnorlrnt, M.oiiv. and the Crn,.i, tlnnnhln l.v. to wliom Ticondorogi nirreudered in 177.1, ac. ted, as their heroic commander declared, under tho authority of the great Jehovah and the Couiiiicntal Congress," As an integral pirt of the State of New York, Vermont was a member of the Cniifed iratinn, and through Iho whole Hevolutionary struggle she recognised tho au thority of Coogres-, and annually renewed her application to that body for admission into the Union. ( crmont Slate papers, (ill, (11, (17, fi'J, 7(1, 7'2, 7.'), and elsew here.) Tho Constitution adopted by Vermont in 1777, provides for the election of delegates lo Congress, (ibul 'J H,) as docs also tli it revised hy tier I onucil ol Cen sors in 17ti5, (ibid .VJ1, W0.) V.irious acts of the I,"gisi.iture provide I for the punishment of treason nguri-t the United States, (ib.d il'X), III), 11 1, dl.").) I i y resolutions of Congress, mi Iho 7th and '-iO.h (or 21m) of ,lugus, 1731, the faith of that body was pledged to the adnns- sion of Vermont, (ibid l.r7, l.VJ; son also tho report ofa coiumitlccof Congre-s, ibid 170, 171.) erinont acceded lo Iho conditions imposetl by those resolutions, by the advice of (ion. H'.ish- ware, Maryland, Virginia Kentucky, and per ington, (ibid 107, HIS, Hi!);) and though C'on-1 haps North Carolina and Tennes-ee, will soon gross most iinjuslili ihly refuse I lo redeem the I l,ecouio freo States. Secondly, it will enlarge pledge, yet Iho resolutions of the 7lh and Stlth of American commerce, and furnish a vast market August, 1781, and tint acceptance of their coo. ; fr ,0 sale and i-oiisuini-rr,ii-t.f- northern man- 'lit s by erinnnt, must bu considered as con. stunting a coinpicl, which cither pirly hid a right lo entorce. I lie phraseology ot the i.ou. ret-IMii. This is a hybrid question, and North Blitiilinn was altered, as we learn from the Mad- orn r Southern, according to the position of the ison Papers, by sub-litiiting the word ' jurisdic. ; spectator, with regard lo Mason and Dixon's lion" for 'limits," for the very purpn-onf meeting, !!. P,,,,rihlv. and lastly, it will extend, forti- tho case of Vermont. The application of Ver inoiit for admission lo the Uinon was renewed soon alter the adoption of Iho Tederil Constilu. tion.and ihe only obstacle which had i ver cxiiteil being tomoved hy the form il consent of New t orl(, sno was admitted at Inn same tunc, and upon the sunt! principles as Kentucky, and the obligations of tho General Government wero thus at lenc'ih, though tardily, fui I'll led. 'Tho gontleuifia fro u Maryland Mr. Kenne dy remarked, in his vory able speech, a very important fact, which is entirely conclusive in regard to tho views of all parties, as lo the re lation in which Vermont stood to the Union, llerSonatnrs and Iteprescntatives wore imme. dialehj admitted to their seals, whereas, if she had been considered as a foreign territory up tu tho lime of her admission, they would havo want ed the constiliiiioii.il qualification of nine and seven years citizenship, respectively, Il is, therefore, perfectly clear, thai tho sup posed analogy between tho caso of Vermont and that nf To van is entirely mistaken. I am awaro that an attempt nny bo made logol over the ob jection to tho admission of Texas upon tho around nf Iho constitutional provision to which I Invo just adverted, by arguments drawn from a sint'iilar ami anomalous feature of the institii- I turns of Texas. Naturahzition and citizenship more, u is sno, mi; uiivu V nuncialion of allcgianco to the United States, and Texas may be immediately represented by persons now owing fealty to both countries. Hut the law of nations recognises no such divi ded allegiance. Naturalization In a foreign State, without any formal renunciation of allegiance to the native sovereignty, is expatriation, and, fiicln, works a forfeiture nf all the rights of native citizenship. The acquisition of political franchise under anew sovereignty, ncressanly implies their extinction under the old. Allegi ance is of necessity entire, and no man can ho at once the subject of two supreme and inde pendent jurisdictions. Texas, therefore, if ad mitted as a State, must remain unrepresented in both branches nf the Naltonal Legislature, until the constitutional term of citizenship shall have expired, unless she chooses, what we have no right to assume in this argument, to bo re presented by persons who shall negrato thither Iroin the United Stales alter her aibiision. It has been sa d that Vermont acfed, not only as an independent, but as a hostile power, by negotiating rn arinitic and an alliance with (Jreat llnlain during the Hevolutionary war. It is a sufficient answer to any argument found ed on this fact, that it is now historically certain, tint these negotiations wore a mere stratagem to induce the llriti"h to suspend hostile opeia lions agiiu-t the Northern frontier; and a re cently discovered correspondence between the authorities of Vermont and General Washing Ion, shows that they were carried on with his knowledge and npproh ilion. I may safely chal lenge the annals of diplomacy to produce an in stance where dexlenlv in negotiation has ob tained more, and given, or even promised, less, than in this iiio-tCMniiunnate'y politic s raC'in, which paralyzed for three cimpiigus the hostile force ol an army nf 10,000 men, and thereby both secured the Northern frontier, and lelt the Con tinental army free to act against the enemy in the Southern portion of the Confederacy. The occasional open threats of secession on the pirt of Vermont were more artifices to give color in the eyes of the Hritish to the sincerity of the ne gotiation, and at the same time to alarm Con gress into a compliance with her just and rea sonable demands ; and there was never a mo ment when the public authorities of the State ceased to entertain both the desire and the ex pectation of ultimalo admission to the Union It is not to bo denied, that Iho persevering refu sal of Congress to fulfil its own solemn engage inputs, and to recognise the righls of Vermont as an independent member of the Confederacy, pro duced great irrita'inu, and that tullucnlial indi- vidiials were sometimes alinnut provoked into determination to socedo altogether from the conimoii cainse. Uut, so far as the argument from precedent is concerned, the rc il question is, not wiiai were itie purposes anu views ot 1 lie eadiug men, or even of the constituted authori ties of Vermont, hut, upon what principle did Congres- act ! Not whether the people of Ver mont held themselves In be, not only a sovereign and independent, but also a foreign, State, but whether Cnn,rress, in admitting the Slate, con sidered itself as treating with a fureign power, or as creating a now iiicmh trout of territory within its rightful original jurisdiction. I he question, indeed, was not iliscu-sed, hut the w hole history of tho transaction tho facts of Ihe ca-o show that Congress did not look up 111 Vermont, as to all intents and purposes, a lor- eign Slate. I ie'ii'nt, 1I1011, thorc ii. no nnahigv betweon the c ise of V "mont and th.s of Texas ; and gen tlemen, who claim for Congress the power in question, will he driven to dome it from the na ked words of the Constitution. Hut, sir, I do not purpose to enter upon the constitional question' lurlhor than us the history of my own State may lend to elucidate it, and I shall conliiio the rc- iiiaimlcrolmy remarks lo tlie simple question of expediency. I caunoi agree with the "cntleman from Ohio (.Mr. DdiuO thai Iho roiistmit al nowor is the onlv oueslioii in the r.i.n. hei-mvi it is not to us it is to his cloircr intuition, a self.ovi dent proposition, lint the annexation of Texas would be a blessing. I ran conceive an en largement nf territory, burdened with incum brances, or alleiitetl by conditions, which would render it a curse : and this seems to 1110 erv,"f I'foporty. What weight this con-deration clearly one of tho-e cases where Ihe onus m- "nV l,'av0 a,1y 11,(3 "'Ivocatcs of anne.xa iriHti'lios upon the nfliniutive, both as regards I ,lu"' 1 pretend imt totlelermine, but it is at least the legality and the expediency of the measure. a Vlew 11,0 """ject which cannot bo expected its 1 line already said, either th it unlucky hammer, or some secret iiusim'iiigs. prevent nn.iirit-iiiir.f. nrocpnl
gentlemen Irom giving us the argument on this point, and wo aro lelt to gather it partly from broken and mysterious hints here, and partly from certain declarations promulgated U-t year from Iho court end of the avenue, with the so lemnity of oracular authority.aud vvitli more than oracular distinctness. The argument, then, com piled from llictjj various sources, divides itcoll into four propositions. I pay four, sir, because tho reasons assigned for the annexation of Tex as, on grounds of military security, arc too weak ami puerile to impose for a moment on any mm possessed of tho smillest notions of the princi ples of strategy. Ccucral Jackson, whosu au thority is relied upon as decisive on this point, however brave as a soldier, or skilful as tacti cian, has never given any evidence nl strategi cal talent. Ilesides, it is said lint Ren. Jack, son himself, twenly.livo years ago, when in the full enjoyment of unimpaired menial faculties, declared the possession of Texas unimportant in a military point of Viuw ; and I appeal from Con. Jackson in decrepitude to Gen. Jackson in the vigor ol Ills intellect. Hut it is said that Ihe annexation of Texas will, first, promote Iho caitso of emancipation in the nortlieruiiist siavelioiuiug .vales, and Uela i ufacluros. Thus far annexation is a Northern question. Thirdly, it will extend tho area uf fy am porpotuato the peculiar institution--the u8,l0Cial pride and glory of the South. In this K)jllt t,f viuw it is strictly a Southern question, unC68 gnmlemen can make out hy argument, what sumo nf them arc disposed to assume with out. that tho Union is bound by constitutional guaranties to aid them in niiinlainiiig tho insti. lutiou of slavery, and propagating Us blesings through rcgiuns whero it is now unhappily uu known, I have a word to say on this matter of o.xpe ilioncy, in each of its aspects. Hut let tno remark, in passing, that I seem to sec something of inconsistency in the action of somo Southern gentlemen. Slavery, they toll us, is not merely a convenience and an advan tana lo tho master, but a blessing to tho slave; and yet they advocate annexation, because it lends to promote emancipation in the northern, most slaveholding Slates. Hut if slavery be, morally, a good, and, practically, a blessing, you aro criminal in promoting emancipation. Again, ihey say, the superior atTraclions of tho 7'e'xian tour .i, tin. , , 11,, i.,.- .; 1 ;!.. chmato and soil, will ntlucp a rapid emigration thither from the South, and the competition in the growth of cotton and sugar will ruinously depreciate tho value of Southern plantations, What anomalous patriotism is this, which is con - . " " . ' ,!, ..-.;,' f; tent to purchase the prosperity of a foreign country, bv the depopulation and impoverish ment of its native land I We aro told also, that Texas will Increase our commerce, and cnlamo I 'he market for domestic, manufactures ; and t ho wheels that drive tho jennies and looms nf the 1 Kt .. . .. inert ii, are inroaiencu wun stoppage ny tiie nf tho South allowed Mn-sieluLcn, and Miiinc to backwater of fraudulent importations of Jlritish settle their boundary question in their own way, and good", through the accommodating agency of ho called upon lus Irnnds to requite thai reneioily. philanthropic anil virtuous Texas. It is singti- by allowing the South to Bottle boundary qoes lar that this argument tliould rcmo from ttio J'b ni such ninnntr as to suit its own convenien-e. ! f.t , , , i ., , 1 Ins s chi'ico the one, nnd tt ts a pit v to c"si n Ihe hps of those who denounce, in the same breath, i tfr,cl ,,ch .t imtiht produce, by Wxiimnition of the the Northern manufacturers as a baud of rob. I parallelism hotwini tho cisis. Hut it is worth while bors ; and, as a manufacturer, I own I am a lit- to notice, tint the Northeast boundary dispute wa n tie jealous of this now born zeal in behalf of in. T!elion of tho surrender oT lenilory ; IhisofTcxa", torosiR even now so furiously assailed from the "''IT'1'"', "'!' "I(;n!"un. n'1 u hardly fur loa-k ,nru.,mo Hor us to rcpiy the mana mm ity, w Inch rrtely suffered viry same quarter. us lo ah'-mie our Icrnlory, and diininish our political Torhap", sir, some subtle advocate of annex- strength, bv con.cn'ins Ion vasi addition loibemiw ation, by tho aid of a (acuity in which I profess I myself deficient, a faculty which has been said to roii'tillHc the essence of wit, and which is, a. any rate, a prerogative of ge,s-tho par-, r i JTi., J , ception, namely, of oh-c.ro relations-may be ' atilu to reroncilo llieso seeming incongitntics ; but in the mean time, and until better advisi.d, I, a poor spinner and weaver, shall look upon the new friends of mv interests with eouio dis. trust. In regard to (lie first point, the probable in fluenco of annexation upon negro emancipation, I do not pretend to such a knowledge of the present condition nf tho slave question in the northern sl.iveholding States, as lo render me a competent judge, hut I know that judicious Southerners, friends, toe, of annexation, look for no such result. I have scon no argument, conclusively, or even probably, establishing th it consequence. So far as I have observed, no Southern gcntleunu on tins floor has hazarded I the opinion, that it will Invo any such tendon. cy ; and oven were I convinced that it would, I am not clear that this is not Ihe precise rase, where it is not lawful to do evil that good may come. This much is certain and evident to ail men, the immediate effect of ihe measure would be the territorial extension of the system, and therefore incieased spice, opportunity, and in citement to the multiplication of its objects. You have, then, an immediate and certain in crease of what all Northern men agreu in con sidering as an evil, while Iho alleged corres ponding good is prolileinitical in any event, in all events contingent and remote. This, (hero, lore, is a groun I upon which no Northern man will honestly advocate the annexation of Texas. As to the second point, the incidental cucoiir. agemont to our manufactures, though we shall not be wanting in gratitude to our Southern brethren for any sincere nnnitoslation of inter-e-t in uur welfare, wo prefer to be permitted to regulate that matter for ourselves, and to dis pose of our wares in markets of our own selec tion, liven the gentleman from Alabama, (.Mr Yancey,) allows us something of shrewdness perhaps I ought rather to use a humbler phrase say, of instinctive sagacity, in thu base me chuiical concerns of the filthy lucre of gain, ami wo are somehow or other possessed with a no. t ton tint our manufacturing interests will not he much strengthened by Texan patronage, belli or in tho way of legi-lation or purchase. We are not well advised what their views may be 00 the greal question of legislative protection tu domestic industry, and in spile of I lie encour aging declaration, that the Anglo-S 1x011 race which has overrun Texas, "is essentially a debt-pi) ing, as well as a land stealing people," j we are haunted hy reminiscences of iiutstand. , ing accounts for go ids sold and delivered, against poisons re.-idiog, not exactly in 'l'ea. bin ' thereabouts ; and wo aro pestered with doubts in regird to the punctuality of ihat interesting community 111 ilio muter of piyinent. " Hise is Iho slave that piys" was rather a favorite 1 unxim with some ol them while rilizens of 1 ho j Uni";"! Slates, and we are not yet sufficiently eerlilied, that .1 soinevv hat hasty emigration has increased llmir means or unproved llr'ir mural. ''' ,l uou" somewhere hinted, though, as 1 WUH iW ' remember, not urged here, that Ihe -Southern people expect soino coinmerc al ad. vantage, in Ihe way of readier sale or increased price of a nierrhaiidi.'! peculiarly their mv 11, which shall here be iiaine'es, and I believe it is well known that thu purchase of Louisiana added very greatly to the value ot tint species "-;-,..- -- u laiCUjiiy..ii ! 1 ts'ntii. We couio now to tho argument which is most Ireqiiently used, and perhaps with the greater effect for its equivocal signification. The an nexation of Texas will extend the area nf free dom. It was beautifully said by Sir Humphrey Divy, "the broader Ihe sphere of light, the more extensive will be the boundary oi dark. ncs3 by which il is surrounded." It is peril ips to a sort of inversion of this remark, that wo owe this argument, for in no oilier sense can the incorporation within our jurisdiction of a country already as free as our own, and tho con sequent diffusion of slavery through all its vast borders, he said to extend the limits of freedom. It is an argument addressed tu the car and not to the understanding, a mere jingle of words without meaning, or if significant, false in the only sense which the words will fairly bear, Hut some gentlemen would have us believe tint a generous ami disinterested tlesiro for Ihe extension of the blcssingj of American freedom is the only motivo which inspires their zeal in the cause of annexation. For Ihis tlie extreme South is willing lo deprive itself of its barrier against the encroachments of the fanatic, spirit of abohtitiiiisiii, hy 1 lie emancipation of the s'aves in the Northern slaveholding States, thus liar, rowing Iho area of Southern freedom on the one hand, for the sake nf encoding it nt the othT ; for this, it is ready In depopulate itself, that il nny pour plenty and prosperity into the lap of its neighbor; for this, it is prepired to as. sumo a debt of unknown millions, lo engage in a causeless war with a friendly nation, to exis perato anil alienate at least one half of the free people of this great republic, to incur the scorn of Iho Christian world. What unheard of and self-sacrificing magnanimity is this ! Gentle men who lend a believing ear tosuch professions as these, must have greater confidence than I in the sincerity of politicians. Uut the swift progress ol the index ot our Shrews bury clock warns mu that il is time lo nun my al'en lion' to the real point at i-sue, ami to stile openly, what all men know, that, wiih tlie originators nnd fading advocates of the measure, it is honestly and simply a siruggle for political power. The annexa tion of Texas is desired by Southern potitictins, be causa the half dozen Elates to be carved out of it will I11112 serve as a counterpoise to the grovvina strength of iho North. They expect the system of slavery, with its Constitutional basis of representation, 10 be extended over Texas, and are prepired lo share with that counlry whatever, of good or evil nny occrue from ils incorporation into the American Union I beg not to be understood as charging upon the whole people of lbs South a scltlsh desire to strengthen themselves nt the cost of the Norlh, No doubt a very larire portion of that population honestly eheve, that whilst aiincxMion would benefit bolh 1 tic 111 on I Texas, it would not essentially injure the North, and were the queslion unmixed wiih cousi teroliom of po. hlical 'novvcr. I should have treat resnort for Ibeir opinion, however feeble, hollow, and inconsistent the 1 arguments by which ilmr representative, support the ineotuie. lint I claim iho soino charily for ihose 1 , rrnrr9enti nj lec, 1o ., De,cved ,,, , ,eri ,at the people of the North oppose onnexa. 1 tion, because they consider it a llagraut vinhiion of: our constitutional liw, the law of nxiiotu, the morol l 'w- fra"5lil. wilh unmixed mischief, and productive: of no possible Rood, or, in other words, at unwise.un- ni'b llnjui 'Th) chrnlan of 'he Cortlmft.' r L-Iir. ii.i.tinn- h,.tni,t ... .;. ,. ,,i.,.i emphatically, a Southern question, a matter 'ol mere local uiierc-t, n queilion of slavery, a question of I Itdunrliri. no I m r,i,,i,,ln,l II t. ,m l,.ii,...,.i,r I local unci ""indiry, an I bo reminded u. (I b'eliee, however, '? ''I',"1'!1 J,1.1" reminiscencn to the .Democracy of the iNorlh.) W' th what mimniiiiilv Iho "cneron. neon c cr and resources of our brcthn n, at it direct nnd ini niedntc cost or millions o ourselves, to siy notl.inz "four other objections to the scheme. Had it been :i , ! mX surrender 01 a corner 01 ..l ime, i am sure o n our fnends would liavebcei, so hi.h mt'nued, and' i ihmk , 1 am warranted in sayinc, lint i, they uccei-d in r.n- m-sm!? T.-a, lie ir ' iintrn-uiiiiiiy i.- rcue.rd to fui '!-r .n.,.11-1,1.0, .1 o oioirii icrriiory, may, very n..uy, ue uniM.sil suirr.i.o by the northern Sinus, there was so in put o the list. nr.at lorce in tins n.c,i,mnt. tint ll.o ish forcible, A cenlliMiinn rou Alnbiini, win addressed the it nut iiiinnsw-i rob'c. and among the counter-ariiu. House on iI.m subject at ihe last sc. sion, put the ac- ments, by wlntli it miy be nut. are thc-e: The leg- T. ,rL.VX "" y',""" " 01vtrrulin nr"S' in'i.n oflho South de'prives Hie slaves not only of sity.nsthijs: Tho Oonslitulion hid Lnnraiilhd Iho po'uical ri!!hts , l.nl of all the pcr-onil riMils nfhu in.muiion 0 slavery, with nil Us incidents, to the ' linnl,y. Voo denv Ihem Ihe attribute nf n.,.n.bir South : the ri jhts of I ivehi'lilers were menaced .ni'l 1 end instercd by Ihe nnchimlions of Northern aboli tionists, 11111! ihe ncquisii,in 0f Texas being Ihe cidy sufficient nicansof maintainioo tin. timsi mierei! in.ir-1 a-i.y of the Con.tniiion, amiexnion was a mat cr nt mdisp cc, uniiii. .-iiiiismnnn iy 1110 same trround wis la- Ken t.v tlie corypha-is of t nroluuan el.iiesinin.lnp in 1 ' We ;l C,Xo,'';,'llCT, "' fr"k,u'a 1 ' H hld' ndin rc, though not seel 1 much cause to approve Its mouves, lis emper or Us lojic. It becomes, then, j c.senlir.1 to delerm.no how far annexation, is mdis-1 pcusa do to tho security of Southern institution and ,f so, bow far the Union is bound hy con-muiionil ginrnntios to inainia.ii them. It , no small re-1 luelincc that l enter upon the discn-sion of ibis fourih j point, and ldo so, only because I hoi I it lo be the I ve y g,s f the nc, ,he real q.ie.iion of combined , duly nod I'Xpedicncy, upon which the whole conlro- i versy. amrt Irom Hie ili-rmted nmoi i,r,.miiii,,ii,,nn1 . power, necissiuly lunges. If you would persuade us lo thnsicrifieeof iuienl ami feeling, which the an neviiion 1 f Texas implies, vou must clcirly convince us that what )ou de. laru to he iho very in. unci of -'lf-prcservalioo. the supreme law of nature, for vou, 1. al-o a I nv of duty fir us. In remrd 10 ibis q-ies-tiin of security, self-prcservition if you plea-c, ihe people of ihe South ought indeed to be the best judg es of the nciinl necessity; nndas I hivesiul upon another point, if this were ni7 the q ic.tion, with no ndnuxture of considcrarions nf (loliucal power nnd pers mil n jr.111 li.einent. the r onmion. woolil tie nl- mo., eonelnsive. so tnr is the ,t;r of,,-; Coes I I shall no undertake to deleriiune what are ll.e neces-, j v.,., o ..n. ..,,,,.,, uiu- ,.i nn- sysirin ui 1 ooincsiic slavery ; 0111 nils 1 siy Willi no lear ot coo- Imd.ciion, thai 111 ihe present s'agoof the argument however genileunn miy find it convenient lo reason byway of eliciting t lie ir own consciences, or excu sing themselves to t lit ir constituent., no .Northern 111.111 believes that the fhcsi'o secunty of the S011I1. or the privileges intended to bo permanently scored 10 11 I.V IOC 1 Cirolini (Mr. Holmes) his snicd ihe argument 1 am noun 1 10 ai inn I ill I 10 en etnin rooi .Sonlh i!rouiidcd on the nppireut necessity nf greater space for the expansion of tin rapidly increasmi! colored population of the .South, with n force nn I tHVcl e-ilcti-hied nit onlv lo mil 11 nee Iho South, hut evi n 10 stirlle Ih Norlh. II 11 i'iear;iexition of Texi would serve only ns i temporal)' role f from iho evils with which lb- multiplication of the Idicks threaten- Ihe l iveh .Idin.' Hi in s. It but postpouethocita.tr.) phe t an 1 if, in sixty years, the slives of the Smith irr bkelv lo prove l.m sirooc for ib.-ir masl-rs. ihey nny he expected to becnuio mo powirful in Texas nisi, 111 the coins.! of a century. Too conclusion, how evtr, which we of ihe oith draw fiom ihefieis alio led to hy the aenileman, is not that this cul should be rendered temporarily less numerous by ex plosion, but tint the Smith should take measures for lis exiirp tiion w bile ennncipition is ti po.-ible. The. duties of ihe North to ihe S0111I1 are tie trmined by the rcl uioimn which they slnud to eich othtr un der the Tedtral Consiiiuii mi . nnd ihtro are two phrases, of very frequent use 111 all the discussions of this topic, wins,. ir ,c interpretation 11 i. very inntc ml to di tertmiie : These are, " ihe compromises of iho Coosiitutioii," and " I he cnantilies of ihe Conu lotion." Tnese phrases art Ircqiitnily use 1 .1-syn-onymois, and very often obviously vviihoul any dis tinct noiion of ihe true siiminc anon of either. What, theo, is the thsiiiiciiou beivveen tin 111. nnd whil nre Ihe compromises, and whnl ihe guiramie- c.f the Con. siitiiiion ? The iHstinc lion I apprehend to be ihi-; The com promises are miller of hisiorv a queslion nffict. The Kiiaranties arc .1 queslion of construction mnlter of livv. In resird to the question of fict, the history, na ture, an I consideration otiiie iniiiu il concessions be tween the different parties lo the niuonal compact, it is singular th it hillc evidence exists. The reports of iho dilutes in the convention nre very inciinei the r.dernbsi handles the subject brief ly i and, indeed, ihcpriucipil actors 111 the maitcrnp pear throughout to have walktd as it nimini cl"s while pa-suu; over this difficult crounil. 1 1 11 1 wlni is the nitiirenfa comiiromi.st7 II isdilined 10 be ".to niirteinent beivncii parties in controversy 10 settle their d ll'icnccs by imiluil concessions," or, in oilier inii.s, ii is iiiu son rimer 01 a rioi, or me conct ssion ui u 1. iii c ii. ,'iiu tu ly, 111 iiinsiuci iiiiuo ol some auvaiiiane to the oiher pirlv. If, then, there was in fict ouy compromise between thu North and the .Muni, 11 must tnve iiecniipou tho ground of an ad vnntije conceded 10 one pirly, upon tho yielding of an equivalent ny mu patlv in the return. Tin nd v linage conceded to the South is the disproportnnatc reprrsentiii.ni in this House. This appears on ihe face of die I'oiisiiiuiion. Bill, in return for ihi. con dint advantage, ihe only tiuisiileration expresstdis thooeeosi'ono liability of the Snub 10 11 correspond. ng raionf nx-ition. Was this, then, the true nod only consiilerrion i.anil. il so, was 11 a mere naked agree ment tosetoll'an increased rotio of rt presentation agsinsi that particular species n( laxitioo, or was it tlii adoption of a principle, of which the particular case, being the only ooe then actually existing, was specified by way of exemplification 7 It Ins been ofteii incon-ideraiely asserted, lint the disproportionate weight allowed 10 the Southern Stales 10 ihe House was Inlinced by ihe in ml repre- seuiaiiou of the smaller .Hlnlrs in the Senile. This is n vrrv oiivious error, tint its unporinnce will lusufv a short ex imina'ion. The rq nl reptesenliiion in the Senate . Ihe natural and neersiry conscquince of me inaepeniieiico ami sovereignly ot tne several States. At die formation of 1I10 Constitution, alt Ihe si ties were not only independent of eath other, but sovereign Tho Senile is.composcil of 1 he represen tatives of the Stales in their sovereign cipicity. lie Ivvten powers, rich supreme in itself, there can he no inetpiithty; and if any other basis of lepresentntion had been n.oined, then the Sennc would have been no.longer the n'semhly of the States, but a represen tation of numbers, or property, or bo'h. Hut if thisrqijihty is tq bo tnated as a concession, it.vvns not, nl any rale, a compromise between the Norlh ami (be South, but bttween thegre.it Slates and the s nail The snnll Sntos, In ing s tveri ign.vvere prima f tela entitled leeqinl weigh 1 in the National I.e uislitiire. 'I lie largo Stnlescliiioedi voice roportiun 1 lo their vveillh and population. How was ihis thin, cully to to reconeiteeH Obviou-l by die adoption of a double system, coinbioing in the Scmte the rrpre senl.ition.of sovereignties, and in Ilia Home, the re present ition of numbers or vveilile And this is the true origin nf the form jnd constitution of our Nation, al Legisliluro. This is the creit and only perpetual contpronil-eof tho Constiiutiiii. This, and not a blind and hibiloal reverence lot the forms of llriiish legislation, is the true reason of the illusion of the leg islative liovvcr into two branches. Ileitis' Ihen a com promise hei wren the lirger and tho smaller States, 11 wis not at iho simeliinea compromise bet cen the Ninth and tho South, as 1 reference lo the first t en sns wil liow, for, of ihe six larger Slate, three were northern and llireo souilicrn. Tho miller Elates wrrcinlsorqitillv divided Mary. Isnd, Ihe thirltTiilh, being n uiiJdlo term, bo'h in numbers and pusition, Does, then, the ('onslitiiiioo contain any compromise between Ihe North and the South! Unqiiesiional ly it docs i and it is this, that the South should be allowed a Ixrger ratio of ro presenta'ion, in consideration of the assumption ofa larger proportion of the public burdens, when direct taxation should be necessary. Wheie ihere is nnth. ing nt issue between the parlies, no s ippocel conflict nf rishls, there enn be no roiuproniisp. What, then, vvn the point of dispute between iho North nnd the South? Simply this 1 Shsll properly have a repre sentation in the National Legislature? At the time of the adoption of th. Constitution, althoujh thu ar.neniion of Texas. We all understand lint it vou i nnv ginnnty of us perpcnuiy. should ever he end nigered bv the growing sircnglh I, a rule, both ofpo.,ti,e law and of ethics, Ihnt ' of yo r colored pop.dilion. you would look for succor in nil couirnct. there must be a consideration t ind tf clsewlieruthin loTexis. i ii, ,i. ,, , ,..i .1 :.i..: !'!.? -mi iru -' 1 .-" 111-1 ii'ii 11 t u iiir inn i.ntisf irn ttrin m tm i. .....- i .. j .1 piunipil trading towns Merc at the Norlh, yet thu ...... aciuil converiili'c wealth of the South, includo g "I nc., was supposed to be greater limn lh.it oflha Norlh. This, then, is the cooipromi"!', nnd the only compromise, between the Njirih nnd tic South. In consideration tint tho Southi rn Stales would treat Iho slaves a. fiersens, for ihe purpo.e of taxation, tho Northern .Slates ngn-id Mm they should be treated as persons foi the purpose of ripresentat.on It is nn admission nf the principle ofa properly representation, a concession by the indigmt North to the affluent Han ih. Candor ohli'.'e, me lo admit that there Is great forrr in the nrgomtnt used by the slavehnlding Mites, that if numbers ah ne were to be the basis of fiprcsenta' Norlh, slid Ihcy, exercise the Hunt of determining whoshnll enjoy Ihe franchises of freemen. You re- Ma es unburn ue counted. You. nt the nuiro various qualifications, such ns a term of lesi ,ulce, and. 'in sonnica.es a slip properly nnd on Insist lint wh.te 1,0 " nut, with en lal propriety, count oui tipuiatcil amount ol e person-, cxcluucd nuinrrntcit. Whir Z WZl Sen anS WiTX ne ,cnv pohlieal linlne? I repent sir the-e is or rallur. before i'ie g-neral adoption nf 'tho principle of nllocelher. V011 make ihem n,.i .r.nn. bi ,;. It dors not, then, he in our niniiihs to say, thin for loo purpose oft'overnincot, nnd thai, not inertly of do not', tlie slave, should tie 'treated ns eniiiled lo nr. h.ieal rutins On the oiher hnnd,o,,res.c"u.ionofc. mm ., rsons from the mini llirtll nf m il ' I t'i 1 frnnnhi. in.- 01,111 nue niev rr "iue. out or mose where lhST scs ret. on a dile-rcnt foundalion. The slave, wiih "". " 'W." demote of the charnc cr of a en" on, cntl nmher ,,y ,, , ( . , f t,er, nor by the fivor of fortune, acquire that chnr- ncier. You miv enact law- to rr.lr.on ti e master from miming bun, or inking his life i but the." law. ciw. bun no rial,. forie cinnot enforce em, and ,,ey are nnalocous to hws for the preven ,n oferii- eltv .0 brutes. The slave, then, cannot be reconi". ed hy your governments, ns any II ina bin 0 chiltcl, ,e,,.ure he hi., bv vou, .iws, ol." I iielv "a reI?ioni to Govt mini nt. lie is ,,. ,.,.,i. V , h i.a Jl. i;,,n ti . , . , ' . c" line. The persons excbided by 119 are ixcludid for the wmt of certain acquirable accidents. 'I be exclu sion 01 mi- .i.ivets aiKolufp and perpeluil that of lb. nou-q inlilied white is limned ond temporary. 'Ihe slave . forever di.frnnchised by inherent nn I trrrmo vcablodi quiblicaiions ihe ri'ihlnf the non-quilfieiJ white is merely suspended. The fone of this reason' ing is virtually admitted hy many of the southern State., which apportion the icen.l ers of their own legislatures, upon the basis ofa representation of whiles omy. A-'ain, ilien. sir, iho onlv compromise of Ihe Con f,v ,l,.pro .roi,e rq, , en Z.d 0 Z .nvel,old,o i-,nlcs,and disproportionate taxation .i" stitution. I el wet n Ihe .North and Soiiih. i.lliat where somen UV llletll ll is asserted by the Smith, that this comnrnmie. i. in its na'ure, perpetual and sacred ; and moreover, it is insisted thai Us perpetuity is sccimd bv the Con solution; and tin- brings me lo Ihe remoming point, which is, whit are the ginrnniies of that instrument! I skill firt consider whether this constitutional ompromisc is m us nature perpetual, and then exam- i,.m ,..,,,1 .,... ,t 1 . j . t ,ity nor of limitation 111 lime, ihe unforeseen LhX, of aeons denii on, which both n.inies eioecml to h :i" duriMe as the contract usc!f, will, in general, ab solve the party from die nhh -ilion of lite contract. Now, the true nature of this contract was ihe admis sion of ' c jirintiple of a properly lepresentntion. When it was entered into, the South was superior in wcalih, csnm-mig iho slaves ns properly nnd, of coursi, 1 b ui'.is slavery continued, it was lhoushl ilia' the South would always bear n heavier proper llotnl shire ol taxntion. Circumstances, howe.er, nre now ilnnccd. The industry and enterprise of the North have driwn to her n iirirer share nf wealth The vine of our prosperity has thriven while you have slept; and were ihe principle of the taxation and re presentation of wealth, which )ou contended for, and we conceded to you, now fairly carried out, we should havei greatly iocreisid proportion of constant rep. res-niitijii, as well as occasional taxation. The rea sons upon which ) 00 wero aliowtd an advantage in apportionment 110 loniicr exist, nntl ceiteante rutlone. cental el ipsa t'X. The comprint! se, ihen, is not 111 its mtnrepcrptlual, and then Tore the expediency of revoking it is lawful matter of inquiry, and of course of pennon; lliough for reasons which I shall give hereaf'er, 11s actual revocation, vviihuil ihe free as si 111 of ihe Sooth, i- at present, or wuhin nnv reason ab'e period of computation, impossible. Whether you will give tint assent is a queslnn for vouiselves) but I confess my expectations of so dcsirab'c an event art not vtry sanguine. I'n.t it is rumen led, tint the perpetuity of ihe rom promise is secured bv the terms of the Constitution, upon a fair construction, nnd lam now lo Inquire whether lint cooipncl docs guaranty Ihnt perpetuity. Most imeipiivoci ly it docs not, and 1 hi s is a point of cardinal iuipomnce in Ihe argument I nm consider, ing. Wlni are called Ihe machinations of Ihe aboli lionisis, are nimcd nt three objects the abolition of stive ry in the District nf Columbia ihe suppression of Ihe sl tvc-irade In twecn the Slates ; nnd an nmen I mentof llieCiin-uiuuon, which shall nonunion si.nih. 1 rn representation in ihis Ilnu-i. upon n ftre ban. . If, then, it cm he shown, tint ihe onvilecia nrm. 1 nentlii cuaraoued lo the South bv the t'on.tiliilinn 1 are 111 no lUnger from these miehinniions. then the argument from lu'ctssilv fills to the ground. jgnin. . men., in "t et-uin- no my urguiiicni, is i ne inequality men, in et-uin- miih toy nrguiiieni, is ihe inequality of Southern representation permanently secured hy the guaranties of ihe Consiiiulion? for if not thtn toeniicnipi 10 ainenu tne uoosiiiuiion, in Ihis par ticuUr, is.uo iiifrio jement of Southern 'righls. 'Ihe North mi) lawfully icq its! a surrender of this South ern privilege, nnd Ihe action of States or parlies, wiih tint view, is no sufficient reason for asking us lo strengihcii IheSooih.so that il miy be oblc In resiit such an amendment. The only express guonniie. beating upon Ihe que-iion of slavery nre Art I. Sec 9. q-hit ihe slave-trade hould not be prohibited bv Congtess before IS03. An. IV. Sec. 2. Securing the right of recaption of fugitive slives. 1 An. V. Tint the restriction upon the power of Con gress to prohibit tlie slave-trade, (first clause ol rt. I, sec. Si) nn t the provision for the imposition or tax es according to the basis of repretentation. (fourth clause of art. 1, sec. 9) should not be affecicd by nny amendmenls to be made before IS03. In all Ibis, Ihe most zealous chsmpion'of Sottrlhern privileges will not contend, 111 11 he finds any gunraniy of the perpetuity of the iaeq iahly conceded by the Constitution. In fict, ihe only stipulation in lint compart, rxprrssly made unaltcrab'r, is ihit wherrbr tho equil representation of the smaller Slues in the Senateis secured. Hut when, on theolher hind, we fin I a provision for amending the Constitution, by the assent of threes fourths ( i1t Slates, unlimited iti il. terms, except as to the rquility in the Senate, and controlled only by tho restriction which rxpirnl in IPO?, there can bo no doubt, ihit this whole subject of ihoroinprooiisoisas open to amendment as ny other consiilulmnal provision. Hut, Mr. Chairman, I go further than ihi. Voo .ironware, sir, that nl tho time of the adoption of Ihe Constitution, tho wise ond good of the Scruih, a well as the North, regarded slavery as both an evil and wrong, and looked forward to its entl.eextineiion at no very distant thy. Couple this notoriou. fict with ihe limitations expiring 111 ISOct, and particularly ihe peculiarly chiricier of the guaranty irspeviing luj-a. tion, and what aro we auihorizcd 10 conclude ust th. tacit understanding ofihe 'ranter, ofllie Constitution on this subject 7 Let us look a little mote narrowly at this list restriction. For whose benefit Ka.it in scried ? Unquestionably lor the benTii of the North. Ils object was to se-rure the people of those Sstr in Ihcrnjovnienl of 0 lower ratio or taxation, until the South should be prepared lo begin the wort of enun cipiiion. If the South was toenjo) a perpetual ad vantage in the way of representation, why did Ih. North secure lo itself the rorrrsponding advantage in respert to toxstion, for iho short period of 011 If twen ty yens I Sir. iho conclusion 1 Irresistible, that boih the .North and the South looked forward to the xrar Ifi0a tho commencement ofa new era. when Ihox qlorions words of our De-cliralion of Iniltpenelenre were lobe indeeel soineihing more than a "hollow abstraction," and when we were to show, by our works, our f.nih in the eieni ilocttina !, .11 arc. created equal, and endowed with certain 1111. ben able riahls, nmnnir w Inch arc life, liberty, and the pur mitt of Imnnin.'.. " r I do not. indeed, exneel ihit ihi. a,m...... :n , udniilled by Southern gentlemen as com luaiur. hut I think "II cin.hd men allow that it i. not without rorce-plaiisiliihly si leat-and ihnt a IVorlVrn msn tnav Honestly hold it lu I e siiiauirlory, For mv own part, I do net be sitaie lo proless, before God and man nivowna.ni-reronviruon ofits truth. Hlh.n wi ho.in.lly, and with probable csuie, believe, that rou are thus pledged lo the abolition or .livery, and tfcet 1 -' "mi ,n ,11111 ini: 1 1 in mm to ill 111 o tie 10 inn r 1111 .