wBtitnmwn frm from l ' . ' irr; NOT TUB O L O n T OF OJQ w b l r a n n BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, JANUARY 23, 184G. VOL. XIX No. 4. BY H. B. STACY. s a n u rr t n b . BETTER TIMES. BV H. P. WILMS. My mother's voice I how often creeps. lis cadence on my lonely hours I Like hcalingi rent on wings of sleep, Or dew upon ihe unconcious flowers, I might forget her melting prsyer W.'-ilo pleasure's pulses msdly flew But in l, (till i unbroken air, Her gentle tones come stealing by And years of sin end msphood flee, And leave me at my mother's knee. The book of nature, and tho print Of beauty on tho whispering sea, Gives still to me some lineament Of what I haro been taught to be. My heart is harder, and perhaps My manliness has drunk up tears, And the'e's a mildew in tho lapse C 1 a few miserable years But nature's book is even yet Wiln all my mother's lessons writ. I have been out at eventide. Beneath a moonlight sky of spring, When earth was garnished like a bride, And night had on her silver wing When bursting buds and growing grass And waters leaping to the light, And all that make Ihe pulse? pass With wilder floelness thronged the night When all was beauty, then was I, With friends on whom my love is flung, Like myrrh On wings of Araby, Gazed up where evening's lap is hung. And when the beauteous spirit there, Flung over its golden chain, My mitlir's voice cime on the ai r, Like Ihe light dropping of the rain, And resting on some silver star, The spirit of a b:nded knea, I've poured a deep and fervent prayer. That our eternity might be To rise in heaven like stars of night And tread a living path of light. Communication. Narrative or the United States Exploring Ex pedltlnti, 1839, 1830, 1810, 1811 and 1813, By Charles Wilkes. Thbee editions of this work arc pub lulled : one at SCO. 00, another at $25.00. and the third, in five volumes, at S10.00. The cheapest ,-fcdition has lately been added to the library or the " Burlington Mechanics Institute." The page, type and reading mailer or which is precisely the same as in the addition at $25, hut rood cuts aro substituted Tor steel engravings, some of the maps aro on a reduced scale, and three of tho fourteen omitted. About three hundred cuts illustralotho manners, customs, buildings, implements, natural cuv.rjs'ities, vVWHrrH!, WVhWrrlScc. Sec., which are described in the 2600 pages of which the works consists. Few mechanics are able to pay ten dol lars for a book ; and, consequently, but for the Institute library, few of us would ever have known much more of this expedition than tho fact that it was fitted out by our Government at great expense, liul now the poorest of us can, at our own firesides, follow it from island to island, and becomo just as intimate, probably, as we wish, with their inhabitants; or go with tho hardy sail ors into the very home of ice and snow, of storms, and tempests, and fogs, where day and night aro scarcely distinguished ; and share with them the feelings of regret, they experienced, when compelled to turn their backs on a newly discovered continent, with out being able to effect a landing. This expedition is American the first of the kind the new word has sent out, the first that has sailed under tho stars and stripes. To Anier ieans it must thereforo possess an interest which the narratives of similar European expeditions cannot excite. Very many will Mcognizo among the list of the officers and rews. the names of acquaintances and friends, as almost every state in the Union is here represented. This work constitutes, in numbers, only a hundredth part of tho books which the Institute has already collected. Yet I deem the reading of this ono, well worth the cx pense of membership, or of a right to the use of the library for a year, and believe that all, who care any thing about knowing what the world is made of, and will read it, will say they have their money's worth. It an old saying, that ono half of the world ion't know how the other half lives ; but people generally wish to know, and it is well that they should ; especially is this knowledge likely to benefit the people ol (he United Slates. To contrast the condi tion of the people, particularly those of bur own rank, the climate, the soil, the diseases, the reptiles and insects, of other countries with those of our own favored land, 'cannot fail of exciting gratitude, con. tentment, and love of home. But if such is tho taste of the reading public ,that nothing will intorest it but fashi onable love stories, where a pretty wife, for instance, by putting ten dollars a week into the family bible, for five years, was able, at the end of that lime, to shako 9030 'dollars out of it which may probably bo called the romance of arithmetic then let this narrative be tumbled over, omitting every thing that treats of such dull matters, as history, geography, the customs of peo ple , who eat each other, and strangle the) old folks, tho influence of missionaries on tho character of such barbarian, tlijO won ders of frozen regions nnd of burning re gions, &c. ; and you will slill occasionally find a readable passago, even in this narra tive of facts and observation. Perhaps, Mr. Editor, tho ono 1 have markod will please this class of your readers particu larly as Capl. Wilkes said hn did not believe the story ! It is.froni tho third vnlumo : "One day. while nt tho obscrvntory, on one of tho Fccjee Islands I was greatly sur- prisru hi seeing line wiium iuui iu iw n Feien-man enter my tent, ti circiimstanco so inconsistent with the respect to our presrrib ed limit, of whirh I have spoken. His col our, however, struck mo ns lightei than that of any native 1 had yet seen. He was a short wrinkled old man, but nppcnti'd to pos sess great vigor tint activity. lie nail a beard that readied to his middle, and but little hair, of a reddish grey color, on his head. Ho gave mo no liniu for inquiry, but at once addressed me in broad Irish, with a rich Milesian brogue. In a few minutes ho made nm acquainted with his story, which, by his own account, was ns follows. His name was Paddy Connul, but the na tives called him Ber.y; ho was born in the county of Clare in Ireland ; had run away from school when ho was n little fellow, and after wandering about as a vagabond, was pressed into the army in the first Irish robei" lion. At tho lime the French landed in Ire land, the regiment to which ho was attached marched at once against Iho enemy, and soon arrived on the field of battle, where they wcro brought to the charge. Tho first thine ho knew or heard, the drums struck up a White Boys' tune, and his whole regiment wont over and joined the French, with the excep tion of the officers, who had to fly. They were then marched against the Brjtish, and wcro soon defeated by Lord Cornwallis; it was a hard fight, nnd Puddy found himself among the slain. When ho thought the battle was over, and night came on, he crawled off and reached home. He' was then taken tip and tried for his life, but was acquitted ; ho .was, however, remanded to prison, and bus ted himself in effecting the escape ol sotno ot his comrades.. On this being discovered, he was confined in the Black Hole, and sunn after sent to Cork, to ho put on hoard a convict-ship bound to New South Wales. When ho arrived there, his name was not found on tho books of the prisoners, conse quently ho had been transported by mistake, and was, tlieretore, set at liberty, lie men worked about for suveral years, and collected a small sum of money, but unfortunately fell into bad company, got drunk, nnd lost it all. Just about this lime Captain barton, f tun ship General Welltsley, arrived at Sydney. Having lost a great part of his crew by sick ness and desertion, he desired to procure hands for his ship, which was still at Sandal wood Bay, and obtained thirty-five men, ono of whom was Paddy Conncl. At the lime they wcro ready to depart, a French priva teer, Le Gloriant, Captain Dubardicii, put into Sydney, when Captain Sartori engaged passage lor liimsell and Ins men to IIki Feejecs. On ihcir way they touched ut Norfolk Island, where tho ship struck, nnd damaged her keel so much that they were obliged to put into the Hay ol islands lor repairs. Paddy assesls thai a difficulty had occurred hero between Captain Sartori nnd Ins men about their provisions, which was amicahlv settled. Tho Gloriant finally sail ed from New Zealand forTongataboo, where they nrrivod inst after tho capture of a vos sel, which he supposed to have been the Port nil Prince, ns they had obtained many aril cles from the natives, which had evidently belonged to some large vessel. Hero they remained srimo months, and then sailed fur Sandalwood Bay, where the men, on account of their former quarrel with Captain Sartori, refused to go on board the Ucneral v cues lev : some of them shipped on board the Gloriant, nnd othors, with Paddy, determin ed to remain on shore with the natives. He added, that Captain Sartori was kind to linn, and at parting had given him n pistol, cut lass, and an old good-fur-nothing musket ; these, with his sea-chest and a fmV clothes, wcro all that hu possessed. Ho had now lived forty yoars among theso savages. After hearing his whole story, I told him I diJ not believe a word ol it ; to which lio answered, that tho main part nf it was true, hut he might have made some mislukrs, as ho had lieen so much in tlio lialut ul lying to the Fcejenans, that he hardly now knew when he told the truth, adding that ho had no de sire to tell any thing but the truth. Paddy turned out to bo a very amusing fellow, nnd possessed an accurate knowledge of the Fcejeo character. Some of the whites told me that he was more than halfFeejee; indeed ho seemed to delight in showing how nearly ho was allied to them in feeling and propensities ; and, like them, seemed to fix his attention upon trifles. Ho gave me a droll account of his daily employments, which it would he inappropriate to give here, and finished by telling me the only wish lie had then, was to get for his liltlo boy, on whom ho doated, a small hatchet, and tho only articles he had lo offer lor it were a few old hens. On my asking him if lie did not cultivate Iho ground, he said at onco no, ho found it much easier to get his living by tell jug tho Fecjecan8 stories, which hu could always mako good enough for them ; these, and the caro of his two liltlo boys, and his hens, nnd his pigs, when he had any, g.ivo him ample omplnyment and plenty of food. Ho had lived much at Rnwn, and unlit lately had been a resident at Levuka, but had, in consequence of Ills intrigues, been expelled by the while residents, to the isianu oi Am batiki. It appeared that they had unani mouslv como to the conclusion that if he did not remove, they would bo obliged lo put him lo death for their own safety. I could not inducii Whippy or Tom to givo mo the cir- that ho might live lo sec fifty bom to him. He had had one hundred wives." I did think, Mr. Editor, of asking you lo publish some of tho curious fads with which this work abounds, nnd which would answer well for newspaper paragraphs. But enough for ibis time. If this notice shall rxci(o tho curiosiiy of n singlo mechanic or other person, and in dtico him, inslend of wasting his leisure limo, to road this narrntivo, and other good books which are standing idle in our library, it will not be in vain. 1 wish to add ono suggestion. By ono of Iho by-laws of tho Institute library, per sons who nro not mechanics' may have tho use of books ono year, for a dollar. Books may bo kept four weeks. Now, may not farmers and others who live some dis tance from tho village, and who have suffi ciently regular communication to get unci return books seasonably, avail themselves of tho use of our library ? When a boy, I read books, from a library six miles dis tant, and well remember trudging homo, ono library day, in particular, through snow considerably more than kneo deep lo mo ul tho time. Perhaps, tliero are boys in the vicinity or Burlington, who like lo read, and aro ns short for books as I was. Such I would like to sen supplied. A Member or B. M. I. MARRYING A MECHANIC A TAI.B or OLDEN TIME. cumstances that occasioned this deterimna lion, and Paddv would not communicate more than that ''his residence on Ambali! was a forced one. and that it was as though he was living out of the world, rearing pigs, fowls, and children. Of the ast description f liveslock he had forty-eight, and hoped Old Esq. Phillips sat in his great arm chair, looking inlo the fire as intently ns though tho while ashes ihat stowly gathered on tho wood, and occasionally slipped off, leaving some fantastic figuro traced on the red ground of the bright coal, had somo im pnrtant meaning treasured in tho strange hieroglyphic that was thus unconsciously traced. Near him sat his onlv daughter, n fair girl of eighteen, in her well laced slays, long bodice, and nmplo hooped skirt, em ployed on some fine embroiderv, designed to grace tho cushion of one of a fine set of cherry framed chairs, made after a pattern very similar to those now in vogue, save that Ihe needlework ol our great grandmothers supplied the place of tho shining hair-cloth. At her feel lay a largo grey cat which she occasionally slopped to caress, and as she did so, sho never failed to steal a glance at the kind, but unusually serious visage of her lather. Tho room in which ihov were seated was furnished plainly, but substantially, and tho unenrpcted floor looked ns white as hands could mako it, where it had escaped the sprinkling of sand thai Phillis, the colored servant that presided over every department of household labor, was sure to bestow in generous profusion. A small round table stood in the centre of ihe room, on which was a set of blue China tea-cups, liltlo larger than those which now grace Mho doll's cupboard,' a platter of cold boiled heel and vegetables, a plalo of brown bread, and a bowl ol smok ing bean porridge, minis was uusy in maii int? tho necessary arrangements, and had taken down the teapot from ihe shelf, when Mr. Phillips turned round and insisted that Mrs. Phillips would not he home, tea should not ho admitted. lie seldom drank it, nnd ho intended that Fanny should now euro her self ol iho indulgence. Fanny looked up at the omphalic 'now,' nnd a deep crimson overshadowed her whole face ns shu enrnun leied tho penetrating gzi of her father. Philips' announcement that supper was ready relieved her enibarassmi'iit for a miimont, as she busied herself in putting away her halls ofcrownl: hut when she sealed herself at tho table oppisito her father, and still saw, or rather felt, the same earnest glance turned on her, sho found herself, Irom some unac riiiinl.thlo cause, so enili m assed that sho could uot'swnllnw a mouthful nf the substan tial supper that he was discussing with such evident relish. 1 What! no supper lo night Fanny, for want of leal' quoth the old man, half seri ously and half plav fully. 'I'm thinking, my child, that you will do well to take lessons in self denial while ihov are easier learned than when enforced by necessity,' Fanny looked up with an expression of childish wonder, and innocently inquired why il should ho necessary lo like, such lessons. Uol,' sho added with unfeigned sincerity, 'it was not tho tea, father, indeed, it was not that that took away my appetite.' Perhaps not, mv dear girl, said tho old L'enlleman tenderly, 'hut I had reason for in- . .. .i . i.i i . .- ..if StS'.ing lliai you siiuuiu icurn iu pratui-u sen denial, and 1 thought this a convenient oppor tunity to explain." Fanny looked upttmtdiy,uul did not speak. After a lane pause, her father kindly said, 'I suppose you gavo Charles permission to talk with mo upon a certain suuject, uiu you now Fannv colored still deeper than belore, and as sho was'speechless, the old man consider ed her silonco a tacit acknowledgment. Well,' continued lie, 'do you think thai I could give my consent to such a marriage Fanny V And why not, dear father V faintly fal tered iho young girl, turning suddenly ns pale as she had been red a few minutes before. 'Is not Charles as steady, industrious, and respeclabto us any young man in the parish! Indeed, dear lamer, i inouguiyou approvcu of him or'' You would not havo loved him,' ndded Esq. Philips, filling out tlio sentence that sho lacked words lo complole. I hardly meant to say that,' quivered the white lips of poor Fanny, 'for I don't think 1 could hulp loving him ; but I could not have thought or marrying Win My dear child, I do love and approve of Charles Lawlon, for I think ho is one of the finest young men lhal I ever know ; but my doar, do you think I would do such a mnn us 110 IS, UIU llljosm-u IW ann-l" h" wild such a woman as you am likely lo be 1 He is worlhv of a belter wife.' The grea't drops stood in Fanny's blue eyes ns she turned her face away fur a mo ment, and then brushing them away with her checked handkerchief, she ventured to say, ' Father, if love, trim and unchanging, can mako a man happy, I can certainly make Charles s i for 1 know that I can love him, even in iho deepest poverty, and ho knows it too. He knows lhal I might havo married a rich merchant, or a lawver either, if I had chosen, instead of a mechanic who had nothing but his own honest industry lo rely on.' 1 My child,' said tho nlJ man, with evident emotion, 'I do not doubt thai you think you lovo Charles, and could love, him under any circiiinslnnccs J hut think a moment of your qualifications to become the wife of a poor Lilian. W nat coniu youq rj nisiie ms Home comfortable, nnd lo asy! hah i,t acquiiing n competence 1 I see thai tnr have perilled your happiness by bringing you up ns we havo done ; but I cannot consent that a young man of Charles Lawton's prospects should bo ru ined by marrying a wife who could not even make bread.' 1 But,' said llio ignorant-diild, 'that would not he much ; of course we should have a servant, and she would knr.v how to do all such work. No gentlewoman thinks it ne cessary lo do lhal. I suppoo mother knows how lo do all kinds of work, hut I never saw her mako bread. Surely tint cannot bo a serious objection.' A servant of course,' sighed iho old man. ' I sue how it is, F.inny ; you havo very little idea of life, much less of the high import of oe. Lul'G-&'4tJJjJi2l'ls own interest and ease, but the happiness of otir5.'.; If you loved Charles consistently, you would" iet'k to advance his interest in every possible way. You would not say we shall havo a servant of, . . -i ii if j course wnen your u'l ii aieasaB.ii ajjpncu strength would bo sufficient itdischarge nil the labor that your small family would at first require. And then think how much pleasant cr it would be to a young husband to sit down to tho neat nnd well prepared meal furnished with l It o hands of his own wife than lo cat tho careless cooking of a servant. I assure you, Fanny, that a young mechanic, just setting out in business fur himself, wi',1 not be able to hiro a servant, support her wastefulness, nnd tlio idleness and extravagance of a fashionable woman, and at the same tin; bean honest man. If hasupporls such u style of living, it must be at tho expense of his honesty yes, my child, of his very soul's salvation ; (or u dishonest man cannot bo a Christian. Now lo you think I would suffer you to become such a snaro to Chailesr No; I would sooner cut off my right hand cr pluck out my right eye." ' Gnd,' said he, 'gave ynti capacity to labor, and that capacity implies a design that you should. I know that your mother has spared no pains to tcacli you every urancti nt nseJIework, I am prouo-iu -irear the Jf-ifltHimt you have made ; but her feeble health litrurcventcd tier teaching you the equally important arts of the kitchen. The; reluctance she has fell lo place you in tho immediate society of Phillis, has pre. vented tier insisting upon your acquiring me nccessarv knowledge of a housewife; and till now, we hae not realized that you were utter !y unfit tn become the rational companion of a worthy, but poor and industrious man. I truly value your happiness, and I am satisfied that it would bo greatly promoted by your marriage with Charles were you qualified to fill the sta tion that God (les'gned a wife to fill ; but I can not. I repeat, consent that you should be instru mental in tho ruin of one I so highly prize. Were I to waste upon you the property which Gnd has entrusted to me for a higher purpose than felfi-li gratification, I should do you a last ing injury, for you would be tempted by it to live in idleness and extravagance, and at the same time, I should ho robbing God. Dear as you are
to in, I cannot give my consent that you should inirrv l.liarle?, nave on one condition. s vercd till Phillis gave her a diploma, and she icceived her degree as housekeeper. I shall not tell how frequently Charles look ed in at the kitchen when business called him by the door, nor how many times he praised her beauty In her long checked apron, nor how often ho tnld her that ho considered this tho surest proof of her disinterested lovo, be' causo that is a matter that does not concern strangers. But I will loll you that sho made him such a wife that ho was not always a poor man, and that she never tempted him from his integrity by her extravagances. When ihe King of England offered hnn a commission, he declared ho would not dirty his pocliets with it, and his wife never grudged the tea that was given to the fishes in Doston harbor. lie be came a man who was looked up to by his neigh bors ns an umpire in nil difference?, and a model for all to follow who sought to bo use ful and happy. And Fanny, to hor latest years, was the cheerful", light-hearted wife and friend that her knowledge of basincss promised, she was never annoyed by those luckless failures that young housekeepers arc wont lo suffer ; and she often in old age, related In her chil dren and grand. children, the historv of her first baking of bread. II. M. T. THE .3! FARM. in II ISP ON THE PROPER TREATMENT OF MEADOW LANDS. nv jnsst: nvDEn. What I mean by meadow land, is that which, from the nature, of tho soil, is more natural to grass than grain,' so much so, as lo iiiak0 't desirable to keep it nil the lime in grass. It "iiisu, includes the ;.:! (SCUt- soil which is good for cither grain or grass. As parmunoat nviadow land, the same treatment applies lo it all. And be it un derstood, I havo reference lo upland merely. To such land as, when poor, or tho grass be comes thin upon it,is covered with red, moss, nnd frequently mouse-ear, being reduced Mo the production of bull's-eye, or white dai sv, all of which are the effect and not the causo of the absence of grass. Those temporary meadows on dry lands, which come of a rotation of crops, where the grass is renewed after tillage, and re mains in but a short limn, do not come with in the purview of this article. Tho very dryness of the soil, which compclls frequent plowing, increases the prom ot tho larmer, his land is enriched by the easy means of seed and plaster, in conjunction with the manure of tire farm, and, as a general thing, such is Ihe most profitable of all lands. But a far different system should bo adnp ted with land, which is too heavy and wet for grain, without inaiiurn, From lb" vf ,l.., L .u.jul nurlng hfghly Jo insurea crop of grain, and the fertility of the soil cannot bo maintained iu tillage husbandry, by tho cultivation of clover, as is that of dry land. Where tho soilnf a farm is all of that na ture, there should be no more plowed than can bo manured sufficiently to give good as surance of every grain crop sought to bo ob tained therefrom. Consequently, that por tion of the farnr tinder tillago should be small iu comparison with that of dry land. But with tho treatment which such land usually receives, the amount of manure mado from the produce of tho farm is too in significant lo maintain, much more lo in crease its fertility. The common practice is lo plow it up when iho grass runs down, and take from it several meagre crops of grain, belore It is again laid down to grass; then succeed tno or three middling ciops of roe lo her checks 1 1 fear,' said her father, you will think it a hard condition, h'H remeinherlfis the only one.' ' Tell me, dear falher, and see if love does not make it eay.' ' It will try the strength of j our regard,' said the old gentleman, less solemnly than he had before spoken. 'It is on condition that you bind yourself apprentice to I'hilhs, anil serve under her till sho gives you an lionurauio discharge as an accomplished housewife, that I consent lo your union Willi unarms lwion. win you comply with the terms, Fanny V l'.innv looked up iiopotuity, ana courageously said, 'I'll try, father.' Tho old man roie from the table, and imprinted a kiss on the rheek of his child, telling herlu be ready to take lessons on the following day. He then look his hat and walking stick, and went to escort his loving wile homo from the hue of a tick friend, and Fanny was left lo arrange her plans for to. morrow. Poor girl ! she little dreamed that love was to cost her such self denying labors : but it helped in lighten them in reality, as well as to make them less formidable iu anticipation. On the following morning Fanny was up betimes, and arrayed in a suit ol garni n tils that well befitted 'a maid of all work.' Esq. Vlullips declared he had never seen her look so neatly In any other dress, and old Phillis grinned and tittered when ho introduced her to the kitchen, and told her sho was to be entirely under her direction till sho thought her lit for a house keeper, It was baking day, and the first lesson was in inakui! bread. After showing her ignorance in various ways, mucn to tn o amusement ot ttie shrewd servant, tho bread was at last prepared for Iho oyen. It was designed to biKe it without nans, as was then the usual custom, and it con siitutcd no small share of tho baker's skill to be able to toss the loaves into Ihe oven handsomely, with a irreat wooden bread shovel, "Now missy," said Phillis, " wet tho broad ahnvol so the Jiiaves will slide nfreasy." Fanny wel the shovel, placed a loaf upon it, and made the attempt to land at the back side of the oven. Of course it did no go as directed, hut a nut fell in tlio middie of the oven and the rest stuck on tlio shovel. " To. he he," bnrst from Phillis. " Guess the silly girl wont wet it again." Poor Fanny ! her face kkoil red enough to bake the bread, but as she knew it would be quite useless to resent the trick that Phillis had played so successfully upon her, she only asked vWiat was lo uc uono next. " Tako a kmfo and scrape the shovel, and when von have washed it clean and dried it then put on dry flour, guess missy find It wont slick 1" Tim docile cir I obeyed, nnd succeeded so well that Phillis condescended to praiso her. But this was not the only lesson taught hor by Home luckless disaster, and tho wet bread shovel was frequently a source of no small amusement to the faithful servant, But in spile of blistered 'fingers, sprained wrists snd tired feet, sh per crass, before It degenerates to the old stand N'ame it.' cried Panov enuerlv as sho beuaii I ard, again inviting or compelling tho owner tohreaiho more freely, and tho color once more ! to renow his impotent uflorts to increase its fertility Bui such management is all wrong. The attempt lo nunago heavy land the same as though it was dry, in order to renew the crop ol grass upon it, necessarily involves frequent plowing, with the application of little or no manure lo the greater part of it, from the insufficiency of the supply ; conse quently the land, grows poorer and heavier by the operation, ror souls which are naturally too stiff, but have been lightened by vegetable mailer, speedily degenerate un der tillage, nnd becomes less porous as tho vcgclablo matter works out ; leaving it com pact and heavy, and untitling it lor the growth of plants ; so Ihat ii requires a very successful now seeding with grass, to again lighten it up and restore it to its former good estate. Sucb a system, thon should bo adopt ed with such land, as will not diminish the amount of vegelablo matter upon the surface ofthesoil. If it is desirable to plow the land, let it be up but ono season as a sum mer fallow, and sown early with winter grain, and seeded with timothy in tho fall, and clover in the spring ; t hat enables tho young grass lo feed up iho old, so that by the limo the old roots tiro decomposed, and appropriated lo the use ol the new crop, a more luxuriant crop is obtained, and the amount of vegetable matter in tlio soil in creased, or in other words, ns turlilily or power of production is increased, which must bo attributed to tho largo share of nourishment which plants derive from the atmosphere, (being according to Liebig, nine-tenths of tho whole,) that makes the old roots a basis for nine limes thoir weight of vegetable matter to grow upon, or in tho soil. This now estate can bo maintained without manuring, as I shall show hereaf ter, such, in my opinion, is tho extent to which land not fittod for a succession of grain crops, may bo plowed. But a far butler way than plowing exists, in my opinion, lo renew the grass upon old meadow lands. Tliero aro two ways in which it may bo done without plowing, one' through the agency of red clover, and tho other by lop-dressing with manure, of which tho one most important lo bo understood, bocause tho easiest and cheapest, is that which is effected by clover. Strange as it may appear to somo, clovor is, to stiff clayey soils, when kept constantly in grass, and rightly managed, the same sourco of fertility that it is to dry land in a judicious rotation of crops. Although it generally succeeds but poor, ly on such land in a new seeding, after til lage, owing to tho roots being drawn nut hy frost, it by no means follows that such lands are incnpablo of producing it. On an old meadow malted with other grass, there is but liltlo freezing and thawing of the sur face to draw out O'o roots of clover, and the multiplicity of other erass roots lend to bind them to the soil. But it requires peculiar management of meadow land to preserve it m a succession of clover, so as to maintain tho fertility of tno son, ana renow other grass upon it, so as lo increnso its burthen, like to a new seeding. By observation I have been enabled to discover the circumstances which govern the production ot clover on old meadows, which might be called an inductive theory of its op eration. To securo its benefits, ono gene ral principle is to be observed, which is, to always lot tho rowen clover go lo seed, be fore calllo tiro turned on to pasture tho af ter rrnp. Tho operation is simyly llils: suppose an old meadow that is running down lo blue grass. Timothy and othor grasses aro dwind ling to a light crop, and there nro plants of ciovcr scattered over the land, winch are permitted to spring up after mowim?. and go lo seed. Tho seed sheds abroad over the surfaco in tho fall and winter; in tho spring it comes up early, and is protected from frosts by iho old' stubble and moss which is upon the land. The crop of other grass being light, gives tho young clover a chance to grow, which consequently brings iho land round to clover; the old grass pre serves the roots during the winter ; the next year it is up betimes, and takes possession of the ground by getting the start of olher graM. providing tho' seeding was thick enough. If not, it seeds' t'l'rclccr ilia next fall, clover being on tho increase, and thus il gels possession of the ground, partially smothering other grass, and killing thn mos3. The land becomes completely renovated. but what becothes of tho clover I The year. ii (joia jus3i-9siun, mere is naturally a great deal of seed grown in ihe fall, which scatters over Ihe ground in great profusion ; it conies up tho next spring ; but cii cumstances aro now very different there being a full growth of other grass, the young clover is nearly smothered up in turn. The old clover dies, and the soil is further ameliorated by its roots, and timothy, red top, and whito clo ver tako possession ; young clover is nioro or less killed, until tho timothy and redtop dwindle again ; and thus by proper manage ment, is clover mado tho agent of the far mer in fertilizing tho soil and increasing his crops, without Ilia aid of manuring or plow tng ; vegelablo matter accumulates on the surface, tho soil becomes mora open and friable, and this without manure. -rueiB uro many who suppotu nece5,r,rv to leave the second growth of grass "undis turbed, lo rot on the ground; in order to preserve tho fertility nnd maintain tho pro ductiveness of old meadows in grass, where top-dressing with manure is not resorted to. But such management is not only unneces sary, but sometimes extremely hurtful, and the injury is proportioned to the amount left untrodden nnd unfed. If the amount left standing, or laing loose upon the surface bo considered, it, in the first place makes a harbor for mice, which will, under cover of tho old grass, intersect tlio surface of the land with paths innumerable, from which they cut all the grass that comes in their way, more especially the crowns of thn clo ver plants, of which they seem especially fond,. In ihe second place, tho covering of old grass seems to operate to shade and smolher tho young grass in tho spring, that ihe mice may have loft, moro especially the young timothy, nnd the result is that a meagre crop of what is here called spear grass, or Juno grass, shoots up through Iho old grass as through n brush heap, in lieu of tho good uurtiien ot ine year belore. 1. Always let the rowen clover go to seed. 2. If ihe season bo favorable, and the second growth large, turn in animals upon It as soon as the clover seed begins lo shed, in order that it may be sufficiently fed oil and trampled down beforo winter, otherwise mow it the second lime alter sufficient seed has been shed upon the ground. 3. If the nfter-growlh bo light, so as if left upon the land, it will not endanger the next crop by shade and mice, do not pas ture it at all. Such treatment of meadow land is gener ous and good, and lhal generosity will be returned, Ii does not admit of turning cal llo upon meadows as soon as iheyare mowed, to bite Jhe grass down to the roots, killing somo kinds and injuring others. Timothy grass for instance, generally requires iho balance of tho season after mowing, in which to recruit, so us to put forth Us best efforts the spring following. 1 ho more kinds of grass tliero are grow ing on tho same ground, the greater the weight produced and tho thicker the growth. Each kind is supposed lo require some spe cific food not appropriated by the others ; therefore it is that old meadows can bo mado to produce much moro weight of grass than llioso newly seeded. I now como lo treat of top-dressing mea dow land with manure, to promote the growth of the grass. Where hay is much of an object ot cul ture, and manure can be had, the use or it in renewing the crop, possesses the follow ing advantages over the clover culturo : 1st. The crop can be kept moro uniform in amount by manuring while it is still fair, and beforo it runs out to blue-grass, which generally precedes the change to clover for, in the clover culturo. one of two shm crops must be expected in a round of from three to six years. za. II the hay is dcstinad for market. clover is not os saleable ns other grass, and it can be kept in a minority by pasturing the meadows close after mowing, and lop dressing with manure. 3J. Heavier crops can be obtained be top dressing than by any olher system of man agement, the clover system seldom giving over two tons of hay to tho aero new seed ing with timothy, three and a half Ions whan top-dressing gives three tons and up wards. Three tons lo the arcs, obmined by top-dressing, will stand up ns well ns two tons of timothy newly seeded, being su much thicker at the bottom, and growing su Many more kinds of grass, I have obtained three anil a half tons to iho aero in n good sesson, by spreading ten Iwo-horso wagon loads of fresh livery stable manure to tho acre, In February, on a stubble, principally timothy tho year before, when a portion of tho meadow not dressed gave but two tons. I havo spread fifteen loads of manure to tho acre on poor, wet, heavy meadow land, in the fall, where about half a ton of while daisy grew to tho aero. Tho next year llu crop was about ono and a hall ton or daisy, and other grass, particularly red clover; the year following timothy began lo gel posses sioncrop about tho same in weight. In the fall, 1 put ou about fen loads moro to the acre, of swamp manure, lhal had laid one year in the hog-pen; Iho result was full three and a half tons of hay to the ncre of timothy, nnd somo while daisy of equal height, and very tall. The next year (hero was a heavy growth of timothy without daisy, which was now maslcred and killed. Two things I have ascertained by top-dressing, which may be useful for some farmers lo know. One il is, that is the only way lo ex terminate from meadows, dairies and weeds, nnd bo paid for doing it, instead of paying for having it done. Bull's-eye or whito daisy, does not grow on my meadows, after tho yield comes to exceed a ton nnd a half to tho acre, except tho year following tho application of iho manure. Another thing useful to know is, that it pays belter lo manure good land lhan poor, when in grass; the limit being where tho effect is neutralized by tho grass lodging eatly, .and rottiug. atAbB-boilornat.Jf4,i such is my experience. As to the limo of year when manure ought lo bo applied to gras3 grounds, it must bo varied by circumstances. But this much I will say, that it may bo done as soon after mowing as is convenient, and if in tho spring, not later than tho first of March, in this latitude. If the land be naturally wet, so that in tho spring months il is saturated with water, the manuro should bo applied as soon as possible after it is mowed. By so doing, Iho rain which falls in the dry part of the season, soaks into tho ground, and carries with it tho strength of manure, which is thus secured for the benefit of the land. If on such land manure bo put on lato in the fall -or winter, the rains float off a great part of its substance, and the effect is comparative ly trifling. Another case where the manure should be applied early, is where tho land is sri poor that tho crass is weak nnd thin. In such cases it should bo applied immndialejv nfipr mnwine. in thai thn Brass my m time to thicken up in the fall, for the year following. Tho greatest effect from the ma nure will then be observed in the first crop of grass. If it be put on late the greatest ef fect will not bo observed until the second crop is obtained. Early spreading is gene rally the best on any meadow land. -1 pre fer unfermenlnd stable manure, with the lit ter undecomposed, to the same manure in a rotten state; nnd lint, dry weather, in sum mer, forms no objection with me to applying it immediately. In tho dryest weather, tho grass will soon spring up through the ma nure, when it will not grow at all on the -parts adjacent. The manuro should be spread very even ly over tho ground ; If it bo long manure il should be shaken fine ofT ilia fork. There arc but few hired men who aro willing to perform tho work aright. I have used earth from tho road-side, swamp manure, swamp manure with leach ed ashes spread on it after it was applied to the land, and levelled ashes alone lor lop. dressing, of which tho swamp manuro and ashes together produced tho greatest ellect, being fully equal to stable manure, and will no doubl become much mote lasting. Tho rich earth from tho road-side, on the second year, moro than four time paid for its appli cation. Ashes alone shows a decided good effect. The swamp manure alono has been on for two years without having effected much change I suppo'r, because of its in soluble slate, and tho grass roots not hav ing got hold of it bul I do not despair of its ultimate good effects. 1 think that as a manuro, It should always bo applied to ihe. surfaco, that it may be dissolved by tha gasscs that float in tho atmosphere, aided by tho rools of iho grass when ihey have takpn posssessinn of it. I know that ii is extreme ly favorablo to tho growth of timothy when, it is onco appropriated to its use, and that the crop ii maintained for a long lime. In top-dressing with stable manure, I mako it a point to suw plaster upon it as soon as I can after it is applied, and the moro manuro I put, lite more plastor I sow, more being required lo arrest ammonia in Us es cape. As an instance of tlio effect of clover I will mention that I know a meadow which twenty years ago was a barren waste tho soil heavy, and the water, in tho spring months, escaped from it by flowing over its surface; no grass grew upon it. It was summer fallowed and sowed with rye ; tim othy and clover seed ; a liltlo manuro was put on a part of it. It has never been ma nured since, except by plaster ; tho hay from i', hasalwajs been sold and nvcrages nbout two tons to the acre ; il is in clover about ono quarter of tho lime, aad is managed as I have described in this nrticle ;' the soil is now very light, nmj tho water soaks away freely. When will farmers stop murdering their meadows, und keep more stock t which they may dn under a bettor system. Bettor soil tho calllo with green corn, sown for thai pur pose, orrlover, than to pisturo so close. Jmcr. Quar.Jour.of Agricul. ITlt is stated that company has beon form, ed with a capital of 8400,000, for Ihe purpose of raising tho banks nf Ihe Ohio river at its junction with the Mississippi, and laying Ihe foundation of one of the greatest cities in Am", ics. So goes forward enterprise and imirovs ments.