Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, March 20, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated March 20, 1846 Page 1
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(w NOT TUB OLORV O T C aE S A H -J T T U ti WBLFARB OF R O M B BY II. B. STACY. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, MARCH 20, 184G. VOL. XIX N. 42. Poetry in man, in a young man, is gener ally tho efforts of a mind towards some ob ject at which it is aiming with n lofty ambi tion the object is usually attained in prose, settled, fixed, established prose. With wo man, poetry is tho life-gushing stream, run ning out of the heart as tho brook issues from tho spring nothing different over comes. Sorrows increase the flow of poetry from the heart as storms augment the the current from tho spring, and pleasure sometimes seals or wastes the fountain, as long sunshine dimin ishes the depth of the spring and lessons its supplied stream. But what flows is ever tho same tho change is in the quantity ; tho quality is unaltered. An esteemed friend lias drawn our attention to tlii following ef fusion in tho Lady's Book. His commenda tion gives it increased interest with us, and we give it to our readers that they may cn joy its simple beauty, and feel how much vir tuc gains when its' advocates plead its cause in such a style : S1II2TI.I2K 1ST, M. to mv sisiEit AtuceT !3tli, IS41. 'Tit mil ihal t irli succeed. ng year Anntlier circlet eae., Within each living, waving tree, Vet not in dark or leaver; tiut far within the silent cote The tiny shuttles ply, At N'tture't ever-working loom, Umcen by human eye: An J thus within my "heart of heart" Doth this returning day, Anothir golden tone complete, Another circle lay; And when unto the shadowy past In retrospect I llee, I numerate the fleeting years By deepening lovo or thee. Since last we met ihis sunny dy, How bnj;ht the hour hive flown i Youth, l.oveand Hope, with fadeless light, Around uur way have shone; And if a sliidow from the pait Ifas floated o'er the dream 'Twas softened like a violet cloud Reflected ill a stream. Thei, strong in faith, I'll trust that Time Another may run. And cither links bu added to The chain around us spun; That if the ft-jwers should ever droop Around thy pathway here, Their roots may hlooni to live agon III some more blessed sphere. Pray that the hopes that perish here, May brighten in tho sky, At snows that tall upon the earth Are purified on liiiih ; That if a fierce4, bitterer grief, Shoullc'er thy spirit claim. It may the fiery ordeal pass As guld the trying 11 line. The planets round the suns revolve, The grinder systems roll, In haruwiiy sublime and true, Ariiuiid a varaiT whole ; Thus iniy the yrars thai hind our hearts In luc that cannot die, S till draw us hourly near our God And nearer to ihcsky. -JlAav Gardiner. Translated from the French for iho Ruston Altai. SKETCH Ol'TIIR 1,1 1' P. AM) EXI5CU. TION OP FRA DIAVOLO, Towards the close of tho last century, .1.... liu. ft in Pjl.l.r;. on hnml.lo f....'.!.. consisling'of a father, mother and seven chi'l- dren. Unambitious and moderate in their wants, they had never even penetrated be- yond the narrow limits of their own country, they followed the humble trado of storking weavers, mid their labor was barely sufficient for their scanty suhsisiiiiicc. i Michael P'Z7. i,llin oldest of the so s,w of a lusty and impetuous character, and pos sessed in adventurous and determined spirit. He was never disposed to obey his fathci's commands and alone, of all the family, was not contented with his condition. He dream ed of making his fortune, and was forever talking of going into the world to seek it. At tha age of soventeen he escaped from the paternal domicil, never to return toil again. Detlituto ol meant, and without resources, he determined to avail hiniselfuf his courage and natural audacity. Ho went in quest of the celebrated Scarpi, a famous chief of tho bri gands, who infested tha environs, andspread pillage and desolation in all directions. Scar pi gladly received him but ho remarked that ho was very young to bo able to endure the fatigues of the prefession, and be useful to the uand. As, however, ho still persist ed 'I consent,' said tho brigand to him, 'to admit you among us but, at tho first mani festation of weakness, I shall despatch you as a useful member without pity.' .Michael Pczzt agreed to this, and, from this moment, commenced his criminal and adventurous ca reer. His first expedition was ono so full nf skill and audacity, that it placed him very high in the esteem of his companions. The convent of Santa Martha possessed a email image of tho Virgin, of massive gold, adorned with diamonds and precious pearls, of inestimable value. This Virgin was an object of adoration lo tho faithful. Scarpi iiad long desired lo n-ssess it, and thought over different means of gelling possession of it. But an expedition of this kind presented great difficulties, tho walls of the convent were of great height, and a faithful guardian watched night and day, over the precious re lie Scarpi, if it was impossible to succeed by stratagem, would not have recoiled even before the employment of force but his companions, influenced by the remains of their former foelings of veneration, refused to shed the blood of persons consecrated to the liord. These obstacles did not, however, terrify Michael Pczza. Ha assumed the dress of a nun, and directed his steps towards the con vni alone, with his stick in his hand. IIu knocked'ai the door, and by tho command of i'ib Ladv'Superior, lie was conducted intu a acnarUte rail of the house, where candidates before Ihey aro permitted to penetrate into the interior ana appear in imr preacum, muii pais three days and nights in prayers ana au tlnenco. As toon as ho was in hit cell, Mi rlif.l Pezza began to meditate upon his plies, awaiting the moment for an action. Two davs uatsod, and he had already be conie uneasy at to the way in h hich he should accomplish In ohlecl, when an unexpected circumstance came to his aid. Il was it dial period of the year, whsn the pemnti from the adjoining country bring to tho convent thoir tribute in provisions of all kinds. The porter was charged wilh tho duty of receiving these good people, and of dealing with them. This operation lasted all day, and tho night was oltcn far advanced when the peasants quitted the convent. By a special favor, the r inrr i urn. Infl nnnn until llin moment nl their departure. This year (he harvest had been very good, and the offerings it was ex pected would bo very abundant. At the break of day, numerous carts drawn by oxen, brought the annual provisions. In the ovoninir. Michael I'ezza, profiting by the darkness, glided into tho chapel, carried off the statue and placed it in oun ot tho carts, carefully concealed under tho straw. Ho then quilted the convent and went to nwait on their route the passage of the peasants. At the end of an hour they arrived ; I'ezza accosted litem, and entered into a conversa tion wilh tliein, in the course of which, ho in quired which way they wcro going. IIu learned thnt they were from tho village of Forna, and that they would not arrive there until (lav light oftho next (lay but one. I'e.zi took leave of them, and went to rejoin Ins cninniininns. in whom lie related all that hail happened. On the day mentioned, Scirpi, at tlm headof Ills whole bund, presented him- sulfat the village of Forna, just as tho peas - ants were entering. No resistance was made; but when the brigands cariied oil" thu virgin, they threw themselves on their knees in pray er, as if to demand pardon ot Heaven lor a crime so great. The'achievenient was nois ed about through the whole province ; it pro duced a general mourning, and gavo the band of Scarpi a reputation for impiety and wick edness, which no band in Italy possessed, for they generally had a respect for holy things I'e.zi, li v tins commencement, won Hit; admiration of all his companions, and three years afterwards, when Scarpi had been kill ed in an engagement with the royal rillemen, notwithstanding his extreme youth, ho was unanimously named their chief. From this lime his hand obtained a torriblo rcputatiun. lie filled tho whole country Willi his crimes, and was soon the terror of tho iuhahitatils, who gave htm thu surname of Fra Diavolo, or brother of the Devil, which he has always retained. His power becamo so great thai tho ntten- lion of ihe government of Naples was called ( prry to graver troubles, had manifested great to it. It sent several omp inics of riflemen indiffeienco with regard to these brigands, after him, and promi-cd a reward of four j and but for the war which the other chiefs hundred ducats to whoever should seize upon ' waged with him, he would have become ab hispeison. These proceedings, instead of ! solute) master of the whole of that part of It nlTerting Fra Diavolo, seemed only to in- ''ly. crease his audacity. No fear or danger de- At lenglh political chargps brought to the terred hint. He often traversed the city alone, throne ol Italy, in place nV King Ferdinand, under a simple disguise, and no man had dur- " had sought refuge in Palermo, the Prince ed lo place his hand upon his person. One evening he returned "fiom Castellu Mare, and was going to rejoin his compan ions, lie stopped in an inn of mean appear ance. IIu worn tho costume of a Calabiian peasant. A large cloak covered his shoul der. Some pistols and a poinard glistened in his gitdle. IIu called for some supper, and they showed him into a small room, light ed only by a smoking lamp, suspended from the ceiling. Ho was hardly seated in this , place, before four men of mean appearand! placed themselves ' ' anu raggoii, cntereu anil at a table that was near I At the end of a few moments Im perceived that those men ' eyed him with curiosity, nnd conversed, t0. ! gelher in a low tone. IIu did out like the looks of this, and believing tint they were talking about him, ho wrapt himself in his cloak and pretended to be asleep. The conversation thereupon becatnn more Iree. Fra Diavolo learned by their conversation, thal these new coiners were four tiss issins by profession, who had recognized him, and who wished to kill him, in older logain tho promised reward. One of them thought thai availing them selves of tho circumstance they ought to des patch him at once; but the others moro pru dent, thought they ought not to let so fine a prey escape them, and that il would bo bet ter to wait until he was in bed, unarmed and without any means of defence, Whilo this discourse was going on, tho inn keeper enter ed, lo bring in supper. Fra Diavolo profit ted by the noise which ho mado to awaken in n natural manner. Ho finished his supper in a few moments, and directed the innkeep er to prepare a good bed for him, and soon retired, as if lo sleep. At midnight tho four assassins entered the chamber of Fr.i Diavo lo, wilh measured steps and noiselesely. unn ol tliem carried a light, and walked at their head. Each had n poinard in his hand. I'lii! ono who held the light advanced. looked in him fixedly and motioned to the others that he was inn profound sleep. At this ho hoped tu find the means nf embarkation ; signal, they all four approached, and began "nl fi.iding any, he advanced towards Saler lo raise their poinards. At iho s iuio mo-' no, mid proceeded iilong thu shoru, in the nienl, Fra Diavolo, who was only pretend- hope of finding a boat lo convey him on iug to ho asleep, us at first, sprang from the board an English vessel, but thu boat was bed fully dressed, and.iiiiiiug his pistol at the i ... . ono who carried mo light, blew Ins brains coiiviiicou mat mey vmiu uau compromised out, crying out "Wretch, did vm think that him had abandoned him lojiis unhappy lain. Fra Diavolo would permit himself tu bul Ho returned then to thu interior, and was slaughtered liko a sheep !" I soon after attacked by thu provincial guard A t this vigorous defenco, upon which they I of Monto Corvinn. After a desperate snug had not calculated, thu other assassins took g'e, his little troop was dispersed ; Ins lieu to flight, uttering cries nf fear, and in a mo-1 tenant. Veto Adelilzi, was killed; he himself, ment wcic outside the door. At the noise pursued night and day, was only nblo to sue- of this scone, tho innkecner came rushim? in.! n.i.. .i. i.i!- i , - , , fi'iiu tiuii w riiiuiiiig, vviui a lamp in ins uanu. I i a iii r ra uiavoio, sam me unknown. "A I price it set upon my head. Learn now, nnd repeat it everywhere, that the fate of this, wrclcli is in reserve fur all tboso who may dare lo lay their hand upon men," Having thus spoken, ho disappeared At another time ho met the exocutionor of Naples, who was conducting two brigands lo tho littlo (own of Ami, where they wuro lo be hung. A strong detachment of rifle men had preceded them, in order to mako the first preparations. The men alone com prised Iho escort of the criminals. Fra Dia vulo attacked them at the headof five men, , 1- ... . i . . delivered the two piisoners, and hung tho executioner, againsl whom he had a mortal hatred, in their place. The authorities of tho town, sui prised that I hoy whom they ex pected did not arrive, whun every thing was prepared lo receive them, sent back lo sen what was the matter. One of the soldiers of the escort, who had escaped Iho massacre of his two companions, toon informed them of Ihe truth. They were, therefore, obliged to go back and nnnounco to tho disappointed populace, that thu execution could not take place, for want of tho executioner and his two prisoners. One day, being at Sulorno, ho entored tho shop ol a liair dresser, at the moment when the latter was going to prepare tho toilet oi 1110 lirilliatO 01 t 10 CalllCUrdl. 1 lie llilir dresser excused himself, on account of the necessity of going out, and begged him to await his return, which would bo speedy. At tho end of a few minutes, tho captain of a rillo corps caino in, and mistaking him fur the proprietor of tho shop, ordered him in a rudo manner to dress his heard. At the same time, he assumed the position of a man who was expocling to be shaved Fra Diavola fearing he should be discovered if he hesitat ed, rolled up his sleeves, arraigned tho bar ber's utensils, and prepared himself to per form the operation. Already had tho razor began to scrape his chin, when tho hair diesser, entered, all out of breath, mid cried out : "Captain, captain, iho brigand of nhom yon are in search, is in the city, nnd has been recognised." At this unexpected relalinn. the captain seemed tie lighted, and said : "Wo have cot him at leuglh I" "Not exact ly," Cf'ed Fra Diavolo, " for as it happens 'just at this moment, lie has got you.", Tho ! unhappy captain seemed moro dead llian nlive ; he dared not utter a word, and looked ' on wilh a bewildered air, liko a man who feaied what would become of him. Fia Di avolo, prolonging his agony, laughed at his fear; each movement which liu made, ic doubled the anxiety of tho captain. At length, he granted his lifo ; but to put it out of his power to pursue him, ho bound him hand and foot. As soon as ho had done this, he did the same also with tho barber who trembled and offered no resistance. After this, ho dressed himself in the uniform of tho captain, mounted himself on his horse, which was standing at the door, and rode out of the i lly on a gallop, proud of tho exploit which ho had achieved. These exploits, and a number of tho same kind, augmented every day tho frame of Fra Diavolo. His name alone spread terror ev ery when:. When the report of his coming reached any place, tho inhabitants lied and abandoned their houses nnd llieir property. Siucn 1795 tho government of Naples, a Joseph Unnaparlo, who was soon succeeded by Murat ; these circumstances gave new im portance lo Fra Diavo'o. Tho government which had boon overturned Uiok every means of throwing difficulties in the way of the new King, secretly encouraged and sustained the chiefs of ihe banditti, and they recommenced their plundering with moro eagerness than ever. It is well known that Ihe Calnbrians, i naturally bold and fond of war, aroconstanlly ! in arms nnd are ever ready to lake their urns- ki'l in their hand. They set a great vuluo ! "l,on money, but a still greater upon courage, 1. ... . f ,:LI1 ''sii'its. u , in consequence oi ''l''' ,h'" ',"17'!8 'bei' favored the expedition c.iruinai iiuiio, who uroiignt noout me res toration of ihu royal family. Loyal in their character, they arc faithful to those to whom they have piomised nnd who have accepted their services. The government ol Murat resolved to tiso tho most energetic measure lo lid themselves of their scourge, and de- sU'y 'bo. brigands. General Partouneaux, who was in command of tho province, organ ized his light troops; who setting out from the centre, scoured thu country in all direc tions, pursued tho bandits even to tho most inaccessible mountains. Fra Diavolo, who was the object ol their particular search, was pursued fiom one re treat to another, from cavern to cavern, and hunted liko a wild beast. Each day he was obliged to fight and lo witness thu death of some of tho most faithful of his companions. In October, 1S0G, Lieutenant Hugo, in a murderous conflict, killed 24 men of his troop, and took 45 prisoners; ho himself only es caped with difficulty. From that niu'ment his power was gone, and with his power per ished also the influence of his name. A mouth afier, seeing it was impossible to escape thu pursuit of the Frenchmen, hu re solved to embark for Sicily. He descended tile mountains, accompanied with ,a few ol ''is chosen companions, mid repaired to Tur , ru del Anniiiizuta, a maritime place, where gone. Ho returned sadly, and was at length i .i. .i .. i... i. ...i ... i ceed, by thu endurance of the greatest fa- ;.i :.. ...r..nn i : r ui;uu, in iiiiuiul iciugi- n, ,i,u uiuuiuuio, ui s-riuvauo, anu ui vaiop.iiia. un uie iinru day ho quitted the last retreat, accompanied nly by ono man, tho last who had remained j laitlilul to linn, but soon lie too unaniioneu 1 him. IIu continued his route by Eboli, and passed through the midst of a detachment of r rench soldiers, without being recognized. Ho was wounded, and proceeded with great difficulty ; his feet were bare, nnd ho was clothed with iho most miserable tatters. Leaving Eboli, hu I (-paired to the village of Eho Nice, near Sanscveruio, to buy some shoes. Tho apothecary of tho place who i was a corporeal in thu town guards, seeing a ! ,.. 1. .!'.!.. ..!.l.. ..I lt.!- stranger in such a dilapidated condition con ceived some suspicions, and demanded who ho was. Fra Diavolo replied that ho was a Calabrian, and that ho was expecting some companions, with whom ho was going lo Na ples on business. Thn answer not being sat isfactory, tho apothecary invited him Into his house, where soon nfier he had him arrested and conducted lo Salerno; there a sergeant (Concluded on fourth pagt.) the FARM. TWO MiCTURES ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF AGRICULTURE. Delivered in the several towns nf Chittenden County, by the late agent fur the Chittenden County Agricultural Society. (I'l'DLtsltED 117 REQUEST.) No. I. Comparison between the common and scientific systems of Agriculture. Lamm and Gentlemen : In undertaking to handle a subject so impor tant, so universally interesting, is the compara. tivc merits of the common and scientific systems of agriculture, I am fully aware of the respon sibility which I incur. It it a subject important and interesting, not only to the inlividual farm, er, not only to each particular town, county snd state, but to the whole country, and throughout all orders of men. For agriculture is the most ancient, the most honorable, and the most neces sary occupation, which employs mankind. It it the foundation of civilized society, the basis of commerce and the arlt, the nursery in which is brought up, the bono and muscle of our own belovad country, us bring therefore, to its consideration, minds free from prejudice that bane of all candid inquiry and dispositions to upend an hour, in careful search after thoie means for its improvement, which are most likely lo advance our own prosperity. In taking a retrospective view of the history of this profession, we perceive that during the dark ages of Humps, the tillage of the soil was the occupation of the meanest part of mankind. Ignorant of their trua intorcnts, despising lion est industry and intent eolely-upon ease or glory, our European progenitors.through many centu. ries, looked with contempt upon tho cultivation of the earth, as will as upon the useful arts in general. To 6Uch at these, truo national pros perity was of course comparatively unknown ; nor arc they the only example of tho influence of husbandry upon the power and wealth of na tions. Thus the ancient Persians, whose agri culture was conducted by slaves, were the most cfl'uminato people of antiquity ; while among the Egyptians it was honored and protected; and from thenco art and science overspread the civ ilized world. Tho warlike Romans were strict ly an agricultural nation ; and to the strength and hardihood of that people-, brought up to live h thn sweat of their brow was owinn- in i r-real by tho sweat ortheirbow.was owing n a great measure, the success of their arms. During tho ten centuries of European anarchy, commonly called thedaik ages, we constantly wonder how men tubsittcd. The farmer was poor and ig norant, subject to oppressive exactions, exposed to constant depredations, and liable at every moment to bo interrupted in his vocation, by the military summons of his feudal chieftain, llut at learning nnd civilization revived, agriculture, too, again reared its head; and at the present day, its votaries in France and England, Ger many and Holland, stand at tho head of their profession throughout the Christian world, llut though these have mado great improvements, though the cflorts of scholars, politicians and groat men, have lately been directed for its ad vancement; long will it be before the eflecte of to long a tlavery will totally disappear; ore the fanner, honored and respected, w ill lake his stand among the higher ranks of his country. .... ... men. It is. thnrelore. in nur own land wnere ,'....'. , ',, '-. . uen a distinction oi ranK naa never cxistcu, ana cannot exist, that the cultivator of tho soil it on a level with his fellow, that intelligence and in. formation aro public property, and the farmer, r

already high in the estimation of all, hat every incentive to oxalt himself and his profe ttion, to the highest point in his powsr. It becomes, therefore, the imperative dutv of every Individ. ii n J .,. i !. (T..t. as an enterprising anil patriotic citizen for the perfection of improvement in agriculture; and to the consideration of this object I would now solicit your earnest attention. I taid that in this country, the farmer is un controlled by aristocracy in his freedom of im. provomcnt; that the prejudices against his pro fusion as being low and ignoble, exitt not among us. This expression should be modified. That there is a rapidly increasing respect towards husbandry, manifested by the higher clastes of society, is a circumstance for which we cannot bo too thankful. llut nevertheless, the time has been within tho remembrance of many who are now living, when (though all are politically equal,) the merchant, the lawyer, and the schnl ar regarded resjxctalilily as exemption from labor and despised as well as pitied that poor unfortu nate operative, who was condemned to earn his bread, according to the sentesco of the fall I Nay, so strong his this prejudice been, that farmers themselves have driven thoir children from the plough, and forced them to take to the law, the counter or the ollico ; in order that through some respectable members, the family name might not be wholly connected wila vul gar association ! The reason of Ihis was plain. The tillage of the soil was carried on by the Viand, merely, without the intsrferenco of tho head. The whole business was a mere bodily drudgery, regulated throughout by blind custom popular tuperttltion, and arbitrary notions. Ig. norance, simplicity and costscnoss, were the characteristics of the class. It was thought that tho management of a farm, required no qualifi cation bsyond the ability to perform the manual operation, of plowing, lowing and reaping; that invcttigalion into the thousand phenomena of nature connocted wilh it, was totally unnecsia sary and useless ; and, thersfors, tbe mutt igno rant and stupid of tho race, were sufficiently qualified to tjll the soil. Now is all men bow down before mind, and rstpecl any occupation, according to the proportion of this highest of powers necessary for its prosecution ; it follows, of course, that where no mind is employed, no respect will be commanded; hence agriculture, employing but littls mind, hat recoiled accord ingly but little respect. The natural come- quenco of this stato of things was the establish. I mont of a system of husbandry, corrosnnndimr I to the light in which Hit profession was viewed. ,avo '"'P '' '" RfC" advantage, h zeal n ... , , , , ,i for earnest and continued exertion, w ill never Every thing was done just as our fathers hid anw him to rest, till Ins brethren are roused done it before us ; the rules above mentioned as- tip from this slothful iHhargy, till knowledge is fixed by custom and prejudice, constituted the Ireail ihrougln tit tho lnul, anil the object for standard, by which all our motions wore gov. ! wh,icl', bo labors, the improvement of the soil, ,.,n,i . .i .ii i .... t l iano the wiiim, has been promoted In l ie titter- erned and all departure from hese, . view- ,,, ()f , lb1, Ali,,' (),m. (jou nrltoiss a field ed with the eye of mistrust, and resented as an 1 js hero opened to all who wish to engage in it ! Innovation upon long revered cutlom. This j Tho investigation of nature's laws, of the n itu svstem. established In ih! rnunirv Im il.. rir.i ra I sciences, chemistry. "colnm-. botany. dIivsi- cttlsrs from various European districts, haJ"Iney.ll "f which are 'iiitiiiiatLdy rontiectcd with hern .rt I ,i. ....., ,. J Ibo economy of the f.rm ; the dil.fent method, been spread by their agency thounhout the length and breadth of our land; and the thous. ands of acres, once fertile, but now worn out and useless, found in tho older parts of the country, are but too substantial proof of tho fidelity with which they and their posterity have carried out thoir favorite system, If wo would examine into the method most frequently followed by tho old school farmer, we shall find it something like the following Commencing with the land in tolerable good or der, he lays out one field for his wheat, another for his potatoct, a 3d for corn, a 4th for mowing, a 5th for pasturage, and so on. Restoring nothing to the land, never dreaming of a rotation of crops, he continues this arrangement year af. , !,, .. . . , ,i r , tor year, with now and then perhaps a season of intermission or fallow.forthe benefit of tha land, His crops being for the first few seasons respec-yain table, ho wonders why it is, that in process of time they continually degenerate. Tho corn iann, nmcn at itrst gtve u Dtisiiclslo Ihe acre, at the tenth planting yields but ten or fifteen. His meadow, at first so fine and vicorous. vlehls constantly less and less, until finally " bound 1 out" or overspread with weeds. His pasture which at first fattened twenty hesd of cattle, will now scarcely feed half that number. Mean. time hit stock, ignorant of shelter or care, de generate in precisely the same proportion; ,nd V ,. . . .' ., ' ... ' when his son inherits the once flourishing pes - sessions of his father, he finds his labor thrown away on lands worn out and unprofitable ; and h.i.i.n r,t far,n -I works for the indolent husbandtnaa, he is for emigrating to a more favored soil, there to carry out with all filial duty, the maxims of thrift, in culcated by his ancestors. Unfortunately this system, perhaps a little modified, is not so exclusively a relic of by. gone days, but that many of our farmers at the pres ent day have been brought up to the knowledge and practice of no other, llut hoi ever strongly wo may be attached In it, as that which is sane- tioned by the customs of our fathers-, the prac. lice of the majority, and long established usage, I (-' wl"cn as 11 u"ul . 4",u)r repuBiicans ; wear(J boumJ , rer,()er a pobe re,pBC,0 , however well it has been found lo answer where land is plentyond inhabitants few, nevertheless, muse najxoi luti-uumi aim iiiierinc mvu given men's m science, anu read the astonishing re rise to a new system, w hich dissatisfied wilh the suits attained by its aid, knowing that m their miserable returns of the old method, aiming at own practice Ihey fall far short of these, they improvement guided by science, and seeking to duny llicir truth, turn a deaf ear to the ar"u'. elevate agriculture to a position among the oth. ments of their defenders, and invidiously de er professions, equal to its importance as the , nounce the system as unpo.-ture and falsehood, foundation of them all, it now striving with sue. from beginning lo end. But all this is a sheer cess to Riibrert iho old method, and promote as mistake. Tha experience of thousands ln far as practicable, the highest interests of the placed this mailer beyond a doubt, and wo will farmer. now- proceed by quoting some of this experience, It always has boen and always wilt be the .to thow that all that has been claimed for sci case, that whan a nation has from time imma-1 once is no more than itsjuatdue, fullv couli. morial, been accustomed to a certain habit of dent thai a mure intimate knowledge of Ihe svs. thought, a change in that habit cannot be brought all that is nocesarv,to commund it to the about without a severe and prntracled strugglo. approval and Iho practice of every intelligent And hence the innovations of this new system, . and reflecting individual. upon the long established usage of the old, hat Our latest" and mnsl observant travellers in not been received in iho open arms of friendship, j Europe, have all assured us, that England, but rather upon the hostile point of the biyonet. as an agricultural nation, is far in advance of llut though lor the reasons anove mentioned our feelings and prejudices lie all enlisted on the side f ancient usage ; when these scientific gentle. ' men hold nut In im a nrnhert nf inrrahpil rna. I . ... . . . ' . . I pectability and wealth; when they offer to make j ui.ur, 0B f .i. t,,,rnej profusions : tu employ in its pursuit all tho energies of the human mind, and cvalt us to a level with the first "f,our countrymen in every respect ; when I Inns adusnKit tint It f ti n tfltlifinf nrnnf am tntifirtit J a, fhoir aBsr,rlrnn8 by ,u, mnt't stubborn of all argument! fact ; it surely ill becomes farmers, for the sake of mere feeling and prejudice, lo turn away irom so tempting an nner, im mey I havo given it a fair anil sober examination. Let l.M.r.... ll.. Jl.niiel tm f pan nn tit 1 1. laU Inm.-J. -hnoU.farrninrr." ho dismissed : and let us innuire with willing cars how science is to eiieci an oti. ject of so great importance to the community, how is agriculture to bo improved in so wonder. ful a degree. The principle which actuates tho scientific agriculturist, is orirny aim poweriuiiy expres sea in ino inuuu oi our urn agricultural journal,' " 70 improve the soil, ami the mind. " lie is prornptod to exertions, not only by the pros, pect of future advantages, but, also, by a feeling of shame, as ha looks upon tho stationary posi tion of husbandry, and compares it with the im mense advancei which have been made during any given time, in every other human occuca- tion. Look at the march of intellectual and me chanical improvement, in Uuropc, and in this country. Three centuries ago, a minister ol re ligion was sufficiently learned if he could read &. w rite ; now, tho most thorough education in the power of colleges and scaiinarict to confer, mutt be his, before he can lawfully lake upon him the tacrsd oilier. Then, physicians were so ignorant, that if any one had attained a luler ablu degree of skill in his profession, he was re garded as a magician, in lcaguo with supernat ural powers; now.every one knowe the height which that most useful of the professioui has at tained. Then, modes of conveyance were te slow and toiltome, that it was more of t journey to travel tho lenglh ol the little island of Ureal Uritain, than it now is to go from Wains to Tex an. Then lock at modern factories, and ma chinery of all kindt; stesmboait, railways, inag. nstic telegraphs, improvements in law and government, in triencs and education, in civil ization and refinement, and what has ajricul. lure done, to compare with all these! Fifty years ago, Ihis profession was in precisely the same position that it occupied throe hundred years go. Twonty.five yean mice, in this country, such a thing as improvement wa scarcely even dreamed of; and it has only been aflcr other professions have taken tho lead, and gained an immense start of this, that farmers have begun to look at the improvements forced upon their attention by the enterprising beuev. nlenco of men in oilier professions. Hence, the bosum of the scientific farmer burns with a shame, which it bv no meant abated, when hp reflects that, in spite of the grea advance made ,leclion wjll, ica fimii r. lhu; educating during lvvenly.fivoyears.i-p,l.uf.hetTorl.,lorlsnr scltrMlotl i,IB ll l,r which must nf many individual, of the highest In elhgenco pmduc. a powerful etlect up .n the prnduclnn. ami ttiloi-stiiin. larmeri, in rrnnpril ivi nni ,m I . .. 1 ' ' . . - ... . ., - prove, hang back from ,heir own advancement, and .till persist in dragging at ho of all! other professioas, in the march of improvsinent.l Whin, therefore, be contidsrs ihis comparative ly ttalitnary position of husbandry j thai ihs is just awaking out of her ancient sleep, while all been up and doing ; lime, which other which looks ahead, and makes surcess ilepond, not on accident, but on forethought, priidehce,& skill ; the slrirl inquiry, constantly seeking oul ichy cortifn cflects, are tl.e production of cur tain causes, in order that from Ihe results of this search, rule may bo established for the benefit of others; these, and a thousand such objects, surely cill for the attention of men of mind, as well as tha pursuits of law and medicine ; anil offer, to all w ho follow them, opportunities for doing good, and attaining eminence, equal lo those afforded by any of those professions, w Inch have hilhorto monopolized the right lo think and learn. Tho science of husbandry, therefore, is one whose pursuits rcniltro a heaJ. as well as a hand. To conduct it properly, the farmer should ho an educated man; and no talents, no education " V ll,.ruw" awa' ', carrying it to pcrfec- tion. It aims to make the farmer know the ' rMsun of hia ot,cralions . w, celain eubstance8 i promote the growth of certain plants ; u cer- plants are best cultivated by certain moih- us; wnai constituents in a son are requisite tr its adaptation to inrticular nroductr. It seek" 'i inform him of the best methods ot tillage and nXnai'ernent. in order that he nu. .Ihum i, er rops from tho same land.grea'er profits from i the same outlay. It teaches him that he must 1 f'T ."'.V'1. whlcl' ',0 ,from '' i 111 order thai, he its inrrpainir fnplilit i.-. c tn-v in order thai, by Us increasing fertility, lie may derive increasing wealth. It would make htm a man of deep thought, teaching him that mind is the great power by which everything is ar-enmph-hed. and that a well-trained, well-stored f C" S "Inch will I alone raise him to his proper place. It reminds 1 him that he is not a mere drudge, provided for I the sustenance of the rest of his race, but, that ho !'as a h'gher interest, a more enduring occu. "Illtll HII4II BUTVIVU IUU WreCK 0 111115. ?Cnw I U'ntllil sib tlmi wlin liv 4.. aversion to " book farming," what there is in all this, so very worthy of condemnation! What do you find, here, of to alarming a nature, that the name Itself is but the signal for abuse and opposition Is tha old-school farmer afraid of possessing knowledge, apposed to becoming a more respectable member of community; hos tile In improvements of vt Inch he is to reap the benefits ! Surely it cannot be ! The opposi. Hon It receives it, in a great measure, owing to iirnorance of what it is. M .tofnurfarmershaie been accustomed to the old methods Iroiu their . youth up ; and receiving the same return from ttieir land that their fathers received, they aie pcrfcctly sallied with their tuccost, nor do they desire anv knowled'e of a bolter .vstom. And when these meet with the accounts of c:.peri the United States. Though her division of the agricultural class, into landlord;, tenants, and borers, exerts a powerful infljence in dobi sun? ihe lower classes, and evaltluir the hirher. , yel ihe immense resources of her wealthy land mem of the prole moii, hive ben, ol h'o d iys, j employed In a inniner deserving of ihe Ingheti i nrie, and productive of ihu"be,t te.ults. 1.'-... t..:.. l t . r i rum uniiiiii b iMve recuivea iiiui ui our im- proven nreeus ol cattle, and other slock ; our blood horses ; Durhim, Devon, Hereford, am' Ayrshire cattle ;our Leicester and South Dawn sheep. Among lliem vastly mere public pirtt, and zeal fur improvement is mimlested, Ihae among u?. Taking hut one example, however, of the breeding of cattle upon scientific princi ples, let us examine into iho accounts nf proli and In, on Iho famous Khuit. horned Durham-. About fifty years ago, Mr. Charles Colling, a grazier ol the county ol Durham, resolved ti imnrnve tho sit vo catllu of ih it r.onntv. r,,rm . mg ms mea ol excellence befur Jhand, ho kepi it c constantly in visvv ; and selecting from chller ent pans ol the country such animals as suited on purpose; be produced in a few year", a race notod for their early maturity, aptitude to hit ten, and excellent qualities fur the dairy. II. oxen fattened at no greifer expense thm com. mnn, weighed, generally, between two and three thousand pounds, his milch cows gave, or dinarily between til) and 30 quarts of milk daily ; and all came to maturity, na.irly a year toiinar than the common cattle' ol Ihe country. .Now this is a well alleslud look at the results. While tho expense of raising and keeping thm breed of stock, was no greater than common, Colling not only received so much greater profit while he kept them, but when he sold ofl'bo ob tained, in spito of a strong prejudice against him, a sum equal to 870'J.tlO per head for every am. mal ho owned! Can the advocates of the old system show any such result as this.' And what has baen the history of that breed of cat. lie since Iheironginl Fortunes have been made and are now making, by no other msms what ever. They have been spread all over England, Ireland, Scotland, France, Oermany, Holland and the United Stales, and so profitable have thty been found, that there is scarcely! respec- laois grazier ordnryinin m ivigHml, without them. Aroused by this precedent, likewise, other breeds lave bean improved, other am. ma's havo been brought lo perfection, and ima, in consequence, they have everywhere in that country, heavier beel, pork, and mutton ; more wool lo the fleece, and more work for the feed, than wo in America, at no greater expense. I will nnw lake an example of the results of scientific! Ullage, from Irish culture. Tin) ac count is takun from the agricultural tour of Hevd Henry Coltnan, through various European districts ; a work lately published, which no far. mer can road without advantage In Im'aiid there are many agricultural schools or colleger, ii'harA llin n-iiii--! - ,-..Ml., j ti. , llm country In years lo come. Ills irom one f th0 su.100l,t (Jl.isnevin, near Dublin, thai I shall take the exan.ple.ll.ougl. at the fat.n ia a moJt.i farin, 1U .)roJ ' bo con..jef. ed as the avenge of the country. Tins farm comprises lifty-l'wo acres of land; all of which is, under tillage, and a complete rotation of crops other profusions have lonj tliat she has lost so much The lent paid, per acre, by the occupaut, is JC5 taxes and tillics Jfjil, which is equal to 841) ; an amount equal lo duuble or treble the value of Ihe whole produce nf inurli of Ihe best hnd among u. II is 'dck consols nf gl head of neat rattle, and Ihree horses, all nf which are led wilh green food, in Ihe y.ud, liiroughoul Ihe year. No manures are ever purrhssiil, but tho lands aro constantly enriched by the careful sa. ving of what is produced upon the farm. - His averago crops nf potatoes are 750 bushels per acre, of oats 60 buolinls, besides a good cutting nf rye-grass after the oats aro oil'. From fifleoii and one half acres of ground he received, in H 11, the following produce. The entire food for his slock of 127 head, ',4 tons of well made hay and cabbage valued at -SGj. Su extraordi nary a yield as this, may seem almost incredible In us; for we would consider the produce nf lheo IT) l-'J acret as sufficient yield for 30 or 10 among us ; but if .my man will examine in. to llic method employed, Ins wonder w ill cease, and ho will perceive that he only needs to em ploy the smio method in order lo attain the same results. llut though this ho an extraordinary case, the ordinary crops in Ireland are far ahead of ours. Their average crops of wheat may be stated at bushels per acre ; of potatoes, "-I00 ; of oalt, (id ; of barley, SO; nf hay, 1 tons; nf turnips, and nlh;r roots, 1200 bushels; and other things' in proportion. These profitable returns are solely in consequence of the pains taken in en riching and tilling their soil. The Hritich far. mer is liable, whatever be his income, to tho pay. ment of a rent which may average 10 per acre. no iniisr, aiso, pay ins nines, poor-rates, and many other taxes, which, along with the fact that ,11c is generally in comfortable circumstances, jisalono sulliiieni evidence that the system ' vvliieli ho follliwv. is Hnnrni'fil nn.l tircifilal.l.i i.. the highest degree ; for if he carried on his bus iness as Ihe average of our farmers too often do, this burden of taxes would crush him in a single year ; and the millions dependant upon his exer tions for their daily food, would be in great dan ger of starvation. In England, according to the Fame author, a method has lately boen discovered, of steep ing seeus in a solution, containing me chem ical coiitittioiit.s of iho plants, thereby saving threc-faurths of the usual quantity of s- ud, dit pensing with all manures, and requiring very little tillage, compared w ith the ordinary melh oJ. The results of several experiments w ith this solution ( nhirh is mado from combinations 'of tho nitrate, sulphate and muriate of amino.'d nitrate and sulphate ol soda and put- , ash) are as follows : I Indian corn, so Healed, had from two to ten ears to a stalk; buckwheat was four and a half feet high, and full of seed ; wheat, rye, barley, and oats, w ere thicker, had more items, I larger ears, and more grain in each ear; the 1 flowers of the sunflower were double the usuil 1 diameter; cabbage had larger heads, and cu. cumbers larger Iruit than usual; 10 or 12 pnta-. toe plants gave an average of .SO potatoes each ; vvhito clover grow as largo as red ; red clover Uvas Ihreo feet high; samples of whea', grown from seed thus prepared, look the premium at an agricultural fair, and commanded higher prices llian usual. All of ihn.-e were grown in soil taken from 0 feet below the surface, anl perlectly incapable, of itself, to support . vegetalion. I This important discovery, tho ofiipringof pure science, is bul one of a tluusand experiments conducted by its aid, which have resulted in very many valuable additions to the practical knowledge of the farmer. For consider what ill's single discovery may be worth to us. If the nnnurs, the labor o'f tillage, and 3-1 of the seed are saved, and the crop increased in ihe propor tion here related ; il-tths cf the whole expense are saved, and our returns proportionally aug mented. A method of raising wheat has long been practiced in England, lliat is of drilling it in, snd hoeing it as we do corn. Though this method would seem tco laborious and expensive for profit, it is found by experiment, to yield from 10 to 00 bushels, where but 30 at most, would bo obtained in the ordinary way. Again by superior tillage of the soil, many farmers raise from 1(1 to SO bushels per acre of wheat, and other things in proportion. Colman mentions one man, nlme avciage of wheat is -13 bushels; 11 potatoes, b."() per acre; and these great crops jre obtained by thu u-e ol spade cultivation. II it while 1 might run on forevor, in relalin r 'he achievements of the Engh.-h, it miy be ob icctcd, that their climate is dillerent from ours, ind llieir nxpen.-es for wages less, so that thoir "xperit'iicu does not benefit us, These ohjec ions however common, aro founded in niisap preheiiMon. There is indeed a difference in climate, but that ditferenco is in our favor, for vu can raise several plants which will not sue--eed in llieir foggy atmosphere. And Iho rent, vhtch the fanner p iys has been already" mentioned, a rent which of itself would buy an Amer'can farm ; and this moro than makes up 'he ditfUreiice of wages, w hich there are much loss than here. Ilui there is one advantage in favor of the Englishman, which is not oflen taken into consideration, that is, he pays notliin" for the maintenance of ignorance and carelessness ; whereas the American invests nothing in im provement and knowledge. If we would jutt exchango the first expensive lomiiwdily, for a little of the lust, which would come iasy cheaper into the market, Hie English would soon havo httlo tu boast over us. Uut as it is now, Ihe d Uereuce of method, causes the diflorence uf profit. The English farmer with extensive knowledge and scioiitilic praclicc, but wilh little i laud, realizis a great prr fi ; the American with 1 a great da it of land, and precious little of either of the other requisite", just contrives in many cases, to get along with the piymont of his ex penses, mey encourage industry, improve ment, ahd scient.lic system, and they reap tho fruits nf their wisdom; ice are yet loo fond nf uld fashioned ways, to exhibit any such fcsulte. Howuvor leaving England, let us see what iho pioneers of improvement have acc.ur.oli.h,..l among ourselve-. Though the U.t y.-, yedri Invo witnessed a wonderful change in our agri- culture, a change which is noiv going on more , rapidly than cvr, we cannot yet find any dis. , Iricts, so far in advance of other districts, that ' statistical accounts ran render us any aid. Wo must theroloro recur again lu individual evperiani'e, and individual success-. And I hope this method nf proof will nut bo I'ccmed un satisfactory, since il is evident, tint what man has done, mm can do ; and one successful ex I perimeti', one successful eflart, is sulli.-ienl proof tuai me same can uu uono again. Several attempts have bien undo by our countrymen at improving our native cattle by importation. Moiirs. I'umiIko .t Ornin", ami Sot ham, of Albany, mado extensive im. porlalions from Europe, and at great expense. I I ae lirsi lately p i-sesed the best herd of short i horns in Ihe United States ; many of which cost him IjJiOO a piece, betore reachincr Ins res idence in Albany, Vet large as thm price my appear, he has undoubtedly resized a r.real I profit froti them, since he has received from I'JOU to 81000 for cvry grown animal tuld I And at a lato auction, at which all Ins n-lr jvvero disposed of, he obtained an average price of Slli per head. From this herd nnn in. div;diials have been sent to every part nf Iho ,couniry, so mat tnrougii jjr. 1'rentice s uxer. j lions, a great amount of substantial improve ment has been accomplithed. Tho same my