Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, 13 Şubat 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated 13 Şubat 1846 Page 1
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a V. NOT TUB GLOXIY OP OASAB BUT THB W E Z. r A B S OP BOMB BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 13, 1846. VOL. XIX No. 37. BY H. B. STACY. 05 Robert J. Walsh contributes eight Sunday Sonnets' to (he January number of the Democratic Review, two of which wo copy, at follws : FORGIVENESS. "Father, forgive they know not what they do" Oh lord t ul tliank for that blessed prayer Which angels joyful to tho throne do bear, When from thy lips, thy dying lips, it flew. Though in thy blood thy creatures did imbruo Their demon hands though insult, outrage, scorn, Drove deper still the piercing naliand thorn. Thy nving love the stronger only grew. Oh, may it thus bo ever, bounteous God, When we, a!a I do crucify again. Thy sacred form on sin's hell-rooted tree Forgive us, ignorant and wretched men I Grasp not for us Thy dread avenging rod For we, too, know not how wc ontrago Thee JUDAS AND THE THIEF. What limit to Thy mercy, oh my (iod 1 t The first for whom the Saviour willed to die, Whom he himself triumphant bore on nigh, Was one who through his hellish curse had trod All paths of guilt but lo ! the dreadful rod Ol righteous vengeance brandislid o'er his head, Feel harmless at the last few words he said One prayer and 'I is a Saint's that lifers clcd ! And such might, too, have been the happy lot Of even him, the wretch, whose traitor kiss Imprinted death upon his Master's face. K'en deicidal treachery was not Their crime that barred him from tho realms of bliss Its damning sin wss doubting of Thy grace. THE YOUNG ASTRONOMER. DY MI1S. 8. r. THOMAS. At 1 ask the deathless stars, my boy, The 60cret of their rower To chain the soul in silent awe. At evening's lonely hour! For since the (.astern magi watched On Chaldon's mUnight plain, Full many a Pagan priest and seer Have asked them, all in vain ! Far up they roll their silent couise , Willi calm and steady light, Still looking on the deeds ofearih, Lone watchers ol the night 1 Thsy saw osyria's rise and fall They say the might of Rome And these are fled, yet still the stats Watch from ihJir deathless home. And s;cs more shall pass away, And empires come and go, Yet till thti stars thall keep their watch, Wiih faces wan and woe. I'll tell the child what subtle power la theirs, as thus they roll T'i s the voice of God, through them, That whispers to thy soul? Graham's Mag. From Dr. Checvcr's Wanderings of a Pilgrim under the shadow of Mount Diane. A TERRIFIC ALPINE FLOOD. The furious torrent Drance thunders down the gorg between ragged and inaccessible mountains, where thero is no vegetation but uch as has fallen from its hold, as it wero in despair, and struggles in confusion. Rocks arc piled up as if a whole mountain had I'allon in with Us own weight ; a gallery overhang ing the torrent is passed through, and to add tome picturesques in a view of almest un relenting desolation, you havo a rude little wooden bridge carelessly thrown across the cataract for the inhabitants. A friar was leisurely fishing fur trout along the eddying borders of the water. The valley was the tccne of that awful sweep of destruction caused by the gathering and bursting ol a great lako among the gla ciers, where the Drance was dammed up in the mountains. The chaos of rocks 1 had passed through were memorials of its prog ress. One of the boulders rolled down by the cataract is said to contain 1400 square feet. ihis inundation happened in lots From a similar cause, the fulling of great glaciers from the mountain across the bed of the IJrance, ana so damming it up, mere was much more terriblu destruction in tho year 1595, by which more than one hundred and forty persons perished. It is thus that the Alpine torrents prove from limo to timo the sources of vastly greater ruin than tho ava lanches, overwhelming wholo regions that the avalanches cannot visit, bursting whole mountain ridges, and changing the whole face of nature. One of the best descriptions of the catas troohe of 1818 is given by an artist of Brock' ndon. from the account of Esther de Limb, published in the Bibliotheque de Geneve. The reader may learu from it something of the dangers that ever lie in wait on tho Al pine life even In the midst of fancied secu ritv. In the spring of 1818, the people of tho valley ol Bagnes became alarmed on ODserv inc the low state of the waters of tho Drance at a season when the melting of the snows usually enlarged the torrent; and tins alarm was increased by the records of similar an pearanees before the dreadful inundation of lo'Jo, wtnen was men occasionea uy mo ac cumulation ot the waters behind the debris ol . i e I j ; l glacier tnai lormeu a uaiii, which rcmaineu until the pressure of the water burst the dike, and it rushed through the valley, leaving des olation lo its course. " In April, 1818, soma persons went up the valley to ascertain the causa of the difi cieacy of water, and they discovered the vest aaasses of the glaciers of Getroz, and ava lanches of snow had fallen into a narrow part of the valley, between Mont Pleureur and Mont Mauvoisin, and formed a dike of ice and snow 600 feet wide and 400 feat high, on a base of 3000 feet, behind which the waters of the Dranca had accumulated, and formed a lake above 7000 feet long. M. Veoetz, the engineer of the Vallaii, was con sulted, and ha immediately decided upon cutiinr a eellery through this barrier of ice, 60 feel above the level of the water at the timaof commencing, and where tho dike wss 600 feet thick. lie calculated upon making a tunnel through this mass before this water should liavu risen CO feet higher in I lie lake. On thn 10th ol May, tho work was begun by gangs of 50 men, who relieved each other, and worked without intermission, day and night, with inconccivablo cotirngo and per severance, neither delerrcd by thu (Lily oc curring danger from tho filling of fresh mass es of tho glaciers, nor by tho rapid increase of tho waters ol tho lake, ulucli rose v leel in 34 days on an ntcrage nearly two feet each day ; but it onco rose fivo feet in one day, and threatened each niomotit to burst the diko by its increasing pressure ; or, rising in a tnoro rapid preporlion than tho men could proceed with their work, render their effoits abortive by rising abovo llieitt. Some times dreadful noises were heard, as tho pres sure of tho water detached masses of ice from tho bottom, which, floating presented so much of their bulk abovo tho water ns led to the belief that some of them were 70 feet thick. Tho men persevered in their fearful duty without any scriousaccident, and though suffering severely from cold and wet, and surrounded by dangers which cannot be just ly described, by tho 4th of June they had ac complished an opening GOO feet long; but hiving begun their work on both sides of tho dike at the same time, the placo whero they otieht to have met was 20 feet lower on one side of the lako than on the other ; it was for tunate that latterly tho increase of tho per pendicular height of the water was less, owing to the extension of its surface. They pto cocded to level the highest side of the tunnel. and completed it just befuro the water reach-1 cd them. On tho evening of tho 13th, the water began to flow. At first tho opening was not largo enough to carrv off tho supplies of water which tho lake received, and it ruse two feet above tho tunnel ; but this soon en larged from tho action of tho water, as it incited tho floor ol the gallery, and the torrent rushed through. In 32 hours tho lake sunk 10 feet, and durins the I'ollowinr24 hours 20, feel moro ; in a few days it would havo been emptied; for the floor melting, and being driven off as tho water escaped, kept itself j below the level of tho water within; but the cataract which issued from the gallery, melt ed and broko up also a large portion of the base of tho dike which had seived as its but tress its resistance decreased faster than the pressure of the lako lessened, and at 4 o' clock in the afternoon ol the How of Juno the diko burst, and in half an hour the water scaped through the breach, and left the lako empty. " Tho greatest accumulation of water had been 800,O00,C0O of cul it feet ; the tunnel, before the disruption, had carried off nearly 330,000,000 Escher says 270,000,000 ; but lie omitted to odd 0.000,000 wind. flowed into the lake in three days. In half an hour, oau,lUU,UUU cubic leet ol water passed through the breach, or 30,000 feet per second ; which is fivo limes greater in quan tity than the Rhino ut Basle, where it is 13C0 English feet wide. In one hour and a half! man, in 1S1G, has asserted, that his grandfa the wator reached Marlignv, a distance of thcr lold him that he saw ono of these an!- eight leagues. Through the first 70,000 feet ' mals in a mountain pass, when he was hunt it passed with the velocity of 33 feel per i ing, und that on hearing him roar, which ho second four or fivo times faster thr.n the ' compared to thunder, the sight almost left most rapid river known ; yet it was charged with ice, rocks, earth, trees, houses, cattle and men ; thirty-four persons were lost, 400 cottages swept away, and the damage dono in tho two hours of its desolating power ex ceeded a million ol swiss Itvrcs. All tho people of tho valley had been cautioned against the danger of a sudden irruption ; yet it was lutal to so many. All tho bridges in its courso weic swept away, and among them the bridges ol mouvoisin which was elevated show that they havo existed not many ccnlu moro than 00 feet abovo the ordinary height , ries since. of the Drance. If tho dike had remained untouched, it could have endured the prcssuro until the luke had reached llio level of Us top; a volumo ol 1,UU,UUU,UUU cubic feel of wator would have accumulated there, and n devastation much more extensivo must havo been tho consequence. From this creator danger ihe people of the valley of the Drance wero preserved by llio heroism ol the bravo now nsho did formerly whero his bones are 'Hero he is,' said they, and in wo all bun men ho effected llio formation ofthe gallery, now found," &c. Tho same reasoning ihat died in a room, gathered round a bed, with under ihe direction of M. Venctz. I know ,L. uscJ, w, apply with diminished force, it1 mo shut in among 'em, and tho cossed big no instance on record of courage equal to this; is true, to our own limes. There are. still. I oncnlichtened heathen, that did tho talking, their risk of life was nol for tamo nor riches -nit iiau noi inu usual fxeiiBincnis to per- Uy iitf uhito man,and inhabited only by hos sonal risk, in a world's applauso or gazetted ,;0 Jdj,, tribes. Vasl gorges of tho nioun- promotion Iheir devoted COUrago was to savu Iho lives and properly of their fellow .in. n iln.t.nH .1 'I'l . -. l!l.. u, iiiuiii, i .ivy Mummy and heroically persevered in their abors amidst dangers such as field of battle never iiri'Ntwiii'u . nun i rniii it turn cnmii nt tin' bravest brules that ever lived would havo shrunk in dismay. Theso truly bravo Vul laisans deserve all honor!" Tho devastation of Marlicny was fearful. More than twenty yeais havo not sufficed to restore the fertility of nature, covered as tho soil then was with a thick desolating mass of stones, sanu and gravel HISTORY OF THE MASTODON RACE. As far as is known at present, the wholo race ot mastodons is extinct. There is no evidence of their existence at this day. Dut . . . . . the numerous remains of them found in this country, indicate that they have at some peri od lived in great numbers on this continent. At what timo this was, we shall consider hereafier. Their lange, however, does not appear lo havo extended over tho wholo of North America, but lo havo been confined mostly lo tho rich alluvial valleys. Portions of two skeletons only have been fouod north of Oranee countv in iho Stnt nf Now Vnrk East ol the Hudson river, porlions of two eu nioucrn times, anu which is aim iorm have been discovered. Orango i"g Moreovor the fact that the bones in ever, seems lo have been Iho northern limit1 kelson from Orange county, are so of their range, and the Hudson river the cas.l'!,,. containing a Urge portion of animal tern boundary. Passing thon south through I metier, and thai the contents of ihu stomach Now Jersey, and thence westward through d intestines were found unchanged sp all the groat western vallies, throughout this' parently by time, is strong evidence that this -1 . . whole region Ihe bones aro lound in greater, or less abundance. The saltlicks of Ken lucky nave lurnisnea tho most ol these re- mains ; and it has uoen slated that from one of these localities alone, portions of moro, than one hundred skeletons have heen ra. ... : - . moved. This species of mastodon is pocu- liar to Ihis continent, no remains of it hiving boon found in any other portion of the globe. Tho first bones and teeth of this animal were found as early as 1812, at Albany ; and wero noticed in tho Philosophical Trans action, in a letter from Dr. Mather to Dr. Wnndwnrd. Iii 1739. o French officer, by ilm name of Loncticil. discovered some of 1 1 io bones, teeth and tusks, near the Ohio river ; and the next year, larger quantities of similar bones wero washed up by tho cur rent of tho same liver. After this lime the bones wore occasionally found, down to tho present time, but often very much decayed, and never in sufficient quantities to mukc nn entire skeleton. The scientific world is much indebted to the lato Mr. Poalc, who, with great labor, and at much expense, pro cured, in 13J0, sufficient bones to enable him to construct a tolerably complete skeleton, which is, at the present time in tho Philadel phia Museum. lint though tho living animal is unknown to us, the aboriginal inhabitants of this coun try scciu to have been acquainted with him. Many peoplo are disposed to place very lit tle dependenco upon Indian tradition ; but however vagtio such tradition may become in relation to ccitain facts, by long transmis sion from generation to generation, yet it must havo something real and true for its or igin. Such wo believe to be tho fact in re lation to this animal. Wo shall, therefore, givo a fow of these traditions as concisely as possible. In President Jefferson's notes on Virginia wo find tho following tradition of the Indians in relation to this animal. ' That in ancient times a herd of these tro menduus animals camo to the Big Done Lick, and began a universal destruction of bear, deer, elk, buffaloes, and other animals which had been created for the use of tho In dians, And that tho Great Man above, looking down and seeing this, was so enraged, that lio seized his lightning, desconded on tho earth, and seated himself on a neighboring mountain, on a certain mountain rock.whero the print of his feetaro still remaining, from wiicnce no nuriuu ins uous among iiicm, tin thu whole were slaughtered, except tho big bull, who, presenting his forhead to the shafts, shook them off as they fell, but at length, one of them missing his foilicad, glanced on his side, wounding him sufficiently to make him mad ; whereon sptinging round, ho bounded over the Ohio at a singlo leap, then over the Wabash at another, tho Illinois at a third, and a fourth leap over the great lakes where ho is living at this day. A Mr. Stanley, who was taken prisoner by tho Indians, and carried beyond tho wes tern mountains to where a river runs west ward, snys that thc.o bonoi abound there, and that tho natives described to him the animal which these belonged as still living in tho northern part of their country.' The following wo extract from Dr. Koch's pamphlet on tho Missotirium : ' One Ins eyes, and that Ins heart became as small 'as an infant's. rcmoD or TiiEin existence. The opinion is a very prevalent one, that theso animals were antidiluvian, and most persons reject with a sneer, ilia idea thai they have lived at a very recent period. But the first has no ground, or shadow ol ground for belief, and all tho evidence seems to Mr. Jefferson, in his notes on Virginia. reasons thus : 'It may bo asked why I in- .nrt tin, mammoth ns if it mill rxUtnl 1 I ns m return, why I should omit it as if it did not exist Tho northern and western parts still remain in their aboriginal slate, unexplored and undisturbed by us or by others fur us. Ho may as well exist there vast noi lions of this continent vet unexnlored .mint in llu west inmllt slill contain thn living animal, and yel wo bo utterly ignorant of . . . ..... ins cxtstunco. llut wo will not contend lor i,r..n,,t .UinrD. tt'n u ill briefly, llio evidence of his having lived in a very few centuries, In tho first placo,tho testimony of tho In dians, but a few years back. They slated in thu early part ot this conlury, that this an imal still lived north of the Missouri river. They called it 'Pcro du bceuf,' father of entile. Hut how shall we reply to tho ques tion, it the animal has lived in theso parts of tho country within so short a time, why did not tho early whito settlers either see or hear of them from thu Indians? To Ihis wo answer, that after the discovery of tins coun try, the settlement of it took placo slowly, and then was principally in those parts which have not apparently ueen in the track oftho Mastodons. That they did not hear of them I lrr r.l thu lllllnhf tint tVAnrlorfi.l fnr lluirn from the Indians is not wonderful, for there was nothing to excite inquiry in regard lo llicin. If a bono of ono had been found at that period, and thus inquiry started, doubt less something would have been ascertained far moro distinctly than has since been lear ned. That they were not antidiluvian, is settled by the fact of their being found in a deposit ' of marl and pcal.all of which lias been form f . , muiviuuai ius iiveu iu a very recent pcrioa, and we may nut down some five-hundred yeais ago as tho most distant lime at which i . .. v . ; ano we are sirengiy incttnea io me opinion, that if extinct 'now, they have not been extinct ono hundred years in the was- tern Prla of this country. Quar. Jour, of AgiituUurt. ESTABLISHING THE SCIENCE. nr EVERfOINT. Do Bonnoville had been electrifying De troit by his moro than galvanic efforts upon the muscles of scores of his impressibles. when an enormous sized Wolverine 'Irving the thing' himrclf, found that ho was quite equal to tho professor, in selling folks lo sleep and 'makin' on 'em cut up' afterwards, and accordingly in o furor of his discove ry, off he went into the country to lecture and diffuse the now light which had been dispensed to him. His success was tremon- dous ; town and village said thero was 'somlching in it,' untihis '., tutation, as in ollior cases, begat him' s. The Wol verino Mcsmerizer, asjj&jtonishinga 'Hall' full, one evening, at sjrnj, very 'promising town or other, and whidfi bade fair, shortly to bo 'quilo a place,' returned to the tnvcrn, to bo arrested in the bar-room bv a score of 'first citizens,' who had then and thero con gregated 'jest to test the humbug,' any how. ' Good evening, Professor,' said one, ' Won't you take a little of the fluid I said another, and this being sn evident hit in the way of a joke, the ' anti-humbug,' proceed ed to more serious business. 1 Professor,' said the principal speaker, a giant of a follow, before whose proportions, even tho huge Magnetizer looked small. ' Professor,' said ho, biling off I he end of a plug,' and tnrning it over in his jaws very leisurely, 1 a fow on us, here, hcv jest con cluded to hcv you try an experiment, ap pintin' ourselves as a rcg'lar constituted committco to report.' Tho Professor begged to appoint a more proper placo and hour, &c. or, according to llio apprehension o 'the crowd,' evinced tho expected desire To make a ' clean back out.' ' Profossor,' returned tho big dog,' 'ef wo ondcrsland right, you call your Mesmer ism a rcniejil agent,' which means, I s'pose, that it cures things?' Tho disciplo of science referred to divers cases about town in which ho had been suc cessful, to say nothing of the 'pull teeth' operation which he had just concluded his lecture with. ' Yes,' said the chanceller, 1 you're death no teeth, we know, but ken Mesmerism come the remce-jill over rheumaliz V Inflammatory or chronic I, demanded the professor. 1 Wall, stranger, we ain't given lo doc tor's kottle names, but we reckon it's aboul the wust kind.' The Mesmerist way about to define tho difference between inflammatory attacks and local affections, when.ho was interrupt ed by the inquisile, who rather allowed thai as far as the location of the disordnr went, il had a pre-emption right to the hull critter ; and that, further more it was jest expected of him that ho should forthwith visit tho case, and bid him take up his bed and walk, or he himself would be escorted out of town, astride of a rail, and ' dumped down out side tho 54 degreo of Oregon and 'no mis take.' This was a dilemma, either horn of which promised a loss to his reputation, but the crowd were solemnly in earnest ; already triumphing in his detection, they began to look wolfish at him and wiso at one another, so that tho Wolverine had nothing left for it but to demand, boldly, to 'see the patient!' Wo had better give the rest of the story as il was related to a numerous friend of ours, by the disciple of Mcsmer himself. Up stairs I went with 'em, as mad as thunder, I tell you ; first at being thought a humbug, and next that my individual share

of American oagle should be compelled in to a measure, by thunder 1 I'd a gin 'em a fight, if it hadn't been for the science, which would a suffered any how, so I jest said lo mvsclf. lei 'em brine on their rheumaliz I ' I felt as if I could mesmerise a horse and I ' determined whatever tho case might be, I'd make it squeak thunder ! drawing out a minhty bowie knife at the same lime. ' That s your man i sam ne. Well thero lay a miserable looking critlcr, with his eyes sot and his mouth open his taws cot wider and wider as lie saw me J V . . i -r. f I iTI.... crowd and uowto Kniie, inn you i i urn tho idea !' said the old big login. 'Rise up in that bed ! said I, and I tell you what, I must a looked at him dreadful, for he jumped up on eend, as if he had jusl got a streak ol galvanic. Uit out on this lloor, (siu iwiiujawus look ; and I hope 1 may be shot if he did'nt como out lookin' wild, 1 tell ye ! 'Now cut dirt, d- -n ye ! screamed I, and Gehu Gineral Jackson I If he didn't make a straight shirt-tail for the door, may I never make anothor pass. Alter mm 1 went, and after me they came, and prehaps there wasn't the orlulest stampin down three pair of stairs that ever occurred in Michigan '. Down cut old rheumaliz through ihe bar-room ; out I cut arter him ; over went the stove in tho rush arter both on us ; I chased him round two squares in the snow at that ; then headed him offand chas ed him back to tho holol again, where he landed in a fine sweat, beeged for his lift and said he'd give up the property I Well, I wish I may be shot, if ho wasn't the feller they were onenn a reward for in Hutlalo, I made him dress himself: cured his rheu maliz run it right out of him delivered him up, pocketed the reward, snd cjlo6fi'iA- ed the science, by thunder 1 An Untimely Demanp. A provincial actress was performing the part of Lady Ann in Richard tho Third, and on delivering the followini; passage. "When shall I have the rest V she was answered by her washerwo' nun from tho pit, who exclaimed, " Never till you pay mo my three shillings and two peoco." iVSeTini SsansklA nt Mr island tiu m VAls 12 io 5. has passed the bill for establishing Biennial Sessions ofthe Lsgislaluie. -Tv I 1UU UMIUKMbW S-'illliM. - i TO THE YOUNG FARMER. Judge Duel, in his address before the Tlerk shire Agricultural Society in 1837, said that every age demands a greater degree of mental culture, than the one which preceded it; and it behoves yeuto qualify yourself for lhat.which now draws upon your mental vision. The tnoro you learn to depend upon yourselves, the more you find developed capacities and ener gies ol which you are yet unconscious of not esssing the more likely you will be to pros per in life. The sapling that is sheltered by the lowering pine, or wide spreading oak, is neither ao strong nor so graceful, as that which grows up without shelter, and acquires strength and eohdity from the buffeting of thu winds and storms. The plant that ia nurtured in the ehsde is nnt so beautiful its hlosonis aro not so fragrant nor its fruit so rich, as the form, the flower, and the fruit of that which grows in the glare of solar light. The culture ofthe mind should engage your serious attention, that you may sooner prom by its counsels snd its powers. Mind ia the great master power which instructs, guides and a. bridges human labor the grand source of in. tellectual pleasure a faculty which distin guishes man from tho brute, and which as it ia moro or Ices cultivated, marks the graduations in civilized society. Say not that ynu have no leisure for this, that your time is engrossed in providing lor your animal wan's. Franklin found tune to bestow upon hia mind hi'iili and useful culture, amid the cares and labors of an active mechanic's life. The hours that tho avocations of the farm allow to study, amount, in aggregaie or early hie, to months and to years. Knowledge is power, it is wealth, il is respectability, it is happiness, it endures with I lie. l lie mind may ds iiKencu in tho soil. Both are given to be improved ; and the mea sures of our enjoyments, and the welfare ol society, depends upon the good or bad culture we bestow upon them. Indulenco may be compared to the coarse marsh plants, which leed upon the soil and taint the air, without yielding anything that is comely and useful in return for man or beast; intemperance to broken down fencer, which permit beasts to enter and consume the earnings of industry, and beggar the offspring of the owner liiiga. tion to the thorns and thistles, which rob the soil of its fertility, and mar the beauty of the landscape. While on the other hand Ilia faith ful application of knowledge to the useful pur poses of life, may be likened lo the draining and manuring, which give fertility to the soil ; the good habit which we establish, to the good culture bestowed by Ihe husbandman indica. tive alike of chcerlulnees and plenty and the embellishments of the mind in literature, sci ence and taste, to tho gardens and ground, a- bounding in all that is grateful to the senses, which should surround and adorn our rural dwellings, and beautify the country. You have chosen sn employment which ij honorable, profitable and independent. Devote to it your best powers, till you have become master of the art, or of such branchss of it as you design to follow and until you have ac quired so much of the science knowlcdgo of why and wherefore of the great laws of n. lure, upon which good husbandry is based, as shall enable you to conduct your operations with judgment and success. 1 H ho aims at excellence will be above mediocrity ; who aims at mediocrity will fall short uf it.' So the ad age teaches'and so is the response of expor lence. From the American Agriculturist. IMPROVED LAND. Having succeeded bevond my most flat loring cxpectstions, through the aid of Agriculturist and kindred journsls, in subdu ing a piece of ground that was deemed al most unconquerable, I wish to give your readers a very lew plain lads, which w show that sustaining agricultural journals is a profitable investment. I commenced tilling the soil on my own hook, quite young, and practically know but little about it; and though I have had my own ignorance and the prejudice of others to contend against, yet 1 have already hintsd, and in tho sequel 1 will attempt to show, that 1 havo accom plished something. 1 happen to know somu farms whero some of the best meadow lands is a scar on the place ; bogs, briars, and wet places abound, where at least two tons of good hay should be annually cut to the acre ; and then produce as much pasture besides, in one season, as it would previously to any improvement. Now, I wish to attract par ticular atlenlion to this fact, for il is indeed a Jact; though I know sonic old fashioned farmers, who, if they wero to meet with this, their mouths and eyes would expand wiih astonishment, and horror would be depicted on every furrow ol their visages, first of all, let me say, that it needs a due share of energy and perscversnce, qualities I hold essentially requisite to the acccmplishment of any undertaking; but when a larmer espe cially is bound to persevere, it really seems astonishing what one can accomplish. Bui, to my object. 1 am extravagantly fond of improving land ; there is something peculiar about it that always interests me; it really seems like a certain way of improving one's self ; and who is there that cannot appreci ate it I Usrlsinly, waving nrids ot grain are far mora beauliful than acres of brush and slone. I have a small plot of ground thst once seemed graced with almost innumerable ob stacles to successful cultivation; bogs and bog holes; hedges and bnsrs; low plsces end high places existing in all their native majesty, and it really seemed irreclaimable. But I have not found it so. Tho first was to drain it thoroughly. And hore just allow me very briefly to repeat my testimony in favor ofdraining. Previous lo draining, the ground wss so peculiarly situated, every little show er the water would collect in little pools, causing, for the time being, a certain check lo all our operations, inereoy losing mucn time. Now. it bleeds at evsry pore, and we no loneer fesr to have it rain. To all our farmers I ssy, drain land that noeds it with out delay. Standing water is death lo all useful vegetation. Draining does wonders. After a thorough and complete draining, I could scarcely recognize the soil ; the differ ence in lha yiold of grata was perfectly as- inniahnir. bvervihing thst could erow ssemed lo enjoy and Itke advantage of its ftf , HAW liberties My neii step in order as lo cut end burn 'he bogs, snd apply the ashes to t crop corn, which proved more pleasant and profi-1 table than crops of hassacks. Ono fact 1 wish plainly understood. I plow' my land very deep, much deeper than many ol my neighbors. My average depth for plowing is twelve inches ; but iho heavi er llio soil, snd tho moro retentive tho sub soil, llio deeper would I plow. I particular ize on this fact, because 1 have years of my own experience to stippott me, and because I havo old established farmers all around me who aro very much prejudiced against deep plowing. Its advantages in a few word's, are a deep soil for roots lo penetrate for nourish ment, and that tho surplus of water may pass through moro rapidly. But a tery sf criterion is a comparison between nn ordina ry farm and one whero deep plowing and good cultivation is constantly practiced ; then mark the difference in thu yield, aside from iho general appearnnre of the farm. 1 always want llioso who aro opposed to deep plowing, lo account for the enormous yield of vegetables and growth of trees in a gar den where llio soil has been trenched and manured to the depth of eighteen inches or two feet. It is true, in my prnctice of deep plowing I often expose a poor sub-soil, but to this I apply a double portion uf manure. As I am ofthe opinion that manure fur land is hku oats for a horse the best medicine ynu can give and as Iho oats are applied inwardly, so 1 plow in niv manure ; ns it seems to mo the surest way of securing its benefits, or of "fixing Die ammonia, 1 have seen farmers scatter loads of coarse yard manure upon the surface ofthe ground, which practice I con sider wasteful in the extreme, as almost eve ry particle of any use is lost, as it is the roots we wish to supply with warmth and food and not the air. 1 believe, however, wo havo yet much to learn in (he application of ma nures. Now, as to tho economy of my practice, 1 will add that 1 am perfectly satisfied, and will givo one proof in dollars und cents as English writers say that is iho universal way ol solving American problems. My crop of hay this dry season, 1 calculated, paid the interest of five dollars per acre, while along side of it, is some land which scarcely yields enough to pay for tho fencing ' I vmic wuiu iiiuicas iu manuic, i niu no chemist or scientific farmer, yet 1 believe in manure, and make it my constant practice to apply to the land every substance in tho shape of manure, except such decidedly acid substances as new tan, pomice and the like. The higher portion of my ground I have converted into a nursery, snd have now up on it a most beautiful, healthy, and thrifty growth of fruit trees. W. D. " Morristown, N. J., Nov. 1(345. From ihe N. K. Farmer. HERBIVEROUS ANIMALS AND THEIR CUD. Mr. Brtckn a bonk entitled 'Sacred Phi. Ioophy of Season?," vol. 3 1, page 32. is the fol lowing : "Every ono knows what is meant hy ruminating or chewiig the cud; audi fin II merely state that annuals of this description, which are all herbiverou", have their stomach divided into four, and always at least into three distinct cavities or chainbt rs, the first of which serves as a receptacle for tho crass or herbaee. coarsely ground by the li ret mastication ; and in the second of which, the mass, entered by de grees, is compresscd,divided, and compacted in to small balls, which are returned, by a volun. tar; action, into the mouth, to undergo the sec ond process of mastication. During this opera tion, the animal reposes at ease, until Ihe-fnoil it has taken has been all subjected to the like process, As soon as Ihe ball is re. ground it is swallowed directly into the third and fourth chambers, where it uudeigoes iho digestive process. It seems to be the opinion of farmers gener ally, that all ruminating animals bring the cud up from tho stomach, when wanted. To this theory, for such it may be called, (for il is doubted whether any one knows it to be a fact,) there are several objections. Every one who has seen the stomach of a slaughtered beef creaturo opened, knows that there is hay, roots and ( if tho animal has not been long uithout eating) water, all mixed up together. Now, how can an animal separato from tins mixed mess, tho hay for a cud The extract says, "un til tho food it has taken has been all pubjeclcd to a like process." This cannot he so, for an animal that has had as much as it will cat in the morning, would havo to keep its jv.vs going the whole day, to tring up and rc-masticate what is had ealcnlin the moaning winch is not the case, il cannot be so. An animal chews its cud but a very small part of iho tunc. Take, lor instance, ii niuvii iiaa uvvu itu nmi muni 11.1v at he will eat, in tho morning ; put him to work : ... ..v ...i.;ni. i.. un r..,i ...ill. o n...nt. I.-.. . he will seldiin be seen to chew his cud, except when stepped : Iced him well at noon,ork him well in the afternoon, and il will be the same. What has teconie uf the large quantity of hay he has eaten 1 Certainly he has not rennstica ted it he has not had lime and leisure to do it then what has become uf it.' It has gone as does all that he eats digoled, without bciii returned to the mouth, Sava iho extract, "as soon as Ihe ball is re ground, it is swallowed directly into the third and fourth chambers." How can it po "direct. iy into the third and fourth chambers,'! i without jcies taci, wa j, runs wj,, ,0 muc, e rihfrdVndlour h ' ??d 'TZ a passago for it directly from Ihe throat Inch I . 0 ,,WBn.V l,r ""7 ol the is not so. I have paid considerable attention to work ' Jona " 8 nos thorough and perfect the internal structure of anim il, and have nev- manner. Both sides of a seam look alike, er found but one passage from the mouth to the; appearing lo be beautifully stitched, and the stomach, and from that through the animal. I seam is closer and more uniform than when This theory of ar.iimls bringing up from their I sowed bv hand. Il will sew straight or curv stomach Iheir cud, and all thai ihey havo eaten ed seaml wj,, cUl1 (acililv. and so ranidlv is naw to me, and I doubt Its correctness : havo always supposed that ! icy had a secret place of deposit for the cud, where they could , stow it away and take it again at their pleasure.1 On examination, I find this ia the case. Di rectly under Ihe tongue is a little cavity, about as large as hen's egg, with a very eurious dap per, and there 1 found the cud ; and there, probably, it' will always be found, if the animal has had any thing lo make one of within twen. ly-four hours of its being slaughtered. LOVE IT PETERS. Westboro', Jan. 17, 1840. According to statistical tables, women in all countries coinmmit fewer crimes than men. In France, women eoniposo one-fifth of Ihs condemned, in ihe U. 8. only a tenth. But lest the ladies should be vain, we miy add that it is ssld the origin of most crimes msy be trac ed lo iheir influence The humble sre not always the harm'Mi. If yoo tread upon a scorpion ycu must expect he of, mil use hii iling. A RED IRON. HOT GRID- INITIATION FIIUaTRATEU. A number of years since, (says the Citicin nali Commercial,) when our city was new and thero wus no splendid halls, tho Masonic body held its sittings in tho upper story of a well known public house, kept by Majoi S 1, who was himself a high Mason. As is the caso now, many new members were offering, or asking admission into the fellowship and mysteries of this ancient body of brethren. Why it is no cannot say, but there are many stories afloat among Ihe peo ple, and thero ever havo been, that the novi tiate is introduced to a seal on a red hot grid iron 1 that in making a man a freu and ac cepted brother, they must undergo a great many very interesting ceremonies, besides being sliuwn the giips and signals of the order. On ono occasion and it must bo some forty years ago, accoiding to our informant of many of tho particulars ; thu lodge met, and a young gooil looking spruce clerk of one ofthe stores came into the lower room of tho building, it having been arranged lo initiate him that evening. He was ordered to remain below until all was ready for Ins reception. The lime diagged, and his mind conjuring up what ho was aboul lo meet, ho commenced walking backwards and forardslhroiigh the passage leading to thu stairway uf the lodge. On llio right of tho passage way was tho kitchen, in which, and directly before him as ho passed tho door, was a laige fire burning, it being in that season of tho year requiring artificial heat for buddy comfort. It so happened tint tho Major kept an I Irish servant girl, and she was tho only per son tun wiui tue stianger in that part ofthe house; Betty had heard ofthe hot grid-iron operation ofthe Masons, and, knowing that tho young clerk was to be admitted that night, thought slio would have a bit of innocent fun. She took a large grid-iron on which she had broiled many a steak, uud placed il on tho fire, in full view of tho young expectant of mysterious grips ; stirring up thu blazing fire and returned to watch the result. Clerky continued to pass and repass the door and nvtr nnrl aimn. Rtiltv taw l,im can a iit,. fl ganco al that fi.e placo I The iron was growing redder and reddor every lime ho Massed. Ilo shook lilt hpsrl. a c oh ei-nnori him I Butiy was in ecstacits. To place her victim stili deeper in agony, she placvd a small screen, taken from another room, be tween the firo and the door leading to the hall, as if to hide from lis view the fearful instru ment of htnorabh torture. As ihe cunning jado was retreating, the young man, with ihe wink of tho eye, and a beckon ofthe hand, and a 'come, hero' nod of the head, succeed ed in arresting her progress for a moment. "A -a-a what is that gridiron on the fire fur now,'" said he, "my good gill, will you tell mei" "Oh! sir! Bui I raaly don't like loo. It wouldn't be perlitp." "Oh ! never mind. I'm exceedingly anx ious to know." "Why-a-ihorc is a Lodge up stairs to night and a " ''Well, well, I know there is a Lodge up stairs to-night. Bum hat is that iron in the firo for ? Tell me good girl, I pray you, lull ne quickly." "Why why I" "Why, tho major told mo as how they wero going to mukc a mason to-night, and that's all 1 know about it." Thai was enough. The oft told lalo was true ! That gridiron was (orhim! A change camo over him in a moment. lie would not be burned with as hot an iruu as that, anyhow. The putting on of hat and cloak was a niomontary affair.lia sought tho street, when legs, if ever, did their duty. Soon after, the brothers hating got ell things ready, ihe Major camo down for his young friend, but Hetty, who seeing the re sult uf her fun, and fearing the consequence, came toward her master sobbing and crying in a most affecting manner. Tho Major soon learned the story of llio young man's flight, also the cause, and an swered : "Never mind, Betty. If he is such a fool as that, we don't want him." Ono would naturally suppose that tho Lodge had a fine laugh over that good joke upon tho return of thu major. The inevita ble conclusion is that the young clerk never offered himself again as a candidate for ad mission into the nivsterus of Free and ac- , , ! ccl,1el1 Masons, and a scat on iheir rascally rtu 1101 gnuiron New Machine. I havo been examining a new niachino for sewing, which has recent ly been invented and constructed by an in genious mechanic of Cambridge. So far as I am informed on llio subject, this is the first attempt to construct a niachino of the kind, and il appears to mo to be an eminently sue- cesstut one, t ha machine is very compact. I not occunvinc a snacn of more than about ir ,),., it tllkeJ bul two minutes to sew Ihe wholo , ,, ... ... . ... . f . , , le"E"! ot ,he "ts,do 'f' of. a, Pa,r of 'e pantaloons. It sots 400 stitches a niiuulo witn perteci ease, anu me proprietor thinks there is no difficulty in setting "CO in a min ute. The thread is less worn by this process than by hand sowing, and consequently re tains more of its slicngth. Tho simplicity of the construction of this machine and the accuracy, rapidity and perfection of its oper ation, will placo it in tho same tank with the card machine, Ilia straw hi aider, tho pin ma chine, and tho coach lace loom machines which never fnil to command Ihe admiration of every intelligent beholder. Boston Corr. IrWfjfcr Spy. As the snow.drop comes amid sno and sleet, appearing as the herald to the rose, so rplioinn rnmta amid lha hlml., l . m Minn tn remind us of a perpetual summer, w hern th bright sun never retires behind a wintry cloud SCARED BY