Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, October 17, 1845, Page 2

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated October 17, 1845 Page 2
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f 1 .'II when Perbano F.Mekkill, Esq.. of Mnnlpolict was elected : P. P. Merrill, ltt C. O. Eastman, " Ot It. V. March, 10 Jos: Danfortb, 1 i Petition! Referred. Of Pelcr Starr anil nth. era for a renewal of the charter of the Bihk of Middlebury, to tho committee on Binks; of Artemai Dixon, to tho committee of Clalma ; nf Asa ueorge and others and C. Slilpnian and 6t lifer, to restore the enrolled militia to the name footlnjr us under thr law of 1818, to conimitteo on' military atTdira ; of E. D. Birber and 50 others, Win. L. Hawkins anil 21 other, to the committee on Education j of John Kellnn and others, to form Averv's irore and nart of Rioton into a town, to a select committee nf three ; of 1'erstllon Moore, to the General committee. SENATE. 2 o'clock p. m. Report. Of committe nn Dank, in favor of me Dill amending chap, ell oi the ueviseu stat trie. The hill was taken up and passed. Joint Resolution. By Mr. Billings, to appoint a committe nf two, on the part of the Senate, to Drenare hunt rules : adontcd. Petitions PrcS'nted. By Mr Wondbridgo, of Amon Dailcy and 43 others ; by Mr Onion, nf U..1 Sinner and 43 others, nt Aiojcs Ulisa and '' 17 others, of J N Staples and 51 nthers ; hy Mr Button, of L M Walker and 78 others j by Mr Chittenden, of D A Barber and 78 others all , referred to the committee on Education. HOUSE. Petitions. Of Charles P Adams and 410 olh. crs', Zimri Howe and 01 oilier, Itenj. MauUv and 25 other. O t, Shafier aid 43 other. N Peck and 101) others, Jonas G Sliles and 48 Others, D R Barber and 03 others, David Down and 20 other. John II Mvrcs and 02 other. II Baratow and 10 other, James Huberts and 0 other, John II Worcester and 144 nlher, Horace Wilcox, and 48 others, Timothy Shcdd and 24 other, Trunin Galusha and 60 others. Samuel Mills and 15 other, Lewis M Walker and 77 others, all asking for an improvement In , rnmmcin schools, referred to tho cunmitto on Education. Of R W Keyes and 271 others, for an alteration of the mil.tia law, to committee on military affairs. Of Enos Merrill anil nthers, on peace, laid on the table to be referred with other petitions on the-same subject. Of Horace Loomis and 39 others, and E T Englcshy and 71 others, referred to Judiciary committee. Bills Introduced. By Mr Ruisell, taxing Chittenden county 3 cents on the list of 1815 ; referred to members of that county. By Mr Goodhue, to repeal act of 1912 rel.itinij to col lection of slate taxes ; referred to general com mittee. By Mr Russell, to incorporate the Winooski Mill Cumpany; referred to Judiciary committee. Resolution. Bv Mr S'evens, fora joint assem bly lo-mnrrow at 10 o'clock A. Mr in elect Sec. rotary of State and Auditor of Accounts; adopted. MESSAGE. t'eltou Citizens of the i'enate and House of Repre sentatives : The euardianship of the intetcsla of th's Common wealth, vihichTall within the province nt 119 civil government, has, by the favor of Providence, been committed to us 1 and we come loeether for the pur- Kse of ils execution. If we wo.dd discharge, in ihu it manner, the duties ii involves, we shall begin and end every thing, with a lecognition of our dependence upon Him "Irom whom all good counsels and all just works proceed i" while His claims upon our fi delity to Himself, will become an ever-present incen tive to fidelity in the service of the pconlo we repre sent. The year which is drawing to a close has been one or prosperity to our people. Though threatened drouth has repeatedly tilled them with appiehcnsion and alarm, they have finally been permitted to tea), an abundant harvest, thus happily findmu increased motives to gratitude, in deliverances from impending . danger, rendered the more impressive by strong con trast wn'.i less favored portions of our country. A great trust has been committed 10 us, as the con stituted guardians of the interests of this people. If, in the struggles connected wild the election which has sent us here, we have suffered unworthy passions . to gam an ascendancy, as they too often do in politi cal contests, we cannot come here and enter upon the sober work of surveying our responsibilities, without dismissing them all. main? each other by the hand as fellow citizens and brethren, and striving together for the faith of our fathers, and the furtherance of the great ends for which they established the govern ment we have been appointed 10 administer. How ahall we best accomplish these ends, within the I rief pace of our annual session? is a question to which yo" will allow me briefly to invite your attention. The institution ol civil government is designed to become an actively beneficent agency. The restraint of force is far from being its only object. Excepting in governments purely arbitrary, law derives it-, en ergy from a force extraneous to itself tho force of a deep and abiding sentiment of veneration for law a love ol order habitual sch'-restraint elevation and puruy of moral feeling, and intelligence to guide it wisely in the complicated affairs of Ti uman life. tml government, then, acconiplishe.- its object, not when it punches crime, but when it prevents hs commission, not by providing jails and penitentia ries, but by preventing the necessity of their exis tence 1 by training the people, as for as law can properly interpose its power, to intelligence and ihe love of virtue. The fathers of our State felt this, when, wub characteristic wisdom, they declared in the constitution, that "luws fot the encourogement of virtue and the prevention oi vice and immorality ought to be constantly kept in force and dnlv cxe cutcd) and a competent number of schools ought to be maintained in each town, for the convenient in struction of youth, and one or more grammar schools be incorporated and properly supported in coch coun ty in the Slate." Thus were Ihe encouragement of virtue, the suppression of vice, and Ihe maintenance of schools, deemed so vital to the welfare of the State, as to demand for them a special provision in its organic law. So large a portion of my first annual messajc to the (Jeneral Assembly was devoted to the subject of education, that I deem it necessary to do little mure, now, than to refer you, as I most respectfully do, to that message for my views in regotd to it. The Dreaent has been imtv ,tan..n.ir..t ..1 progress. The humsn mind is vigorously selling, ",-,. pi-'i.ui icsuu, me inomeuioiis truths which resnect the relations nf ,n eeh other, and the appropriate means of accomplishing pu.vw? v, ituiuai, aui-icijr ano government. At Ihe foundation of this vast movement lies the greal work of Kducation the work of developing, and giving a right direction to menial and moral power. And if human government is 10 bo regorded as an institution designed to perfect the purposes of society, and improve the condition of man u ion earth, jt needs no labored argument, to show, that education, thus defined, is among the highest duties of those entrusted with us administration. Nor should it beforgoiicn that there aro rights cor relative to this duty. Eveiy child in the Stole has a right to be cducated-a right as essentially reciprocal to thr claim of the Stale to allegiance, as is the riuhl 10 protection. The question wheiher theihildren of a Slate shall be educated, is no more a question of mere expediency, than is the question whether ihe jicupio nave rignt 10 protection from foreign air. gression, and domestic violence. Indeed, proteclion from lbs effects of ignorance and vice is, itself, pro lection, m the highest sense, from o l the dangers which can arise wiihin the limits of a Slate. Would i!!.nJi!ejH!nce "' 'V1. Le ,he children be learned, in the common school, as well as at the do msstic fireside, ihe duty of self-control, an'l of rever ence for he law of eternal rectitude written in The wordof.Oodi while the development, in jus i ,nd harmonious proportions of their whole mind, and an intelligent conviction of the greal purposes it is fitted 10 accomplish. r All Ihe children in Vermonl-especially ihe chil drenof the poor-atand in the olntudeof Vs" clahn ants, in re.pecl to education, upon the fostering boun- v. .iiu guaroisn care 01 the Stale. And what has , ,,ur,."3 'Err.7 sr. f.,."v7.va. .. lu 111 j' ' "v" "Banned town shall keep and support one or more schools, provided with competent teachers that the lowns shall be "i1" " Ma-uoi uuir cu i mat certain district 'officers shall be appointed t that taxes shall be as sessed and collected to build school houses and sun- . ;"f icume arising Irom I 1 v . uonuueu, lor ine I'urrent use 01 schools, Iheannnally accruing interest of Ihe surplus revenue of Ihe Unjied 81.au, deposiied.wiih this tJtte. And here, with the exception ot making pro. vision for certsin returns of school (tin'stics, we have left Ihe mailer, If school nouses are bui I, w hsve taken no car whatever for iheir proper location and ................ .u ,nc,,rn a,c cmpioyeit, we have done nothing in regard to Ihe all-imponanl matter of f Hjib ntasi1iniliAasi asnta f m 1 I iui 10 narren rnsctinent thai they shsll be Vompeunf." Whai shall consii tuie competency, ( r who shall judge of it, are mailers entirely overlooked in our legislaiion. The result is 1 ao admitted and lamentable deficiency in the quilifV cation of teachers 1 gresl and manifest defects in Ihe mode of instruction, and confusion and want of uni formity in regard 10 ihe books used for lhat purpose 1 while a' large proportion of our school house are located in hk'hwuys, with lilllo recurd in comfort or fitness in Iheir inurnal structure, and ss little to taste nnu duiv hou i-itiivewrnco in me grouna connect ! with ihem 1 if, indeed, any ground but those of li inL u. u tM lniinM.jul AnA u.l ... 1. . . . of money is annually expended for the use of schools. To siy nothing of the amount expended in the con struction of school houses of which we hsvo no means ot forming an cstunate let us look at Ihe pub lic expenditure for leaching. rrotn me statistics returned to me last year, irom 159 of Ihe 240 towns in the State. I drew Ihe con clusion In my report lo Ihe Ocneral Assembly, thai thcro was paid to Ihe leachets in Ihe whole Stale, exclusive of teachers of select schools from which Ihctc were no returns the un of '5123,000 annual Iv. No one can soberly con-ider this subiect. with out feeling punfully impressed with a conviction of nio utter watte in a very great portion oi tins targe sum. It is not extravagant to say, that its power for good might have been doubled, and more than doub led, if it bad beoil expended under a system of super vision which should have-carried into the schools, teachers fullv competent, and modes of instruction founded iinon the true nhiloionhv nf minil. nn I a practical arquaintanre with Ihe means best adapted lo i:b iiue Bin, iiuier etjucmiun iveuo noi su nmcn necn, at ine present moment, auutt una oecuniarv means, as we do a system adanled to uivn tfieater emcacy 10 inose nircaoy posstsseu, a system wmcn shall rive a risht direction to effort, and make it ef fectual In the proper education or the children of Ihe StSle. Tho whole, so far a ihe aid nl leirislntinn tnav be properly invoked, is comprehended in the preg nant words Supenleton Itetponiibllity. We have. nuw, iiuiiunjc mat ue-crves ino nameoi tuner, we nave provided, indeed, lor tho organization or dis tricts, and the emolovment of teachers hv their nrn- dcniinl committees, who are authorized and required to "adopt measures for the Insnection. examinniton. and regulation, of the schools, and tho improvement of the scholars in learning." Gut experience has J.ni. .l...nJ.H,t.. .1... .11 .1 :. ... Fiiuiii, uuiuiuititiiri fun, nn mis is mi a vhuiiii? io me purpose of securing a proper examination, or, indeed, anv examination, of teachers, or a nrnner snnsrvisinn of the schools, or to awaken that interest in their impr vcinent, among parents and throughout the community, wmcn is as iiintspensarjie to their vigor ous health and prosperity, as a pure and bracing at mnsphcre Is to Ihe simoon of human life. Wo want a system of supervision which shall make thepiiwcr of beneficent legislation felt, through com- givii, mm uisbii-c, nudities, 111 ityuij' uisirici, ana oy cvciy ciiiiu, ill me cinic. onniivte uavo it l not is the Question t and it urease uoon ua mnm iironni. ly than any other question within the range of our legislative duties, we cannot avoid its eons dprni an. TheSlates around us are moving onward in the work of improvement I and ao urgent have been considered Ihe claims of common schools unon eeiilniite not- ronage, so manifest the defects of old systems of supervision anu inirucnon, anu so common nnu uni versal Ihe benefits to be derived from improvements in both, lhat parly spirit has stood silent in presence oi tins great question, anu an Classes, and all parties, have made common cause in the noble work of edu cational improvement. The expense of carrying into effect a system of ad equate supervision need not be great, while lis benefits will ue inannreciao e. Ua ars and cents r.innm measure their value. We rcaddv make investment in railroads, and other improvement, which promise a rciurn oi pecuniary prom I Din wnai are eucti in vestments, in comparison with those which, in the process of educating a community to virtue and in tclliccnce. infuso into it Ihe crest nntl indisncnsabln elements oi sunn anu cnuuring prospeiny. .., . r , 1 . . 1 . i comtnena mis wnnte sunjcci la your earnest con sideration, under a foil persuasion that nn awakpned and greatly advanced p it lie sentiment will respond a hearty approval to your favorable act ion nn'il. t cannot leave tno sunject or common schools, without devoting a few moments attention in what is familiarly denominated "the School Fund." The foundation of this fund was laid in 1825, when the General Assembly passed an act srquesterint and granting to Ihe respective towns in Ihe Slate, for the uencnt oi common scnoois, ine amount ot ine avails, accrue I, and thereafter to accrue, In the State, from Ihe Vermont Stale flank, and also the amount of Ihe State funds accruing from the six per cent, on the nelt profits nf the banks, received and lo be teceived, and the amount received and to bo received from licenses to pedlar. It wns provided lhat said funds, with the annu.inv accruins interest, should bo "invested in approved bink slocks, or nlher productive securities," ano snouia not De npprnpriaieu lo tno use ol schools, until the amount should increase to n sum, whose an nual interest should be adequate lo defray the ex penses nf kcenins a 20od frea common school, in eac:i district in ilia Slate, for tho period of two monms. The State Treasurer was constituted n commission er lor the management of the fund i who thereupon prucecucu iu mvcsi me samet oy loans, lor ine pur nose contemplated in the act. Uv an act passed in the rear ISM. furiher lnnn. from the fund were Drohibited. and the Treasurer n. ( 1 ! , .i . t (ut , it i!r -i , (,B asto in 1. . !. should be received, and lo keep an account thereof, and annually charge the Stale wilh Ihe interest on lltn nifknntf ,!, rlai.natlu u.kil. i, ..... .1 I. ..J ''shall be considered a borrowed from the fund '' and ihe Treasurer was "authorized and directed to Kay out said money on any appropriations authorized y law." Under the operation nf ihu act, and principally in connection with ihe expendiiure of 8117,000, for the erection of ihe Slate House, lic Slate, from lime to nine, nas oecome indebted to llu- fund, until the in del tcdness now amounts, including the accumula tions of interest, lo the sum of 8221 .303 SO. u hilo inereis uue to uno n inoividiiu, Ihe sum of 810.590' j 1 1 moKini; nn ncirrcnie ot s'.n.tAKMi. The exnediencv nf coniinuioff ibis fund hn lnn been questioned. Upon full consideration, I deem it submit Ihe question, whether any present or prospec tive interest of the people requires that it be con- 111 V autv 10 Drill!! tile suhlecl lo vuur notice, nnrt tn uniieq. The first Question lo be considered is. u-bro will ,H fund become available for the u-o i f schools ; that is, when will the annually accruing interest be "ade quate io defray the expenses of keeping a good free common school, in eni-h district in the Stale, for the period of two months.1' i tie nuuiner ot school districts in Ihe 210 towns in the Stato taking the returns of lasl year from 153 towns, which cave 1809 districts, as the basis nf enl. culalion may be estimated ol 2730. If it be assumed, for Ihe calculation, that, by the lime the fund will be come available, the number of the districts will have increascu len per cent, on the present number which may be regarded as not an improbable increa-c wih in thirty-three years wo sha'l have 3000 districts lo be provided, fiom Ihe avails of Ihe fund, with a good s hoiil, two months in each year. E-timaiing ihe expense of keeping such school two months, in tho then advanced stage nf educational improvement, at 810, there would be required the sum of 8120,f00, as the accruing interest of ihe fund, to render ii availa ble . which is Ihe interest, at six per cent, on 82,000,- ooo. The question now arises wiihin what lime will Ihe fund probably accumulate io 82.000.0007 Its present amount is 8234.900 41 thn snnnst intri on which, at six per cent., is 814,09102. The aver- "iiiiuui iiicume irom me six per cent, oi tank profits, for the last six years, has been 83,609 8G t and from pedlar's licenses 81,146 52 i amounting to 81,816 33 1 which may be assumed as the annuslad ditton lo the fund, hereafter, from InosA mirea The avails of the Vermont Slate Hank have neatly m..Uiuu ouj, me iunu, nnu snoutu not ,y l . 1 any calculation tor ihe future. we nave, men, ine elements of the calculation, namely, the present amount of the fund, the interest thereon for one vear. and ih, m-nlmhl r,nnBi ;nnnmA from Ihe bonk lax and pedlar's licenses. The process or Bccumii anon by annually compounding the inter est, according : to the act constituting ihe fun I, will produce 82,000.307 79 on the first of January, 1879 1 Ail Ihnl lhM f-titl.lrn .1..,, I. : .l". . - ' '" ",,u unn ua iii me m mm year, will reap the first friius of Ihe fund, if it hsll be so lonz continued. This essutnes hiwever, ihe doubtful position, that six per cent, interest may I e realized throughout the entire intervenim, nf-rint r A.r..M years and three months, and make no allowance for losses, and theexpenseof mansginz the fund. The great question is now nresented what, in rr. 'rence to this fund, is our duly to the generation of ioio , nuiiuiiini-, ui course, tool it is our auty to la bor for Ihe benefit ol lhat generation, the question is will that generation be really.-benefitted by a con tinuance of the fund 7 If we could send it forward to them, really invested in "approved bank slocks, or other productive securities," according lo Ihe law of 1823, they might, perhaps be benefitted though the expediency ol accumulating school funds, so large, as io have Ihe elTeel of relaxing personal efforts, begin to be questioned. Bui so far as we send them a fund, consisting of a debt due from the Stale, we send thern a fund entirely unproductive a fund which, when it reaches ihem, will consist merely in Iheir indebted ness io inemsi'ivcs. it we would make it otherwise, we must lax Ihe people of this feneration in an amount sufficient lo extinguish the indebtedness of ihe State fund j and hating ihusdiawn tho amount f rom the pockets of the people, invest it in "produc tive at.fl ,rtia " anrl in it,., h.nll,,iAi. ..-.I. 1 -..-,,.'.,. - b..uiiii, odiuiiiurwsru to the generation of 1978. Hut who is prepared to do this 1 Who will vote (or such a lax 7 None, itmsy be confidentialy affirmed. Nor, it may be affirmed wuh equal conddencj, will our successor be willing to do it, five, len, twenty, or thirty years hence, when the indebtodnes of the Stale (hall, by ihe compound '"u l 'n,erc"' have become greatly increased- Of what benefit, ihen, will the fund be lo them, unless it oan.liy some fiscal magic, be made spontaneously lo yield tho iniere.t, and pour it into Ihe treasuries of the 'owns for ihe use or schouls7 The whole operoiion. so far as ii proposes In bene fit the generation of 1878, isadclusion. Ii isthepeo- nieiesl 10 Ihe debt sgainsl themselves, and sending bis accumulated indebtedness forward lo become the indeb ednes. of a generaiion thirty three years hence. Z, '?P"rn. 'bf1"''fi''inglh.l generaiion. The ih. it ' V'V' '"'"dof sending ihem a benefit we . ' .ncI ,nem burden, which, if wise, Ihev will bv abolishing the fund, .hake off-n.mel "'Z IS t they would carry ihe act, constituting fund, into ffecl-of raising Ihe lineren on it by direct taxation, lo be paid tnlo the Slate trea-ury, minus the expense of collection, for Ihe puriwt of being sent by the commissioner of Ihe fund back to the pcople.io be expended for ihe use of schools. It will not be very unnatural for ihe tax-payers of thai day lo enquire, why they ahould support their schools by such a complicated and expensive process, rslher than by the simpler and cheaper on of taxing themselves for Ihe purpose, in Iheir respective lowns or districts. If fulnre generation would not b benefitted by ihi lund, neither will the present. TbU i elf-vi-dent. Why, then, continue it 7 In these remark I am understood, of course, lo have poken of that put of the fund which conlsts of iho indcbledness of tho Slate, amounting at this tuiiu, iu mo sum oi bU. An sci io annul mis illdebledne-s. would leavn In Ihs disnnsnl nf. Ihe sum of 810,590 91, invested in individual securities, bearing inicresi. none would think or sulleting tins sum lo accumulate, even wnh Ihe addition of Ihe six per cent, on bank profits, and the income from pedlars' licenses,' with a view of mnking them available for schools, under the act of 1825. The demand for funds to aid In putting in operation a system of common school improvement, such as me oiaie neens, nna public sentiment evidently de mands, suggests the direction which might be given lo a part, or all, of Iheso source of income, when released from Iheir nresenl connection. It la helieved that tho annually accruing interest on that portion of ihu vrtseii, scnoui iiino, loaneo on private securities, together with the annual Income from pedlar' licen ses would bo sufficient for lhat purpose. We moy ihu Institute a ayatem of Supervision and Accounta bility, whieh shsll give concentration and encrcy to the present effort lo raise Ihe stsndard, and multiply the facilities of education, until the minds of Ihe mas of our children the happy mingling of tho poor and the rich together shall reel it equalizing and elcva. tmg power. Thus, while conferring substantial ben efits on ihe present generation, we may send forward an influence, which thall flow on, in a continually widening stream nf benefit and blessings to the gen erations thai shall succeed us to Ihe end of lime. Should it be found that no interest of the Present, or of future generations, can be benefitted by a con'in nam e of the Stale Indebtedness to bo fund of which Hiave spoken, and Ihe indoUcdnees should bo can celled, ihe Slate debt would then stand as follows t Due the safely fund banks, including interest to Oct. I, . 830,389 81 Due tho surplus fund, 814,812 20 Deduct the amount loaned out the oast vear. 11.001 00 3 803 29 Salaries due, Oct. I, l', 103 33 Duo lo towns for interest on surplus fund, 444 30 Total, 835,750 78 The balance in Ihe Treasury on the 13th of Sept. wns 818.41779 Balance of taxes due, 23,252 50 Total, 841,650 50 To whsl extent the service of the cominrr vear porlion of which necessarily constitutes a draft on Ihe present naiancoin the rrcasuiy end nn taxes will permit thesnnlicntion of a nart nrihnin hilinp.in. wards tho exttngnisement of the indebtedness of Ihe Slate, may be determined, upon Ihe careful exomina lion which ought lo bo made into every branch of ex- eiiuiiure. wnn n view to ascertain wnether there can be anv reduction, consistently with thn nuM,. nr.,, In looking at the expenditures of past years I have been struck with the lareo amount disbursed under tneneausoi - supreme ana bounty Uourl orders," and "Clerks of Courts for tho expenses of Supreme and County Cncr Is i" which have risen fiom 820,405, in 1839, to 820,970. in 1840. The amount disbursed un der theso heads during the last seven years, has been 3181,300. averaging 826.328 ner annum. I would suggest the propriety of nn examination into the details ot thee large items orexpcndiiure in regard lo which it may possibly bo found lhat, in a course of years, """on liu.6 Itl, IlljUlllllg lUdClliVV ICglSIS lion. The treasury is happily relieved from a charge which, for many years, hung upon it, in the form of "nillifnrv nrHprs.1' u,hiti r.i 11.. u..n . ........... . .w. ,tu,o, piCTIIJUS iu. and including the year 1343, when they ceased to be a draft on the treasury, amounted to the sum nf St a . 601. I am happy to say, that, by a jaw of last year, the people are rcheyed from the still more burdensome mA iii annual iraiiiini? oi mo enronea milllia. It may be reasonably hoped lhat, by a practicable, miu iiu, iiijiiiiuu reuueuon oi eapenuiiurcs, particu larly in the heavy items to which I have referred. . sum moy bo saved which, with a fixed appropriation of the income from the bank lax relieved from its present pteugc to the school fund might, wiihin modcrste period, ex'inguish ihe entire indeblednes of the Slate. The reference I haie made to the items of emend lure in conneciion with Ihe Supremo and County Courts a large portion of which results from crimi nal prosecution suggests a topic of much interest, to which I would coll your attention. The great purpose of criminal law is reformation. This purpose lies at the foundation of the Penitentiary s)stem, which combines wilh imprisonment, hard labor, and a course of moral discipline suited lo bring bock offenders Iu the paths of rectitude and virtue. flut this system is applicable, under our laws, only to the highet offences. Icavinir a large class of offender,. without the benefit of any such reforming process, and substituting for h, confinement in the count v iails in some cases, with the alternative of the payment of noes mio ine county or town treasuries, lor non-pay mcnt ol which, inonsonment neees-arilv follows. Whether confinement in tho county jails is inflicted s puiiisuiiieiii, or resuuBirom inaoiiuy to pay nncs, it obviously has an effect entirely the reverse at refnr. motion. It i-impossible to visit a convict, thus thrown into a county jail, with little or no attention lo any except his mere animal wants, without feeling pain fully impressed with a conviction, that it is an unnat ural and monstrous perversion of the power of punish ment. Without employment or exercise, the convict is left lo Ihe corroding and maddening influence of the reflection thol he is an outcast from tho charity and sympathy of the world s and that the law and its ex ecutioners are alike his enemies. Every moment's continuance of such confinement tends to weaken hit purno-e of amendment, and orenaro him for aban donment to the commission of higher offences. There are cases to wmcn tins snot true i but lev const lute the execution and not the rule. If the history nf nil .1... c...,. :..- .... j: i ft me uiiiiu lauii vuiiviuis luny uisciusetl, 11 wuuiu prooauiy ueiounu, tnot a large portion ol tnem have been tenants of county jails, in punishment for infer'ur offences. Tho remedy for this evil is obvious. It is the appli cation of the principle of penitentiary discipline, to minor offences, bv means of Houses or Correction in each county to be made comfortable in their struc ture and accommodation'', and to ha connected with such arrangements for the profitable employment of me inmates, anu tno exercise otsucn nrm ami steady discipline, as sound wisdom, and the spirit of Chris tian kindness may suggest. By such means may oflenders be made useful to Ihe public, during the ne cessary continuance of their confinement, while the higher purpose shsll be answered, of impressing upnn their minds, bv everv thins1 Ihev shall see around Ihem, that they aro men bound to society, not by the vi luiio mcrciy, uui ujr ,110 uiinrr law oi moral obligation, as well as by the sympathies of our com mon nature. Such a course of treatment would, doubtless, have a very happy'inltuence upon "vagrants and idle and disorderly persons," for who restraint and disciplino our laws mako no provision, save thai of Ihe town poor-house, which, bv the 21st section of chan. 17 of the Revised Siatutcs, are constituted house of correction, but which, while Ihey involve Ihe evil of an unnaiurai mingling 01 ine aged ami tnhrm poor with the restive and troublesome, can seldom be made lo accomplish, to any considerable extent, the purposes u, t;iirreciiun anu reiorm. . The besring upon our whole system of criminal jiytivr, ui such, a process u, uiscipune as may db i-arrt ed into effect in county houses of correction esne. cially in the cases of juvenile offenders is obvious its saiuiary etiecis would, in due nine, be visum in uiiiiuusnea ursu upon ine otate t reasury lor ine ex nenses ol criminal orocedinira t in a diminished num ber of convicts in the Slate Prison, and in increasing peace, order and obedience to law, throughout the buuiiuuniiy. 1 have received the ninth annual renorl of the True. tees and Superintendent of Ihs Vermont Asylum for thu Insane, which presents a very gratifying exhibi tion of ihe condition and prospects of lhat Institution, under its present excellent and efficient uoiernment. During the past year 201 have been admitted into ins asyium, nave teen discharged, and Z63 remain in. 3G3 have eniovod the benefits nf ilm asylum. wiihin the entire year. Of the 99 discharged, 59 have recovered. Of the 43 "recent cases" discharged, there ..u9 ween u icwvcucs. in me oi cnrnnic cases Dis charged, the recoveries have been but 16. The greal importance of obtaining the benefit of the asylum in tho earl v staaea of insanity, is thus rendered annsren t. The annual Slate appropriation for the benefit of the itine poor was increased, at the lost session of Ihe General Assembly, to 83,000 1 in consequence of which the number of patients at the asylum has in- tieaoeu uunng me past year, so as lo render the erec tion nf addition! buildings necesssry. Additional buildings, to contoin about 80 rooms, are partly fin ished and occupied, snd will, it is expected, be com pleted by the first of November next, when all the buildings will be sufficient for Ihe accommolation ol about 300 patients a number deemed by theTrustecs, to be as large as is desirable in one asylum. The report states that such an amount of fund will be received from other sources, as to supersede the necessity of an application lo the legislature for as- isiance iu uciriy ine expenses oi ine additional ac commodaiions. Since the first ol January last, 137 palienls have shared in the Stale appropriation, of whom 19 have been di-cliargcd t leaving of theso cases, 118 now in Ihe asylum. Tho cxiatinff Slate nnnrnnrintlnn he. paid a little mors tlun three-fifths of ihe expense of iiu who uavo uccn in me asyium, as Plate benen cisms, during Ihe past ycarj leaving the remainder lobe paid by those who sent them there; and it is estimated by the Trustees, that the appropriation will boadeauale to dcfriv. duruiv ihn ntst An. Ihird ofihe expense of Ihs present number of Stale pcncnciaiics. t nay suggest ine uesiraoKnee of sn increased SDoroDiiation. aoaa in defray nearly nnu. half the expense of lhal number.. I concur in this ujgesuon. An increasca appropriation would pro bably havo Ihe effect of inducine Inwna tn Mim mr.A keep, ai ihe asylum, inssne poor persons who might otherwise be deprived of ils benefits. There is a clsss of cases in which entire recovery might be effected by a continuance beyond the limit of lbs present Bla't appropriation, wnen a restriction lo last limn might render ihe appropriation, aa lo them, of little value. Ills very desirable lhat the insane poSr should not, through iruuflictenl inducement It, town to continue Ihem l lh asylum, by returned, uncured, lo (he mis arable condition, which, through humanity of our t, r k ' ' . 'c neon permuted lo ea- - Va- . ,i,s auuaiamiai conuoris, ana in implor ing influence of thai institution. r The establishment of the asylum, wilh it excel lent ystem of treatmtnt, while it ha had ihe effect of disclosing lh tertible atcrtt ofinaanity, ha glad dened the hearts nf the benevolent, with a reaeonable nope oi giving citcctnai teller to a large portion or Ihe insane, and ofminislciingrreally, to ,lho comfort of inose wno nave, oy ionaegiect, oecome incurable. No object, proper for legislsliKt aid, mokes a strong er appeal lo our liberality than litis, upon enicnng on ine uui'nsoi(;ommis-loncr ortho ueoiand uumb, l dtrpclcdatTics lo the Superin lendent of Ihe American Hum at Hsrlford, Con necltcut, for tho purpose rTO)taining information, in sundry particulars, in regard . to the past connection of that institution ithf education of the deaf and dumb persons, stdieex, set Ihi slate, and receiv ed, in reply, h tcnenlacmyig, agreeably lo my request, ine names and (estavnee of person, support ed, in whole, or in part, by this Stale the limes of Iheir admission and discharge. Ihe neriod of Iheir in struction al the public expente, and the amount paid for each, by Ihe State. I transmit the statement, herewith, to the House of Representatives, for Ihe use of Ihe General Assembly. It appear that, from the year 1917, but principally since tho yesr 1825, 113 have been educated, in whole or in port, by IhisStaio at an expense, up lo the 1st of May last, of the snm of 838,118 25. I have made orders for Ihe admission into the As ylum of 8. The whole number now in the Asylum, at the public charge, is 20. Of iho appropriation for this object, thcro has been expended, during the past year, the sum of 81,960 91. The Asylum is under a very competent and intelli gent Supcrintcndency, and is, evidently, deserving the continued patronage ef ihe State. In execution of my duty as Commissioner of the Blind, I have made orders for the admission of two blind persons into the New Kngtand Institution for the blind, al Boston. The expenditure for Ihe sup port of the blind, during Ihe past year baa been 81,120. In execution of the taw ortho fast session providing for a Geological Survey of the State, I appointed Professor Charles B. Adams, of Middlebury, Princi pal Geologist. Mr. Adams entered on the duties of the appointment in Match last) since which lime ho has been laboriously, engaged, with Ihe aid of well qualified assistants, in prosecuting a Geological and Mineralogies! survey of Ihe State. The law hiv ing mado il ihe duty of iho Geologist lo report annually to the Governor, iho progress of the work, he has made lo me hHAjkjjnnual report, which I shall hereafter (communiijatolo boll) branches of ihe General Assembly. The labor of the first year of the survey have been mainly and appropriately directed to a general recon noisancc of the Stale, for the purpose of determining its general geological features, Including tho limits of the several rock formations, preparatory to more minute investigalions In subsequent years. How well this pari of the surrey has been performed, will appear in the report of thn Geologist when submitted lo you. From a hasty examination of it, I hsve been led lo believe that it will be found, by those compe tent to judge, to furnish evidence that Ihe prosecution of Ihe work, thus far, has well fulfilled the purpose for which the -urvey was instituted. Tho report wilt be found, I think, to contsin mote valuable informa tion than is usually embodied in preliminary reports, especially in tho department of Economical geology, upon which, on account of its great practical impor tance, I have directed the Geologist to bestow special attention throughout the entire survrv.

The report contains a statement of ihe expenses of ine survey, Drought down to ine loin ol oepiemoer, amounting to the sum of 31,336 22, and an estimate fur the balance of the geological year ending on the first of March next, being 8663 amounting, for the entire year, lo the sum of 81,999 22. It will.be seen that this sum fall within the limit of Ihe annual ap Drnnrialion for Ihe anrvev. In performance of Ihe difficult and respon-ible duty vt uuioiiiiiitu a aiaio wcuiogisi, i iinTccniciiciitru no little embarrassment from the limited amount of tho annual approft-ialioofa'e,000 an amount Con siderablyrbelorthat,of (similar appropriations in other States, and muchlbelow tho sum previously estimated as necessary for the survey of this Slate. an amount, however, which I have felt bound to make the immovable limit of all my calculations for the prosecution of the work. I have, therefore, been compelled to restrict the Geologist and his assistants to compensations below those usually allowed for such services; in record to which, however, I deem il fortunate thai I have) been able to secure, for com pensations so inadequate, services so efficient and valuable, lam inclined lo think lhat justice to those engaged in tho survey, as well as lo the survey itself, demands some addition lo thcjappropriaiion, .for the acn ice of the remaining two years. The Geologist will hereafter report to me, as ihe law makes it his duly todo, on eatimnlo for the ex penses of the next year, which I will transmit for Ihe consiuernuon oi ine uenerai Asscmuiy. The law authorising the survey, makes no provis ion forpteserving suits of specimens for any purpose. The preservation of a suit lo form a Slate cabinet being, however, obviously indispcnsible, I have given orders to Ihe Geologist lo that effect. I have receiv ed formal applications for suit of specimens, from Middlebury College, from Ihe Medical Colleges al Woodstock and Castleton, and from the Troy Con ference Academy at Poullney. The obvious impor tance of having collections of specimens illu.-lrating the geology and mineralogy of the Slate, to form cabinets in these Insdrajtit-ns, as well aa in Vermont and Noiwtch Universities, has induced me. though without authority of law', lo ditccl Ihe Geologist to make his '-ollection sutflciently large, to enable him to furnish complete sets to all these institutions, in in regard to which I confidently anticipate the sanc tion of the General Assembly, in Ihe small additional appropriation which may be necessary lo meet tho auuuionat expense. I am happy to say that a deep and general interest has been manifest by toe people, in the survey as it has progressed i whi.h, il is hoped, maybe regard ed as an earnest of which is to be expected through its entire course Tbs science of geology, though possessing high practical, intcaest, is but little under stood bv ihe mass of the ceople. I regard it. there fore, as not among Ihe least important benefits of the survey, wmcn tnciiDerantyoi itieucnerai Assembly has authoiized, that il will awaken amongall classes a more peneral interest in the scienco, and have Ihe effect ol directing the active' minds of our people es. pecially the young of both sexes lu us study a study so well adapted to discipline, expand and elevate the mind, while it goes forth to investigate and admire the useful and mysterious, the beautiful andjaublime of the Creator's work. By the tesolclion of the General Assembly, passed t the lasl session, it wns made the duty of the liov ernor lo request Ihe delivery by Ihe General Govern ment, of "Ihe four brass cannon, taken by the Green Mountain UoyS; from the British al Benning ton, on the 16th of Atajtjlt 1777," and lo cause the same when received, Ho be deposited in Ibe State House. In obedience to Ihe reqiirement of this re solution, I addressed Ihe Secretary of War on the 21st of January last, renuesting the delivery of the cannon. To this I received a reply, dated the 20th of tDruary, saying, tnai -anouia ine guns reierrea io be found in the possession of the ordnance corps, ihey are among the other trophic of the war of Ihe revo lution, and are held a public property of the United Slates t" and suggesting sn application to Congress for an order for their delivery. In reply to a subsequent communication from me, asking ibat an enquiry might be made, for the purpose of ascertaining the number of the cannon taken al Bennington, then in the possession of Ihe U. Stales, and their location, I received a letter from the Secre tary of War, covering! a report from the Ordnance department, by which it appeared lhat there were, al Ihe United States arsenal at Washington two btaas guns, reported as three pounders, and marked "taken from Ihe German at Bennington, August 16. 1777 j" and that "no other trophies captured on lhat occasion are known lo be in the possession of thegovcrnment." Copiea of this correspondence, numbered from I to 5 inclusive, are herewith communicated lo each branch of ihe General Assembly. An application to Congress being thus rendered necesrary, I recopimead such further action as shall be deemed appropriate lo effect the application, and render it available. i The necessity of more effectual pravision for pre ventinp the evils reanfcbw from the Draclice of taking unlawful Interest, In Jlres me again to invite lo it the attention of the General Assembly. Our laws havo long prohibited the taking of inter est above the rale of six per centatn perannum. All the reasons which hate induced the enactment and conlinusnce ofthe prohibition, obtiously urge its en forcement. Indeed ills urged by the additional con sideration that habitual impunity to the violation of nv law, tend lo weaken me torce oi an law. II the law isjto remain on the statute book, il should nopbe left without adequate prevision for its enforce ment. No such provision now exists. The only remedy is by an action lor money had and received, or goods sold and delivered, for Ihe recovery of Ihe interest received unlawfully, to be sustained by com mon law evidonceof its payment process which experience hss abundantly shown, ctn very rarely be made available. To leave the enforcement of so im portant a right to the chance discovety of testimony to a transaction, which, from it very nature, ia guarded wun ine proiounaesi secrecy, t uui a uivc cry of justice. I submit wheiher anme nrovision should not be mado which shall give a remedy, better suited lo the nature or ine care a remedy wmcn snau nna its means of enforcement in an appeal, in sonoeform, to Ihe conscience of the receiver of unlawful interest. Our conneciion wilh the Federal Union whose power reaches, and deeply affects, our tnlertsts, makes it our right andeur duty, frequently lo review il legislation, and subject iu policy, present and pros pective, lo tiaminatjqn. The duty hi never been more ioweraiiva trails! iba nresenl moment, nol only on ai-count of Ihe grtal unportanceof Ihe questions in Ksue before the country, but from a consideration of the obvious and inoreaaing tendency to a course of f cderal administration, woolly partizan m its charac ter, and so bent on securing sectional ascendancy, or ministering to purposes of political ambition, a to lose sight,' loo often, ;of the jutl limit of constitutions! power. . Since the lasl session of the General Assembly, an impo-.lant sten hs. been taken towards the annexa tion of a foreign government to our Conftdetaey. This has been dona hy lb adoption of a joint resolu tion by Congress; declaring it' consent that "the iv, uiory property inetuseo la, inu iinunur snuni- ing-io the republic of Texss, may be reeled into a new stsie, in order that ihe iimi may be admitted, as one or the Slates of Ibis Union." This consent is de clared to be given upon the eondiisin lhat Ibe consti tution io be formed by Ik people ef Tsxss, aball be transmitted lo th President of the United Slat "lo be laid before Congress for its final action, onor before the first of January" ncxl, and wilh a provision' among others, thai "new Stales of convenient size, and having sufficient population may, by iho consent or soid Stato, be formed out of the territory thereof, nnd entitled to admission under tho provisions of Ihe Federal Constitution. To this resolution there was added another, lo the cfTecl that if the President should deem it most advis able, Instead of submitting Iho foregoing resolution to the Republic of Texas, as an overture for admission, to negotiato with lhal Republic, then that the admis sion might be effected, either by treaty, to be submit ted to Ihe Senate, or by article to bo submitted lo the two House of Congrttr, as Iho President might direct. Upon the passsge nf these resolutions, the President proceeded to act upon the first, and forthwith aubmit ted il lo Texas, aa sn overture for ils admission. Up on the receipt of the overture, a conventiun waa called Which hss furmed a constitution, which has been aub. mitica to tno people or Texas for their action on tho 13th of the present month. It will probably be ratifi ed, and submitted to the Congress of ihe United States at its next session, for the approval, which is an in dispensable prerequisite to admission into the Union. The ouestlon of annexation beine thus an noen nuea- tion, the stsles may, wilh a view lo ils final decision, as well as in reference te iheir duty upon c possible consummation of ihe measure, properly subject it lo the ordeal 'offsevere scrutiny. I deem, therefore, no apology necessary for inviting to it your particular attention, nor for Ihe expression of my conviction mot Vermont snouia nrmiy resist every advance to wards Ihe consummation of a measure, so utterly subversive of her righla as a member of the existing vuiiiruenicT. This meditated invasion of our rights is not to be regsrded, or treated. an ordinary violation of the cuiisiiiuiion, lur which .mere may dci constitutional remedy in inn inlernnsition of the Indicia! nnwer. Nn judicial power can effectually reach Iho case. Let the aeca ue oone tne lorcign siate admitted, and lis sen- uiois aim wureseiiiauvi's uo nciiiouy in liungteas, and, practically, a decision of the Supreme Court would be powerless. The truth is, thameasureis essentially revolutionary. It is a fraud upon the Constitution, and utterly subversive of it changing essentially, our domestic f euerai relations, and cresting a new union, oi wmcn neither tne present constitution, nor mutual confidence will constitute Ihe bond) a union whose only bond will be, the spprehended evils ot actual Sep. oration, since it is impo-aible that confidence or offec. Hon can exist wnere mere is an abiding sense of fla gram injuauceono usurpation. Much has been eald in regard to the "com promises nf tho Constitution" in favor of Slave, ry ; and so sensitive are tho South on this subject en tenacioua ofthe concessions wrung frnm the North, aa tho price of the Union, that the bare proposal, by the legislature of Massa chusetts, to amend the Constitution, by abo'ish inrr the slavn representation in Congress, has been denounced as little less than treason to the Union. But this very compromise carries with it an irresistible argument against thu measure of annexation. A alight consideration of the subject will rentier it apparent, that the compromise securing a slave representation, must have had reference to a union within the then limits of the United States, because it concerned a sectional interest, tho adjustment of which, in the compromise, must necessarily, have had respeet to definite territorial limits otherwise the balance might be destroyed, and the compromise practically nullified, by the addition of foreign alave States, giving to the slave intoreat an unlnoked for and permanent preponderance in the Union. And such nullification will be the effect of consummating the measure of annexation. Tho compromises touching the question of slavery win ue at an eno as clearly so, as would De one ot two dependent and reciprocal obligations between individuals, where the oth er had been violated. The truth is, that, at the time of securing the Croat and fatal concession nf the slave repre sentationby whose votes in Congress almost every question affecting the relative interests ol the alave and non sUvrlioIding Slates, in eluding Ihe question of annexation, has been decided no thought was any where entertain ed, of extending the bounds of slavery beyond the limits of the United States, It was, nn the contrary, the universal expectation that slavery would decline, and at no distant period, cease to mar our Federal Union. It was in the spirit of this anticipation that it was declared, in the ar tides of compact embodied in the celebrated Ordinance of Congress of '67 for the govern ment of the Territory North West of tho Riv er Ohio which passed wih but one dissenting vote that "there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary aervitude therein, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes." And what still more strikingly evinces tho spirit of those times, and the true bearing of that ordinance in reapect to slavery, the preamble lo the artielea of compact declared, that Ihev were ordained "for extending the fundamental principles of civil and religious liberty which form the basis w hereupon these republics, their laws and con stitutions are erected." If it had been asserted in the Convention that formed tho Constitution, that, under the clause declaring that "new States may bo admitted by the Congress into this Union," foreign slave States might and would come in, it is very man. ifest that the clause would not have been adopt ed without an express negation of such a con struction much more, that a provision for the representation of three fifths of ihe slave popu lation would not have been permitted a placo in the Constitution. The fact that such a provis ion was made is, therefore, conclusive evidence that the admission into the Union of foreign slave States under the Constitution, entered into no one's conceptions, and would have been expressly guarded igainst, if suggested from any quarler. It follows that every assertion by the South of the sacredness of the slave representation compromise, ia an argument out of its own mouth, that the introduction of foreign slavo Slates into tho Union is, itself a violation of the compromises of the Constitution. And it furthermore follows, that such introduction of foreign slave States, in effect discharges the North from its obligation to a continuance of tho slave representation a representation sufficiently onerous when confined to the Con. stilutional Union, but intolerable when extend, ed to a new Union, formed by the introduction of foreign slave States, tor the purpose of per petuating the dominion of the slave power. Let the South either relinquish the unrighteous advantage of tho alate representation, or cease to press for the admission ol foreign slave States. To claim both is an aggravation of in justice, equalled only by that of the system for whoso support anil continuance it it perpe trated. Equally unjust and absurd ia it to claim an execution of the constitutional stipulations for the surrender of fugitives from oppression, and for protection against domestic violence, while the right is claimed and exercised, to augment and porpetuate, indefinitely, the burden of these obligations, by the annexation of foreign slave States lothe Union. Slavery, moreover, is an clement of weak ness, inviting invasion, which Iho Constitution binds the nation to repel, in whatever quarter it may threaten. How long, and to what extent this obligation is to be binding, may hereafter become a question. The advocates of annex ation' would do well now, to consider it; as they would also, the question, to what extent there shall be maintained, at an enormous cx pense, a navy to prevent ihe coastwise slave trade, destined to acquire unwonted activity under annexation policy, t To theso motives for resisting the consumma tion of tho threatened measure, must be added ita injustice to Mexico, and the disgrace of per. petrating it, because aho ia unable to resist. And to render this injustice Ihe more flagrant, and iho grasping spirit in which the whole an nexation movement originated, and has been conducted, Ihe more manifest, it would now seem that the Bxecutivo ia pushing a claim to territory as a part of Texas, clearly beyond any limits ever assigned to the department of that name, and not even in possession of the gov ernment to whom tho overture for annexation haa beon made. Ilia impotence of Mexico may be lo us an effectual proteclion. We are probably safe from the injury ber sense of wrong may prompt Iter to indict. Out who shall protect us from iho jusl judgment of an imperial world, orblol lh stain of injustice from lh psges of our country' history. In roltrence to th position sometimes taken, that Ihe action already bad upon the subject of snnexstion concludes us from further opposition lo the metsure. It ufA-ienl lo ssy, that no right can be concluded by any action, of ihe character of lhal legislation under which lb overture to Texas has been made. Ilia an aiUmDt io annex bv ioint resolution ef Con- gress tho unconstitutionality of which was o appar ent, that ii became. necessary to connect with it ar) iicraaiiv rvsuiuitun, urwviuing r-ir aniiHsuon oy treaty. It wss by the union of such sn alternative, that conscientious scruples as to annexation by joint resolution were quieted, though the alternative left it in Ihe power of Ihe President to give effect, as he haa done, to the joint resolution itself, and thus do Ihe very thing which those scruples would not allow could be done. vehave, thus, a double violation ofthe Constitu tion! to which must be added, Ihe fact that the President elect made his appearaneo at the scene of action and turned the trembling scale, by throwing into It the weight of his incoming official patronage. Shall such an act, carried by such means, havo the effect in this free country, of conclud ing and silencing opposition to an unconsutn mated measure 1 Let the spirit of free, intelli gent and unsubdued Vermont answer. And where will Vermont soon be, if tho poli cy of foreign annexation is to prevail, and be come the settled uollcv of the country t She will be in the condition of an appendage of a vast slave empire, embracing, not Texas only, but California, and finally evory part or Mexico all of which will be overrun by slaveholders, who will in due time, declare independence, anu ciaim and ootain admission Into the Union. Dut annexation may be consummated I Slave ry may triumph. It may secure a majoriry in me oenato ot tne united states, it may annul the compromises of tho Constilution, and de stroy the bond that holds theso Stain tnplhnr. What. Ihen. shall Vermont dn 1 What it will be her right lo do, admits of no question. If, from a regard to peace, she shall forbear to ex- crciso ner right, it should be with a solemn dec laration lo the Union and thn wnrhl. lhal aha thereby acknowledges no right of annexation, anutorDoars irom no diminished conviction that it will subvert the Constitution, and essentially destroy the Union of which it is the bond ; and that she reserves tho right of such future action as circumstances rrnf suggest. But, in the evcnt.nf annexation, there will re main a great practical duty for ua to perform. It will be to co to the very vorrre of our eonsrl- tutmnal power to effect the abolition of slavery, as "the chief evil in our country, a'td the great crime of our age." Slavery will, bv anna. a. turn, have been taken under the special protec tion of the national government, and made in the highest sense, a national Institution j and, tnencuiorin win uecomc a leading and control ing clement in tho Union. It will th m be seen in a stronger and clearer light than it ever has beeh. The success of annexation will have sig. nally illustrated iu character; and the time is not distant, when it will be nble nn longer load, just its influence in the scale nf parties, s i as lo maintain its ascendancy by Northern co-op-peratton ; forthe North will have learned tho indispensable necessity of union, in order to roll bick the tide of itn usurpations, and an change the policy ofthe government, that it shall cease to make the Bupport of slavery an object of spe cial and paramount regard. If the North, fur Ihe sake of peace, bIiiII submit to annexatinn, the South must submit to the legitimate and in evitable consequences of thus forcing, every where, an investirration of the merits of slavery. and a thorough exposure ofthe iinpnsihiiity of mug iiiaiuiaiump; a union, embracing the hos tile and irreconcilable elements of slavery and freedom, I have received from the Executives of sev. eral of the States, resolutions nf iheir respective legislatures, touching the subject of annexation, wmcn t shall horcaltcr communicate for tho consideration of the General Assembly. Among the papers received from the Execu tives oi other Mates is the solemn Declaration and Protest of iho Commonwealth of Massachu setts, against the laws nf South Carolina, under wmcn, colored citizens of Massachusetts are ar. rested on board her ships in the harbors of South Carolina, imprisoned in the iails of that Stato. and sold into perpetual slavery, in default of tneir commanders to give bonds to redeem them and to pay Ihe expense of their detention all which Jtftsaachusetts asserts is in vit iation of lhat clause or lh Constitution of the United States, which declares that "the citizens of each State shall bo entitled to all privileges and im munities nf citizens in ihe several States." To protect her citizens from tire execution of these laws, Massachusetts commissioned one of her most distinguished citizens to proceed to South Carolina, for the purpose of instituting such process as should bring the question of Ihe constitutionality of these proceedings before the Supreme Court of the United Slates. It is a matter of history, that the agent, on appearing in South Carolina, for tho purpose of execu ing a commission thus tonkin? to a noacnful ami nr. derly appeal to tho appropriate judicial tribunal, wasunven away uy threats ot personal violence of a mob ; and that subsequently, the legislature sanctioned tho act of the mob by making an or der "to expel" the agent from the State. Against this, also, Massachusetts protests. I have received from the Governor of South Carolina, the proceedings referrrd to,nf the leg islature of that Slate. I have 'also received from the Governors of the States of Arkansas and Alabama, resolutions of the legislatures of those Sta'es, approving the outrage committed on the agent of .Massachusetts ; and fpun the Governor of Connecticut, resolutions ofthe leg islature of thai Stale, declaring lhat the act of South Carolina is "a palpable and dangerous violation of Ihe national compact." I ahall here after transmit these papers, with others on vari ous subjects, received from the Executive nf other States, fur the use of the General Assem bly. I have made this special referancc to tho pro ceedings of South Carolina, fur the purppse of bringing them into immedtata connection with the Kindred subject lo which I have, at some length, invited your attention, and of submitting to you the propriety and duty of a full considera tion of these extraordinary proceedings, and an expression of the sense entertained by ihejGiti. eral Assembly of this State, nf iheir true charac ter and tendency. It would seem evident lhat the Union cannot be maintained, if peaceable attempts to appeal to the appropriate judicial tribunal for the settlement of creat constitution. al questions, involving the relative righis of tho oiaice, aim iu pui uown Dy moo violence, and the added sanction of the legislative authority. It is worthy nf remark, that, upon an attempt by South Carolina, to enforce the same lan-a against colored British subjects, and the remon strance ot mo urittsn government to that of the United States, South Carolina desisted; and yet she rigorously enforced them against one of her sister States, and add the extreme aggra vation of rudely expelling from her territory an agent of that State, rather than allow him a resi dence long enough to perfect the process of sub mitting the question of difference to the decision ofthe constitutional tribunal. Several of the Slave States, it is understood, have laws on this subject, similar to those of South Carolina. Their enforcement in Louisia na induced the legislature of Massachusetts to send an agent to that State for Iho purpose of instituting a similar process, who was also driv en from the Stale by threata of mob violence. If slavery cannot exist without tho protection which such an exemption from constitutional law will give it, then it is evident that slavery and the constitution are at irreconcilable vari ance. Massachusetts has fnrborno to retaliate, and contented herself for Ihe present, with a solemn protest and appeal to Die world and im partial posterity, against these acts. But it is unreasonable to supposo that thcro will be no limit to forbearance ; or that the Union can al ways withstand tho power of such attempts to rend it asunder. Tho question of protection to labor, in it oth erwise ruinous competition with Iho starved and cheapened labor of other countries, continues to be ono of undiminished interest. Indeed its interest haa increased, aa effort to give ascen dency to free trade principles have become more active and systematic. Of the cx (stance of such activity and yletn, we have but loo conclusive evidence, in all th indications, oScial and semi official, ofjba now administration. It is given out, in ways not to be misundoratood, that' the neau oi ine nnanciai department i industrious ly engaged in maturing a plan for reducing the tariff to the "revenue standard." Wh,i ik.. stsndard is, in the npini6n of the school of po. ...- -.u.,u.,-,r. w v, 1,1,1 i ne oocreiary on. long, may be gathered from a very elaborate report nf iha Comnjittea of Ways and Means, of the House of Kepresentatives, at the first session of tho 88th Congress, in which it wi; declared, that 1 " Every duly 1 to be considered and is pro perly denominated, rovei.ue duty, the rate of which yields Ihe largest amount of revenue from the importation of the articlo upon which It i imposed) and evory duty is to be considered and is properly denominated, a protective duty the rate of which is so high as to diminish tho amount nf revenue derived from the Importation nf the article upon which it is imposed, and the ralea of which require to be reduced, to increase tho revenue. And when a given amount of revenue is desired lo be raised upon any given article of importation, the committee regard fili lowest rate of duty which will effect the results as the (rue and legitimate revenue duty." The committee add "The protection afforded, un der a revenue tariff thus defined, they would de nominate incidental. The protection afforded by a protective tariff, according to the same definition, Is direct and positive operate to di minish or deMroy the revenue, and constitutes an exercise of the power to lay and collect du ties, entirely indefensible in principle and poli cy." It thus appears that "direct and positive pro tection" that is, protection whioh has the effect to diminish revenue from any given article, ia entirely indefensible in any principle and poli cy" the only allowable protection being that which is 'incidental to a revenue duty that is, incidental to that duty which, without any refer, enco to protection, will yield 'the largest amount of revenue from the importations of the article upon which it is imposed.' The mere statement of this doctrine is auffU caent to show that it strike a fatal blow at the principle of protection, because lhat rate of duty can, obviously furnish no stable protection, which is made to depend, not on the degree of protection it will furnish, but on the amount of revenue it "will yield since it is well known that a rate of duty on a given article,- whlcb-will yield little or no protected interest in the coun try, that can atand a single year, under the ap plication of such a principle as this. Tho true principle may be thus stated A tariff which, while it shall, in the aggregate of its duties, yield tho amount, and no more than the amount, needed for the treasury, shall ba'sn adjusted, in its details, as to throw so much of mat aggregate upon articles needing protection, as to give the protection needed the balance being thrown upon artielea needing little or do ji",vi;iiuii. It is against the principle of a m-emif duty with incidental protection, in the Protean ahapes) it will be made to assume, that we are doomed to contend ; and it is a contest with fearful odd, when we take into account the power and influ ence of the new administration, aided by the decnplive application of the sliding ruleofpn. feeton incidental to a revenue duty. Nor is this the only aspect of the danger. The Secretary of the Treasury, whose purpose to destroy the proteclion afforded by ihe tariff of 1842 ia not attempted to be concealed.ia engaged in tho unprecedented work nf collecting, witbotu the authority of Congress, and by replies to cer tain questions propounded to manufacturers and others, to bo answered without oath or cross ex amination information to enable him to carry his destructive purpose into execution. Vermont has I codec pan interest in Ihe great question thus about to be forced to a fearful and perilous issue, to remain indifferent or silent. It is due to the great value of our interests in volved in the true principle of proteclion, that wo thoroughly scrurenizc Iho false principle on which, by a combination of its pre) ended friend" with ils open enemies, protection is to be made to rest. The imminency AT the impending danr L'er would seem to call for a decided evurcssiun 'of thn General Assembly on this subject. iMe rcceiveu irom tne oirrcsponuing sec retary of the American Peace Society a ,eonw municationon the subject nf Peace, with n re quest that I would lay it before the Gencr.il As sembly. In compliance, I s nd herewith copies ofthe communication for your consideration. This request appears to.be part of a general movement of that society io impose upon the rulers of State and Nations the duty of recon sidering the question of war, as it stand con. necled with the lemoeral and anirilual intf-reatai of men, ahd In inculcate Ihe importance and practicability of superseding ils supposed ne cessity, by the principle of Arbitration, applied I.. ..-:.. :;,.. .-1. .v ..aiiidiB an , ,iow is iu llKJiviuual. Il would seem necessary lo do lHlle more) than to announce this object, to secure for it the favorable consideration of the rulers of every Christian people. War is the greatest of all the calamities lhat ever atllicted the human race ; and yet, Iho world, after having been involved in ils crimes, and felt the terrific sweep of ils desolations, for near sixty centuries, stems but just awaking from ihe delusion that it is neces sary, and consistent with the spirit and princi ples of a religion wlxwe all pervading element is love. Ouf own country, more perhaps, than almost any other, needs this awakening influence. The freedom happily enjoyed by our people, seems to engender the lestlew spirit favorable ti war, while it receives additional impulse from the popular appeals incident to our snism f fra suffrage, appeals madc.nften, by men who-love distinction and excitement more than their eoun. try, while their aooeals net m m'rubi in n rnn. dition.from tho association of number end dri er causes, to feel their true individual repnnr oiiujr ,ur me crimes anu consequence of war. The maxim 'In peace prepare for war," is, moreover a standing excitement to war-pei form ing the double office nf provoking aggression, and prompting inconsiderate and rash resistance to it. Tho at ate of society in the Southern ami Stulh Western portions of our Union ia an IV lustration, in private life, .of the practical result of this maxim so apparently just, and yet so vt-aiiv ijuu9 lunauie. There is, however, a preparation for war, which doea not invite it. It is tho nrenaratina. of simple, open hearted, uniform faimesa nst justice, the exhibition of a stronger solicitude? io uo njrni, man io exact it irom others ; and a sensibility, which habitually feels that the stair of dishonor is inflicted, not by suffering wrong, .uug ne nation who aball cultivate this spirit who shall fairly gain the reputation of The Just, will poetess a defence, in an age ruled, as this is beginning to be, by enlightened public sentiment, more sure and effective than the power of fortifications, and armies, and na vies, combined, can give. But while the spirit of peace and a scrupu lous regard to jmtice, will, by their silent in fluence. Check, if Ihev db not entirely aniidue). the spirit of aggression, ihey will not, necessa rily, prevent tne occurrence ol international dif ferently, nor, in the Present, il in anv future state of the world, supersede the necessity of some ioiiiui provision tor meir adjustment. This necessity suggests a resort to thn Brvntipni of Arbitration, and the introduction Into treatise between nations, of ttipulaliona to that effect. It is Ihe furtherance ef this object, by acting on the public sentiment of our own country ana the world, that the American Peace Society so licits the action ofthe General Assembly sthis State; and I could hardly be invited to the per formance of a more grateful duty than to become the medium of asking your attention to it, and recommending, aa I do, such action s may, io your wisdom, most effectually lead the influence of this State in furtherance of thi great move ment of peace on earth and good will towards men. The eovernment of the United state baa already, in three memorable inatutrrs.sua- mittcu manors oi dinerence with other nations lothe arbitrament of friendly powers in two of them. Withreeulte Which have keen effectual to the settlement of the differences submitted. 1 must be permitted la add ao expretaion of the ssnse 1 enteriain of Ihe ciaal value of tke. e (Kirls of the friend of peace, through the organ- ahui u, peaco ucietieSf in -nspviiiiig; tntr uv- lusion so long prevalent in reeard to wart- exposing the anti-Christian principles on whit1! it nas so long rested, and showing ine extent io which it has paralyiedlbe isdudry, wasted tie wealth, corrupted the morals, brutalized the pas sioas, blasted tho hopes, and vitally injured the hiahest interests of aarn. The results, thus far. of the quiet and peraevsring effort of these as- soclallons, nas lurmaueu a uiuni, grainy ing iuu. tralion of the silent power of truth, in the kandm of Christian benevolence, to reform and save the world. It only remains forme to tender to the Ha nas al Awambly my hearty co-op p-ration in evert

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