Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, March 13, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated March 13, 1846 Page 1
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NOT TBB O L O n T OF OJBSAB BUT TUB WELFABB OF BOMB BY H . B. STACY. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, MARCH 13, 1840. VOL. XIX No. 41. THE FARM- ON ARTIFICIAL M lSUItC. BY mOF. JUSTUS LIEDIO. Our friend and correspondent at Giesstn, Prof. HonforJ, lias lent us (ho following cepy of communication, written by Dr. Justus Liebig fur tho first number of (lie " Agricultural Magazine," a work recently commenced in London, and for which the Copy-right was secured in England. Alba- ny Cult, Sir: Twenty-fire years ago, when the manufacture) of spa and mineral waters be gan, they mat with violent opposition from the members of thn faculty, as being deprived f all rood qualities of the natural one as waiting in a certain conditio sine qua non in spirilui rectus, or vital power, which aloao gave them any medical qualities. Those times have passed now cliHinistry has demonstrated to a certainty wli.it the constituents of thoso various waters aio, and under what forms and compounds they are united in them. It has succeeded in com bining them exactly in the same proportions, than the animal excrements, in which they do not exist. Tho alkalies (potash and soda) must be constituents of every rationally composed manure, because by them the original furtile condition of tho fields is preserved. A soil which contains the alkalies in too small a quantity, is, perhaps, fertile for grain ; but is not necessarily so for turnips or potatoes, which require a great quantity of alkali. By supplying an ulkalinc manure, fallows, or the cultivation of those plants which are grown during tho time of fallowing, becomes less necessary. sulphate of potash is a constituent of all plants, although in small quantity, as well as common salt and chloride of potassium winch aro found in milk in rather a largo proportion, Tho salts of lime, especially gypsum, are important nourishment for the leguminous plants. Silica is never wanting in all sorts of soils it is a constituent of all rocks, by the decomposition of which all productive soils are formed, and the ccrcalia find it everywhere in sufficient quantity, and in a form capable of being taken up by the plants if the alkalies are provided wherever they are present in too small a quantity. Salts of ammonia. It can be regarded as certain, that 1 1 in nzoto of the plants is derived, cither from thn ammonia of the atmosphere, or from the inaninn which is provided in the shape of animal fluid and solid excremcnls, ftnrl it, n.iiil-r!nr- fliem lint nnltr pnnul In tltn natural ones, but even more effective. Onlv ,hi" nzo,ic compounds exercise an fTuct from that time physicians were induced ,"0 1 llle crpwih of plants, only in so far as they connect certain effects on the human body give up heir azote in the lorn; ol ammonia with certain elements in the w.iters, and (Jun"C ,llf,'r decomposition and decay. We were onabled, by the light of science, to ndd . mH-v ""'rc-fore, profitably replace alllhc azot nore of this element, or more of that ; nay, ,c s''"'!""" with compounds of ammonia, to apply, in stead of tho waters themselves,! ftcaying vegetable matters, which con one active element alone, as is, for instance, , "ruo"' "re useful to the fields in so far the case with iodine in indurations and slru- n,s l,(,v Provld" a.ou.r" ofcarbonic acid; but ma. It is well known that, at this moment, '"7 a,ro not, 'l'lile indispensable in manure, there ire extensive manufactures of mineral 1 " tl,B ,i?tter "? rationally combined, as the waters in England, in Berlin, in Dresden, in Vienna, otc. Now, 1 believe, sir, that the same princi- at mos itienc air is an inexhaustible source of carbonic acid Irom which the plants draw their carbon, it in tho manure, tho mineral CI- ...1. ...l.-.L. I ,. , a. , ' -uu.iaiii.es uru nri.viueu wmtii are necessary . ! '"' "r.V'y.1 """""J' '.' ;" "'D for the assimilation of the carbonic acid. use oi manuiaciiireu manures, which in i,ng-, r,-i .i i . . i-l. . elements oi mi land, has just been called into existence.- 1 "T.B n D" " . ,., "".""J.F"" nei, whieh are required by the leaves, - . i icr iniiv in inn Kiln uni u in inn pun ni npm . ..n. . rr,i.: t . J to" siami- aim iuu e. j ills purpose catiuoi uo al may, unucr cerium circumstances, viz: wncre tivatcd plants. It will bo found that in theii quality they are perfectly identical. Urine of a horse. Of snothar. Of oxsn. Carbonate of lime 12.59 31.00 1.07 " of magnesia. 9.47 13.07 6.93 " of Potash. -4G.09 40.33 77.23 " of soda 5 Sulplialo of PoiSfli 13.04 9.02 13 30 Chloride of sodium 0 65 0.30 These salts In the urine of horses amount to nearly four per cent.; in that of oxen two and a half percent, of their weights. If we com. pare the composition of these different aorta of urine with tho composition of the straw of peas, beans, and potatoes, of clover and hay, it will at once be obvious, that in stable dung we replace, by urine, the alkaline carbonates which we have removed in harvest. What in this urine is wanting in phosphates and carbonate of limn and phosphate of magnesia, lorms the principal constituent elements of the solid excrements of animals ; both together ( solid excrements and urine ) restore the field to its original compo sition, and thus a now gencrstion of cultirated plants meet with the mineral ingredients neces sary for their development. If we farther com part) the guano and the feces of men with the composition of animal urine, the analysis shows ( rf. my book on agriculturo ) that both aro en tirely defective in alkaline carbonates ; they con tain phosphates and sulphates as well as chlo ride of sodium, but no free alkali ; they contain phosphate of magnesia ; in short their elements are in quality identical with the important min eral elements of the seeds of wheat, peas, beans, (rf. the analysis.) Tho urine of swine is in its composition intermediate between the urine of man and Horses. Analysis of the urine of swine. Cnrboantc of potash ....12.11 Phosphate ol soda 19 0 Sulplulc of soda 7.0 I Chloride of sodium.... ) 53.1 I The solid exetc " of potassium. j Omenta of awino con' rhospliateof lime tain principally phos " of magnesia. 5 8.S phate of lime. Traces of Iron j j What the practical results of a knowledge of tho composition of those manures are clear. If it were possible to provide our fields with the dung of swine in sufficient quantity, we would replace by it, in a soil which contains ailica and lime, all tho remaining elements the fiold might be made fertile for all kinds of plants. We have in it not only alkalincs, the principal I elements ot ino seeds, but also alkaline car salts, which.if exposed to the ram, aro in exact ly the same condition, as under similar enndi. lions, a heap of salt. They dissolve in water and are removed. Some months of rain would deprive those countries of all their riches. The remalndor would have lost tho greater part of its fertilizing power. Surh effects, however, take place upon the guano with which our field arc manured, uniy a sntnn portion oi us "m. cations elomcnts produce the beneficial effect . handsome faco and winning manners; hut they aro capable of doing.tho greater part being gnrrieu Ull oy lliu mill. tua muiu uunj; ir, in this respect, in the same condition as guano; indeed, its principal olements are already in a dissolved state, and, therefore, arc carried off moro easily than those of guano. A covering for thoso places in which stable dung is procrvd, in order to shelter it from the ciieels ol rne rain, nas see irgaraeu in Germany as essential for preserving its maim, ring power. In consequence of the experience that the soluble elements of stibto dung arc the most efficacious, it has, In some cifos, been drawn out with water, and it has been found advantageous to carry only this fluid to the fields. I need only rercr to the roregomg analysis ot the urint of animals in order to see upon which elements of it this effect deponds. The reason whv, in certain years, tho inltu enco of the best and most plentiful manuring is scarcely perceptible is, that, during the moist and rainy springs and summers, the phosphates and other salts with alkiline bases, as alo the soluble ammnmacal salts, are entirely or partly removed. A groat amount of rain and moist- by Ins gently manners soon been me a favorite U.th tho whole laiiniy. w lien, However, no company, and yet wtiun wc aro alone, you lire removes in, the greatest quantity, tno very proposeu tor r.ts tiaugnicr, mr. l ayior tounu j converse wnn so niucn esse. substances which aro most indispensibln to the winy and groat objections to tho match. ' It is because I nm completely out of my plants al the time thoy begin tu form and ma-I tj c,j, mj been trained in tho Quaker clement nmong thv fashionable friends,' re- i in. on. hi in in annul, .in. ii wi i ltti, ;ln(i inn till tin hntnl. Iin cniltil mil linar rilled Mrs. iMnrlnn. ruin it In rinir tnr thn r:ir- :i n f fliaivr tu fnllmvpl in t'.llif. ' ..... 6 ... . . t . . .. that she should marry ono who haJ no tatlli riage. "1 am g ittig now to pay a lew calls nt all. lie had also anxiously striven tu keep her out of tho vortex of g iy life, into which slid would inevitably bu plunged ifsho married Norton. The result of these delibe ration!! IMS i ce n given in toe cinuniencuiuaiii Guano, that powerful manure, tho efficacy of which, in judicium application, Ins bucn dearly demonstrated by the testimony of the most intelligent farmers, cannot bo supplied for a much longer period to come. The rich stores in Chili and Africa must be short ly, exhausted. As it is only in very dry countries that it is found, wo cannnt expect t discover many more places containing it, and what arn wc then to do My intention lias often been directed to tho question, whether, according to our uxperienen and the soil is defective in it, or where it is not tained, however, by manuring witb guano or human excrements alone, but perfectly so hy indifferent to the nlant to tako un one instead stable manure, from ita containing alkaline car of the other, as, fur instance, may be the case with soda instead of pousli,) increase the fer tility, no one of them can be regarded as ma nure, according to tho common meaning of the word, for tho simple roason, that only all of them, in certain proportions, will fulfil tho purpose fur which the common manure is ap plied. This purpose is tho restoration, or an increase of the original fertility, and by ma the presaut slata of science, a-maiiui e might uo co,,,uu wn ,,... 1 plants wl.ict, l.ave been taken away in harvest ,ne guano in its effects, and whether I , . , , d , , f , , , r ah I.I nnt. hv n ftnnus fit ftxriHi I man is. . . . 7 " J r ! t we are Ucsiroi.s to cultivate, point on a way of prep.rnj one equal, W , , constituent elements to it in all its chemical and phjaical pro- I f , 'jU , .' , r . . T ,,i, atn uri. II uivurn ir tliut ... . ' . ' the mineral clement nf the nurture of the plants exactly in a stale and condition in which they aro furnished by nature that a field manured by it resembles the primitive state of America and Hungary, this assertion will not bo found exaggerated. It is certain that stable dung contains no alkaline phosphates, but nature does not furnish tu the plants thet.e elements even in the most fertile soil, allhouEh wc find them nd physical pro aware, sir, tha " - I ...I -II .1... - ..l"i I iiiin L WO Know Willi ICIlflllliy mi llio l-ieiiit:ill3 III , p . , . . . , , I. , ,, ' . , ,. , ,. , plants of culture I It l obvious that we iinill euano. as wel as of I ha uriiii) anil so nl a'ces ., r . . , . , , ' j , . ... , i know these first, in order to restore hem in ri i ni.n anil nil ma I. in 11 .1, iii.iiinifr . . . n. . . in., nnu uj lliu- . , .:...! .11 .L il.f . .in .....n ..... ....... ii i , 'r ,i. iii ii:c iiiii;iiiy tu an me -hbcub oi w im ui.iihh. ...... "VY" l""-" " dM.cnn, u. mat. ia ,.l,.il)UB- nntwilhltsndincr llinir ili.encn from the coil, that the phosphates aro formed in tho organization of the plants, and that they originate Irom tno phosphate ot luno and mair ncsiaand the supplied alkalies, by an exchange ol tho elements ol both. I lie Alkalies are ne seeds lulierciiloiis roots, stalks. &.C.. ol our '"" ",r '"""'S '""ir J'otjwiics, which tttiiiiui "tiiiioii; in inu ii ii'PiMitic ut jimu alone. D itli totjothur aro present in etablo Jtin i i . . . . 'iiiiiir in ii ii d ii 1 1 1 ir a iu mis t answi'f. iiv 'r ... h,v laid down in n.v work on apiculture. V.,V'."? "? i""'.7sl. 01 .",fl ?' "'S .',IhI,,.S the farmer, in some place, of supply ' , , . i ,i i i . Ilieir seeds V ,, i i- . l iin. iijiiui.jiiu inuiiin iiiiiun ftlli.rl nn tin niniv i iiT thn. H undred weights of the ashes of ing to tho tiold not pure guano, but a miMure 12 40 10.15 Chlorite of sodium hare the same plants, if the v are embodied to Out fields, in I tha same forms in which the animals furnish 1 ;Vu?',n eaih'naies.aD33 12 ft . . .. . . tpi ., ( arb'nuie tf hnie. 39. 50 47.31 them in thoir excrements. This must bo ev- i'i,hie of hmc.fi 41 5 13 ident to every one who knows that, to pro- l)n of mapnosia. COG 4.37 duee these compounds in the laboratory, the hulpliate oi pc.iasii tame agencies and means aie ni.ido uso ol , Maetiesii.. which are employed liy nature. I ho lubri cation of a manure, equal in its composition and effects to the solid and fluid excrements of animals and men, seems to me ono of tho most essential demands of our limo moro specially for a country liko England, in which, from various circumstances, a ration al agriculturo without a supply of manure in tome shape or another, from without, seems Straw nf Ashes nf lifnn. Pras, Potnties.Ctnvci, Hnv. 4.43 42.fi? 5.73 7.62 or pot.isium....0.23 Phosphate of iron ) do of alumina, J 4.G3 2.8 31 03 41.fil 11 60 0.91 2.23 2.37 30 0 9 40 8 S.S4 21.3 3 0G 12.7 In theso analyses silica has not been taken into uccount, as it is found in all soils, and need not bo supplied. Ono hundred weight of the ashes of potatoes, and the seeds of the following plants, contain Potatoes, Wheat, Deans. .15.73 52 99 nearly iinnossiblo. Our leasouiiic will an- Aiknlinc phosphates. pear the more correct, if we remember how 1 jlll""',1""0 nd ,nlsnt'iio- 02 different aro the results which havo obtained j si!ffiVofpoMhV.V.V.V.V.V.15 07 - bv tha aumeroui analyses of the di flu re nt arts of guano how little tho farmer can de pend upon producing from a given quantity a certain effect, as tho latter naturally varies according to the composition of the former, thara are scarcely any two samples in the market of the samo composition nay, not eran similar. The following may be regard ad as tho essential constituents of a powerful manure applicable to all sorts of soil. Earthy Phosphalis. Tho most impor G8.59 23.46 1.81 Carlionnie of potash and soda. .51.90 hat is wanting in tho one hundred of the above analyses in sand, coal, or loss. From theso researches it appears that for stalks and loaves we requiro other elements than for seeds. The former contain no alkaline phos phates, but thoy require for their develop ment and growth rich supply of alkaline carbonates and sulphates. On tho other hand, tho carbonates are entirely wantinp in the seeds ; but the latter are very rich in havo said thuy woro wealthy ; that is, the world thought llieni so but tho world was sadly mistaken. Mr Norton was still in bus iness, living up to every cent In: could accu mulate, and intended his children should mako brilliant mutches to keep up the ap pearance ho had been striving at all his life. Kdward was the eldest son, uifted with a there was a want of stability about him in fact, an utter want of character. There aro said to be sins of omission as well as commission and his were certainly of thu former kind. Ho never went to church on the Sabbath, thouah ha never dissipated any on that day. Uo never thought nf giv ing alms to-the poor, though he would do nothing to oppress ihcei; ami such was thu man now wooing Arnio Taylor. It may bu asked, how came be so far out of his sphere, as to-visit tho Quaker maidun but his f.ilh or had long had an oyo to Friend Taylor's wealth and hi only child, while his moro sunsible mot! or had insinuated that Miss Taylor woe.'d make a prudent wife and not ruin herlnviband by extravagance. Perhaps Edward himself was not untouched by tho beauty jf his neighbor bu that as it may, he soufht and obtained an introduction, and tho morning. ' Must I check every impure, school every thought bo lore it is uttered, and put my natural mannors under artificial re straint I Alas! fashionable life was never intended for me.' ' My dear Annie,' said Notion, coming into her room a few days after tho affair at thu theatre, Micro aro cards from Mrs. Ii.tr- clay, lor Monday evening. I understand it is to bo a inaonificont affair, and exprcssU for us. 1 want yuu to look ns bewitching as possible, nod have bought you this necklace and these bracelets to match, which will be tho envy of every woman in tho room.' ' They are brilliant indeed, truly elegant,' said Mrs. Norton, examining the diamonds ; 'but it looks ridiculous fur mo to wear ilium ; uvery one knows how plainly I have been brought up.' ' Hut 1 want every ono to forget it, and yourself moM of all. Can you not throw (ho qunker aside when yuu go into gay soci ety V uan tno leopard change his spots is it not so easy to forget the teachings of whole iite, even it i wished to become an epos late.' ' No ; but you can adoptrin a measure, the manners of those around you. I am often pained by your excessive embarrassment in lure Feeds lato. has been so extensively followed in Kit" land, which brings tho land into the state of a great filter, through which the soluble alkalies arc drawn off, in consequence of the proco'atiou of rain ; and it must therefore become more do- ficient in its soluble cfficacioi,iA1,'MV. Attentive) farmers must have S!P7veJ that after a certain limo the quality of the grain on I f r storv. Our young heroino, however, (ait of these is vhosn iale ot lime, which oc- i poos inaies. u is sumcientiy ouvious that a cur ia nature as a mineral callod apatite. rational farmor must supply both, as well as It ii the principal element in tho bones.which a" others. If he supplies only phosphates, may ba observed, have been found most of- and does not restore tho alkaline carbonates, - . . ., . I i.i. .n ...in i... ii.. i. -ii ocactous it calcined, consequently aeprtveu teu"i' in u win of their animal matter. Tho rapidity oftho " exhausted in thoso necessary elements for affects of phosphate of lime on the growth of, lb developement of stalks and seeds, without plants depends upon its greater or lesser sol- , which no formation of seed can be expected, ubility. Its amount of gluo (celaline) dliiiin-1 supplies thu alkalies, lime, and sulphates isheslhis gullibility if the soil is rich in vi'L-o- j alol.1,,i in n given time ho will gel no moro tattle mailers, which furnish carbonic acid in gr-''- AH rotislilurnl elements of the ma their decomposition, and which acid is requi- ' nuru, if they iiro supplied au;ir, havo that red for rendering the phosphate of limn sol- V" defect, thai by them tho soil is im ublein water and introducing it into tho or-, poverished in other equally important ele ganism of plants. In the calcined state the monts. No o of itself can maintain the bones act sufficiently ciuicklv : hut in those fertility. Keeping this in view, wo may toils in which this causo of solubility is want-i easily judge of tho comparative valun of ing, their action is slower. In my work I artifiri.il and nituriil manures, and all the liad recommended the adilitloii nf a certain various arcana which have been praised as quantity of sulphuric acid, butli in order to panaceas for exhausted soils. render tne uones morn soluble and to change It is not less easy to understand why tho tha neutral phosphato of the bones into I'ya cum, and into a phosphate which contains m jra aeid,(iuperphosphale of lime.) I have been informed that this advice has been most extensively adopted, that the superphosphate of lime has been found to be a most effica cious manure, and that it forms, already, a moil important article ot commerce. A sec ond earthy phosphate, not less important, is , ' . . , . i.l . "a. Milium III UlllUIS, Will the phosphate of magnesia, which it is well aro deficient in alkalies or alkaline salts. farmers have such different opinions on tho rotative value of the constituents of manures, why ono, whose farm is rich in phosphates, produces an uncommon fertility by the appli cation of nitrate of soda, or thu supply of al kalies, wlitlo another does not see any favor able effoct at all why bones ( phosphates uf iima j prouuee, in many Melds, wonders, and aro not oi the slightest benefit to olhers.which a . .MII '- . Known eniers in a sun larger proportion man. from the comnnm nn r,f nin.i . :. the phosphate of lime into tho composition results withcertainty .that by applying the l'at ofthe grain ter, (solid and fluid excereuients of men and I he aih'aiinc ptiospnaics, annougn oianimdis,j wo supply i0 tha soil not ono but all orieinallv found in nature, aro important el-. the elements which havn linen .b. .... : ementi of tha iieds of erain, ofpoas, beans, in the harvest. Fertiliiviii.err,r.iu.....j &e. A rational farmer must provide them ( to th field by a corresponding supply of this in sufficient quantities to those plants which manure, and it may be increased by it to a require mom lor meir iiuveiupuicni, nuui muni iniui. i mi wiii ue more intelligibh knowing that human excrements increase the, if we compare the mineral element! nf ti nroduce in erain in a far rreater nronorlion. 'urine of lioises and cutiln wiib il ..,;.,. -i i ... . . .. ...ci. i ci. lrles, i ne uesi ions ot euai because they contain alkaline phosphites, enientsof herbi,itraw,rooti,&c.,ofoureu.linoro than one half of their of it with nyp-iim, shows clearly that the phot phate nf alkaline bases are really formed in the organism id the plants Irom the phosphate of lime and nintrnesi ., because this mixture (guano and iyp-uut) contains le.a phosphate of potash or soda than the iruaoo itself; or, in ccr tain proportions of gypsum, no alkaline phos phatcs at all ; tha soluble phosphates in the iu ano decomposing the gypsum into phosphate uf lime anu magnesia, anil into sulphate ot potash I am far from asserting that we should not pro. vide the field with alkaline phosphates ; the ox cellent effects of the guano, and of the human excrements, is to woll known to question it, and we perceive, from this fact, that plants are in this respect like domestic animals, which with a normal food, aro healthy and strong, but do not fatten. On the contrary, we know that

if we preparo the food of these animals artifi cially, eo as to render it more easily digested and assimilated, they aro enabled to consume,iii a given time, a greater quantity of it by which all their parts miturially increase in weight. Tho same happens with plants if we cive them their nourishment in a state most appropriated for assimilation i their capability to attract the other elements from the atmosphere increases and their duvelopemcnt is accelerated. If we recollect thai the favorable effect of iruano upon our fields depends on its amount of ammnniaeal salts, rf alkaline phosphates, and the oder im eral constituents of the seed', but that it is de fective in alkalies, the principal elements of the herbs, straw, and roots, it is easily understood why the opinions cf farmers, on the value of guano as a manure, ar so very different. On a soil, which is defective in alkalies, its effect is small ; on a soil rich in them, it increases the produce in a remarkable dearoe : but, as I hate already observed, the continued application of guano must gradually diminish the fertility of our fields for a number of plants, bocauao the elements nf those organs, of tho leaves, stalks, roots, ike, without which the plants cinnot be developed and cannot produce .ceds, are taken off in the ban est without any restoration of them. I think it, therefore, certain that the utablo dung can replaca the guano to a certain degree, but not iite xer.a. A rational agricul turist, in using guano, cannot dispense with ttallu dung. Durini! mv excursions in l.ncland. I havo re peatedly directed the attention of the agricultu res, -as Messrs. l'usey and Miles will, per haps, recollect.to tho necessity of supplying the alkalies, and not moruly the phosphates and utb. or salts; by a partial supply the equilibrium of fertility is not restored, aim It wo supply guano alone, wo do not act wisely, because we con sume our capital by rich interests, and leave to our children an exhausted son. And now. sir. the principles above mentioned must guide us in the manufacture of an artifi cial manure. If they aro neglected if the ar liticial manure is defective in ono or two of the nccomry elements, the farmer in making uso of it. will, in a erv short time, discover the fact, by the injury ha will have sustained Irom it. In the manufacture of an artificial inanure.it must be kept in view, that the application of stable auntr. and of human excrements and of guano, is attended with a great loss, in ronseq,uence of the too groat solubility of their most efficacious elements, and this must be pre vented by artificial mesns. This is evident, if we remember those countries from which sua no is derived. It Is known that the collection and preservation of the excrements on the Ab rtcan islands, and tha coasts of I'eru and Chili, depend upon the scarcity of rain in those conn- I tries. The best sorts of euano contain, in fart, weight ot soluble land laid drv according; to this principle, dclori orates ; thai the produce of gram bears no due proportion to tlio produce of straw. What is more evident, sir, alter tneso remark., than that intelligent fanners must strive to give to the soil the manuring substances in such a state as to render possible their acting favorably on the plants during the whole time of their irrnwth. Art must find out the means of redu cing the solubility of the manuring substances to a ctrtain limit, in a nord, nl hriio'inc tliuin into the same state, in which they exist in a most fer tile virgin soil, and in which they can be bent assimilated by the plants. I he whole attention omieini .ts should bo di rected to the attainment of this end. I am my self occupied with a series of experiments which lead mo to hope that tins prouicm can ami win ne soUed. If it succeeds, as I have nodoubt it will, in combining the efficacious oIoinenlB of manure in such a way as that they will not be ua.heu away their efficacy will be doubled : if in this manner the injurious consequences uf the pres ent system of draining be removed, agriculture will ba based upon as cerlaiuf.innc;cK;s as won arranged manulactories. Manufactories ot ma nure will be established, iu which the farmer can obtain the most efficacious manure for all varie ties of soils and plants. Then no artihcial ma nure will bo sold, whose exact amount of effica cious elements is not known, and this amount will bo tho a :alo for detormiuinr its value. In the application of such rationally compounded manures, the good willol the larmers must iieip brinir them to perfection. If, tbon, hy the united efforts of the manufacturer and the farmer, the bet proportions aro ascertained, a now era will arrive in practical farming". Instead oftho un. certainty of mere ctnpyricisni, all lbs operations of agriculture will be carried on u ith certainty, and, instead of watting thu results of our labors with anxiety and doubt, our minds will bo filled with patience and confidence. 1 am, sir, your obedient servant, 1)11. JUSTUS I.inBIG. Giessen, IS 13. had become strongly attached to her lover, and was not quite so willing to obey her pa rent's wishes in this, as she had been on ull former occasions. Shu could not see the dancer her fitlier predicted, lidward had shall I have thy company ' Not this morning my love. I promised Miss Safford some music, which I must pur chase and carry to her.' Tho lady proceoded on her tour of visits, but ever and anon the thought of her husband spending the morning with Miss Saffjrd, would obtrude itself. 1 That is the beautiful, bill bold looking girl who was with us at the theatre ; and how incessantly she talked to l.dward that evening. I noudur vounij girls told her she would always live asslie had done , can ho so forward.' and never co to any of those gay places if she Miss Siffoid was all tint Mrs. Noilon had my days used to ho spout,' wcro the self condoi'iining thoughts of tho pure-minded wife ; ' how much moro limo I used to find for vistlins thu sick and poor, end how much, moro profitably my evenings wore employ ed, in reading and rational conversation with my beloved pnrenls.' Wc would ask thee, thou vol iry of plea sure miiJ fashion I has not the ' still small votro sometimes gently whispered, that .1 higher destlnv wore thinu than thu mero life nf a hiitlcilly that ilium wnrp duties no bio dulits to pel form in thy every-dsy life ; even visiting 1 thu sick and fatherless in their affliction,' and holding thyself 1 un spotted from the world.' I'nrdon the digres sion, reader I we write not merely to nuiuso. Months rolled on, and Mr. Norton had so schooled hur speech, that few would have known her for a quakere.s ; hut now cares had devolved upon her, and in the anxious tenderness for her babe, she steadily rofused all parly invitations, and staid quietly in her nursery, while her husband was becom ing the ' town talk,' for his opto attention to Miss Safford. All blamed him the men for neglecting so lovely a wife the women fur admiring such a minx as Belle Safford. Norton knew, that nnny of them thought his wife staid at home, that she might not he a witness to his conduct; nnd he determined to use his authority in making her go to tho next ball that should Uo given. An op portunity soon occurred, and his wifo con sented to go ; but when the evening arrived, her little boy who had been ailing all day, seemed too sick to leavo ; and tho mother hegeed hard for permission to stay with her darling. But Norton was resolutr. ' It is all folly ; thero is nothing the matter with the child but a little cold.' said lie, 'and if ho gets any worse, Walters can run for Dr. .' After many charges to tho servants, Mrs. Norton left with an aching heart, but on her ariival at Mrs Wood's was so warmly received hy hor friends, that for a litlie while she almost forgot her anxiety. Mr. Norton, as usual, was flirting with Miss Saf ford, and Ins wifo It id been watching them did not wish it that ho liked the simplicity i described her. Sho hod been desperately in with painful interest fur soato lime, when ... , .i i i . -i -i.. . i ?... . i...t i- ... : . i.... i.!.i i-.!.. .1: i of her dress a thousand tunes hotter than tho gaudy butterfliesaroutid them that her man ner of speaking was the sweetest in tho world, 'thee and thou bcin literally the lan guage of love.' Finding their child's happi noss really concerned, her pnrenls yielded a relurtant consunt, and thu young couple com love with Norton before his marriage ; but lost as shn w:it boitinnincr tn thinl. her !i(Tir.l nan rotnrntu, Aliss Taylor hid stepped in, and carried off the prize. Determined to be revenged, she was trying all her powers of fascination, and knowing Mr. Nortou's vanity and susceptibility ot luttury, was but too like Written for Neat's Saturday Oazette. THE QUAKERESS. nv a LAnv or rinjijj;:. 'Marry but for love but be sure thn lovcsi that u Inch is lovely. 11 m. J'enn, 1 Delievo me, mv dear child, it lias not been without duo deliberation, and an earnest desire to be guided aright, that 1 have coinu to this decision. Both thy mother and my self, since Edward Norton's proposal, havo deeply weighed tho matter, and would now alfuclionateiy advise thee, 1o refuso him at once.' But what are the objections, dearest fath er! His character and family are unexcep tionable, hast lliuu heard aught to his disad vantage Y have married a perfect Ilebo;' were excla mations which met him at uvery step but t-dward warded oil as many introductions as menccd lifo with brilliant prospects, though ly to succeed in Iter design of making his wife with many anxious forebodings on the part wretched. of Mr. and Mis. Taylor. Shurtly after their The evening of tho party at last arrived. marriage a parly was formed lur the Opera, ' Mrs. .Norton appealed as little like a yua anil Mr. Nurton wished his young wife to nt-' kuress as possible, in nn embroidered while tend, but was totally unprepared for her satin, and almost blazing in yewels. Her earnest refusal. ' Do not ask rue to go there, husband looked tho piidehu felt, as he kissed ..I i ,1. ..I I I . - . . ' I 1 .,- t . uear L.uwaru, i navo anvavs ueou launi iu i ner wiiiik uruiv, huu wiuspcreuj -.low, niy consider it wrong, and an idlo way ol spend ing time.' I hat is moiely the lorce ol education. Do vou expuct to live moped up all your life, becauso your parents happened to bo puritans V I do not consider it hutng moped, to stay away from such places; besides, Edward, thec promised mo I should never he taken any where that 1 did not thiol, it right to go.' 'As you please, madam,' answered her husband, with irritation; '1 doubt nut I can find a fair damsel who will be proud of my escort.' I'oorAnnio! it was thu first unkind word sho had received since hnr nianiage, and seeing Edward about to leavo tho room, she called to him, and said 'If it is really ill v wish, I will oboy it, of courso.' Tho evening, when Notion fastened upon the forehead of his wife a brilliant tiara, and thtewover her shoulders a cashmere of the brightest uulors, sho uttered not a won! ol remonstrance. Sun then, our simple. Annie Taylor attired, as indeed became her queen like beauty, seated in tint dress circlo at the Opera iho observed of all observers. Al fust, sho s it timid and confused, by thu lights, the scenery, and the many strange faces around her, but gradually became deeply interested in the plav (La Sonnanibul.i) and as il proceeded, she leaned over the box, wholly regardless of the glasses levelled at her from every side. 1 lie heroine s sorrow hocanie her own ; sho wept with her, and when Aiiina appeared upon tho bridge, which, ns the reader knows, breaks with her weight. Mrs. Norton rose from her seat, in kind old lady, anxious to divert her at tention, came up, nnd enquired for hrr little boy. He is not well,' replied Mrs. Nor ton ; ' in fact I feel very uneasy at leaving him to-night. ' Indeed 1 what are his symptoms ' 1 A very hoarse cough, laboured breath ing, nnd a rapid pulse.' ' Why, my dear madam, I am surprised you should have loft him ; he certainly has the croup., Tho croup 1 ' ' Yes ! one of the most alarming disease! childien arc subject to. I would advise you to return homo instantly, and procure nicdi- dear Annie, only forget your 'thee and thou,1! c.il advice. Dear heart I to think you havo and you will he queen oftho night. been hero almost two hours. It was lato when they ontercd the rooms Mrs. Norton sprung from her seat, and at Mrs. Barclay's, and dancing had begun, running up to her husband, begged him to but a general pause sttccended, and ull eyes take her home at once, wero turned upon tho blushing bride. ' Why, what in ull tho world is the mat- 1 Norton, introduce me to your wifo ; what ter,' exclaimed Mr Norton, alarmed at tho a lovely uein she is.' ' Why, iSorton, you deathly paleness of his wife. rVniliinfT. mv rhibl llin allunrn is nun l.lrl. manv wnrldlv.minded narent would tho most ininnsu excitement of tho moment consider greatly desirable but listen to my i and as the candlo dropped from tho sleepers reasons I Thou hast ben brought up m tho '"d, sho full back upon her husband s arm orld, it is true, but carefully guarded from ill many temptations, away from its gaieties and vices. Now let me imagine iheo for a momant Edward Norton's wife ; thrown into fashionablo lilt- surrounded hy a circle tn ' Why Mrs. Doacon says she is suro little Harry has the croup.' ' Mrs. Deacon must be gifted with second possiblo, fearing that some contretemps should, sight, to judgo of disease at this distance,' expose his wife to ridicule while she, from constant fear of uttoring the forbidden 'thee, was even moio embarrassed and silent than ever. ' I met your parents in Now York, yes- terd.y, Mrs. Norton, said the elegant Mr. Lldon, approachtu g hor, 'thev were looking very well,' ' Did thee? worn they V said the delight ed Annie, totally forgetting, in her joy at hearing liotu her parents, the niiiinctioii she had received. ' Whom were they staying I Oh! 1 suppose at fiiend Blackfork's ; ho is a prucious spirited in in ono of our ministers.' Mrs. Norton was rather surprised at the sudden iirina'JVio oftho gentleman she was addressing, who Hung Ins head over Ins shoulder at the eminent ritk of dislocating his neck hut recovering himself, ho apologised, and hastily walked to the other end of Iip room. I he uivstery was soon sulved, how ever, as Mr. Norton, approaching his wife, begged her for 'heavon's saku' not to bo 'theuing' every body to death. ' There is Frnnk Eldon,' said lie, 'lolatiug your conver sation to his friend, and they arc laughing lliennelves into convulsions.' 1 Indued, 1 have been trying nil the eve ning not to say it,' said the pour girl, her oyns filling with tears ; 'but 'lis hard ulways to remember.' Ed. yard pitied tha evidant distress of his wifo, and scaling himself beside hor, endeav ored to amuse hur hy pointing out ilia dif.br ant persons of any note, and sketchiug their characters. ' Oh I I should gBt along so well, 1 should even enjoy mjself, if then would stay hy ni all tho tinny said the crntilted .Mrs. Norton ; t:d bitterness to Mr. Norton all the evening ; 'I could not ucar nut tu mat moment Miss naitoru came up, ,.. .1,. I ..nl. ...in r-. I n ) I . t 1 1 m. ' ii ml I a I . n I n nr ftl r .V rt nn nn I III. liroi U 11 I lie r and faintod. A lad) fainting at the theatre ii no unusual occurrence, but nearly all pres ent had observed the maiwaii-honte oftho young bride, and tho denouinent was the sconu of gutioral confusion. Norton, uiorli tally different from thy former friends taken 1 f'd ut tho unlashionablo sensibility til Ins wile into scenes ol dissipation and lolly, which it ncr nm iii.u-, " jii.niig has been our constant care to warn then ' a cab, drove home in silence. UJ:.ini. This nnw niodn nf lif,. niav charm' ' What a ridiculous display, said Miss Sjf- for a lillln while ! but oh ! my beloved child, furd, who, by tho way, had boon flirting with it will ciiretv torn tn fall nr.tl bitterness to ..., i, , ...... !, i.nmlii m .,nci,lur i he tu attract such uuncral attention.' straight and narrow path, tho only way to' ' That was no affectation, believo me,' an-, fan beggud him to remunilicr he was to dance life eternal. For us 'broad cast, upon the swereu mrs. uaniay , -sub a (.i.mu.c.,, . v.nuuu , um m.., - ......... waters rrturnoth after many days," so will you know, and no doubt uuuseu to sucn rest wero waning inr mem. ivi. ru ro.e.i the lessons taught in early infancy, learned at scenes.' almost reluctantly, from his seat, and leading! -.... - . . . ! .! .l .. !. .-.-.1-n.lli.l CIT..-..I tn llin r.,l.l.llt nl lit. ..Wilt, 1 1. . ' II CrnailUg II Ul.iuruuil-IT IS innifliKiiiu. .inn .jiiiiutu iu iiiu iii..ii. .i t.. .nt ortho race, I want nothing to do with tho ( music commenced. Mrs. Norton had never quakeis,' said the dashing Miss Salfurd, seen the Polka, but oftho many couples throwing herself bark in the box, and fixing floating round the room in the mazes of that her eyes languidly upon tho stago. ' buwiicliing dance, shu saw only hor husband The niixt morning, Mrs. Norton appeared and his partner. More than onco lliu color at breakfast looking palo uud out uf spirits. , mounted to her temples, as Edward's arm 'I could not huliovo I was weak minded encircled tho I idv, and llin dark eyes nf Miss 'enough to allow my feelings so fir to over- Safford wero raised so beseechingly to his. ...,.,. .,.,;..,,. llu o n.,,l on.l l.u'cnmo mo ' said sho. nv way nt opening iu vv nen inu nance was iinnueu, ami eacu grn v, ,,,,.,,,.,,.....,.-... ,-.... , . . . - , those who know him, helov-d. His daugh- convocation 'lint my npoiogy uiusi uo ine iiennn was ea i.ng .us parinrr 10 se ... m.s. onliro novelty ol mo Hung. , nnnum siniupiny exciaimen sub n. iihuhil. ' I certainly had no idea vou woio so com-, ami Mr. iviilnii, catching her in Ins arms, plute a novice,' ' However.' answered Mrs. Norton, with ii... cnnin ninue. 'if ihee had allowed me to stay brought and Edward, kneeling hy her side "i"1 , ill .4.,.lL.,l.'li...r...i...j....ii l ...:.!. --l unmet, nui luruuitiiii iinii nanus wiui lOHtutt. 1 he lady was at last restored, and thank- thy mother's knee, come back with tenfold 1 force when somo of earth's many sorrows shall havo weighed upon thy heart.' Tho only answer of the maiden were Iho silent tears that fell heavily upon her folded hands. But it is time wu madu the reader : belter acquainted with tho persons we have introduced merely at 'Iheo and thou. Andrew Taylor was n retired quaker mor- nt a man universally esteemed, and ia who know him, helovrd. His dan ter Annie was Ueautilul t;t-i. r.nd lurni, and though sho possessed iij iif tho showy accomplishments of iho day, her mind was stored with that soil of knowledge which so .i. nr..Mn. n... .!.... amp.y repays i.io ,o, oi ' , wlhe j wou, lUVo saved us was rather tho result of an admirable taste, t homo, as l wiiiipu, ii ... i i.i. ..!!.. ..i- ...i... ii.m . -j nnnil deal of morllhc.ilion. .men escneweo tie ' " f , ' r i . . ... ' Must umlnubivdlv. 1 shall not ask you to' ing Mr. Norton fur I.i. attentions, managed imagined but by ihos. nun .y u.w.o. ....... -.,..,..,, a.,:, renlicd Ml. Norton. ' will adiiirahte tact to k.en him nn:.r fnr ibe besides the dyiug pillow of an onlv. ho. said Miss Safford. 1 Wont you take ma home, dear Edward 7' continued Mrs. Norton, without noticing her remark ; ' indeed, 1 am too anxious to stay a moment longer.' ! This is all nonsense, Annie ! Mrs. Dea con is a silly old woman, to alarm you to your 'child is doing well enough, I doubt not. Bcsidos, I did not order tho carnage till two.' Mrs. Norton turned away with a bursting heart. ' Wli it shall 1 do,' thought she ; 'ask one of the gentlemen to go home with me hut nu ! 1 will not expose my husband I u ill go alone, and trust to Providence for protection.' She rau into the shawl room, and hastily throe ing nn her cloak and hood, left the house without being observed. It was past midnight, and the stieelswcre de serted; but Mrs. Notion was loo anxious ID feel much fuar, though her heart beat with a more rapid motion as Iter lonely steps echoed along the silent pavement. She h id almost gained her own house, nnd was just turning the corner, when a rough voice accosted hor. ' Whither so fast, mv bird of passagu' and a mm in thu garh of n sailor caught bur in his arms. ' Let mo go.' screamed tin distracted mother, 1 my child i dying-lake my jewels, but for God's sake let mu go,' Her cries alarmed two young men, just coming out of an oyster Cellar noar by. One caught tho villain by tho throat, and threw him into the street, whilti the othar was just in timu to catch the faint ing form of the lady. ' We must lift her into litis oyster cellar, Fred thure is no apothecary open.' They carried hei gmilly in, and laid her upon a bench, but what was thoir surprise, when tho light full upon her features, to discover tin acquaintance. 'Heavens and earth! Harcourt, it Is Nor ton's wife. What can this mean t ' But at the moment Mrs. Norton opened her e) ei wildly, and exclaimed, ' My child oh ! take mo to my child ! ' ' Mrs. Norton I my dear madam, what it the mailer? We are your fiiends, nnd will take you wherever you wish to go.' Tran quillized by tho sound of kind voices, sho recovernd siiffiviontly to be led homo. 'Gun llemeii,' said she, when they reached llin door, ' I cannot fully explsin my unusual situation ; but my child is ill, nnd 1 left a hall without waiting for my husband in ac company mu,' Hushing into tho house, shn was met on Iho staircase by Dr. , and could j list arlirulato ' hnw is my child t ' ' I am sorry to say it is tno late to do any good now, madam. 1 should have been sent, for three hours ngn. So beautiful yet so Im, inlets,' continued the doctot, to himself, as ho closed the Imll-dunr. Th anguish of the jnung mother can bo oso who have watched rants: and ullopelhor. Annio Tsvlor was so I go (air a specimen of a young Quakeress as our 'coldly Quaker city could afford. Edward Norton (for wo will proceed nt once with our char acters) was thu inn of wealthy and fashion- hl nirsnli. nnar np.t.tihnn Id liln Tnvlnrs. but ai different from them as poniblc. We the poor c"ul I rest uf tho ovening. Il was with nn nude- loved child who have listened to tho gasp Annio fell thero was reproof in his man- fined feeling of jualousy that Mrs. Norton ' ing breath, and wiped the drops of agony . , I .l!.,.l .. 1 l-.l 1 . I ... I . .1-11 I....-. llin Itllli. .iirr....l. I L. I .in iki uiuvt wnu iiavu Father let yet, and ct .1,,, hud committed no intentional relumed to her homo that nieht. and laid her from iho litllo sufferer's brow or ' 'head upon a sleepless pillow a weight of prayed, oh, how fervently ! ITrOTa "u MjiiMI Cl KlCfim-9 IIIUW rt 11 HI; lit " .-.w.,,j , What am I to do,' mentally exclaimed unhappiness lay upon her heart, for which. this cup pass from me and yel the poor girl, when her husband had left for 1 she could scarcely account. How differently1 Concluded on -ith page.