Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, January 16, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated January 16, 1846 Page 1
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NOT TUB GLORY OF OJOS A.H BUT TBI WELFARE Or ROMS BY H. B. STACY. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, JANUARY 16, 1840. VOL. XIX No. :w. SPEECH OF MR. A. STEWART, Of Pennsylvania, On (Ac portion of the President's Message and lrcasury Report relating to the TARIFF. Delivered in the House of itcprcscntativcs of the United States, on Tuesday, the Oth of Dec , 1313. The Homo having under consideration tlio resolutions to refer thai portion of the President's Messugo in relation to the Tariff to tlio Committee of Wuys and Stewart moved to nmend tho resolu tion by inserting thereafter injunctions lc I In; Committee to report "in ihn snnsn of this House that Ihn tiiriff of 1842 might not to bo disturbed." In supporting this motion, Mr. S. said, that hn thought tho llouso ought to meet this question at once, and give an ex pression of its views nnd purposes. The people had heard with alarm the language of tho Executive Message on the subject of the tariff. Mr. S. was in possession of letters just received from individuals who had com menced manufacturing establishments, nnd who wished to know whether it would be safe for them to proceed. Their inquiry of him was, what was going to bo done 7 Whether the enl'ne system of protective pol icy wns to he overturned, as had been recom mended by the Executive? That inquiry was coming up from all parts of tlio country ; he could not answer them; and he thought it the duty of this linuso to reply to these inquiries, and to let tho penplo know at once whether till) policy of protecting American industry was to be subverted or established. Surely it was tlu-ir obvious duty to coino up to the question fairly and openly, nnd at once, and give a distinct expression of their views. It had been intimated by a gentleman from Alabama, over tho way, (Mr. P.iyne,) the report from tho Secretary of the Treas ury was a most extraordinary document. Extraordinary it certainly win, and many new nnd very extraordinary doctrines did it contain. Mr. S. concoried very heartily with the gentluman in thus mnrh of wliat lie had said. Tho report was a document set ting forth doctrines in political economy fuch as never before had been pion.ulgated by nny authorized officer of Government, and the positions there assumed wen- such ns had startled the country. It was therefore manifestly proper and highly obligatory on this body" that it should givu as prompt an expression as possible of ils vjews and inten tion in the premises. Mr. S. proposed to draw forth to view, n-.d to public examina tion, in as brief a m inner as he could, some of these opinions and ductiines. The first doctrine which he should notice, and which was m.ost distinctly avowed in tlio Socretaryjs report, was that tho protective policy was unconstitutional, and if so, there must bo an end of it. Tho Secretary said J expressly that the tariff of 1842 whs " too unequal and unjust, too exorbitant and op pressive, and too clearly in conflict with tho fundamental principles of tlio Constitution." These wero his express words, that the tariff of 1842 was clearly in conflict with tho fundamental principles of tho Constitution ; and he had made an argument to prove this. He quoted tho Constitution, and then argued, hv wav of inference, that tho power to lav a duty for protection was not in this Govern ment. His report says: ' K vartinl nnd a total prohibition axe alike in via lotion or the true obicct of the taxincr vower, Thev only differ in degree, nnd not in principle. l( the revenue limit may ho exceeded one per cent, it may be exceeded one hundred. If it may lie exceeded up on nny one article, it may he exceeded on all ; nnd there is no escane from this conclusion but in con tending that Congress may by duties en all articles to high as to collect no revenue, and operate ns a total prohihitinn. "The Constitution declares that 'all bills for raUin2 revenue sha I nnninnte in the tinufe of Kcpresenta. lives.' A lariff Lill, it is conceded, can only nrhtina'o in the House, because it is n bill for raisin" revenue. Thsl i the only pioper obj-cl of fuch a bill. A tariff" is a out to 'lay ana coueci tntes n is a out tor rais ing revenue j' and whenever it departs from that ob ject, in whole or in port, either bv totalax partial pro hibition, it violates the purpose of the granted power," Mr. S. horn referred to tho message of Washington, Jefferson, Madison and Mon roe, all of whom over nnd over ngain, in the ftrongest and most emphatic language, urged upon Congress tho propriety of protecting domestic manufactures. He then ramn In the message of Hen. Jackson a nanio which, he should suppose, would still havn tome small measure of authority, at least wills those who nnco professed themselves pre-eminently his friends. Mr S. would pi n e in distinct and open contradiction the opinions held bv the present Executivu and his Secretary of tho Treasury, as contained in tho message of the one and the report of tho other, nnd the opinions of Andrew Jackson ns contained in his Executive message to Congress. lie had already presented the doctrines of tho exist ing Administration as they were embodied in our own homo industry no power to coun tervail the injurious regulations uf other coun tries no power to protect tlio labor of our own citizens from the destruction which must be brought upon it by an unrestricted com petition with the pauper labor of Europe ; but our own hardy sons l toil must bo im poverished and ground down so long as the wretched beggars under a foreign govern ment wero compelled, by their necessities, to tabor nt lower rules than freeboru Ameri cans. Such wero tho doctrines distinctly promulgated by tho-Picsidcnl in his message, H id especially by his Secietary of llm Treas ury. Well might they be called extrantdi u.iry, for such the certainly weir. Were I Iki American people prepared to sustain opinions like these? Would they siibscribo to tlio dogma that their own Government had no power lo protect them ! That was tho doctrine there was no evading it ; nnd Mr. S. desiicd lo know whether this llouso was prepared to givu it tho impress of its sanc tion ( This, however, was but ono of the extra ordinary doctrines in this most extraordinary production. It contained others equally strange, equally new, equally pernicious in tendency, equally destructive in practical operation. Would tho people believe it ! This document from the Secretary recom mended tho 'imposilion of nn excise on American manufactures Intake the duties off British goods, and put them'on the Amer ican. Mr Johnson, nf Tennessee, here inter posed, and desired to ask him n question. When the Government protected these man ufactures, who paid tho duties? Mr. Strwart disliked these inter, uptions; b it s:ncu the question was put, ho would an swer it. The gentleman asked him who paid. Tlio gen'leman nnd his friends held the doctrine that the consumer always paid the duty, and the Secretary told the nation that the poor man was taxed oighiy two per lent, on cotton goods over tho rich man. Yes, this poor man, seemed a special favor ite of the honorable Secretary. He had in troduced him ten times in tint course uf two paragraphs oflho report. His sympathy was gioatly excited that this unhappy "pour man" was taxed one hundred and fifty per cent, on his cotton shirt, because there was a specific duty on imported cotton goods of nine cents n yard. Now if tins specific du ly of nine cents amounted to a hundred and fifty per cent, ad valorem, and fixed the price of the colton to the " poor man " at but six cents per vard, for nine cents was just ono hundred and fifty per cent, on six cents, bo the practical effect of this horrid tax was, that this " poor man " got a good shirt at sixpence a yard. And Mr. S. would tell the gentleman another thing; when those most abominable miniiiiums, which so exci ted tho wrath of the Secretary had first been introduced, in 181G, by William Lowndes one ul tlio purest pati lots and must en lightened statesmen that had ever graced these legislative halls, and sustained loo bv John C. Calhoun, scarcclv less distinguish ed India cotton goods of the coarsest qual ity, Known to every hvy at tho lime by .tlio name ol hum-liiiius, cost tlnrly-llirco cents a yard: so that tlio " poor man" would then have had to pay four dollars for twelvo yds. of it, and tlio effect of tho infamous mini mum had been that every poor man in the country could now get a better article for six and a quarter cent. That was the way tho people were taxed and oppressed by the protective system ; and this was the man ner in which tho " poor man " was ground down lo tho dust to benefit the rich monop olist ! The Secrelaiy persuaded this poor man that ho was taxed eighty-two per cent, more than the rich manand this was quite insufferable, yet ho paid only six rents for what formerly cost him thiity-six cents, and uf an inferior quality at that. On ihat thir ty-six cents, the tariff uf 181G laid a dulv of nine cents, which was ihen but twenty-five pur cent, adoalorcm ; it is now ono hundred and fifty per Cent., and why because tie price is reduced from thirty-six cents pel yard. 'J'liesn dreadful niiiiimunis had, in their practical consequences, given the farmers a ket, given their childr nploy meiit, muni! llieir land prolil.ihle, tilled hh country with thti hum of contented imlnsii v,"an 1 bail brought down the price of the poor man's running Iniiu ilimv-ix cents a Mini, down down as tho system proceeded, till at List it gave it to bun at six cents van Now tlio Sucretarysfrricd out that the du ly on these cottons was a hundred nnd fiftv percent, ail valorem! Enormous! Horrid! And why J The duly had not changed, hut tho price had. As thu price went down the duty went up. At ihirly-six cents for yuru, nino cents duty would I o twenty-five produce; becauso the protective tariff had increased tho supply of domestic goods by increasing competition, nnd hud sustained worn s and agricultural produce by creating and increasing an increased demand for both. If tho gentleman could comprehend that do mind and supply regulato pi ice, it would be all plai:i to him. Yes, sir, and could the Secretary accom plish what seems to bo his purpose, the de struction of our domestic cotton niunuf.ic Hues which lie says now amount to eighty four millions per annum, and which, o! course adds that niiuuallv In our na tional wealth, sliiko this out of existence, destiny this immense competition and sup ply soon, very soon, the " poor man," without employment and with diminished means, would have to pay the foieiguei two or tlireu times the price ho now piys at home. Such tiro the favors this administra tion would confer upon "poor men." The gentleman asks, if protection reduces prices, liy do manufacturers want ill It wns not increased prices, but increased business they wanted a wider market ; it was tho advan (ago of improved machinery, increased skill, and largo sales that reduced prices ; 5 per cent, profit on a business of 85, COO a year was more than 20 per cent, profit on S1,000; and the sale of six pairs of shoes a day, at '.en cents profit was better than the salo uf one pair nt fifty cents profit. Is the gentle man satisfied 1 When interrupted lie had been controvert ing the doctrines put forlh by the Secretary in bis report, lie had referred to a table which bad been reported by tho Committee of Ways and Means, for the purposu ol showing tlio enormous tax which was im posed by tho system of minimum ; hut when the Secretary, by the assistance oflhe honorable chairman uf the Committee of Ways and Moans, was preparing with great labor and paies this document, he seemed to forget llul he was, at iho same moment fur nishing mathematical proof uf iho exact ex tent to which protection had reduced prices. By converting specific into ad valorem du ties, Iho duty runs up precisely us the price runs down ; so by showing un increased ralo of duty, the gentlemen have only shown reduced prices. The doty is fixed, and cannot vary. The ad valorem duties are always the same. None were imposed by the tariff of 1842 above 50 per cent. How, then, docs iho President in his message, gel duties of 200 per cent ! This can only bo-done by con verting tho specific duties into ad valorem duties; nnd, when this is dune, si high du ty only shows a low price. If the duly is 200 percent., tho price must be one-fouilh only of the dulv. Thus, wo are told ihal glass pays the enormous duly of 200 per cent., and why I Uucutisc lite duly is S t per box, and l ho price S2 per box ; but if the glass went down to SI per box, the duly would bo 400 per cent. Thus wu "arc told by the Secietary of the Treasury that the people paid in all a tax of eighty-four mil lions, of which but twenty-seven went to the Government, and fifty four to the manufac turers ; and ho' referred to a list of sixty or seventy articles paving specific duties, which, when converted into ad valorem. amounted to more than a hundred per cent. Very well ; and what did this prove I Why simply that Iho prices of those articles had been greatlv diminished, as in the casn uf cottons. The same duty which, when lev ied, had been but 25 per cent., had now be come 1M per cent., simply becauso the price had gone down to ono-fourth part of what it was. So tho main result of all the labor and ciphering of tho Secretary nnd Chairman of the Committee of tt'njs and Means li.ic been to luinisli to the whole country official demonstration that prices had been reduced by a protective tariff lo one fourth or one-fifth of what they had been in IS 10; Take a puin illustration : the larill imposed a duty of four cents per pound on nails; thu price uf nails in 1816 had been 16 cents per pound ; so that the duty was then 25 per rem. on the price ; but the vime doty, ue aru told in this report i now 100 the report of the Secretary of the Treasury. per ccnt, . BIj if ,,, )rjcu deieenllej one He would now proceed to read a para graph from tlio message of President Jack son, by way of refreshing gentlemen's recol lection as to what had beon the opinions on this subject avowed by that distinguished man. Mr S. considered tho passage he was about to quote as containing ono nf the clear est and strongest vindications of tho consti tutional (tower to lay duties, fur tho purpose of protection, that had ever been put forth lo the world. Ileie it is : "The power tj impnscdii'its upon importsorizinnlly beloneed lo the several Stale. The naht In adjii-t these dunes, will; a view to ihe encouragement nf do rnesiic industry, i o complelely indenmal with dial power, thai ii is difficult to suppu-e ihe existence oflhe one wiihout tho oilier. The Stales have delegated 1heir whole nulhoruy over imports to the CJenernl .Government, wiihout limiiniionor restriction, saving the very inconsiderable reservation rtlalinglo the in meciinn laus. Ttiii authority bavins thus entirely pasted from the S'aua, iho rijlil lo cxrrcitoil for ihe purputm ui iiiuii-bintii urn;, nut t'Jti.i iii uiein ; ana fnn.ea 'cnllv. if it be not possessed bv tho I Intern Government, it must be eminc. Ourpoln'cal syscm svo'ild thus present the anomaly of a people stripped oflhe right to foster their own industry, and In coun teract Iho mosl selfish and de.lructive policy which niuhi le adorned hv foreign nauons. This surelv r.nnnt he lite caset lhis indispensable power, lints urrnunded by Ihe Stale, mu.l he wilhiu tho copenf authority on l lie stinject rxpiexiy neiegaiea to i on In this conclusion lam confirmed, us well bv Ihe opinions nf Presidents Washington, JelTersnn, Madison, and Monine, who havo each repeatedly rerommen leu in'S rum, imuei 1110 iwu-ii u i m, ns iiy ,1,. nnitirm nrsenee ol Uongress. ihe continued acuui- cacrnre r (lie Slates, and the general understanding oflhe people."- Jackson's second Annual Message Yet now Congress was In learn, for the first time, by Executive instruction, that they duty would ho four hundred per cent ! What an oppression to get nailsat n penny n pound! Surely tho poor man " was likely to be utterly crushed and ruined. Mr. S. said ho had wished to point ont some other of the extraordinary doctrines contained in this paper uf thu Secretary, and there wns ono wnich would startle the coun try ; it was covered up in cautious language, hot when thu veil was drawn aside, and the I r it I It exposed, he again warned gentlemen llial it would startle thu country. This free trade Secretary had recommended an Kxotsi: on American manufactures. Yes, that was the protection he had provided for Ameri can industry; it was lo. take off tlio duty from foreign manufactures, and put it on our own. Hear him ; " In accordance Willi these nrincinles. it Is believed that the largest prnctiraMo portion uf the aggregate revmuo should bo raided by maximum revenue dulte upon luxuriis, whether grnwn, produced, or manu factured ni home or abroad I Let mechanics and manufacturers hear that. Every American nrlizan should hear. it. Tho duly was to be on articles, &c, whether grown, produced, or manufactured at home orabroad. Hero was an American Secretary distinctly recommending to lety the highest rate of revenue duties on goods manufactured at home. What was this but an excise 1 What else was an excise than a tax on Ihe manufactured goods of this coun try? Yet this was the Secretary's recom mendation. How would American people like it J Both in the message nnd in tho report, the administration had given its own definition of what, according lo ils understanding, was a revenue standard ol duty ; and tins was the language oflhe President's message: The nreeiseooint in tlienscendintr scale of duties ni which it is ascertained from experience ihat the revenue ig greatest, is lite maximum laio Ol duty which can be lai I for the bona fide purpose of collect in" money fur Ihe support of Uovcrntnenl. To raise the dulies highei lhan lint point, and thereby dimm ish tho nmounl collected, is lo levy them for protec tion inertly, and nut foi revenue. As lung, then, as Congress may gradually increase the rale of duly on n given article, uud ihe revenue is increased I y such increase of duly. I hey ntc within ihe revenue standard. ivmn nicy go neyonu mat p.iint, nou, ns Iney in crease Ihe duties, tho revtnuo is diminished or de stroyed, tho act ctnses to hale fur Us object the rais ins ol money to support the Government, but it is for protection merely. Horo was the rub by which duties were to be laid. The moment an American man ufacturer had succeeded in supplying our own market, and began to thrive in his busi ness, that would be a proof that the doty money to send, and tho people and llieir Government became bankrupts together. This was the blessing which the compassion ate Secretary had in store for thu " poor man" ten limes in two paragraphs ! Bui his love would bo very apt to operate like the luvo a Certain bear once had fur a "pool man," when ho hugged him to death. A laugh Mr. S. had seen Mr. Walker's namo an nounced for tlio Presidency. Now, an un charitable observer might perhaps say that Mr. Walker was looking to be the " poor man's" candidate. If so, he proposed a wise ulan, fur Ids system would soon make all the people poor, and then he would go in by acclamation. Much merriment. The Secretary's system might not inaptly bo termed a plan .to manufacture "poor men." Such would be its practical result, nnd ihero would be. no escaping it. Let the gentleman from Alabama (Mr Payne) examine tho re port ns long as be pleases, and sco if ho could make any thing elso out of it. And now Mr S. would ask Iho members of lhis House, and his countrymen generally, whether the adop tion of such a plan would not be equivalent to passing a law that henc-furth no further capital should be invested in manufactures I It was in tlio naturu of a nulice beforehand, and il ran in this wise : " Gentlemen, you may invest your money in such way as you deem best, but we hero notify you" ihat, as soon as you shall have supplied tlio American market, and wo find that in consequence of your success imporls begin lo dimmish, the duties must be reduced, and foreign goods must bo let in until we get revenue enough to pay all Government officers." With such a nolico heforo him, who would engage in m imifit lures ? Who would invest tho cap ital ho had received by inheritance or accu mulated by his own enterprise and toil, with the cerlaiuty belore Ins eyes I hit just us soon gut money to impoit goods, and the Treasury would bo bankrupt. Under the compromise law tho duties ran down till they reached lite point of twenty per ccnt; then was the gentleman's Utopia; then, according lo thu Secretary, the revenue ought lo have been abundant ; but who h id yet forgotten, or could ever forget, what hud been then tho condition of tho Treasury, and uf this entire nation I The Treasury was so perfectly bankrupt that it could not borrow one dollar. The States wero every where repudiating their debts, and the national character lay prostrate and bleeding. That was the condition, and every body knew it, to w hich a twenty per cent, tariff had brought this land ; and yet at this day the first fiscal officer of tho Government had the front to recommend a return to that slato uf things, in our great humiliation and distress tho taiifl of '42 camo in like a delivering angel ; it raised and restored tho revenue ; it replen ished a famished Treasury ; il brought repu diation into disrepute ; it made a bankrupt law useless ; in a word, it struck tho whole country as with the wand of an enchanter, and brought back plenty, and credit, and en terprise, ami hope, and public diameter. Why, then, disturb it t What mischief had it done I Tho Secretary deprecated agita tion, but who agitated tho country 1 It was the Secretary himself and his friends. The fiiends of protection every where cried out, " Give tlio country repose." " Give the country prosperity and peace under the tariff as it is." His hour, Mr S. said, was fast drawing lo the only class that will he benefitted by the course of this administration in the check llieir policy wilt give to competition and new investments of capital, while Ihe " poor laborer" and the farmer will be the only sufferers by it, I submit to every man of practical com mon sense, whether such must nut be the re sult. And yet wo are gravely told by both thu message and the report that protective duties opcrato exclusively for the benefit of the rich capitalists, at the expense of tho '' poor l.iboier and the farmer I" But finally, this whole question, so inten estiug to thu American people, turns upon a simple question of fact: " Do protective duties ultimately increase or reduce the pri ccs of the articles on which lliey aic levied 1" Now, the message and the report asfumc (hut fail to piovo in a single instance) that protective duties have increased prices, ai d are therefore oppressive nnd burdensome ; while, on the oilier hand, ho asserted and n as ready to prove, by the documents re fer ted to, by every price-current and every merchant in tho country, that the prices of ; rotected goods have been reduced by com petition since the odious minimumi and spe cific iluliei went first imposed for protection in 1816 to one-half, unc-tlnnl, one-fourth, and in some instances lo ono-sixlli pail of what they were nt that lime, as in the caso of coarse cottons, glass, iron, nails, ice ; yet, in the faco of these undeniable facts, it is asserted that the duly (nine rents a yard 150 per cent.) is added to the price of do mtstic as well as imported good'', and is natd a close, lie must Hasten on, and merely by the consumer, and that the " poor man" glance at many of lite remaining topics of the is thus taxed un his coarse cotton goods 82 message and report, some of which, had time permuted, lie should have been glad lo have noticed somewhat more at large. Tho re pel t, for the first time in un official form, had promulgated the doctrine of " free-trade," which is openly and distinctly avowed ; and, heller of foreign competition, ho must be knocked down, and Iho foreigner let in to ruin him This might be called, in certain parts of the country, "legging fur tho Brit ish." Gentlemen from the West undeistood wnai was meant by iiio term "legging." Yes, yes, and a laugh. This rulo would guaranty the American market to tho for eigner forever, or until American labor was ground down and degraded to the half-starved and wretched condition of Ibu serls and pau per cent, more lhan the rich ; when the fact is ad united that the poor man now gels a better article made nt home, and paid for in labor or produce, at about one-fourth of the price lie paid in eighteen hundred & six teen, when Iho minimum dulies wero fust tile on the other hand, the wa nd the produce of thu farmer. and it is declared that "reciprocal jrce-trade flour, grain, meat, xc, have undergone lit as llU hetrail til n.llhpr II llllh. ilri.nnlli In an. . ... Ml .. . 1 tn pnfiirfn the urrminpilt. rfrnn.nrn ie ntjil.. 1 inmn.i.i. tli quiru "reaier shin io improve I lie modes ol - - . v labor, and lo realize ils reward by gelling the ! ,0 l,h? ';f""'-lrdu existing among tho Stales; ges of labor a among nalions would best promote the inter est of all ;" that "the manufacturing interest opposes reciprocal free-trade with foreign nations :" "and if it desired recinrocal fret- I ...:.i. : : i t t . .i IJUUC .Villi Ulllll llilMUlia, II wuulu ll.ivu ue- sired a very different tariff from that of was loo high for revenuu ; it was no longer , pers of Europe ; and the American "masses, revenue duly but a protective duty, and it , tlm3 deprived of the means of educating llieir must forthwith bo redoced. As tho Ameri- children, would bo oblieed lo work :is in F!u. can furnished more goods lo tho country, less liiieign goods would be imported, reve nue would be diminished, and tlio duly must como down: that was thu rule. And now Mr. S. would ask, under such a rulo us this, what man in his senses would vest a dollar in manufactures? What was tho prospect before him I Thtvfuomeni when, by in dustry and enterprise, lie should succeed in gutting Iho belter of his foreign competitor, down with the duty. If a shoemaker ur a halter, by making better or cheaper lints or shoes, had got possession of thu market, lite eye of this free-trade system was fastened on him like :i vulture. Tlio Secretary found ho was doing well, and ihe duly must bo re duced to let in tht! foreigner. Such was thu plan of this administration. Tho me chanic, finding his protection thus diminish ed, and having nu other resource but his business, would go on lo work longer and lo work harder than before, and when, by work ing out of hours, he had contrived lo get over lite opposition ot his own doverniucnt, and rope, from the cradle to the grave, and their ii These arc his positions, and they fully sus tain the doctrino of" free-tradk." Dul the policy recommended by this ad ministration, if carried out, would-be ruinous to Pennsylvania, because her iron and other manufactures are carried on mostly by man ual labor, and not, as in New England, bv moral and political condition would bo in Ihe labor-saving machinery, and therefore, lo end no belter than theirs. induce tlio investment of capital and the ac- Such most clearly must be the practical qihion of skill and experience, she must be and inevitable ooeration of lhis rob, fcarned 1 l'""",d " " f,e? "'P'""" on.. And are '.beso the benefits and bless-1 ",0 l"""1'" au low-priced labor ol to- "noorman m,,m,ri"i0" l,M r"crve fur ' 't'u report represents the foieign markr, as all-imporlant to the farmer, whilst lite But tho Secretary of the Treasury had . homo market il considers of small comnara- made other very wonderful discoveries in live consequence ; yet it appears from ofii finance. What did he tell us? "Ezperi-' cial documents that our annual exports of ence proves that, as a general rule, a duty of agricultural products (deducting colton, to nutmy ili uni, uu v ituteiii win yieiu mo tiacco, and riccl li.ivo not lor a series tlo or no reduction of price, owing to tlio increased demand produced by tho increase of manufactures. Such lias been Iho effect of pro.'ective duties. But revenue duties, levied on articles not produced ur inanulac tured at homo, may, and do generally in crease prices, because they do not produce competition and increased supply, Bui lo tho facts. I call upon the President and Secretary fur their proofs. Show me the evidence that in a single ins'.anccprofcitte duties have permanently increased prices. This you assert, and I deny. This is an issue otfact, and not uf argument. Produce then, your evidence that protective dutivs have permanently i ncreased prices, and then go on and denounce protection as plun der, robbery, and oppression. But first prove your facts, and then make your argu ment. I ask the Secretary as a lawyer, would any court in Christendom tolerate for a moment the course that you pursue i You bring a suit against A. who denies your claim ; are you at liberty to assume the facts without proof, to bo just as you want them, anil then make your speech, and ask verdict ( burelv nut. Yet such is the ol largest revenue. 1 es ; experience pruved years exceeded an average of ten millions of I course pursued on this great question. You that an ad valorem duty of twenty pir cent., dollars, whilst ihe domestic mm ket amounts assume, wiihout proof, lha protective duties Massa- increase prices, and then contend that the would yield the greatest amount of revenue, to m re than fifty limes that sum. Twenty per cent, yield the greatest revenue!, chusells, il is ascertained, imports w ny, wiihi was me great, uioad, universally-; somes annually tbirty-lliree millions ordnl known experience of tho country 1 Wo had t ,irs worth of the agricultural products of Ihe a laiiff of twenty percent, in 1841-2; and other Stales, whilst Great Britain, from what was our revenue! Not one-half of j whence wo import about fifty millions ol what it is now. The whole amount of dollars worth of manufactured goods annu rovenue from imports was then nboul thii teen Lllu f,,,,!r .! ili. vnlnn r n,l,!rli his foreign competitor, nnd began lo gel lo-j millions, and this year it was twenty-seven produce, raw mate gelher a little profit, thu same doctrino would . millions. Was thirteen moro than twenty- (, and llm subsistence of labnr,) does not repeat the process ; the duty would evidently seven 1 If so, tho Sucrelary is right ; if not ' take, of all productions of llm be too high down wilhit! Tho ' poor ho was clearly wrong! And what was the man" would now lake his children from effect of their twenty per ccnt. horizontal school and bring ilium into thu shop. They duly t Under its operation tho country was too, would now wujk, while the man him- prostrated, the Government iiself was bank self wnrked harder and harder. But wliat nipt, and the people wero lillle belter. Yet would he tht; remit I It would only bring this man could say, in the face of these w ell linn under llm President's rule; the duly : known facts, and oflho American people, must be again lowered, anil still go on lo bo lowered, more and more, li! at last this free "an a yarn, men ma uutv would lie nino hundred per cent. ! Tlio poor man robbed. plundered, and oppressed by a duly of nine- nunureu per cunt., simply bocuuse ho gets yard ot cotlon goods for ono cent u yard ! Let tlio manufacturer run up the price to Ihirly-six cents again, and thu oppression is all over ; the duly of nine cents a yard fal s instantly to tnenly-fivo per cent., a moder ate revenuu duly. No moro complaint : these friends of ihu " pour man" are perfect ly satisfied. hucli was tlio practical operations of these odious minimiiins which had reduced ihe poor man's cotton goods from twutity-fivu unu imriy cents pur ard lo six and eight per cent.; and how so ( Because the piice born American must be ground down by had fallen fiom sixteen rents per pound, ' the action of bis own Goveimni'iit to tho do vei y oppressive on Iho "poor man," who graded and wretched condition nf an English Ins thus to piy 10) per cent, on nails! The piuper or a Uussian serf. Tho moment an explanation of all this was peifecily pl iin American laborer succeeded by his exer ami easy. The effect of eoiiipoiiiiun, m i- lions in shutting out foieign competition, the c'dtiery, hMII, and in Jo.try, hid increased foreigner must bu let in and put over him. the supply, and by un increased supply, in J.Whal Mifl of a rule was this! For whom this as in all other cases, bail reduced the would unu suppose il In bo made ! For the price of glass, colton, &c., whilst it bad j American manufacturer or ihe European? rundcicd tho whole country prosperous by Cle.nly it was a rulo for llm benefit of the the increased demand for all the productions i foreigner. And could nn independent and oflhe farmers. intelligent American consent to live under Mr. S.. thanked the Secretary foi his re- sh a rule 1 Tho moment tho American ference to his document; it had'furnishod to rises to his lucl, in this struggle with foreign him and to tho country undeniable proof. er$ '( ". American maiket, he is to be from the highest authority, lo what nn extent knnpko,'1 don by " Lcuiiv poker, and prices had been reduced, insomuch ihat thu ovcr 'y bis Secretary Walker. A duty on ono urlicle, though reaionablo at ' '""gh. And ls was their American ss- first, had now risen to three hundred and , l"1"' 11 wasjust sucti a system as sir tlotierl oighty-nine per ccnt. ad valorem, brought about solely by the reduction uf die price. Air. a. ilelied escape lioni ibis position, hut Peel would have recommended, could ho have spoken through President Polk as his trumpet ; its practical, us universal opera- cents. Yet till' was the system which must 'thai il't'lus fell in a dollar u box. be would bo given up ; lhis was iho opera lion which ' ho taxed four hundred pur coin., or if bv anv was so oppressive and su unconstitutional I improvement in llm manufacture he should anv gentleman lake thu report and examine VVU"1J 00 lvl1'" ,a l"sl " 'loscrih- il.'and Iho more thev examine, iho moro they Aml woM l,u ,,",,S,J "ndorso a system would bo convinced" Ihal Ibis was a Into ex- ' llk" '''' This was the far-famed "free plauatioii ofrlfu whole mailer. Yet this was i tratte '"'." 'uw I""" l"no promulgated by held forth for the purpose of exciting alarm; an American fiscal officer, it furnished a topic for popular derlamalion ; I Since iho improvoincnls in slnam, the cost il might persuade tho " poor man " ho 'of transportation was comparatively nothing was greatly oppressed, becauso ho paid a I Take uff iho duty, and the British workshops lax of two hundred per cent, on bis window . would bo brought to our doois. Snmmse glass ; and hit perhaps would not understand . these British laborers were in Alexandria, working at twenty-live cents, was any man mat ii must uc suiicrcu in exist no lunger upon our statulB bnok ! The duty was to be taken offihi foreign goods, and put upon American manufactures ; such was iho doc trine of this report and message, which says Mr. Johnson, of Tennessee, here apain asked Mr. Stewart, if tho tariff brought down tho prices of articles, why did ihe manufac turer want it, and what was it thai brought down iho prico of oilier goods in propor tion 1 Mr. hlewnrl replied ihat such was not llin fart. Other goods not manufactured here. be enabled In get his glass at fifty cents a box, why then he would bo paying the enor mous unheard of lax of etgif hundred per cent. This same " poor man " of ihe Sec relary sometimes wauled In buy a few nails, and the Secretary alarmed him bv Iho intel ligence that nails were taxed a hundred per cent, on their value. So they were ; but what did he pay for them t He used lo pay sixteen cents a pound, but lhis wicked op prcssive lariff bad brought them down lo four cents. Now, who did not sco ihat if a specific duly of four cents a pound on nails was converted into an ad valorem duly, ii silks, velvets, &c, had not declined in thai amounted to a hundred per cent., and should so blind as not to see that they must soon break down the workmen of Washington, who worn receiving 75 cents u day! The employer would soon begin to talk to them in a very inlulligiblo language, " My com petitors in Alexandria gel labor for tweulv- five cents a day, and you must take same or quit." Now, whero was iho difference, whether Iho distance wasn lillle creator or a I it i lu loss I The practical operation oflhe system would be just llm same. And lhis was the blessed system of free-trade 1 The workmen of England and France could work cheaper than ours, and fieo.irado doctrine held ihal wo must buy wherever we could buy cheapest. Down wont the duly, in camo foreign goods, out went American any one of whom knew belter, that nn aver ago duty nf twenty per cent, yielded the highest amount of revenue. Tlio Secretary had even gone further yet than litis : in his famous circular ho h ul assumed that twelve and a half per cent, horizontal was ihe. Iran revenue standard. Some Western scribbler asked him, through the press, how much rev enue 12 per cent, would givo on one hun dred millions of imporls i (that being more than llm average amount.) Tho answer must bo twelve and a half millions; then de duct three nnd a half millions, the expense of collection, and but nino millions of nett rove nue would bo left lo pay twenty-six millions of expenditures. To make up the rovenues vim must add morn lli-in ono hundred million, lo vour imporls, while tour whole specie lias never been estimated at more lhan oiglity fivo millions; (hen all your specie goes for your liral year, and whero will you got moil oy for llm next year! These questions being rather troublesome, wcio nuvcr ans wered. The truth was, that tho revenue resulted fiom tho lariff. and followed II. When the tariff was low, iho revenuu was low; when iho tariff was liigh, the revenue was high. Thai had been ihe uniform experience oflho country, and hu cltullengeu gentlemen to show ilio contrary. Il must huso ; it could not be otherwise And why I Uec.iuso the result of protection was lo niakn ihe people rich, and taking off protection was lo make ihom poor. Whun the people were rich the Treasury was lull ; as tlio country uecame poor the Treasury was impoverished. In this country tho revenue wns a voluntary, and mil, us in tho States, a compulsory con tribution, made by (he people to the Gov eminent Tho condition of the Treasury was. in fact, a political thermometer, lo test iho prosperity of the cousttry. According lo the national prosperity, so would the revenue over bo found. When men wero impover ished, cuuld lliey purchase goods freely ! Ceilainly not. When prosperous, their wives and daughters could purchase cosily clothing and rich furniture, and then many goods wero always imported. But when the j " i.i.'niiifr in nrm..!! 'i i hi.ji .'-- von,., nu siiuuiu camo lurtngii Kuoai out went American I tllflr ou cosu, llieir wives miu uauKiiiere stay iurr, n " i" . - i; possessed no constitutional power io protect Mm9, nor h.,,1 W8fies nor agricultura nails be brought down a cent a pound, iho money ; and out it went till wo had no more at home and mend them, merchants could not cy, end not for the " rich monopolist United Slates, (excluding colton, tobacco, and rice,) two and a half millions of dollars worth a year: thus estimating onc-lialf'the value uf our imports to consist of agricultural produce converted into goods, it follows that we import and consume about twenty-five millions of British agricultural produce in the form of manufactures, while she takes less than Iwo and a half from us ; so that we pur chase nnd consume ten dollars worth of Brit ish agricultural produce, converted into cloth, iron, nnd other goods, to ono dollat's worth oflhe siniu articles she lakes from us. Yet, according to the report, tho foreign market to the farmer is every thing and the home market notlring. The report says thai protective duties aro levied exclusively for the be'nefit of the rich monopolists at tho rxpenso of ho farmers and laboreis. Now be contended that just the reverse of lhis was ihe truth. the practical effect of protection was to increase the number of manufacturing establishments, nnd thus destroy monopoly by promoting competition ; and that by withdrawing labor from iigiiciilturu lo manitfecttires, uu not only diminish the supply, but at the same time increase the demand fur agricultural produce, andofcouise increase ils price; whilst on the other hand, by increasing manufacturing establishments you increase the supply of manufactured goods, and of course reduce their price, so Ihat the tanner is thus enabled lo tell for more and buy for less, irdemand und supply regulate price, this conclusion is inevitable. Yet the re port says " the tariff is a double benefit lo iho manufacturer and a double loss lo the farmer, The Secretary nf State (Mr. Buchanan) undeistood this much belter, when ho sent a toast sometime since to tho manufacturers of Pillsbnrg, lo tliis-vlTect ; " Tho election of James K.Polk has saved tho ntanufac turers from being ruined and overwhelmed by excessive competition." He was right. It certainly did favor the invested capital, tho monopolists, by checking competition, and thereby keeping down the wages ofla boi and tho produce of Iho farmer, which would, in a different result, havo been en ha need in nrico bv an increased demand. This is illluslrated bv iho fact that at Pills burn, alinrllv tho lariff of 18d2, the laborers in iho factories were put on half work, and of course half pay ; and almost immediately after its passage lliey were re- It was for r.mnirv nn iiiiooverithed. hv tho ruinoui! stored io full work and full nay, .. ' ' . I . . r.t i l J .1... I....... ll.nrs. I policy now recommenueo, men wouia weir me tike oi me lauorer unu mt theirodcots,lheirwivesnddUBhlerksUy fore, that ho advocsled the protective oll-fi . i J .1 .....1,1 ..J ai (.. llm rich iiiniionohlts - " poor man and Ihe I iriners aro oppressed and plundered by tho tariff. Now, if this bo lound to be untrue it; point of fact, and that the reverse is true, that they reduce pi ices, and of course lessen burdens, then what becomes ul all vuur arguments and speeches against the oppressions of the tar iff! Thev fall lifeless to the ground. He denied the right nf the oiieiiueK of the tariff lu assume tlo fac's, and called on them for I he farts lie at the foundation of the whole question, and be trusted they will be furnished. ' W The President and Secretary tell us they want a revenue tariff a tariff that will iust yield revenue enough to meet expenditures and no more, w en, accoruins to their own sbow- iijg.-tho present tarill is the ery thing they want. They tell us iifhVially that Ihe expendi tures this year have been 8i29.9G3,207, and the revenue his been 82n,7G9,ltf:. Now is it pos sible to get the lariff nearer right than it is U by, then, disturb or change it, when, accord ing tu their own theory, it is exactly right ! List pension we were threatened with a la- urplus,aud were then told we must " reduce Ihe tarttt lo reauce the reienue." IVowswa are told we mtit "reduce the tariff to increase the retcnue. .So, w hether there was too much ' or too little, the remedy was always the satae ' "reduce tho tariff reduce the tariff." Dae. tor Sitigrado'd euro 'or all thuigj ' bleeding ina wtrm water. y. laogn.j But wo arc lull by the Secretary that the inanufacturcra aro all making immense profits 20 or 30 per ccnt. But can I In be prwaib'e 1 Is not capital tree every where! and will it work for 4 or 5 per cent, at agriculture, aa ia alleged, when, by going into manufactures, it coald realize 20 or 'Mi If thin were true, the rush uf capital into iiiinuf.ictiire would soon be o great as to reduce il to the very lowest rales of ptMii. But if tho manufacturers supplygoods at one lourtli ol llieir loriner cost, and titl make inonev, why complain ' And why breakdown or drive away this profitable business, where, by the uso ot labor saving luarluneiy. one hand will do the work nf fort) 7 Why drive this 30 per rent, busuies abroad, and continue lo labor here at 4 or 5 per rent, profit, and exchange the productions ofiorly h ird-wurkmg men here for the labor of one weuiin, with ihe aid of labor saving nisrhinery, abroad I Why not keep this profitable business in our own routilry I The Secretary, in his report, tells us that "on roil ami iron tho duties are far loo high for rev enue," and that they ought to le reduced to the "revenue standard," which he assumes lo be about 20 per cent. Now, if Ihe average duty on these articles exceeds, as tho Secretary al Ic"cf, (10 percent., then, according to his views, more than two thirds of Ihe duty must be taken off of iron and cal, which would extinguish Ihe fires of every furnace and every forgo in Penn syltama, tieflrojing millions' of capital, and sending millions abroad to purchase the agricul tural produce of foreign countries, converted into iron. Try this anti-American system, and hear what I'enreylvania has In say to it. I need not anticipate her; she will speak for her clf. Th s is nut what the understood by the Kane letter, and she will say so. The Secretary says : " Where the number ef manufaeturies is not great, Ihe poictr of the tyt tem lo renulale the vanes of labor is inconsider able; but as the prnfa of capital invested in matt- i.irtttrci is augmemea vy inc jTuiraue rorijr, ere is a corresponding increase of tmvrr. until the control of such capital oter Ihe tcaget if labor .'Sis

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