t - Em NOT TUB GLORY OF O 2) 8 A B BUT T II I WELFARE OP ROMS BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, MARCH 27, I84G. BY II . K. STACY. VOL. XIX NoMS. TO THE TAX-PAYING COMMU NITY IN Vi:il3IO.T. No. I. It ti nronoscd to nublish in this tin nor a ecriesof numbers, on tlio iniperfoclions of the j system of accounting in tins olato, 1 ho sub ject will bo essentially financial, and the ob ject the proper adniinistralion of tho public revenue. In treating the subject, we design to speak of tho law relating to fees, and ac counting, as it was, from 1797 to 1842;-and from 184'2 to 1345, when a new law was en acted essentially changing the system intro duced by the act of 1342. In spoaking of tho old law, in force before 1842, we shall consider its defects ; tho reme dy applied by the act of 1842, with the cause of the repeal or essential modification ol the ct of 1842, by the act of 184."); also com ment upon the act of 1845 consider its de facts as contrasted with tho act of 1842, and its probable operation upon our finances, while it shall continue in force. Our remarks upon these laws must necessarily be brief and somewhat desultory, run law existing for 45 years before 1842, regulating feeslind accuunling,tliough modified from limetotiine, was always essentially defective, and could never secure u f.iilhful application (if tho pub lic revenue to the purposes of government. It could not always secure tin: Statu a lights, for it had not the means of knowing the ' Slate's claims. It could not compel our en- , l,iMi) tlio nccniinls oftho out-going agent 08 01 1110 aupremo anil uotinty spoons, nnu Jzens lo be honest, fur it could not know when h,,vu been adjusted by his successor.-sehloni, from that timo lo 1812, the law remained es they had embezzled thupuhlic funds. Claims if ever, rendering a" report to tiny one. jsentially tho same. That law authorized aga'iust the Slate were several limes paid, 'Though probably fair and honest, yet ex- more than thirty individuals to allow those because presented at different boards, aolhor-uremely convenient nnd somewhat tempting' accounts, and if in 1801, when only three ized to settle them, and the law had mado no j to allow a liberal charge lo a piedecessor, as Judges of the Supreme Court were clothed piovision to prevent sucu a pracuce. errors mid frauds, in accounting, might occur tn iiiJelinilu amount, without the possibility of correction, Icir an order on the Slate Treasu ry covered all dufecis, and there could bit no revision. The public property, existing, in securities, as in bond, judgments, fines, costs, etc., was wasted to an enormous amount, becausn it was made the proper du ty of no man lo guard all these interests against loss; and exliorbitant and iiiireasona ble remuneration was awarded for compara tively trifling services, because no document exhibited, to the people or to the Legislaluic, the disproportion between compensation and service. These imperfections, in our laws of ac counting.liad been partially realized by some, beforo the session of the Legislature in IS 11, when by a joint rcsohiliti ofthat body, tile Auditor of accounts, among other duties I here in assigned him, was directed to report lo the then next session, "what modifications of tho laws was necessary to secure a more thor ough accounting, by every officer or citizen. being in thu receipt of money belonging, in any wise, to the State of Vermont." Tho duty thus imposed, led to the disclosure of the following facts, illustrative of thu truth of the preceding remarks. A claim was pre sented to the proper board for allowance, and on a full consideration of the facts, was dis allowed; it was withdrawn, and subsequent ly presented to another board, and allowed. Another claim was presented as above, and allowed, at a just sum, as was supposed, and . l.. ..,.,1 .. ,i, ti,!. I m . Hi' . . . i , i cu.m was agan, ,...-.:,l-u ..i ..... " and allowed at a greater sum. Claims I, ,ve been allowed by tho General Assembly, i.h an express conn,,., n, .. . . .no betaken as a find settlement of thu claim, 1 and in a slim time the same claim has again been presented and allowed, and sometimes 10 a sun greater amoo,,,. Another defect in tho law beforo 1812, wis, that in some cases it secured no account- ing from persons intrusted with the public funds. The directors of tho old Vt. Stato bank, were under bonds "for the faithful dis- charge of the duties of their office," but the law had provided no board to inspect tho con duct of those diiectois, and of course tho Legislature knew nothing, less or more,ubout the concerns ofthat bank, than tho integrity of those directors induced them to discloso. The Legislature had nut tho means of charg ing those directors with all the State funds coming into their hands, for it was always in their power to use those lunds to observe their own interests, for a long time at least, before a knowledge of the fact could avail to cure the public rights. Such a ciso occurred at tho Middlebury ranch, and a judgement of about Si'O.lOU, ' i .1... .ii.,,,,,.,. .i,i,., was linaliy romiueu 10 mem .y inu Key. un sure, and lost to the Slate. Hero was a wide pice left open, which might be occupied by corrupt and dishonest practices ; and when we take into the account, that thn act estab lishing that bank authorized tho directors to borrow nionoy to fill their vaults, so that the deposites might cxtnnd lo throe hundred thousand dollais in each oftho four branches, and that discounts might bo made to threo .. ... 1 . . .1 I... ..... I ..!.!.. timet the amount of all thnsn authorized do poshes, a sum equal to $S,00D,O0O, and that the faith of tho Government was pledged for the redemption of all the paper thus put in circulation, it is amazing, that thu Legisla ture should have lelied upon such feeble mesns to protect the funds of a treasury, all of which aro supplied by direct taxation. This bank was established in 180G, and in 1822 an agent was appointed to settle its concerns, His powers wore ample "lo col lect ill deliU and demands ;" he was under bonds faithfully to " cxeculo and discharge the trust renosed in him" by tho act appoint ing liim. Uut iho law niado no provision lo inventory the properly intrusted tn Ins man agement", or for accounting for the funds n...;ni into his hands. Nor is it known, that a settlement was ever mado withono of those gents, from other data, than those furnished by the agent Inmsulf. This il not said by wiy of reproach to those agents ; they aro upposed to have been honorable men. The lame may be said of all of tho officers of tho bank at least of all who were not found to bo delinquent. The fault was in Ihe luw, and it was lawful for ils officers to do all which ilia law did not forbid Our purpose is to show the defects oftho I ... l.:i.!.! t, ..nan..nn in - t BW UJf OK.lUlllllg 11 Ujm.OIIWll II. ,l Since tho act of 1842, the following ac count by nil agent, was presented for allowance. The dales &c. omitted. Tho Hiale lo Or. 512,17 51.GI 19.43 CG.33 2,C0 9,7ii 20,23 To 2 days at 810,00 expenses, To 2 Jin at 10 00 To 8 days ot 40.J0 " To 3 days at 15.00 " To 10 days at 60,00 " To paid poslORe, 'to 5 per cent, commission on To balance on hand, 82,17 2,20 13 51 3,41 10,33 SI 03, 33 $193,31 9195,31 Contra. By coab collected of aundry persons, This account will serve to illustrate the practice of charging tho Stale for services, whero tho law had made no provision. Cus tom in such cases becomes law, and to show how this custom has progressed and as in il lustration of the utter insufficiency of the law in " securing a thorough accounting," I will transcribe a porliou of a letter, addressed to the former Auditor, by a former Treasurer, in answer to a letter on the subject of such accounts. "It is not fur mo to say how much would be an adequate coepensation for 's services, hut I supposed, us you slalo, that S2.00 per day and expenses was, with you, an fslnlilisbf.il rule. Permit nip to remark. however, that in my opinion, the mode of! settling accounts of that agoncy, formerly, I was nut oftho kind, best calculaledto insiiro, I04 the sumo disposition was made in re the interest and safety oftho Slate. I be-It-'""1 " State's Allornois' accounts. Tho lieve since the lime of Mr Jackson (and llicl'a of 1821, re-enacting tho feo bill, gave State, if I mistake not, had to jump accounts. , " . i ii precedent to govern that of tho ncum-1 bi. Some further rcmarksaud illustrations, of the deficiences of the law, will he reserved for another number. DAVID PILUICE. NoTll. A thorough system of accounting would probably have transmitted to us, in record, tho loss or gain of the old Vermont State i. -..I . ... .. .. i... i...-.i. . r ii.n. i , n, ii. is, me uoum ui mo, iiisiiiuiiuu are thrown into a corner of a private garret, - uuriod in the dust and darkness ot the pastjly generation: the ultimate loss to the btate can never bo ascertained. All the branches together were restricted to a circulation, at no one liinu exceeding $3,(500,000. Hero was ample space and vergo fur banking on a largu scale, and had the scheme succeeded, no iluulit it would have been continued. It is known, that tho State sustained a loss of $20,003 at one bram.li, which sum it left In ' the hands ol the tax-p ivir.e conununilv, at the annual increase of G per cent, would at this timo havo exceeded $100,000. But it! is possible that 1-4, 1-3, or even a greater proportion, ol tlio authonzed or actual de posits of that bank, was lost to tho Slate, and in such case the pecuniary condition of the tax-paying community would uo injuriously affected, in sums lo be numbered bv millions. Private corporations havo lost their whole capital invested, and they are quite as likely General Assembly of all Stato causes, enter to inaiiago their interest with pmdence, as ed on the dockets, &c, and beforo thu revis thc agent of tlio Government. In a private inn in 1S3U, the Clerk of tho General As corporation the hiss or gain will bo known, 1 suniblv was required to tiansmit tho original ,r .. , i, .1.,,.-,. .. I, ' ' ..I-,... i... I,.., I .1 ,!,.,. III IIIU V-SU ,1, ll 7, " I, l, IIII'IVI.IIWIIIUV i : I :.- i.... : .,ni:iiiisii.iii.,M, - ,iiisv,,i,tiTi,si,,iu.iiiiiii, - - um , ril1C)M rt.Mlli Th .,,,. ,1X1V of (liu , w h (,(; ))f S1l,;s A GlJ0,, w(,ro hvl, ,,, , , j visi ., Ul.c ;, . ,. , ,, , . ,, . ,, f.i)m (J fim (Ju posit aiming his fib Tin: law heeamo in . , . .Umouoncies were frenu,.,,!. i but prosecutions rare, because tho law had established no efficient supervision. In 1843 tho Auditor, in puisuauce of a resolution of the Legislatore, looked up and put in u train of collection nioro than $30,000 in State claims, a large portion of which, it was tho duly of officers under bonds to have col lecled, and yet tho investigation extended back lo only about fivo years. The duty of officers was clearly pointed out bylaw, good bonds were taken, and here tho law was, virtually, left to exectito itself, Tho system resembled a well made cask, wanting only a bottom ; it would hold nothing. Tim samo objections could bo made to tho bonds taken of County Clerks, military Quarter masters, Sergeant iit-arms etc., the bonds and sure ties were unobjectionable, but there was no adequatn power lo call those respective ofli- "'" " " peo- 'Plo might be squandered to an indefinito Indeed so reckless had become those, whose duty it was lo tako bonds ofiifficers, intitul ed with tho funds oftho Government, thai on an examination oftho Treasurer's office tho legal depository of those bonds, i.i 1812 not one in threo, required by law lo bo de posited there, could bo found. Another serious mischief in tho law was, that it conferred power on several different and distinct boards, to allow in their discre tion, for many services, for whoso compen sation no specific provision was made in the feo. hill. As a mailer of necessity, this gave occasion to great inequ a lily ol allowance, for thu samo Tsiiid or amount ol service, the act of October 27lh, 171)3, after prescribing tho compensation for every defined service, in that Statute, concludes in these words viz:, "and for any other duty or service, done or performed, such sum, as shall be in propor tion lo tlio fees, specially provided by this or any oilier act." In that pari nf tho uct re lating lo the fees of Clerks, it is provided thai they shall receive such sums, as shall be allowed by the Courts, and it is supposed, that tho Courts, interpreting tlio whole net together, would regard th provisions of thu second Section and apportion the allowance, so as lo be in conformity lo tho law. Still this discretionary power of ullowingaccounls, by many different boards, has boon an occa aion of great diversity of practice, and a so sious wasto oftho public funds. Thn Statute evidently was framed to secure allowances in all cases, proportioned to the fees established by law. Such is tho phruseolosv of tho H. S. and a similar provision has been retained in all the acts on tho subject sinco 1798, and. Mass., called the l'ro llono I'ubhco fain still il is impossible loreconcilnilmnllnwancniv. All.maloand female, aro allowed lo of such claims with tho Statute. Scarcely would tlio praciice have beon more variant, had there been no law on the subject. By the law of 1797,Siate's Attorneys and Clerks tveru reipiticd to exhibit their accounts for allowance "at each staled session of the Leg islature, regularly allowed and signed by one of the Judge's of the S. Cunrt" and it was provided, that no money should be paid out of the Treasuary, on tho said accounts, until they should bo examined and allowed by the Legislature. This law remained in force only 4 years beforo the practice became so variant, as to arrest the notice, of tho Legis lature, and still tho three Judges of the S. Court were the only persons authorized to allow and sign thoio accounts. Tho law to remedy this evil, in regard to Clerk's ac counts, commences with a "whereas there is a want of uniformity in tho several accounts, mado out and exhibited to the General As sembly, by the Clerks of tho S. Court, Stc, therefore it was enacted that the "Judges of tho Supreme Court or a quorum of thorn, be and they wcro thereby authorized and em powered, etc, to examine, audit and adjust those accounts and draw orders on the Treas urer of the Slate for the amount thereof." This act was passed Nov. 1801. It may lie remarked, that to secure the desired uniformity J the settlement of llicso accounts was committed to nno board. In ''Ie settlement of these accounts to thoJudg- , i . .1 i i 'tlli jurisdiction in this mailer, tho Le'isla- tore had occasion lo complain of the want 0f uniformity in allowing those accounts, tho evil would lie proportionality magnified by the law of 1821. The phraseology ol this act, is "such sum as shall be allowed by the Court." Under this act an account allowed by a single Judge became an allowauco by tho Court, and so the practice lias been, and of course n very great want of uniformity has j ..t... i n inn uuiaineu, 111 many cases rxieuuing to iuu ur 500 per cent, and still tho accounts were du- certified as allowed according lo law. I his resulted from a cause, which must of necessity have produced discrepance of prac tice. Tho construction of the law, and the compensation resting in discretion, were committed to several tiibonals, from whose decision there was no appeal. Another defect in the law was, that in sonio casns it united tho allowing and paying depai iiiiem In mo saiiiu peisuu ; inus inu i.i , Revised Statutes, Chapter lllh, Section olitli, made it the duly of tho Treasurer to seitlu Slalo's Attorneys' accounts, "and finally to adjust and close tho same. 1 ho law was also too complicated to sccuro correct ac counting. It mado this result depend on tho concurielit acts of several different officers, cither of which failing, a correct account could not bo kept. Thus Clerks of Court were required lo make returns lo tho Clerk of the If.tlll IIS, I, I 1 L I II,' HHI .,,,KU l.l,Ut, : i. .. .i... n 'I- ..e III IJ III. USUI III. Ill' use, mil,,. 1 icnanii I ,i ,,k. S(.e A ,s luls ,on , ,.Ma,u ,,n Tmliur,,r ,0 c,,r,. Slk..s Attorneys in ac ,.,. ,, , .Jt (,nH3,j ; C,:rk ()f t,e fi , Assembly i, mil required lo transmit , . . .. .,, 1 . .. c m g,,, ,,vKs(,(, SMUt j, WBi tin, dun of the Treasurer lo commence suit, against a Slates Attoinov who had l,t.cl, ( ureal ornaiii wiey uwgt.i poienty the man delinquent, within 30 davs after the close of nor in which they ehould unite for the accom. each stated session of thu Legislature, und if pludimenl of good among their fellows 1 Or ho neglected so to do, "lie should be account- would it have been nicer on their part, to have able for such delinquency in tha same man-1 remained single in tho effort to achievo their nor, us if the sum s, in aricar had been paid County Clerk had omitted to nuke his re turns to tlio Clerk of the General Assembly of a certain bond collected by a Slate's At torney, and the Attorney had omitted to ren der Ids account to tho Treasurer, and tlm Treasurer had omitted (o commence suit on tho bond of the Attorney, by the letter of tho law, the Treasurer had become "answerable for such delinquency." How is that delin quency lo bo ascertained? And if ascer tained, who is lo compel the Treasurer to pay that amount ( 1 he inquiry need not be pur sued ; the law was utterly insufficient lo se euro the interest of tho, Slate. In our next we design to comment on the act of 1842 as remedy for iho mischiefs of the old law. David Pieuce. A Beautiful Sentiment. Tho late eminent Judge, Sir Allen Park, once said at a public meeting in London: " Wo live in tho midst of blessings, till we aro utterly insensible, of their greatness, and oftho source from whence they How. We speak of our civilization, our arts, our free dom, our laws, and forget entirely how large a sham of till is due lo Christianity. Wot Christianity out of the pages of inan's history, and what would his laws have been what his civilization Christianity is mixed up with our very buing and our daily life ; there is nut a familiar ubjeel around us, which dues not wear a different aspect, because tho light of Christian hope is on il not a law which does not own ils truth and gentleness to Christianity not a custom which cannot bo traced in ils holy, healthful parts, to tho Gospel." A Pim.MisiNG Clerk. A merchant in Boston ordered a clerk, 17 or 18 vcars of age, whom ho had just rocohed into his counting house, to take off an account from the books, with all despatch. .Soon after, heiring him scratching nut something from tho ledger, Ihe irwrchant inquired what lie was doing, to which he replied that he was "taking off the iccount, but his knife was so darned dull thai it would take all the afternoon lo gel it oil'." ff7""Thero is a Society, in opposition lo the Odd Fellows, just started in Foxboro, join, by paying 75 cts. initiation, and 31,50 a year, it already numbers mj members, FARM. TWO I.tiCTUIlliS ON THE IMPROVEMENT JF AGRICULTURE. Delhercd in the seieral towns if Chittenden County, by the laic agent for the Chittenden County Agricultural Society. (Published bv titquEST.) No. 2. Agricultural Societies, Agricultural Publica tions, Agricultural Education ; with an ap peal in favor of the Chittenden County Agri cultural Society. Ladics and Gentlxmen : In former days, and in defpntic forms of gov ernment, if a chango was to be brought about in public sentiment ; or a revolution, an improve ment, in any branch of political economy, or so cial relations: there wcro employed but two in struments in its accomplishment : viz, force of arms, and the influence of the great. To the force of moral suasion, nothing was trusted; to the voice of private judgment, no attention was paid ; to the wishes and interests of the masses nothing was granted. And it his been reser ved for later days and freer governments, to dis cover the mighty principle of voluntary associa tion, by whose agency the public mind is ex pressed, and directed with certainty and efler.t towards the .object in view. To this agenry, which of all agencies, is that of mind, has been owing an incalculable amount of the good which has been done, and the knowledge which has been spread, during the laithalf.contury. And . - ,T -. -f .! ... t iiiv enucis ui una lr op u an uisi.iaycu in . . 1 1 1 "gricultural improvement, as well as to the '" uUOT ,m.-.,.,s ........ uecen adopted with success, for the advance- mcnt of the came end, I would invito your at tcntion this evening. The fact that a community stands in need of improvement, is alono sufficient evidence, that the individuals who compose that community, aro each better fitttid to receive, than to dis ..... pense, whatever aids that object. A sense therefore of the feebleness ol,i?idiiidual efTorts, in promoting an object of Public interest, leads men to the formation of such bodies if indixid. uals, as may multiply and increase the effect of their exertions, beyond what would be accom plished by each person singly. In no case is this exemplified more fully than in Agriculture ; for in nu profession aro the people to bo benefit ted, more widely scattered through the land, mote uimcuii ol accesri, or inuru habituated to local prejudices, than in tbie. If therefore far mers would advance as a class in the communi ty, it cannot bo by isolated individual efforts alone (though these are indispensable to the perfection of the science ) so much as by the united zeal of all who aic interested, the simul taneous up-rising of the whole agricultural pro fession. Hence wc at first form societies, by whose means whatever of knowledge is posses sed by each member, may be communicated to all the others; by w hose means a general spir it of improvement is aroused, and such meas ures taken SB shall ensure unity of action, and the prosperity ot all. If it be necessary to defend Ihn principle . ' ' winch is thus announced, I would ask, on what grounds mat most glorious ot all eocictiee, the union of these twenty.eight states, was estab- ' " , n 7"-. . lilicdj lliJ not the trainers of our constitution I know tl.eir.own interest, when - uniting their ' P0Acrs' S"!W '"to cue, able to resist independence, when as the event proved, their united efforts were scarce sufficient to repel the fue 1 Manifestly not. Their whole force was barely sufficient to accomplish tho object they had in view ; and surely wc cannot expect by single cflbrts to recovor the land from the igno rance and prejudices in relation lo agriculture, which have so long, held undisturbed posses,
ion among us. And in following out the ex ample which our fathers have set, what a vast amount of good, hive our coternporariss accom. plished, in every department of religion, benev olence, moral reform and mechanical improve ment ! And if all others of the human rice have concurred in establishing this method of doing good, and for half a century, hive expe rienced us good effects ; why may not agricultu rists resort to the samo means, with equal right and equal succesBl Why may not agricultu ral societies, have the same effect in uniting our cxertiom, in spreading information, and ex citing a proper spirit of emulation arming us ; that societies for moral reform, societies for lit erary improvement, and for the thousand ob jects for which they exist, produco in the fur therance of their lima ! Agricultural Societies then ire the first means to be resorted lo, fur the improvement of husbandry. For they unite thu efforts of the many, where tho feeble efforts of In few,could work no change; they create a spirit of emula tion, a desiro for excellence, which in turn ex cites a longing after hnoultdge, Ihe only feeling from which proceeds that search after knowl. edge which results in its acquisition. Tor, it is plain that knowledge is that, by whose promo, tion our objiet is to bo attained ; but knowledge can be forced upon no one ; therefore wc must prepare Ihe way fur its dissemination by first creating the desire fur Its possession. Now a ricultural societies, when zealously supported, arc found practically lo create thisdesire.there. fore tlioy aro the first means to be employed in the pursuit of general improvement in the pro fession. And to prove our position let us turn to the practical demonstration of the usefulness of these societies. I)eginnio' with that great est of all its rice, the E iglish Hoysl Agricultu ral Society, let us see what good or evil that has accomplished since its estibhshment, In 1S.'I7. 1 shall condense Ihe account of il from Cohnan's Agriculluril tour through Greil llri tain. . uTh's institution comprise about 6,500 mem THE saMsflaBBsssVlsB be re, embracing a large arny of the highest rink and talent in the kingdom, and a vast body of farmers, graziers, and others interested in agriculture. Its funds arc large, arising from donations, and a subscription of a guinea apiece iroin me memoirs, t, ncsc, aiong wnu me re. , ceipts of the annual fair, make the receipts and expenditures of the society about 830,000 an mially.) Its objects comprehend every branch of husbandry, and rural economy. It has i cen tral office in London, at which the lecntary of the council resides ; and where the council and other members of the society, hold weekly and monthly meetings, for the management of busi ness, the discusuion of agricultural topics, and the reception of agricultural information. It has begun the establishment of an agricultural library and museum. The object of the library is to collect the most uselul and valuable publi cations on all subjects, in anywise connected with the objects of this society ; likewise on ge ology, botany, chemistry, engineering ind man ufacturing, so far as they ire connected with the making of farm implements, and the farm operations of draining, embanking, &c. The object of its museum is to exhibit specimens of all agricultural productions which ire capable of preservation; seed, plants, grasses, simples of wool, luinaral manures, models and drawings of agricultural implements, and whatever may in any way conduce to the ecience-and practice of agriculture. Both the library and museum have already been beneficial in the highest degree. Besides this it issues a semi-annual publica tion of valuable communications and papers which fall in Its way, or arc made to the socie ty, in reply to queries proposed for discussion or information ; upon which it ..flora premiums of a pecuniary or honorary nature. The society also holds an annual fair, and exhibition of ani mals and so on, which lasts four days, and at which tlicro arc many thousands of competitors. It has also a consulting chemist, I consulting engineer, a botanist and vctrinary professor. It is impossible to overrate tho advantages, which such a society brings with it to the agricultural community ; for though il enrols among its members many gentlemen who are mere ama teurs in agriculture, and tike little interest in its practical details, yet on the other hand it combines among tho very highest rank and tal ent in the kingdom a large amount of practical talent and tkill.Tliere is another greatinlluenc which must not be overlooked, il ghes a high respectability to the agricultural prifession, and presents it as a pursuit ; not as has been too oft en said, for meri .I.!. ml !s.llwippa. v.... re minds of the highest order, from the prince to the peasant. The prizes are contended for with an ardor, little short of that w hich displays iltelf in the contents of political life, and received with a high s. rise of their valup. 1 have seen at tho tables of some'iif the highest noblemen in the land the premiums of agricultural suc cess, exhibited in some form of plate, with inoro triumph than that which they would dis play the brilliant badges of their rank." 'I hese remirks of Mr Cohnan's will give some idea of the great effect which that society pro duces among the English farmers. Not only docs il unite the efforts nf tho high and low, rich and poor, in the good cause, but it gives these efTorts direction and force ; it raises the farmer for the time being to the level of the first men in the realm, sud exerts a most pow IVIIUI .1.1. lib-. 11.3 .11 CUIdlUlf. IIIO bl.d 6landing of the Eugli.h agriculturist erful influence in elevating the character and standing of the buglish agriculturist, ucsidcs this society there are in the United Kingdom, the Royal Improvement Society of Ireland, and the Hoy a I Agricultural Socmty of. Scotland, both of which are very little inferior to that of Eng land in wealth and usefulnuss ; to say nothing oftho county societies, winch have been form ed and are doinL' active service throughout the kingdom, In France and Germany, these so cieties, which ire very numerous, have been the occasion not only of great improvement generally, but also of the production of many truly valuable treaties on agricultural topics, thus serving the double purposoof first arousing the thirst for knowledge, then of gratifying 1'. And indeed many of the most celebrated chem ists of the present day,havo been connected with these societies, and made many of their most valuable discuveries while laboring in their ser vice. And en examining the state of our own coun try in relation to this matter, we find this first step in improvement has been taken by a re spectable number nf our states annd counties. Our sister state, New York, has a well estab. litlicd and successful slate society, and upwards of thirty of her counties havo each organized one, by whose means a very great improvement has been effected throughout her territory. Massachusetts has her elite society, and like wise one for each county, some of which are the oldest in this country. Connecticut, Dels ware, Pennsylvania, Ohio, New Ilampahire.and of late days, even Vermont, ill havo societies,! many of theinof several ytari standing, and all actively engaged in furthering to the utmost of their ability, the cause In which they iro enlist ed. Now from iho fact tint tho more extensively these societies are tried, the more they are sup ported and lttM, we may draw Iho unavoidable .... . ' .... conclusion, that they answer tho intended pur pose. For if they did no good, they would pres ently be dropped, since it is sufficiently difficult to find support fur what is unquestionably good in this world, and quite impossible to maintiin for any length of lime, whit is only experienced lobe an useless burden. But instead of their failing, they arc increasing so rapidly thml in all probability, another ten years, will lindane tu every county in the United States. And no American will suppose that his brother Ameri can cannot perceive with all necussary penetra tion, whether or no Ihe scheme into which ho enters so largely, bs lor nta own interest, i.'....t. ii,,,rm rnrmhnriiM ihp il.enrv. iii relation to Agricultural societies, viz : that they are the first and most efiVctuil means, for awakening and continuing public intcrest.fi sj- ....! ."i 'i-i,.,- 01. ,,1 .,l,iri 1 ncuiiurai i.i,i.u,c.w.i. mw - - .-. have mentioned ; il may be well to speak of few of their cantingenl advantages. And, 1st. Most men are found to go with tho majority, merely for the sake of being in the fasluon.or with a desire of keeping up with their neighbors. Hence if number ol ihe farmers 0f-yo7 hi. mnr. il.e remainder will bo far more like ly lo follow ihiir leading.thati that of isolated in. dividual. The good produced by them will therefore bo more general than that caused by solitary effort. UJ. The snnuajorsstni-innuil assembling to gether of the agricultural cUs, bringing with them the best specimens of their stock and pro. duce, has a tendency lo command more of the respect, of other classes of inon, than would helfarms, stock, circumstances, and every Hum iith.rfell or manifested towards ihem if nul'ibout them." Another correspondent says. "I enforced by these eitherings. When the fir- planted corn after the directions in your paper, mcrs are seen in multitudes, bringing in those fruits of their labors, on which tho world de pends for iubsistence,other professions feel more sensibly.the iinportsnt influonco whichthey exert upon their country's welfare ; and the respect with which they regard them is often in propor tion to the zeal for improvement, and public spirit vvnicn they manliest on those o?CHsiins. And line is of ereat cursenuence to them, for I ii ncips in urcau oown the ausuru distinction which has so long been maintained between brains and labor, the head and the hand. 3.1. It brings farmers morn intu each others society, promotes the disciirsiou nf agricultural topics; affords an easy medium for the rnmmu. nication of agricultural informal ion ; and thus creates a strung csj feeling, which has been found of great utility in promoting ihe advance ment of the profession. And last not least, the premiums awarded tn the best animals, encour age care in the selection for breeders and impor tation of excellent breeds; and by this means a great imount of good in improving the native stock of the country, has been accomplished. And by the same means belter systems cf tillage aie induced, better kinds of fruit produced, and better agricultural implements manufactured than would be tho caso without this induce ment. The minds nf men are drawn towards the profession and their brains set to work on invcitioiu for its improvement. Agricultural societies then, being a means for iniusiiig a spirit of emulation, and desire for knowledge, the next means in order lor the iin provement of husbandry arc undoubtedly the direction of the former, and the gratification of the latter. In other words agricultural ptililka- fiuiu must be spread and reid, by those tanners, j who wish to improve their abilities by that most powerful of all instruments Knowledsc. To attempt to prove the old adage, that " know l edge is pow er," would be quite superfluous in such an assembly as tho present, but since there are many who do not believe that ignoranco is weakness, it may be well to suggest to these a single reflection. Are advantages gained, are inventions discovered, public benefits con. ferred, or fortunes acquired by ignorance and neglect, or by knowledge and industry 1 But axioms aside, let usoxanina first why a farmer should read agricultural papers, and then w hat has been the result of this reading, vv hero it has been practiced. And first, this is the cheapest and easiest mode by which knovvledgo of improved method in ag. nculturc ctn bs gained. Farmers do indeed learn the manual opera) ions of their calling by personal experience, but these arc not the prin ciples nf scientific agriculture, nor can these last be obtained, except by tho study of oilier niuu'c experience, l orot nil professions agriculture is most apt to keen a man at home. c tlicro- fore find that particular systems nf tillage, par ticular breeds of stock, particular agricultural i t,i,m,rint, le arn r,Mii,,l in r, ft , n 1 1 - rltrf t pi,t a . Imvoiid w l.nsn limits their nnculUritiej arc not r...'..1 ....n . ..e .).: .........11.. found. The consequtnecs of this aro naturally strung locai prejudices in lavor ot our own sys tems, and a firm belief that we arc lie ter man-- u.i.ur, iiiioiL'ii trom me wain ui in tercourse between different sections of the country, these opinions be formed in total ignor ance of what the systenn of our neighbors are. fin throjgh the influence of the acricuitural press, these walls of partition arc broken diwn, and tho good things of each district, and of every gnoJ farmer in each district, aro brought tngclh. er and placed in the hands of every farmer in Ino land, w ithout this agency, as farmers are necessarily kept at home, each may indeed have some excullence not possessed by others, but he win tie conhucu lo this one excellence, nor can he without extraneous aid bring all tho depart ments of his profession, up to the samo stand ard. But by sending through the whole coun- try, a good agricultural paner. collectins ill the excellences, of all tho different parts of the land, and presenting them together, to the considera tion of all, the means of improvement, so far as Kiiovrieoge is conccrnco, are brought to every fireside. Again tho press has been found the most pow erful of all agents, in spreading light and knowl. edge, throughout every department of business, literature, politics, and religion. Look at the thousands of newspapers, which flood this coun try, ind which are gladly supported by the peo ple, fanners among the rest. The merchant has his commercial advertiser by which many details of his business are regulated ; the physi cian has his medical repository, from which he learns the present state of his profession through out the world, and the latest discoveries in his srt ; the christian of whatever denomination has his church paper, spreading before his eye;, the progress of the truth, and the prosperity of his ion; Ihe scholar has his literary review ; the ladies have their magazines of polite literature: and abovu all, the politician, nf every lumo and parly, contrives to send Ins orsan into the hoti-e of every citizen in the land, and so essential do most men consider thn to llieir comfort, that a political paper will be found in many a houss, where literaturn of any other description is not to be seen. N tw this encouragement, of a special or; an for each department is all right, and all proper, and public opinion has pronoun ced its most decided verdict in its favor. But while every other class of men use so frsely this means of improvement, and pronounco it by their practice to be most useful, why may not the farmer use it likewise, ind with the same advantage! Without saying ono word against the duty of watching and assorting in the cuurso of political events in our land, would it not nevertheless, be more profitable, la ourselves, and our country, if eume of that extra leal, and nxtra exnense. often only throw n away on P!i tics, wcro devoted to the advancement of our un u.j ui I - c - I If Instead ot bestowing so , mu(.hr,ims allJ 1I10lley on ,hi, 6illse subject, we should lay out a reasonable portion in inu siuuy f iv.irt. nriii-pRilinir from 1 1 1 1 11 J S highly CUltl vated, and striving to benefit agriculture, and the world through it, should we not make a much 1 1 prfiiable".nvcstment ! ' . . us rteuronc0 more to practical cvi. I. ,d examine into tho eirect of readui", . ' a r-ricu 1 1 ural improvement, whero that , T... i,n tri,l. On this nn.nt I will 1 uo a (fW exlrlct9 fron, communications to the Albany Cultivator. Ono says, "1 have seen a man go into a neighborhood of farmers, respec table men. who did nol read ind who loll Ihe ..IJ.fashioned contempt, for those who did. This . , ....i... ..r ...,., 1,,,., 1 .,t .... 1 ,enan Improvement was pointed out which wa, adapted to his means, Ins farm, or Ins cir- cumslaneca. ho adopted it at once, lie improv. 1 -j 1 1 ,.. 1 . .. j . . : 1 ... j ...1.1 . . ..... ,n , .aim uv arm. I" anu nearly uouuivu it..; ordinary crops, by skilfull cropping and rotation He improved Ins stock, by purchasing at great cost superior animals to bteed from, li s neighbor,- it first called him a boK farmer, and sneer. ed at Ins management. They soon i.iunti inai "V La" T.. a cals among them, a'nd by degrees iuducsd them to read, soon they perceived iih useiuiuess 01 a..ricull..r.l paper . and became subscribers themselves ; an agricultural paper ha. now be. enne indispensable as a political one, and its arrival is always looked for with interest and pleasure. The principal firmer, of that neigh- borhood are now readers. and the effect of road - ini' is plainly visible, in ihe improvement of their and the consequence is, I havo doubled my crop. Farming is done in a different style, from what it was before farmers commenced reading, I frequently bear farmers say they would not take a dollar, (twelve times its cost) for the informa tion contained in a single number of the Cult! vatnr." Says another correspondent: "My neighbor on one nuo is a subscriber tn threo aimruliural tuners, and his nteraire wheat crnn is 23 bushels per acre, and all his other crops in proportion. My neighbor on the other side des pises book-farming, and will never suffer an ag ricultural paper to enter his door; and his aver age wheat crop is 7 bushels, and tinny of his othsr crop he never harvests." 'Says another: "Ow ing clntfly to Iho circulation of agricultu ral papers, principally the Cultivator iuthis sec tion, (Otsego (Jo., S'. V) within the last ten years a decided improvement in the follow ing, anions many other tilings, is observable, viz : The operation of plowing is more nestly and thoroughly performed ; more attention is paid to the making, preserving, and application of ma nures and there is an increase in the corn crop equal to UO or 20 per cent." Says another : "Men may say whit they please about book farming, as being useless and unprofitable, I know that far from being an useless expense, your paper has eared inu hundreds of dollars." Another writes : " Your paper has been worth lo rnc a thousand dollars, nor would I unt have taken it for that sum." And in fact there is but ono opinion on tho subject wherever they havo been tried, and that is, that they arc a means ot improvement second to none, and exerting a powerful influence wherever they have been circulated. And those who have read Ihem are tho only persons w hose judgment is trustworthy, for tho very simple reason, that they have tried both sides of tho qutetion, which is seldom or nevtfr the case with those who oppose them. There is one thing further to bo noticed here. Although husbandry has bejn the support of mankind fur nearly 0000 years, and lias employ, cd during all this tiTnc -1 o of the human race, no profession whatever, has been and is, so per fectly without literature of any hind. To men tion the tenth pait of tho works which have been written on every other subject, would of itself bo matter for a respectable library. Or to form but an idea of the number written on but ono subject, there are Q0,0U0, out cf 500,000 vol umus in tho .National library of England, com posed on theological topics alone. But how ; many of the remainder are devoted to agricul ture! How many of the thousands of works not found in that library, are given up to this great cause 1 It is much to bs doubted whether 000 volumes exclusive of periodicals, have ever been composed for tho benefit of the husband man, in the Cnglisli language. The reason of this is plain, and its cutioequcr.ccs natural. Mankind always respect the head, more than the hand. The agricultural class care little about tha head, in their devotion to labur, and there- ! fore there ia neither any call for agricultural , l!t.istiirn nnr it, at rf,.rrrri. rp.ci.prt nairl tn it which attends a hleraiy class. And the most powerful, and mr".t means, to elovato the char- auur in me ni i , lnJi:e n a read,n. a tludiouc, a literary prolession; to en.,. .1.. world that ii has heads and intellects, and cul tivated tastes, as well as tlio.-e who have hither In claimed a monopoly 111 human understanding. This briri" us naluarlly upon those means which are to perpotua'.o the improvement which we thus strive to attain. 1 rotor to agricultural education. And to tint subject, I would invito the special attention of the young, of those who cannot yet oppoo itnpruvomcnl with the excuso of being "loo old to learn." Too long have ihe agricultural community condemned themselves lo hcliave, tuat so much knowledge as would onable thorn to keep their accounts, was suffi cient to carry on successful husbandry. Too long hive they regardod all other book learning, as useless to Ihem, and of value only to other and more elevated professions. The day has come when this amount of knowledge is begin ning to bs considered far too little for the Amer ican agriculturist. The time is approaching uhun agriculture will be regarded as on a par with law and medicine, when it will be consid ered as one of the learned professions, instead of the occupation oftho lowest of the race. And why should it not be so ! The agricultural class have often been spoken of as the body ol the na tion, while the more educated and polished classes, are considered as its mind. And it is to be feared, that farmers have too often baen con tented with a comparison so insulting to their existence as human beings tn whom a human miml has been given, as assuredly as to any educated man. Why arc so small a minority of mankind as theso men of education, allowed to mmo,ali.c, the improvctnsnt of that, which dis. linguistics man from the cattle of the field, w hile farmers, satisfied with strong bones and mus cles, turn a deaf ear, and a blind eye, to the very higl,et interests which caupo-sibly en;Me their atten'ion. Why have farmers, salaried vv. h physical superiorly, 11 jglected to imp ovemmi; that only and all. powerful means, winch has brought ail other occupations to their present perfection ! If iherofor.t we would secure per manent advance, let our young men seek educa tion by whvtBver means; let them devotn Ihem salyes diligently lo the arquisitlun of knowl edge; nut a ton many have done, for the sako nf enjoying the fancied respectability of learned profusions, but for the sake of improving and devoting tho character of their ow n. Let them bs educated in the higlic.it degree, but let them keep this object constantly in view, remember ing that a higher, nobler, more patriotic nbject cannot be placed before them. Let our men of learning see that farmers have brains as well as they, tint they have hearts throbbing with warm and generous feeling as woll as they, that they arc patrons of literature, friends ol improvement, advocates of light and knowledge, as well aa they, and the walls which have so long and so absurdly dividod theory and practice, learning and labor, are forever demolished. Tho education of our youth then, is the re ourc? fron' w,'cl,ce B,IB"" Jr"',hV P"ra- net improvement, which is to establish the ob. ject sought by the scientific agriculturist. And I ihis object is attracting the attention of the lead, 1 ers, in the revolution now going on, in an eltoc- t" l nnnner. Agricultural oolleges, an inveu- 1101101 ino nmeieon.ii ce...ut,a,l-.a,.,, ,,,.u;. I ""S "P in Uuropc. and 111 some of our own states ; 1 ho.e object is the cultivation of the body and ' mind together ; the union of theory and !rac 1 ttce : the combination of learning and labor. 1 I he colleges now scalteied throughout our land ' rc indeed of invaluable service to the country j 1 but their object .a His cu tivation ot imiirj only, ..in) ni iie.'oi tv. much of the pood that thev 1 -- would do, isdeleatsd by the want of bodily vig or, consequent iipati I"" rloso and unvaried ap plication ot the mind. And by tin sedentary and inactive hib.ts n'ten acquired by students, their health is imputed, their lives shurtensd. and their taleni. thus lost to their country. Hut share of training ; .... -rv- .1 ., : V.r application, vv itheul m ury ; the strength of tho m nd .. mereiie.1. and Ihe main,, every respect, better .piUhed I" b.neh I; is rice. And Lei. are taught during one half the diy. Ihe manual operations of the lanii. and during he rest of the ! lime, the natural sciences. stud.cJ in r.fersnco to farm iinnagemenU Hare are followed out the subj-ct. 01 cnemisiiy, noiativ, pnysioiogy. mechanics, geology, nd natural history; ill of them aubjocta to which is m great nrssurc ow.