Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, March 6, 1846, Page 2

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated March 6, 1846 Page 2
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"Ltirtmi OS THE TAttlVr. The llon..Uibot Lawrence, Boston, lint written two letters to a gentleman in Virginln In loply, we believe, to inq-tiric fmm the latter on tho operation ef the. tarill' ond llic iH'cds of lis piuposod repnl. Tho eeeolid of llt'.sc Islicrs cues so largely nnd clearly into the subject that wo arc tnhiccd to copy it. The view of a prJctic.i1, deir-headed win, on a u1ijeet or which he is prn'-lically familiar, are worthy of attention. Com. AthcrtUtr. IIoetos. Janinry If. 13115. My Dcvn Sta, I stated in my litter .f the "ill that I .'loutd write to Jim attain, tip ni itie sub o t "I tin , Hire clnnseprop"sed lw the I'ri- dent o. tho lui- 1 fSint.s, mid the. Seorcuiy f t Tir..rury, tn i. ;. .... .,it,,-r iti in i he adoption hit vevciiiitj I ii. . '" , . f . i f..,ii I ,r impetus Urifi, and .1 r. ilae'im ot , whole D20 percent, t d' h-ine, Me niaxniimn 'i'r!i the Secretary stippn-ca the Jar; '-t ievi nun cm u obtained. I thai! nut now diss iss the t cs of dmv tint ivi.l inn In '3 the c"-nei amount of retell ie I will lis. th- Hecrelny to talll. tint OI..H0.1; hit slull o-.rl.-nvjr to .show what tho if i..iuill bs mum lha country, if In i recommendation Iniuld lie niljpli-ii "V 1 onii"-"' deem the Scheme and that the Souiliand Wist art usually largely in dihtcd to them. . . , , . i ' p, Now, I should he Dlnl to lie intorinr.i w imi mi" in 10 he ihrUed hy n flsnt. r m Ahitiami or .ins .ppi, or n fotni-r in Onto or i iiin.i-, i y ui.nn.!.. " -..''..,. --.i.-i i..ii, ,r i,i riiiii.'O lie should ho in ilfbll Ho the W ft I hi' hou c hcvclhcycin tnuo the pn of cotton, nrhoah.o to ic-oiian. loins, to pr Macule tli-i con'tim' ioP crtlicir c-mtitiiplitcd railroad! ! Olii" t.ou siana, l.hno,!. Ori'itlr produec, or s.ioicr complete the tiathois, m tniieh lie ired on th" sh or tho'C "m nnd eras, and be able to ncinlije 1 1 j.i, nnd ohta.n fiiii-cnbcrs to the sue !i nfilim intended tnhoils, hy th" ndop- lion of Una new iy-te.it in panucii n-o ii i v'tuit civ l ie arcnl states in new i nm nu ami to tho country, that Ma?ncliu?ott3 nks no ex clusive lesifiation. If VrtinsyUnnin. New York and it'iie. Hie tnree cteni ouuep, iviui uvnim , mwi rn, Missouri, Althaini anJ Iinnsuna, w h to try an uxpetnui-nl on iron, foil, hemp, cotton liaocnfi eunr, if., I am ready as line tlnzril of Ulassa hu r.cltfjio meet it, and aoit in pativnt Fuhtnin n tho icsiili, which I doubt not iiil he round, within tih teen month, in tho reahMlinn of nil 1 huvo prcinet cd. I 8iv attain, 1 would not, tfl could, liavo n tm if I miiln fiir'?,li3iidnisain alune. If. however, there siiould l e o tuw one, l.'t our mtere ls, with those of ccry utlicr in tlia union, s'laro tint proiecinn io whu.li wo arc all entitled, and of which irj claim nor full n'-nire. 1 enn Willi conlhlelieu 1iurc von, thai we shall pi rpwanl and ouaril. lie will xeou';. If f' -uirh Inho,' in l ie '21 will not mstaui us, wo can, Irol that II riy mi ....... ... --,,...,. ,. , , , .,)., ,1. ..,, il, Ju.A ,. i.vit. nn.larail.ev rendvl If lliev are, n Ooni-'ress eaiiunt loUo the rniewB Irom c ur arnip, or nri'iosj.1 to t'ongren, in the mm, a nirmtnj q-j,M. iioii, and one, if iiiri.'d out. that will leach in n o'cntton the neeiipi:toii and busmets of every insti i- ,i,Ai:..it,..l ftjiti.a. 1 hel.evo the mot ecnnemieal member of Ronjre'B will acreo tint tinny iiitlhoii T iloiln s will he tcqji rid, annually, to carry mi ihn Knvcrnnit.il, Tir the iievifivu voars. nnd that thii cftumte iIo.m not in- i...i,. Urn itii iwtv & united to sell ? our ofliirswith Mei?o, Tcx.ii, .Vc. Ae.i end lint ihi t nil u to ha ra'.-iH Iroin foreiu.i imji irtm ni and the n.ihlie lands. Mhe imo sub'ecl to duty, inirorli.! Ta.t ycir, amounted, in round miniln r, to nuifty .,,,ll,..,i. r ,II!it). mil thtf oaoi's fieeofduty to nViut liventv-lHo iniilioiis. I lino not llmi'iut " at hand nn 1 iniy not I ccxicily correct s loriiiinntsi b it 111. v are n. a eo-iuuli to iMintra'" inv nrt'ttukil'si tli" fir.'ner pn 1 ."i av."n,n dmv of n'm.i s! percn" creatui'' a leifiun-, nr "f twcnty-oii-hl uii.li ;n. U the revenue derived fiom an impornii'iu ol ninety inilliins pno nvenH'-i'K'it millions of dollars, Mint ninoint miisthoi.npiried to pro lii.ic tlie same sum ot id per edit a(!-vilnmn 1 Th" answer it lid ml hoas: add to llua llio Tree ciods, ah nit 25 milium, mil we liiva nn importa tion ot 1G3 millions ofd .11 vs. Our exports hue not cseeeded, nor are ihcy l.k-U- .it prew it ti m.iarc uhovo 120 mi lii.ns , wo 11. en have a d fir.l ol i , mil Ipns to proiilefir; ami h).v is tins b.oance t he paid 1 Siale stoeUs ire no h-iirer current m I.iirnps. r.ven Ihe sluchsiif tho Unitel Statss cannot ,e lis collated on favor ihlo terms. HY, who are merchants can answer thu q irslion, haviif been often obliScd 1 1 trnko our rermltanees hi coin, when out imports hue iieecded our c- p in Tlie levcnuo enr If woirooMircJ to import 140 nnliims oi nonets Buli.ect to d uv to meet tlie wains m me (,'oiv riiuicni, it is' qm'o ceriain lint the com mud he i .ported to m-'ct the d lleuncy. II' the iinpoitntiom l'.d shmi of 1 10 million", wo then have an empty irs'trv. In oae casi. iho cjinrri wi'l he made Inn'.irupt to 1.11 t'i- Treasury i an I in tl o o'lier, Ilia Tu'asuiy wi.l he bin'iru.il, an I r.-s-rt to i'o.i;ros for I'ri isury int"S and loans. It r.nv he sn'd I'm our expire w.'l n. rrei o Willi ouri'upo-ti thi rnnnji no i if ll'icm is. The nii'iey ot t! eit Itreari, and liial of ad Hnope, his been, r.o I is ! to e eiieui", n ,'iotoc: etu.y t'n-produced nt home or 1 1 their col mi.-. In ft real Untiin the nrtnlo of i-oitou b nawr.d. in nod free, the duty li.vnij; huen replied the woy lut year. Tlis was o.v.tii to repea'.'.l reires-n-taiionsof the Manche-ter spi'inern io Pailirnsnl to thu ni' v eitv at siteh a iiuis ire, in couseq'i'nee ol thecompeiili n fi foreiju co m'ri- si.i t.ip coarse iabi'es m-iii!id-iur.. f om cotton pio meed ,n, a.ni li.pn.d IV. m the 0 ni-l Elates. T io lira r.'i'oit prn tentelio tha House of Couimms was that I'm Amprt iiKihal la'ie.u i.iiess,o,i of every mar rt, Wtt'ire were ad.nilic I on tlie Baeio ler.ns, .v. n ine.i ., , ....! TOiiia a t.aio rei.r-",it'Hi m. and I i.-e!ind till rjpeil of duly on eo tun w.ll nut ein- UViho '1 iii-h maniifaeiu-er to 01,11:1 uh.i',11 po.su 5 .01 of tho..-markets far tho biaiy descriptni.j of co ton fibri.'i. W.ial oilier .i-tiamof im? irtanso does the Govern miit of Orrat liriiim a '. n' f.e or ilu'y ? I know ot na'ia. Cotton i-nJiniite I fie-of duty from nrei "r. How ii it w ;lh tobaeeo 1 A duly h paid ol' KOJ p.r cent. Wh:at is prohibited hy the th 'tlidma cile, and 111 case ol a tout r'i'iioi me corn .my little wheal would lv '! pp.'i from this co miry, tn tsniuch us it can he hid dawn, in ordt.ury yetrs oj fcariest, much cheap r Horn tin lia'.tic. I.f and 1. 1.. I .vol, n liaivv d.ilv. Trie duty and charges on a barrel ef American pork Uid dawn in Liverpool, w uh ihe conunitsiape lor si!. 3, rinount to S5.T3; so that th' TiauTity of this erti.-.e il;.p d tol'.neland must ba incnnc.dtraM.-, un-is the i.ricc here fhauld he so low, as to b' tumults to the far-tn-r. 1 cannot fold, in the eiti.ljjiu of ' nr Etrinlv asri'ultural prod.ten, a single arlnlo that is not l.ur dened with a high duty in lnal 1" I, r. "'her pa. I. of Jairope, if it eomei in compe'iti in wit hth-ir own prod acts ; tier can I di.civer that lluie is a dispon tiou on the part of a m.uIo 1'uupein niino to re.nv their uriifenl ys.em of dut.ja on imirarlt! from thu cuntry. Itisr.03ih'otlntr!real Hritaii may alute her corn Ii.vi, so far as to aim t Indian com at a ti m.inal .ljty Ifitslmulll.idone, 1 have little fa. il. in our beins ablo la ship tt M adunlaso. 1 ststo the rfi, thon, that exports will nut mcrea-o in consequence of n reduction, or iv.-n a ta'al lopcal of ilia prcient linfT. Thei'Jtv in tS.oil lin'am, on all tun p-oituets of the United States, i-Miivi.i in lint kinj.loni. in cludi IK cotton, t- nm I '3 ih in 45 per c-nt. and cv- cus.iaut ciuoi.i-u p-r CO. , u.n. 1 produce generally, ' fie clure" of fn-ntht con litutes from oao ten'h to a q j.arter of the cost litre 1 end this isrte tr.idel 1 hope you, of Vir-' o'l, wi'l esamine thi-i matter, end yours: vej wlieio ihe best customers sre to be found fur vo 11 rri -nl ,rnl .r' d kis. I will job! elate to vou hero, lhnl M s-a-hosMts takes mote flour, Indian com. pork, a.id many other articles, annuilly, the pro.luc'.i ma of tho WiM, as well as "! Vnginia, than all P-urope. The nupstion then arises, what will be our condi tion af.r iha prop ife.1 plan of low donee B-aes into deration 1 In t ieiity dnyo alter tho In 1 btemnes a 1. .. ;. hio rcichei cvrv comilrv m I uro; r w t'i whi di we 'iivs tfl ; the r.nTiU";'rii ere set ,1 i.ijlun lor llio sui'p'.v of the Amei iean in-irkut) hi merchanli.o n s'npp.d i.n nemmt ol t-.r.-m is. mnnveniia .'!i d'ih'e invoiets, ( lie set t t tlie cos n.ii-liouse, and inieilur far tho u.iOe, so H111 iastea I of ihe will he adepud If they are tint, the pre. nt law i.ill sla.iu, r.n I 1 in com. try win repose iur a wuitu m no. pines t.n I pi'iriiuily. , Any one would rnppo.c that those stale, that nro now just cmerpini! from emharias-inenl, which at one Ii. no serineo almost runricai 10 mn " n ' ', W.n, wuifd be iinwillms 10 try an cJpciimenl whieo trtsin m my I'lilcmentio p ace inim in a nonuu.i that will be tho inonos oi di-'irovintf Iho l.ur pre a pelsnf thouiTids ivho are resling in quiet eeetmly npjn ilia iii'h ol what ll.ey deem 11 paternal 1111 1 wise (Soveinmont. ThequosMon ol an iniportaui aueiaiun in nor revenue law . houM not bal.ipt in su peine. Tl, T,r..,ri. ..ill fe..l on rdl'et, I , Tlie the pill r f till! nrpL-nt vear. I liccxiwiniion uia itrcn nuuciiun n duties prennti Iho i.isichanti I10111 coma on will iheir 1111111I bii'lnrs". VovijT-i are iVIayed, and or il.Ts fir roads aroheld lack, 1111I1I thif imnn.rant quea- 0 ,.1 s nil he s'ltlcd. 1 say. Iliereioie, 11 wo arc to po Ih.oiah the fii-rv c.rdeil, ll it romo at once, wo rannut prubably ut oirelves in u hctitr con lition ihn we me now, to uitit tlie Iroiihlea ihal await 111. Mr. WW-er proposer! to subs'ituto ad lalorom lor spec fii duti-.M, in opposition tj nr on 11 experience, and that of aim itinfry other country. I have never let found an American ii'erchinl who has not I cen in f.nor of rcr'f' dull"', when vcr il can he done with ennvrnrwo ti thn importcrMid tho Cnvi'inincnl. 1 confes- it is a bold lneaura 1 1 propo.cn total nude me r Innpoof a rrnenue system, win a. wis csnr 11 n el wi'h Ihe (i .venri-ui, and h.nslood tho list of ex perience. Ihi-'ich nil ihe trial" ot p-iltpcal I'"'"'" "'J" tilimnislrntioiiH, from Ceil. W'ashini'lnn to Rir.l ullt. ii nn.,in mnr.. e-.iraindiiiirv nt litis lime, ns llio in t,,nt, cnti. nf nro.nerit V. r,. rtli ii.h i,.T,.rnt.bi wnirsofthe O iv meiii, nnd the pcplo appear to bo salUfied with their co'uhiian. , . 1 he reiaureea ol the country were never dev. I p init more rapi llvt the increase, of our population, tho present ye.i-, will prohaHly cnual that 1 f the lift, w m.'si I istime.te at i.iju.ory smn i "in t.c.iiiu m.u u.i hern wonj.'ilu lv rmr'ii"nted bv ihe conlrueli m of rai loud s iheie'h'ii hem i sreil increase ol'mir ship pi if, incnje.l m Ihe domes't; comnirree of Ihe co ni tre, pot mly by sia, but upon our mirsati I proU likeii tho miniifncliiriiis inierrFI his been larf?')' extended) and the soil, too, has been made to produce vistlv more thin at any former period. The whole productive pnmr of the country has In en prealer 111 Ihreu y inrp, (lint i-s'neo tlie nssage of the tanll (f 1312,) than ilurin; any riiuil s;,nco of time in ner 11 ilinnal In.'torv. There luno bien thieo periods of iiniver-al disliess ihroushoiit oar land uii,eo the pence of 17?!, ami in each ea.c in 'er low iluii . I appnl 1 1 iho-e who re.neiiihir Ihose pnrr'si nnd toothers, I ref-r to iheinnals of our country. Thofe periods wei fii"i 1?t1 (the cooehi.ion of the Itcvoiution.iry w-.r)tol7-fl, Pl" to lr2J.lai7lo 1312. I would losieetf -ilv r(CumiiH"td 10 ihe Secretary r. th,; Tn l.-ill v, who : l,' its to ll 1V0 n eeivril new lijllt nam ll.e i-i ioo!'c 1 in .' 1 cuiloipy. to rxa'.n 1" Ihe lustory of the le -is'ntion of f "nercnat tho i.bi.vo P rio'a. lie wil I'm I 10 Ins own department of tl.e (ioffriiuierit an ahuiiJince of evi If uco of tho dis tress that ui.icd under low duties, end a dcrangid inrrsncy. , , . , . '1 lure i n prcva'ent iJei c.broid tral the rap t.al nf ikr cimlry will l!-;r eiccedinely uy a reinl,oii .11 pi 11. ess, tr ! ibai 'fie tniifTof Is 12, ha- operand in iir of 1 he ' .t -il, end not the labor of ih covn'ry. Ttieiacin heno doubl tha' cap.talu rriifabv profiti I ly end nfely employed, and well paid. The profits of ci'i. il are loir, when wtni nrelnw; but capital hu usually had tho power to take care of its"lf, and il .(,s el r q:i'r tbi t-iloffonercas Io plac it in any othr posiii m thin to put the labor In motion, Om-srrM-hn-jU lef'aie fir Iho h'mr, and lheciiial w.ioll n'ocarool i.s'iC 1 will Rivoyotian exsm le of ihe n'a cf wm,s under low ihi 1. a, 11r.1l under ihe innfi'ot 1142. In and 161'!, the depression in nil l.inrM ol buwn'Bi bicain; eo oppress ve ihat many of imc uinnulnotiiiina 1 sta' hsbmenln in New K.u-lai.d 1 weie clan d, the op .tetiin dismissed, the ineehanieal tndei wero soil, an.l every retourca tor me iudoiiii: man Lseined dne I up. ' In the city of I.o.mII, where there r.ro r.-.nro than Ih'ttr larse cclun t.i.ln. fioin .it 10 sixteen Ihousinil iiia.ll-. c'ach. it vrjii cravely eonalilci ej hy the pro- prirtMs whe'her Ihe mil's ehoald be stppod. Il v si concluded to reduce the wares; this was done terornl limes, until ll.e ndu"'!..!! broiqht down tho wagea from sb' ut 82 to J I, DO per week, e.n bn.ve if board 1 ibis opcrsiiaii took place upon between 7 nnd POOD fLiiiale.j ihn mill ru on ; n 1 ps'cs were made of the gnodsi ihe Sou Ii and Wi.t had nc.il.rr money r.01 credn, end filially, i' was detcrm'ied ti h dd out nil ( onsresa ihuull act upon thu U1.1T. Tho billps.S'd, and of course the mills wirakp.it riiiininir, which .-ould not haie been ihe cos.- if iho act bad bn re-, ji-clfd; and now the oieraje wnjjes paid ol Lowell, Iskms! Ihe same nutul tt of female far tho s-i-no r M3i,, $. prr wiek cxclui.te ofl oard. Vet air, Wnlier si, a Isb'ir has fi Ion. Where are th y.aes for labur, I ask, lower than tlnv wereio H12 J Who is to hi binefiltfl by Iho udopnoa sfnaystem that civ.e up ev.-r; thinn, and files no icasuimllo promise ..r . v il,.ni T I haie uTocred-1, I trust, in shaning that there is no prooib; ity 0; our -t.ort. incrennu. 111 come, qie.iee of a reduemn cf iho land', nmt ihal the pro duels of Iho Wc-iern Sntoi fii'd iho lest market uinms thi 111'inuf loiu'eia nt home. In repnrd Io Hie Souiiurn and coiien (-rowing r.u'ee, they nro to be "oiiiv berieriiteJ by ihe ncreisail consunipii m of 1 In ir star" nt hoiee. Ko appreciable Tinit:ty pan be shipped 10 Knirhnd if the laiili'-honid be rereale I, tl being alrfiny ftt.i ef tlii'.y. 'Ihe 1 stah'.ihnieiit a:.d tueeissful prt ecoi;"o of the spun, nt! ol cotton in this countrv lias enabled Ihe planters to obtain, lor revernl lears na'st ai li.ict, nn aidoi not cent jer pound on ihe whole crop, and petliaps evtn inoie. The Am-r-icinsaie the sreaicil spinners of thai artie'e in I'm woihl, too Uritiah exeepted. Th'i comne'ttion has tob uso! tho niii'l'ijcnco acquired from our system or 1 ill ho , sch mis, c&labliihcd by the foRsisht uul v. iadoin of our I ilhirs. A I lite lisk or writing a lonrj letter, I cannot for bear nliudim; to Ihe f id. Ih it tho habitual n?i'ition of this q leetion of tlie.tarill'h is wotlicd, ill Iho main, Io the advantage ot New 1 n;;'iiliil. We were, prciious to tho war of 1812, nn arjrieul turnl nnd iiavitratteg peojile. Tho Ameriean Fy.tun was forrc I iipun us, and done for Ihe puipoie ol ite ntinr; a li'ime untl.ct for Ihcproilu'ls ol tho foil al tho tSoiith nrd cat ; wo resisted the ndofition of n aysltin winch wo honestly bilicird would cri ally i'ljuio our n.iiieatiou, r.nd drive us Itom our nccus tonirilctnplojniciil!), into btisincas wo did not under' Diami. Wo cama into il, however, reluctantly, aril man learned llint with iho tr.inefrr nf our capi tal we acquired ehill ami Uiicnvlciljjo in tho nsn (fit. niul in fir (rotn our fore-icii enmmcrre boirjr tii.iiini.'.liod, it was incrcfi'd, ami that our iliitni'st.u lonu.iira ami cummsreo ni very soon more tlianmtiidriui'cil. l'ho illtistratlo-ii wore so ctriltinf; in every ilcpirtiiiont of liborlhnl Unite win', fifteen jenrd nrro, worn llio s'.roni' ost np'jurionta .invmi; it", Imvo fiivcii up tlioir tlieuncs and iichnnw i"il.;ed that the ri'vel.ilu'if. n'o fucIi n- In s itisly tho in"st blicplieal. We have co 10 fonv.aiii ntcad.1;-, till in iny iloscrii. t 011s of inatiufislilres uro 113 well uotllfil ill Ntw Ijiiglantl an the iniainnf rolatoc. Our cspe nencp I1.13 rjivun us elull, ami of in'irso wo liaic n ronlidenc! in nur own resources t tin t iloos not oist elfowliore. When I fiinvcrso v. itli gentlemen from llio Sslltli iitul West respectinti llio o't.iblialiuiei.t of maiHif-.cturcn they reply that they should ling iio li.ivo Ongigc.l '11 11. but the repeal nl the tarifT, the nrtiou of tlio G iverntnoi;!, pre von'c 1 tlietn. Now you rannut I1I111113 u-', it this constant npit.itinn nf tho tariff ijuertinn Ilia tonceil to iric tievr Iln'rlaml, not n monopoly, hut aiivatitiijrcs which f.'io Im not been insirit menlal in lirinying about. I liavo no doubt wo Invo been uainord on the whole, by lliosa iv;i tdtionr, J'nt we liavo nl timc.i been (jrcat ctiiTur crs. lv.uli those S'ntC3 that Invo willihelil their enerijies front ctilerin upon tho intliiblrial purs-its tn ov.imino this mailer, nm if 1 am ri 'lit, to lake tin tihsmi'inn and a d-pnrturc. Wo liavo 1 o j.'.iio'jiy whatever riinccrnirjr the ot:'a!ilihtneiit of ni.inufactor'C3 111 r.ll part.i of tho coiiiilrv, I l.oliovo llioso ccnt'oioeii frnt.i the Hon' I. an 1 West n h ) li.ivo been lieio, w b.-.r witness to tho u 'eire mi tho pait nf tho pocip'a who r.ra cii'rij'fil in inaiuifacluro', tn impart nil llio information in their pov.er: there 15 room lor us nil. When thu .Southern nml Western Stale shall tinnufacturo Iheir own elulhinjr, wo ehall haie become cxtenriva exporters ol" Iho variety of nnniii'acluros produced hre. Wo Ir.ve tho fillips, and llio men to navi,'ala them. We shall pureuo an cxloneivj loreiyn commerce with manufacture?, an"! hrin-r homo Iho tlie produce of other countries, audi ai co'.i'.'e, t trade, notwithstanding llio great ilifTurenco against lliem. And no.v, within n few mo'illn, tho Hist In. ilia Coiiinany liavo hoti crnpellod ae.iin to in cream tho discntii ti.it mar ''"'y in 15 por cent, in older lo exclude nur coojs ali'yother; ami Ihia iliii'orcnro will, without daub', aei nmplisli llio object. 'I'liesn (arts aro ilecrvitij of .1 pas sill"; rcmlil;, as 1! iislra'tv.i nf the nneruius and resources of thn Unit d Ktfitc.-, Ai into ns Iho declaration of Iho lnt war in lSl'J, this country imprir'Hil almoa"iill lis coaise ciiiloii f i'irics from 1 1 nuii Finn, wlietiio they came literally by ship liiad'', nml wore pv.il for almost altogether in coin, fin country sei'inod In bo inoro nb'.iii dull in meiMi iiecefiry lo supply such fronds cheaply, than llmdesl.iti ; lis soil furnished an abundance nfco'tnti, which, tliriiipli not nf equal quality to that if the United Stales was much lea ill price, -an. 1 tahur w.11 rheaper than 111 any ciun'iv 111 Ilia world, (.nium spinnier: tn.i cliinory was av iil.hh) throttj'i th" medium of Unlis'.i capital, an. I tlie minuhcturos reieivcil a protect ion of 10 1 2 pur cent, against foreign inlerlereueo No country Feomcd mere sertirn from fnrebm cnmpelitlnii in thoso gonila tlnn IIiudoH'n i, and least nf all, wns there fear of conipetilnn fnrn th" United .States j a country fitiecn thousand union il riant, where a day s huor will earn about 2.) lbs of good rice, while 111 Hitidoatnu 1 obtaiin lass than 10 U1.1 of very inferior rire. I'.ut Ihe American planter furnished a better raw cotton; the manufacturer, nnu Ic'ter un.t cheaper fabric ; tho shin owner, a sneedv and cheaper conveyance. Their united td'irts drove tho Hritish inatiiifactiircr of then ciaree t'on,! from the lar-jest Ilritisit cnlonial market, and Inch tho American') would now bo in nosi'is sinn of but for the interposition of tha Hist In lia tnmpmv with another pmlective dnty to sustain their nnnul.icloriot'. I have no fault to find with tin course ptirsii ed by Iho linlMi, in theso rerjulalions. I Invo introtluretl theso hets to pMuuit In you 1 tie transcend ml fully of atlomptinr; 11 eystem of low I'll 'en and free trade, where it is nil on ore ride I Invo tmt vol hnnwii Ihe Ilritisli Gnvcrnnvii' to reduce tho duties lo a point tint Inn reach"!! sinrrlc important intorc.-'. Their free trade id low duties never apply to any article th it senou'lv coi'iro'es with tlioirown inuar, nor are they likely to adopt such measures. I ho free trade of the political cronnmi'ta of (iroat liri lain is a trancsendcntal philosophy which is not Itoly to be adopted by any jinernmonl on the fare of the globe, ui".!es3 it be the Chino.e, nml we Invo already llio earnest of tho ofloct nf low luties on Ihe internal condition cf tint country. I'lio trade 0!' Ihc.t cninire is fart ai nroaeh 11,7 to barter, tho prncioii3 metals liaiing huon dra.nod to pay for llio foreign products inlroJuced into il. 1 am nware lint I liavo written a Imiir letter, hull could not well abridge, nm ostently with hoping nt many topic.) in which I tek; a deep i!erot. The su! i ! n houndler-i, and I would cheerfully pari-.-- "i by illustration, nn I e 1111- plec, many nflli' points, upon v.htr'i I Invo touched, but 1 forbear lor tho present. When our part, to fratno legislation looking to any sucli surrender. Mr I'.ikonliam did not receive ntilhoritv, hy tho Cambria, to submit a new proposal to our (invcrnni"iit, in consequence, it is presumed, of tho Intelligence of the rejection nt arbitration. l itis riltnlstry prolcrrcd lo understand thn course of tlio I'resiilont nn Iho hist oiler, before presenting any other. Alias Cor, i ay a.niiimii'ii; 10 20 per cent., it e.ce -d 11 per rem. This lias been the rf..'-Voik, hole fzc. and pao for the produce of the tnmlii and West, wit!) foio gn luxurios and ii..vas--uic3 of lile. It ha3 often been Baid hero by us, who advocated trctec'.ion io iimencan labor, Ihat in wear. ng Jont'tm cutlunc, woolens, &c. wo were consum m; British wheat, beef, por!:, Tec. 1 am nappy tu linn authority ot the hiithost rcspecla bility fur tins opinion, in the person of one of the moi t eminent merchants;, as well ns one ol the best and most honorable men in Logund, Mr, Win. lirown, ff L'vcrpoo! lately the Iree trade candidate for Parliament, from Iho county of lattraster. In a lo'ter tn Joint Holla, j-,q, laniili ilder, upm tho advan'.ii:'ea of freo Inde. he rays: "Vou next rlludu lo tl.e I.esguo v.iehui.Tt . injure lull. 1 presume il will no', be ti-ii.ntl that ail inieit'sta in tho h.ngd.'uii aro so linked together, th.t none of the 111 can sufij without the others being ipjilrtd. v. u must sinl: nrsnim logethnr." l'drad.i.tiral r.s il may appear, I think Great Britain tho largest gram exporting country 111 the world, althou.'h it is niipnss.bio to est mato accurately what quantity of cmin, &c. I ciiiieuinod m reparmg i'3o,0UU,0U) valtto of ep.lrt., by which you ire cu ''roany beneliite; Il - tnacod in the Ubjralnry of lliat wonderful intellectual machine, man, winch g res him the physical powor, aijed by stB-m.nf converting it into broadcloth, calico, hardware, .tc &c, and in thoio thapaa your wheals find their way lo overy country in Hu world. 1 thank Mr Rro.vn for Iho clear otatoment he Ins presoiitcd ol the importaiice of 1 home mar ket, and commend tine extract from lux letter lo tho cnnaidaratiun of every birmnr in thn Uni ted tilates; it ia psifec.tly aound and applies witli parlieulttr forco to our .te.nt condition. To placo th" people In a condition of porma. nont and eohd prosperity, you must encourage home induatry, by obtaining tha trrenost amount bv di- m.. ..r ,i. vcr-. iviuif i.iuor, wit. 1:11 win ormi who ti 111011 TI1K LIClNSK QUESTION. TT'nstiHim, Feb. 21. Tlio LicetiEO ca - so? from AI iss ichusells nnd lllioiio Isl nul, Intvo been continued, 1) V ortler of tlio Sti- 1110 no Court, till tho next in our Western cities: nnJ wo can never compolo with lliem in tfic ports of Great Hritain. Cvcn Lord .I0I111 Itusscll, in n previous pait of tlio samo speech, iitii.illy admits tliat Brain would bo procured from qiieslionalile cUini to all of Oregon, nliilo it offered lo lukn n parl,itsnry for war without nn ('(Tort of preparation, lis clamor against England, while secretly selling off tlio TnrilT that will not hear tho otdeal of n Sennto- Amnrln rmlo when iho suntillcs should fill , rial duhntc. Giant hands aro theto to lear fiom thocontiiioiitnl countries. "If" said he, ofT llio disguises of thU flimsy nnd false mas " wo cannot get a sufficient supply of corn qiiuiado ; and ilia people always jealous of "fiom D.intsic, or fiom Poland, wo may sinister intrigue will rling tho moro to the " ohtain it fiom Odessa on the Black Sea ; j TnrilT when they know that it is lorn from or if not, wo may maintain it from tho Uni- j them to ho laid at llio footstool of Uritish am- tod States of America." And still more . hilion. Tins hollow, partial, nnu ueccptive il term, wtiicli ... ,,. -,,,,,,. 1 .c it.n nnlnlnn ' elinmeter nf tlu'lr foiicrcd frco-tiado cannot . . t . ri.i Ml " IIUi-tl IU III U 3JIIIU mi luii, ..... .11. ....... - - commences in D.iconiber next. 1 hoy will, , , , ' ' , . r t. a .,: ..U !n neei'il nrivileee I 01 "0''t' asiII!UHTO., 110111 wiioso !iiuui no cuiiteaieu iium 1111-01111..1..... ... ho suhjoct wo copy llio following ' 181.J, of llio thirty-nino millions received in then ho htotight up hv special privilege, intone tho very first business niton thu 1 "P011 C.ilentler. You will recollect tint tho M iss'i- panigtaph iutuicsting not only frotn tho chusotls easo was ciitilinued fiom l ist term, ( hearing it has upon this specific point, but ns thu court was so divided that there was not u m ijoriiy of iho whole com t voting ither win. As tho ilecision woulil ilelino Iho Constitutional power of tho States lo mal.o those laws, less than a majority of thu whole was thought insufficient to settle such 1 grave question. Tha court finih itself now in a wotso condition. Judge; M'Kinlny continues sick, nnd Judge Wiivnu nml Judgo C itron are obliged, to attend Circuit, which would leave threo vacancies on tho Ilench, instead of two, its last your. Thn case was lo bo argued by Sen itor John Davis and Mr. Iliitilingtnn, bolb of Masssachiisells, for tho St.ito and Mr. Webster and Mr. I!. l ll.illctt, against tha coiislltutionaliiv of the law. Liverpool fiom tho United Slates, hut little more than two and n half were of agricullur.il fur its onner.il views with record to this tiroducts other than cotton mill tobacco country : j Does England propose to let our tobacco on- I.ord John Ru-sell had drawn a charminz picture ' (Cp lcr ports free of dulv, or indeed anything of lo nations of tho Batno kindred I'.n ''and mid , , ,. . , 1 1 . . ri Amcnea-iho formir cloilniis tho latter, mid iho lat- else which tho absolute wants of her slarvitlf; tir feodum iho former. Njw ho (t.ord Athhnrton) '...b-ibitools ,! nnl rlomand 1 Our nnricultu- wil soon 1 culi.'J thn fact lhat they was (it from avinir anv-lhui" nffiinI the proolo of Amenta, wult w bun he had had iho tidinniaito of . ruts neco taiion on he part or I hiicountry. He in iiuveit , . p ,,. .1 , there wt ro many most bonora tile men auion2"i them, Co nil 1 1 compelo successfully with tlio VlClh an i fir hi nscirie saw no ground fur aprrdumlinir nc 0f Great Ilriluin in the market for bread mnii.ine 1? iv ne teasi iiiuhiioati ol a auiiiruan:c ' rniDAv sionxiNo, march, g, i?ig. hditccn Ihctici Lountr'us. tlulcheicd that ihe (rood seti'cof the tounliy woi Id overpower any dipisition ofihchind; but wo must not binirt there wete two pirlie.s lo nn agreement j nnd what if Auurica slioulil refuse to ta'.c our clothing, well knowing at tho tunc they did so that wo wcto compelled, by tho n rdliuslaneca of our posi.lon, tn take tlnir corn 'I'ltii w. s ai ilhistr ition or tin case, whieh lia 1 been siolten put, or the danger of I'lpeiidiiiir on lotiljn c uiniiiL'i' f ir ihe upply or ronrt. Whv, iho very last lime wo had differences with America, she l.iilnn embargo upon and shut her potts niiainst Ilriiif.li ahippiiig s and it w is clear ihal, in the event t r n re currence or ihlculues, her first step would be anam to shut her ports aeauist ni, m win. h coseil.a supfdy fn m Ameiiei wnulij unihiiihicdlv fni'. lint the nip. plv ur'Fl not bo expected from America , mi l we could 11 .t Ii ive a In tier priof of Una ih in the f lot Ih it nt this inome.it Aioeii ancomioiid come, throuJi Conndn, at a dntv nifour shillings ; and jit, it tho rc'tnns wi re cMntnird, it iri' I lie onnd t'nt vine Inn thi of Ih ftrei'.'t corn io IZnqland iros from l',e 11'lltic', thoiiL'hll e dnly cn cor'i from its shores ir.is I'ictce.'! Sinmsri n quarter. "Tim wa3 cntirily owing io me low pti 'e 01 lauor in i.uropc. Tito fact' last mentioned hy Lord Ash- burton seems conclusive as to tho probable exportation of grain fiom this country to linglind. Under existing laws American grain is admitted into British ports at n duty '(four shillbigs per quarter, while grain fiom tlio Baltic pjs Jiftccn. In oilier wouls there is nn actual discrimination of chvr.11 shillings im iuvon of American grain ; and I have tlie pleasure to meet you, wo can 1'. cus all these question5, embracing not only tho pres. ont condition but the luliire prospects ami u.'S imy of our boloved country, for which I enter, tain tho slrnegoal atlachment. Our r.trenjtli and glory is m upholding and mi.ntainiug tlio Union. 1 nhall send, in s few days, statistic furn'bpd tie by a friend, who is intelligent, rarefu! and accurate in theFj tintter.'. and who holds him- oelf iospoii.sib,'n fir all that will l.o stated. 1 pray you, toy iloir iir, to di-cept 'ho nssu. ranciM will v. inch 1 remain, most laitului'v, your friei.d and obe.l eut. rervant. AliliUl l l, 1. K1..NU1.. To the Hoi. Wiu.ia?! C. I'iviv. Castle Hill, Albemarle Ci 11 ity, Virg'n 1. li:tti:uof abhott Lawrence. Wo give up a large portion of our paper thU week lo llio able loiter from the lion. Abbott L twrenco, of Massachusetts, to the Hon. Wm. C. Hives, of Virginia. Il will bo fuitnd such a vindication of tho policy om braced in tho TarifT of 1842, that thu people can well ufl'ord to exaitiino its positions, and see whether they can find their account in adopting llio fieo Undo doctrine of Messrs. I'olk and Walker. Every turn who cares a farthing for the substantial nnd petnuincnl prospeiiiy of llio Country, owes it to himself 1 SP!I! ol" ibis, nine-tenths of tha entire

to enquire whether this u not better secured 1 impoitalion comes from llio Baltic ! What hy the TnrilT doctrines, as developed under I '"""i'; lllen n'tinpato from the free ad mission 01 all toreign grains, peculiar auvan tJCeslo tlio Urdted States. Courier. stuffs. Tho Baltic nnd Mediterranean will ptobably unJcisell titid exclude us, and if they do not, will so compete with us as to e.'ivi; n Ir.ido less valuable than that which wo Invo possessed tbrotiiib the ports of Can ada. Should thn Turiff bo repealed, and tlio present project annihilates protection, the results must produce in the public ini.id a reaction which no lulmiiiislralion, no party can sustain. Tho instruments of British or ders in council may dig the gravo of tho TaiifT; but lot litem take lioed that thoy do not fall into it. I'hilad. h Amer. rt the pri"s irom inuine, 100 runiuus puuuuu nnu. OLC33ir.ni, end it has I eeu pclinowledaa by men) tho niosi .uitllv.iiiilii.ieriii Hie "Uin. o( p.odtiction ; thin can 0.1'y bo ohtaitiod Oar coi.eunip tail reseh.-d, Ihelajlycir, liCOOOCOO . ,,,n t,,, ,..:,i, : . l.i. . . 1 ... .u 0: potina. wnivo 10 iiiuai e 1110 ..inn. .my ... ...r - - , - ,1 . , I'ne n in lsri.tn.lpqusl to ihe whole connmipl.on ol I wages; and un ess tho labor is well paid, our iire iti.tuntn IRil. Thu i.i a tirikm? fact, nnd one I country itit ot prosper. A'iitcullurc. the fomi. thai shnii'J lie remembered by the plan era. The his- datum ot all wtdith, di'pendi on production, and not tl'obtlbls. ..r A hi. rle.nn noniltLrs lit ...1'." '...,..;,,,, il,.. mtii o of tho tirill' ri loll had (moal of ih'-ui) abanlan.,1 the biniiieea, not bt ins ablo to conip -le slice, ssfully widi the freiidiiluit fofci mers. I will 11 it siy that nil fnrenrocn coioniii Inudaon tho rtvenue-lar from ii-but I do siv thai A ... . r.. 1.. 1 nin 111 rn. Irated bv foicittlic on Ihe reven'u", under 0 l-valorem dune-, and will be nisin-pronlraiuv,' the businc-s of honest foreign and American inipartcs. In lesi than twelve mon lis nHer llio new plan shall haie broil in npcrmnn, this whole coiiiilrv will bjhltta'.lysirr.iii'd with fmeiBii niercliandisc ; 1.1 U be not sa, the revonua wi'l rail .lion i.f tho wants nr covirnnient i) wo shall then owe a debt abroad il millions or dollars, which nmst bep.ii in com 1 ho cxcliaii"! s co up lo a pom, 1I1.1I make, it proniablo to th'p spjciet-moniv becomes eeiree in tlio Atlanue cities: yet bills on I nclaud and I'r .nee d 1 11 t .id i ihe loiii.mal- n the Soutlnnd Wist are eal nl 111 ; deiuaiids for debts due from thoii eeli n of die .viuntryaro t.ndoi exehiii..Trs cioii t bo ohtaine.l-prolu-eii niirpiinseil nod sh pp -d 1 a id when 11 nr. 1 . ... '.- ... il ...I 1 1... e ml t.l the live nl too ii" 'it, 1 "'" ' " "" , We' i a paraly 1. will hive sirtuli Iho Inuiiii" ol tho coiiniryi pr'.-l.i"o w'dl no loiir answer 1.1 pay ilbudne at the North, nnd the ne-.M r.sort n 10 emu, which mutt be ciiltect.d mid mil down the Iins eiypi. or over the iuonnia'111 to lljliiuiorc, rh.ladel plin, Xew-V- tit an I Ujiio.i. W.n -rn a.i I S iti'li'iil Cre.ltta ore cm oil, n uu j--..c v. -v ...... nu longer prompily metl ihe.r cngsifiitieiue. The new males nnd iheoitler i-irele of the P.einbhc are tlio wck noinisi and ll.e litst fjivma way of ihe banlm is hurd Irom ili'H" point i wusre there is Ihe Irsst amount nf capital. We . e ihe siarni apprnsah. in lit v a lb under bower in a numner's day t we watch its prosttss, 1 "I inonot is.'npi' m fall. lint i... r.o..,e. ilm r.reit mar's or trade nnd tlmexchan. cps. haunj swept ciorv linn? In us com set and tho UaoKsor Hie AI 3I1IIP ciuee, nnir n veeiin 111 n 10 ..:..i.n iheir credit and bo in-, are torcel 10 yie'd ... .1.:. ('....mnii emermic'ii on ilm eiirrencv t"" V ' .' .! .11.1.'.. .. .11 ...I.- I tme no hewirion in i ""m '"i ' r f-c idaco wiihm l't 1 saieo of eih' Ml, moritha from th. time Ibis eipari.nental hi! r';e into ope, ,i, ,n , and net a ape. a piviu;- l.anb. dm.'B bneine-s, w.ll I e found in the United tnt-. Wh 'y w.ll be .he revenue winch wis I'. Plod" " " "" 'U'Y TVlJl ? diilir7 Wheru nroiheTrca urvimd the f.ecreiary7 en llhe frcideii. and bia ' alum I Tho Trea nry ,s cm ity. Ihe Seereliry is ma' in In" eM.mitesot in poriie fir 1919. nnd preoi. inr; to a.k C onjress fir n lri!il.o(c'iorTrensti.y imimi or p rhaps thu dencit iim lint a lain mav to ri oair d. Wo bava now romo 10 1 point or , prrs-ion i'l the. ureal buf'tness of iho country, whleli tiii aiinen-u fK .ntTon anrlai.Ki.iy of .dl. t,-s of the people, a tl bavins fell it. blijli. excoptint! ilia (rreil ,.,p itIi and money holders, who .re reapuia noMen bar ve6la by lli9PUtehie'fl'"''',r,y' l' l,V"1 ,he of the 1 nfortuniie throw io. . ihe m.rkei a. ruinous rales 11 Is now seen nnd Ml from tu ' low wa- of labor and thocreai iianih-r of p r.-ma un mipl yed, w thlhc cries of di..,.' a from nil Hurler. Ih H .. n ho ibor aod .101 lb" cn'-it'il "f '? ' ""-"7 lln' ' lf' r . .. Alent revulsion. cnu-P 1 bv uni 0 lc-"'.i-i'In Ilave the pe' h'n 'f Son.l, and West ?r"ott n hei uo'it.lesrif 17 iol3M. the hoi.r o ihe pStM-e of Ihal law will' 1. has redermel the ' c eJil oTfoVernment. and restored prosncruy 10 . u conn rr I have 'Il"e," l1''s m he no state, than in minv cf tin o'd on" i . wi'l nit b' detiiel that lh in 'Key c.p lal or thn eounuy i. held in llio Korih.m and lli.ter.i sics. lorv of tha moiluclinn end tnam'futttireii t.r eollon is 00 eitrn'-ribinirv, that I propose to :il n pomo I'uli.tics on the .-ibj '"l, fnmi.hed neby 1 fiieml. I hole you will not deem me over .in'iine, when I tell you that it w my bel.ef that lliecoi.umpt,oii ofco.ion 111 ilm country will double ii e c!it or nut vens, and that it wi'l inch 400 000 C'O of p-umte in 1"Q ; nnd r.riher, thai we nir no! only detuned 10 be the pret est c-'tton growers, bat the mnai e.Menai.e cotton pionet in ihe world. Wo have r.'l the .lemenls ?iu vii'X ourselves tn inane "s so. t ;ie t.iittuiaeiiiri' oi c n Ion ii probab'y in us oir.tiev ; but n mo terato por tion oT iinul'.ind hue it Lun clolhcj with ihu-hmllh-f d ami cheap :riiele. Js'o'biu ; can 'l"ji iho progrein of lies nnntifaetiirp but tome .111c1d.1l legisljliun, that will prostrate iho cmtpiiey onhe country, and diprni' tlir people nf the n.cr.nx of cunsumi'i. Thire can be no IptiR'aii'-n ilia! will I reak down the manufacture of cotton and u.ml. rveeii'iof. ilirou-h the un' rations oT iho curren cy. V.'o liny ho disniib.d bylaw dullest .he finrr doeripenns . f col.on n'.d woi'.lrn, iii.tcd noods and w.iral'ed rulinei. wont I lie sen ill.lv eff etcdbvhwrd vilarem i!u'.i.i b ibepotrs-r bbr e, such as ere frivr dly eonfimrd by the ciii.t le .! of ill" rilo, w II l.e mirle here under aav r.ll I 'l e rei'mslail 'l". If wo bivo lompetinoii from ubroad, iho lab r omit an I wilt co, ne down ; this has b en cfie.i titled, and our px'iprineeestnbti ,hei ihe fact. In Vinnnii and othrr Houihern Statea. end even r.l the Wi.t, many parsons believe lhat iho protcct'iic vlem was mado I y nnd for Xcw Ilnolan 1, and tint V. I.'n,.la,i.l nd nartienliilv M.snel,uiclt. ponld 11., I ihnve widin.uil. Nowlh'BS ntinior the South n.i I. West ! fk'in trie v.!cin ni mrii proieeiiv .nine-, for ihe purpnue nrceiiiiis n mar!., t for lie irprnHupe, inltho' the principle of disetiniinai'on was rrcni!niz"d ndcitbbhed when lbs lirl lariffwasiniiird.) It is not true lint we nro moro dependent nn n protective tarifflhiu the Middle, Wislern nr .onih rn Slates. T,ioe S'nles that poses the snialleM nmoinit nf cap ital nie the most brni lilted by a proteetiie tariff. -Ve tiaxe in New llnitl.id a creit productive power, in Maraieh-isett. far creator Ihin in any other State, in proportion lo pnpu ntioit. Weliiic n hardv, t'ldus. ttimn, and Imd Iv intclle.cnt pip daMon, w iih a ppr.c. v ranee .nil scl.Jmu iinst nil 1 we invo r,i 1 ni-iiuocu a oonmdeMble amount if ektU, whnb is iiioreismg every divi 1. at lea we liavo n'rraily aeeonipiiane 1 a miaiiifieini system of intereotnimnucni'on between allpitnof ihi. eti in of tb country by rai roads 1 thu 1. the best kind ef produeli.e piwi, hnvint; re duced the ralo "f eornaqo lo a wonderful pxl.nl I ibis being none, we l.ave money r noiurh rcmaininp toltrpp a'l our labor emp'oyed, nnd prosecute cur forcicn and d jmriOic cointuerce, wiiliout being in debt bevond Ihe bunt. oruirOHit Slate. Now, I nslt, bow tr ha'l stand, compared with Pennsylvania, Ohio, A'n- uama, liet.rc". or i.ouinnni, wuen iimuiivnt unnn otil irn! shall 01110 1, I do not deny we shall .nff'r. but as it baa In 0.1 in limes past, we what! uo into nud pnno out ef Ihe trouble far strong. r than any olbor State out of New 1'nadanl. It la not my purpose to prei"nt to you the balance sheet of Mittac'n.aelis, but it U due lo hrr chirnclcr nnd her ih ."1 lv lh.it fbo ebe.'hl stand bef iro you in her titip p i!ii.oii. I I'.ave nPV. r ndvoea'ed a protrp. live latin" fir mv own 1 f the New r.pplnnd Rmee pje iimipIv, tier liavo ilioee (ipnih'iiien wiih whom I h ive ' ceo as oe.at. .1 in l!.. pi'j.e at my lone enter. 1 .mmi, n rnrrnw or rueliunal view of the n-ii- lion. Wo haie tirl.i ved it lo bn fir the intere.l of tl p whole c iiimry lha, ils labor should I prol. clu', and so far as I hue had 10 do at ilia lh.i niljiislni nt of those difft ciillcom'tniiioni rmhraecd ii a luiff hi I I hive en deaioredto lake rare ihal theintrresisof all theH'atcs were protected, whether liny wire laren or sma I, I sav no e 1? you and it should be said in Oonros a nntUet lor Uu.-o products, i lie encouraso- ment of Agriculture, on Iho osMbhs'iment ef manu.actttres, which if niaintainsJ, v. ill cor lain lo Gocuro a inarkul. I ak tha farmer to leoli for a mo-ncnt to tho following aialomenl. American Flour in Cuba pays a duty of about 910 iter barrel : 'n 1"' Janeiro Z7i to (, an in many other porls Iho duties vary Irom 0,1 to !.;) per cent.: in return we l ska cofi'-p, most of which wo pay fur in coit!,7'fC ' iiu'v anil lies is Irco trade. W have, to', treaties of reeiprnciiy wiih foreign rouiilries, and among others, (Iroat Urilain, not including her colonies, by which her ships are admitted into nur ports on ilm samo terms as our own j they come freighted with her minerals and inatHilaclure", w Inch are sold here, and Like in irturn a variety of article.--, tho tinduro 1 tho United iS.atea; surh as timber, lumbar, f. dte., touili at New liru.'.sw iclc or eutno other colony, at.il go home, free of uu'y Wo have, ton, iriingtilar voyages mado from liuglaml 10 Jamaica and otlmr liritisli islai.ds. w ,ili cargoes , and thence to the southern Biates wh'ro llicy I ad with cotton, tobacco and other produce for England ; this loo is called free trade. I will net pursuit this branch of my subject, but ir.ve you .1 fact. Nut lona sines the fnic'gn ti.'do carrying wr.a nearly all in our n.vn nanus : now 1110 rot .proctlv system, not m eluding the colonies of foreign nations, giics lo loreigners more man one Hum ol all the carry ing tradu ol the United 1.iIoh! ! 1 rannut be lievo tho time is fardirlaut when Iho (Jivern limit of tho United Matei will protect as ought, thu foreign liavigaiing intorcsta of th groat ro'intry. . If wo would li.tvo Auiricau soam"ii to man our navy, tho mnrcautilj marine mart b". protected in too carrying of our ov.u productions. Ouo moro farr, and I will rloaa those lonrr. and i tear you will think, desultory remarks. tinmu years mice, .1 few bnle3 nf American co.trtu (oltons were sent frmu this country lo lluul'.r.au, iu a cummercial uxperiinaiit ; the Btiporiority nf the fabric, and tho material out of whieh it was made, giadually brought the gouds Wjisiipotos, Teb. "3 It should not be concealed from the country, that, wi.li 11 a few daw, there has beon a serious change nf opinion iu the political wirf'oe, and in the Atltniirstta i tn proper, ni to tho condition of our roniiio.'.s with l?reat Il.-itii'l. The rni.fldenro. whicii w.'.s tu general at firs', as to llio pacifi? appearance, and in wltic'i thu ofiiei.il paper iudtilged, even more proJigaliy than il3 nniglihor?. is altno-t entirely dissipatetl and a calm review of Ihe uhok 111 lelhgeiH'i) from the other i-do of Iho A'luitie, has plirod the question in d rpmo upon even more delicate ground t!n it ccenped prev.nus !y. It is manifestly ovulei.t, f.o.n all the de monstrations notwithstanding tho picifi.' Lopes epre?Fcd ill tho Queen's addie r, m d the tie d. rate lone nt mo Fpceciica 01 u'r i;.itiert ive1. I.nrd John Itusi-ell, and others tint Knglainl It is taken her determination 111 relc-.euce tuber lleged righ'e m Oregon; and that ilm only iiuiurnniir.0 to which she will submit, will bo the lOlh parallel, as her Southern Iliui'dary line, with e juinl navigation tj thn Loluuwia, 1 he Administration may, Iherolcre, prepare for an adjjs.'montonl'iose conditions, which Mr Adams ireoteil .Mr iiaiuim to tenner 10 1110 ii.i isii (luvernincnt, or il may pronaro for '.re, which e buiishr:: 1! plumccv bad already, to a great uMent, provohi'd. Mr ."IcLino j no'pa'ctra alum 111 warrant for favorable i''ere.ices, as tu Ihe tcstilt of tins ntr.ivi'ihV. t 1 t'-i coutr.irv, rn l.ir as Ibe.r snhKtai.te "is untleretood.lliroiipli these who pos. (-ess thu best means of knowing, they met, no to an nuonsitu direction, and adiise an tiiimed ato and i..-tonsivn t-vstoui nl prcptration predict. led upon tho indications abroad, ai.il what ho enus'i'ers tho rurnoses at Inline, lie mneedes that 1;.. gland is really anil an..oii to a"jusl tins il.snutu but n:c;r will consent to do it, except upon terms of honorable and mutu d sui render. T.ih.nf 11 for granted lhat our goiernmnni will nevor ro iiKiins'i the navigation nt (tin lo'iiimbin. and hav.og as.-ertu nod lhat li.vat Il. itam w ill not ngren to n settlement without that admisa.nii, bo is embarrassed to d.scmor how t!.d question is to be closed, v.h,'u both pirt.es e.u.t.iiuod to clash as lo" tli.s pirtlftilar and specd'w po'ut. Mr Mcl.ino also rcgarus tint 1110 Lirjo augmen tation of the military and naval forces, which lino been rccamuvnd'-il to IMrii.iineiu, aiel which w ill bo appropriated fur to the lull oMetit, liavo no other relerenco man 111 inu luuiouuinit' coirtingeiicios which in iv proceed fro 11 lh want nfa liburil spiril in irjintng a rniiiarnuii-c. I'rtl.o it id'oge'lier, Ihe pms. cct, nt 1I11-. '..me, is moro glo iiny ami lowering than it has bo 3 11 nt any mom -oi during iho nrgutiationr. 'I'ho rant, mg and b.-agg.idocii) nf the Administration and i!a"cbarm:!i'I organ, Ins at lenfflh roused tho people ol lireat il.itain to a foil sense of their dutv and d'gnity. Thojjli 11.1lur.1lly slow to a,-!,' and atill mora rcptignint to a collision with thn tlnitcd Stales than !m il any ether cinli- zo i U ivBriiment, from the recipr. cal m'erosis wlii.-li am iiuiihcd. ai we.! as Irom our m'ltual sympiihv iu language and laws, and ll.o progtess ,i ciiri.i.a.utv still there is a point at which forbearance ceases tu be a virtue, wult liitghsh mini, ns ivnll as W'ilil OUr O'.Vtl COUUtl V IllOtl. They hive bicn stiiiuilated, and altniat driven, to tlut cond tion, by tho insulting tui.'s of those in nowpr am! bv tho rccliicsa ouiiyiem in 1111 j mrnal which iinuiodiately represents their sen. I mints. T hrouo tout ier Wlliuo llisiory, j.ii laud Ins never atuod so much h ird cufiing j and her 11 rn!' ration lltllv Ill.TOasoU the IllU'glllties whieh uprn ilai'.v issuoJ Ihro: 2I1 the "Union Sho nai now assumed (Tor position, and will ho driven from it only by a forco superior to the rav itifTB of a demi'tfiiue. l'rivato inii'lheoiico Ins been received from a hiLtli iiuarter in llnaland, suiing lint the rei 'c timi nl thi fit et oiler of crb. (ration, liad boon thn act of 1842, than it could by any possi bility bo, under the course recommended by the PicsidelH in his message, nnd followed up in tho report of iho Secretary of the Ticasury. Wo ihinh il is proved, beyond cavil, iu such documents ns this letter from .Mr. Lawrence, and llio speech of Mr. Stew art fiom I'unnsjlvanii, in the Ilotisu ofl'op rcsentatives, llut llio theoiies disposed by the ftce trado irfurntcis, .specious though they be, tue yet full of fallacy nnd danger. The fieo tradeis will say that all this appre hension about llio Tar ill", results from ngila lion. I5t: it so. Who agitates the subject, nnd who will bo accountable to the people, if iho boallhful Hush and activity of business which lias sprung up under tltn I anil now 111 operation, shall be chcrUed by iho ovctthtow ol llio piotecling svstem t ho aro the agi tators? Any one who is interested in ai ri ving at the lino puhcy of goveriiinent, will not need lo bo urged lo examine well the practical points made anil sustained in this Letter of Mr. Lawrence. Let every reader sitisly himself in theso mutters, and let every fieenian, whether manufacturer, farmer, me chanic or nili.in, determine in his own opin ion whether the present condition of thrift and entcipriso under tho existing T.n it)', is or is not belter th in a return to that state of general depression w Inch prevailed in almost cvoiy dep titniunt of business, just previous to thu period when the Tariff of 18-1:2 went into operation. M US I C A L EN TEllTA I N M CNT. Thn Ciiexcy r.'.Mii.v aro in iho neighbor hood, and propose to give tin entertainment. These distinguished votaries of song Invo established a woild-i.ide lame; and being Vei nionters, by birth, education nnd sympa thy, should meet 11 cordial icception heio among the mountains which inspired their earlier cfl'otts, nnd still givo toeo to their unrivalled pot formmccs. Wo copy the fol lowing from tho Tribune : "Th ' Chiney ian i'y's Concert nt IjronMyn, on Thursday cviinnr.. woi attended by a numeral!-, and lahinii!it)lp nudienee. The repented l.ursta of.ipplauae in I at.irmy cii"urri d iruif the even; ifr wero iho beat ei Iuiivj ot ihe lie','''!' of tl.-ise who lonrd Inec.i. To e f 1'iprrs as a Li.-it v. nr.1 p isc -,,d of the most exir.iotdmarv local powtrs ,,r r ny wel.iieeter 1.- lenej to an t we are cooMrameii to pre.it 'I lor t ir'ii most toll mnt anil si.cecs.Iiil tareer. ilicyn'iia niostly natue, siiu;ile sonars, and 111 a s.ylc truly unsurpassed. CORRECTION. Somo scoundrel imposed upon ns last week, sending us a noiico of the death of Isaac N. Ai'stim, nnd his wife, of Vst ford. Mr. A. nnd his wife are, wo are hap py to say, alive and well; nnd will, we trust, live long enough to mete out merited punish ment to the pitiful puppy who is guilty of this contemptible fraud. Georgn .W.Burns, of Jerico, will please lo call oil us immediate' DISTRESSING ACCIDENT. On Monday morning last, a sprightly lit t lo son of Mr. M.ir.riN Gmnkin, aged firo years, was burned sons lo cause bis death in about nn hour. The mother had slept out for a pail of water, and returning, met hrr child at ihe door enveloped in (limes. By dashing iho water upon him, sho succeeded ill extinguishing tho 11 imos at once, but, alas, ton Lite. Tlie flesh was literally burned to a crisp ; nnd, notwithstanding prompt and sMIllul medical appliances, a oriel Hour ter minated his snfXcriiies. Tlio child had left llio bed in its mother's absence, and in at tempting to reach an apple over tho store, its night-clothes came in contact with iho firo, and, being of cotton, lighted up at once a lliruo from which escape, was imposiibla. 'amr.iu' Ication. STREET FIGHT. it into notice and use in lha1 country, ami the an. cnmmiiuicnted to tho Ministry beforn tho sailing 11 ti.nl exportation from the tJu.tud tatatos lucrcas. 1 of tho CsmUia ami lhat it caused a profound ed from a few biles up In !1 and d.OlK) por,' setis.ttion iu th 1 i.fi'.eial circle?. Through the fiu. 11. 1.. ...r..... ..i' . . .i .1. .i,rt t..t ,,r M...r annum, j no iiriunii loinitiuiiufoii. w ctu nmcii b tine source, it is learoiu mai mu 1.4, 1 w. annoyed at Una interference, and it is presumed ' deon expressed himself in ory decided terms, lhat r was through llt.nr inflje.ico tint tho l'. i.l India Company (the (lovenuneut of thai coun try) liavo repoated'y atigmatited the discrim inating duly tm these goods, (which urn called drilling.',) lor thn puiposo of prelecting their own nianufacttires ajaniut ih'no uf llio United States j prior to 1530 tho duty was 3 per 101 1. in favor of Uritiah goods j 111 that year it was in. creased to 8 1 ii per coul.; a few years aflor augmented Iu lo 1 t! por cent,! aiid'cvun this r.t'u of delereiitial duty proted Insuflicijiit to keep out thu Americans, uhodiuvo a profitable TO THE I'OINT. Wo find in tho English papers a report of a speech made by Lord John Russell, lit Glasgow, upon a public occasion, nn the 1 lit January, in which hu urged, very a lily ntul clnquont'y, tho expediency of n total repeal of the Biiiisb Corn Laws, and among tlio prominent benefits ol such u step, mentioned tho fact that it would hind Great Britain in stiungcr bonds of amity witli foreign powers, and especially with the United States. Upon this point ho said : There i ano'her a Ivantarro which I ibinl; would arise fiom the tutal nbo'ition of the duties on die tm portmou or jjraiu : it wo.ild bind this country miio'i more cloiely in iho bon Is of peace and ninnv wult fouiim Stales, and moro especially with (he United Mtntesot .vmeri'-a. 1 tnuiK noiiituj ot 1110 questions which arc nt present 1:1 (lupine; r ilsi 10111 f territory. 111 w hidi as we now snnd, the honor of neit icr coun- nj is cnvased.twi reiriiduiir whi h I think calm men. .,'),s.-n 111 the flovermnenl of Her Miiestvand the Uine d ratal! 1, nulit, ' y a fan- an I di-passunnte dis- CU"I" I. t trim to in rii.11. a1 In Hcllli'ioi tit. ice vo yrttsptet of ir iror .eei'cof d JT rsfrearUinz out cflUe citcumsrun-.ct. 11 wo me ueterimneu on una sine to imp irt the products of the United Slates, cud it' tie Um'i d Slat s are inanity saustied to do iliosame with the inanufseiLres of tins t nyrdoni lliat they slmul 1 feeJ us. arid we should c'oiho them if an unhallow ed legislation eo ,U stand to the way of these dvsira- l.lo results, tlien we saoulj pee two nations of the ..iiitB rice, and spetUinj the earns lanauitte, united, 111 a manner ci culate-t 10 remiin lor centtniei un broken, in iho I ouds or amity and peace tinned in a rsmily compact 1 not such comparts as those ol Franco nnd .-pai.i, ariinj out of a mere relation. hip of (unities an I courts, but as bemir of one great fami ly of llic sime b'ood, and admirers of llio same free institutions. Tlirv admire tho freed. ei o our moo. archi.il government, and wo no lesi valuo their free institutions ; and a friendship founded on euch bases as these will sacuro a lasting peace and ptorperiiy to U1V WOllO, Nothing would so nearly reconcile us to lha deslruciiun ot tho I'rotoclivo Tariff ns tho piospcct of thereby averting tho possi bility of a rupluro with Great Britain, nnd of obt lining tho privilege of "feeding" her peoplo by tho surplus pioductions of our agriculture. But we doubt very much nay, wo dHbulievo entiiely tho probability of any such result. As wo have already in sis'.ed, nt some length and by arguments which no attempt has been mado to answer, tho free admission of corn into British ports A bloody rencontre took pluco hctweon two editors nt Richmond, Yn., a few davs since. Tlio following patticuLirs oftheal- f.iirare given by thu Washington coneipon- dent of Iho Baltimore American of Friday: " Tho parties to it were Sir. John II. Pleas ants, Into of tho Richmond Whig, and re c.enlly of tho new paper established at Rich mond, and Mr. Thomas Ritchie, Jr., son of llio editor of the Union. Tho patties went lo llio field hy agreement, ninied with sever al pistols each, and w iih swoids. Thoy took their distance and commenced firing llio one firing fotfr and thu other six shots, each neaiing tho other as they fired. The par ties soon canto in close contact, one of the tho pistol shols tubing effect upon Mr. I. Tlio swords wero now used. Mr. Pleasants struck a blow which injured Mr. Ritchie slightly, ns is saii', ind which is probably true, as he was in thu Rotunda of Iho Ctpitol this morning, during the session of tho Iloue. Mr. Ritchie inflicted n heavy blow with a small swotd, which mado a deep gash on tho abdomen of Ids antagonist. It is thought be will not recover. Mr. Ritchiu canto to the city last night, and is now the guest of bis fa ther. Mr. I'lcasanls, it is said, was tilde 10 leave iho scent! of this bloody sliifo in his own carriage. The immediate ciuse'of this ftbt, It is dd, was a curd in tl I'tirlington, March 5ili, 1313. Mr. Hoitcr, Sir: I perceive thn Messrs. P k t'i Spear, "alias" Doctor Kmery, haie taken Ins liberty to use my name for the purpose of ren.mintn dins "CrahiV sur porter, in your last paper, without my kno.ilidge or coniini.and I lie I constrained from a scno of duty lo the pubh and myself, to make the fact known. Tor I do not bcheie that merely "lash iiij'' the shoulders back ceou n piale 1 f steel will do an j thin? towards cflicting n cure in Fpinal Diseases, for tint does nolh.nj 10 support ihe Spinal Column, hmce I do n. t agree wult those fienlleme-., that tLu instr iinent will ever become the " alab'h'tid Spina Alidoninal Hap; orlcr," of turpery, becatire it does not prevent the "icr'ebra" from bcndu.g nUu ard left to any extent. To make or procure an instru ment 01 ims hinu, it won d be necessity I'll the weight of the Spinal Co'umn be s ippoited ay s no th. 113 so constructed thnt it will rest on the " Ileum." or hip-bones coming up under and surpotlinp the shoulders, nnd eases are very rare where supporters of any kind will be 1 f any vo in Ih'e abme mentioned dticasos. WILLIAM .VTWATHIt, M. D. I lully agree in the .above opinion of Dr. .11 inter, I consider iho a'oto in-lrunicr.:, ns a remedy in Spi nal diseases, a perfect humbtij; nnd unpostion upon tho public. 11. J. IU:iM:i!i:itG, M. D. APPROPRIATE. Wo learn that tho Seal, lately caught nn tho ice opposite this town, was purchased by M.n'.r.Tox Colh, Esq., one uf our citizens, and presented by him 10 lliu " University, to bo pi iced in the Museum." Such thought ful liberality will soon mako lint place one of mostaltr.ttlive spots to gratify rational curi osity, nnd to gain knowledge in Natural History. FARMER'S CLUB - this evening at 7 Richmond oVloc,;. precisely, nt J. W. Hickok's office. Enquirer, pronouncing Pleasants a " cow ard." The fight too!; placo iu the presence ofseveral of tho fiiends of each party. Mr. Pleasants is fifty-fivo years of age, and Mr. Ritcbio not half as old." P. S. Mr. Pluasants died on Friday mor ning list. His adversary, Ritchie, lodged each of tho balls (with one exception) of his six-bariellod revolving pistol in llio body or limbs of Mr. Pleasants. A moro murderous conflict was never sanctioned by tho 'codo ef honor.' becnuso with freo competition, tho grain-growing Slitcs of Europo can always as tu tho Minium of niTnrs. and iu rolorcnee to lha course of thn United Hiates. I."rd John , can never bo of any essential benefit to this K111..0II and sir llobeit reel uociarcu inai 11 is colmtrv (overtime it held in its bands tho file of tho delilemeut ; Lut Ihern rotild bo nn hopa of cuch a result w h.le it determined to loo ot every ap pearance of, and approach t. con protu bo. Oth. er advices, from an impnrunt source, and ono enlttlo.l to overy consideration and icspcct, Big. nily that the I'.rilisli mind ii rtsohed against an absolute ab ind until of ll.eir r.latms in Oregon, and that it would be woree than madness, upon THE TARIFF. Subject Shade Trees, continued. RESPONSE. Tho Union tejoices over llio news by iho Cambtii, of the nhjr.domcnt of Protection b Sir Robert Peel, and calls upon llio 'de mocraci'oftho West to stand by ihu odmin istration in its efforts to substiltito a revenut tariff for that oflS 12. It savs - " No one cm doubt that measures sue), as these aro of gieat iniporlamo tons, and we do not h,.?. ate 10 ea .ress o ,r conviciio,, ,!, lf !es,,at,on ,, tli e liberal i irit tow.ar.'a us shall be catrfed " ! faith, il. will be met on our l,lb"mJM e 1 ' ul"s ..no inn Tho schemo of tho Holy Allianco between Sir Robert Peel and Sir Robert Wolker, cannot bo consummated without a struggle such as tho country has not witnessed for oars; nnd should tiio English Ministry nud their cis-Alliulic allies succeed iu crushing for a, lime, tho independence of American industry, tho cause will rise, Anlreus like,tbo stronger from tho fall. Tho industry and interests of America ran never shrink hack into a colonial vassalage, Tlio parly lint repeals tho Tariff will ho i llnnu sucli nn Usnn. Aniprlc.in , -.0..,,.u, tuittcw.iii-? mi .no urn in 1104 ute, jn matters is 1 110 ICV. tlio socrot cnnsniralnrs nirnintt "i science, uy tue way, ui.j ucul.arnv r iu. 1 . ' 1 o . t .i. 1 .. I . "' K.a..Mw ......... ii m qreji service la mankind. A fnend rotates s story plcosantly illustrative of this Insstiable national im.,.i.i , Parisian lawyer, accuslnmod only tn Prcnrb .niiinin,a nt il.-.l . . ' u"l " ................ ...iucracv 01 tnisconnir i? lanu, m retororc pre-cmincinly tbe co miry of ,)'. , I. siitemesystein, now leoJinS H,o way to he be, ej po -of commercial freedom. I. rot for Sa tohi uuiuuin iiium n career a career in harmonv t onee wul, our. nsti.uitons.witl, lhe i.ried ProJ" lions nnd lhe tslpn led ari l of our coiinlry, i f. demonitraiions 0r political seienec, and w it, hi Ve. posnraed, welleottWd. and authoritative political creed of iho democia ic parly. 1 The last number of tho Kniclerboeher hat this amusing stury in llio IMitor's Tablo . . Curiosity nf a frenchman Nothinr. iroio characteristic of your trno l'inPi,"m, 10 itself repealed.- ";u his irropresstblo cur.os.iy, which , Wl '. . I often Sratily at tha expenso ef ihnger. and lerlcan ng.imsl Brit- cometimca at Ihe risk of bis life, Jn matter 1 .ft si.ppiy u.iy ...uiimij ..e,....i.ii .11 mr lower Amrican indenciulenco will bo left in their rates than we can. 1 ttey aro nearer Iho Imloness to un obscurity hero tho micro market ; and their labor costs then, far lass scopu of 1B ,uluiu ,liitoliail wi jis man ours ; mni yrmu unvns suns iur lUHCIi caver them Then, r.,n fooloro. in .l,o ,.i," "" 1" '"urninc ai Deter 0 les, iu ibeir 0., ports, than doe, ours eve,,; ccnt polic. of (ho ttdrulnislratio0t i(. un. I bust John Bull Vcaw" iTSSll'tf t