Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, May 22, 1846, Page 2

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated May 22, 1846 Page 2
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dence. between ourKnvov to Mexico & llio Mex lean minister for Foreign Allaire; an J o much nf ine correspondence between that l.nvoy aniline Secretary of State, at J I etwecn the Secretary of War and the ( in c-oriiin.iiiil on llio Del Nor! i1, as aro norcMiry In .1 full under slanding of the stibjeet. J AMI'S K. POLK., May 11th, 160. ov MR. MARSH, OP VERMONT, ON THE BILL roil E5TABLIEIIISO Till'. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, Delivered in the House of IlcprcssnMivcs of Iho U. Stales, April il, 131o- The Houso I cms In Cojimaief of the Vnole , in I hav-inc under coiisidrrxfun the bill for establishing ihe SnVilisnniin Iniitiiliiii Mr MtHSII, if Vermont, aficr sonic preliminary observations, it-'' '.'""i 1 hnirman, wilh those - .TihJtJniled S,S 'iuihVmlnfnce;,; bequest of .Mr Smlihaon. V, X q?.r," ion "0 w first prcr-nte I, I should hcaiuie. X0, hlil 1 "em- or even doubt 11a power of Con-ress t almiai, cr ,l" .harm-, hut I shoald question thepropric iP0n,si -injjn trust, which I heir 1? too much. -s-.i V J'3""1, hall not discharge iJajV 4-?,7n""!0l ,0f"rw ...niijii.j.j -.1- ; manner .18 to nice the S-TT""',' Vle !,url'o-f ofihecnliKhlencd donor. I he history of this bequekt confirms Ihc'c jeriinh-s. Ills now nearly ten yens since Congress, by a obm Unite.' Males" tn Us find ful chorion. The money was soiii after received, an I ininir-dnlcly out I the liands of tho aivcriimenl, not irrccuvci.ihlv, it is 10 he hoped, hut it is, at all events now heyond our eoniro, and no pinion of it haa been yet applied to the noble ends ofthe bequest. The difficulties which hate thin lar prevented th- application of tho fund to i s proper uses still exist, and are of a character not li'.ely to l-o removed. Our tiovernmcnt ins no rie partment which can I e conveniently charged with the administration of the charily, and must, therefore, uobiii iui iiieorj-inieition ni one for rhit venal r...,. ... ... i.,cijM7iii irp, we inset wna otista- eles at every i-oini-r. Q esnons are at once raised that are not yet soiled, and are certainly in thems-'ves of no eisy solution. IJ.w tir tat, how fir a-ifaf, Congress in act in the dirrei eanlral of the charily how rar should tt make nwij - what the will nf the trstator has ctt eoncrnll If I'n...... .i,.n j . the use, t0 wl,. h the fund -hill he applied, What shall those llgr ho t Or l.nll ... .L. .t. hand, iletetratc the trust; and if so, shall weunpi-e il dunes i,n deparliiHiitj alresdy-too heavily bur- ; ii'spoiiMoiiiuefl, or shall vre aeito a corporation nr other .pecisl ssencyfor ihe iiiirpo-et far parly elds nnd merely wrve lo twe'l thn lrPs t. 1- Mini nu, imiger mat ine insiiiutmn will he sbus d overgrown pilronaze nf the Executive? .4 previous nrgcslion nf these difli -dtisj miuht well hive led us to hesi'aie, before wo contracted oblisatianj of o del icate a ehiracter, and I fear they are yet destine! Tir mac li-iie longer to nupeJa the aatisfictory tct.on of Congress. lint it is new quita time that we apply e-jre1ves in arnet to the work of rtdeemin our country fn ni tha reproach of inflleluy in the discharge of so hh an I solemn a trust and that at tho earl est practic ible period, and before tho subject shall Lecom: an eleiaent in o ir party di-sensions. we strive to make'availakle to our fellow eitiens,andtoall men, a D.ftossp'endid its purpos-s aro noble. The delay, Ion; an J unwarrantable as it is, has not been with ut its uses. It has ailbr led abundant time ror the collection, eompari.on, and co-icentranon of opinion: "bio men in every walk of scholastic anJ professional lifj have been consu'ted ; inaay of the wisest Amarican statesmen have krjusnt the eaeri-s nf their tniollacis to the exani.nuion if the jhiect t It has been largely discussed in both briaches of the national legislature; numerous stc liously considered plana have been suggested, provi lm in different w ays fir every interest which ran bu supposed to be em braced vy.thin the viaws of ihe testator, and the bill now hefirc us is a compilation, nn antholoi-y, so to apeak, from all these, ihojgh pisse-a.nj uri"".nal tea- turss vallllhle feilnrp IhnpAti, rtf .l..nlT k..t iu me ciiairnun 01 ino special Committee, (Mr O.vcn) by whom Ihe bill was repened. In a cave whera there is room for ao gtcat diversity .or opinion a in thii, there can be no ln-pe of iheadop tlin of nny plan not conceived in a spirit ol compro mise; an Ion this, qson nnother larger question, how ever widely apart wo nny b- at first, vo .-hall ptoln bly find ourselves in Ihe end obliged 10 seitb down upon the parallel of 133. Tho lull is repined by the pecial committee as a compromise, nnd probably no one of the.gentlemen concerned in its preparation is juile valisftvd ivith its provisions ; no one believes it in be the best pltn that could be drsised; but they felt tho nece'siiyofdclerrin toea-h other, aswellas to the prnbahln opinion of Conre-s, end were ncaily unsnimius m thinking ii more likely to hirinonire discordant views than any other plan sagje-ted. It was in this Relief, on I in con.ider.mon of the impor tance, ami the duty of eirly action, that I, as a mem ber of that committee, assents) In lh- rn-ri r,u,l. Ing tha sr-heme, honeicr, not merely as a necessary f-ompromiso, hut ni ruiher an enpanmeut, which ad mitted, and which I Inistel would hereafter receive, (Treat changes m its conditions, than us a complete working 1110 Jel. It has all along been assumed as a cardinal princi ple, tint vicotighl lo follow infphculy tho will oftho liberal donor, nnd it has been Iho ight unfortuinte that he was not more specific in the appropriation of his bounty. II it bo has given 0 proof of a gene-ro is and enlightened spirit, and at the same time has paid this nation the highest po-sible i-ompliniant, by uin" Ihc largest and most comprehensive''Ui"e in hps be. quest; thus 111 tdT.-ct saying, that he preferred lather to entrust the ih-posal ol this great fund lo the wis- single school in the mmi.iluiekingdoin of Hanover! dom and intelligence of a free and enhghlcncd people, An I win' provision is made for the inereise of books man to limit lis u-e to purpose! accoidint with his meanwhile? Look at Ihc actiiity of the presses cf own peculiar toshs. Some gentlemen have thought, I London and Paris it tho vastly prolific literature or mat, inasmuch os the testator his nit specified the (.ernniiy at Ihe incieasing productions in our own partic ilir inodo by which he w-nul I the yreit country to omit the smaller but nidi valuable cotilri-en-is 1 r his i-.nriiy acco npl shed, v.e ore ba i-i i lo b l ions to the store nf human knowledge in the lan inier his wi-hes from iho character nflm fjvjrite s-"ges of oilier countries, nnd you will perceive that p irsjiiis, nn.t to confirm to bis s ipniset view-,, bv I this appro-iriatinn. so far from bein estravaennilv cinnning the fund to the nromiimn o' .,i.,. ... ,1. . cultivation ofvv Inch bis own oevote-d. I In i tin 1 1 1 w-ii timeand tt searches were 1 1 1 o no truo conformity lo ihe 1 '11 eh nrf!T,r!l . ! iiiuiiien-ei im-.rai.ty w'lieti prumpie I .so munificent - - .- " ' " ' i-pii-agem-m i si un"ruus a Y,' , VM?,''r'lr? '"'" much, he mean, as little. It v.-M U si wide a depiriure from hi imSf ""ii ;Vlrop,"rp'":'Vs f,",v ,u def"' l ""hie aims. Hu bs been ,n fKi a person if si narrow views as l! ii nrgunieiit supposes, I,- w0.,j i1!lvc tusrded agn i.i the p,,'d. inmpplieiiioi of Ins and i tii. on f e,l :m-e ,Cln" or rPV"cl"," "v-a'o'f IS'ZS T! I prnpriiting hi whole esiitem the ,1.1. I r,.,.;.l,ui',. i i , " " ' I "I- i eressingaiiddiiris nBknoivltdgonininjmen.he nn 1. i m spei-ni provision fir the prnmoiion of ih ,.e ,-i ai'iidcntsh": WCr 'J '"J"1 '"""''c of j . After nil, hiwevcr, he was rot a stiid.nt of solimi.1 ted a range of inqu ry as has b, en siniet,.e, ,., , " Ho was a nnn of MikIki i. and selnl,,,.- ,, ' f nf large and lilieril res-arch, spc -n'ly devoted indrcd ti tho cnliiv.iuoii of cerlsiu branches of natural kn iwlsdg', but exi u ling no s-ience, n i phdo-o-i'iv from his sympiihies. Too enlightened to be rno'rsht of tin co'-im-me rinru'iim, the co nmon binfofm'1. tual rc'ation. vvhich makes nil knowledges ree procilly rommuaic-aiivo and reef tcivn emS,.,..mni..u. from all, and each in turn rftleclinghght upon all-he was too generous lo confine his baiin'y p, iho gralifi. eiti'm of nstes e-ntirrl v si mhr lo Ins 0n, None iif uitj .mm in ciinir.iceu in mis mil aie alien from his pro'nble views. I!nk, indeed, lie did not i alleel, as we prop-iao to do, because tr one whi hid in fixed habitation a I hrary vyould have been but an enciim l.ranec; and ha lived in tho Bieit cilies of r.urope. where publics and private munificence has rol'ee el an I devoted to general use sueh ample repnitones r.f .... .. .., u ,r, , ,, in-nviuaai a-cuuiulsiion or such stores is almo.t sup.-r.1uo-js. R ,i, thm,,,!, he psthered no library, bis writings show htm In have been man of s.imewhil niuliif irioui readia"- sntil is quite a gratuitous assumption to supposi" 'him to havo been ono of lhoo narrow minds, wha ik ak no pilh worlh tnv.l mg bill that wheh they hivo trod, den, no fie d vvoilh rullivaling whose fruiis they hive iisver plirfied Apart, then, from the liberty which the broad words or.he will ,. we nr" ed I. believe lhat the purpose of tha .,. ,rVa.ei,ri" as lbs language he hsa ,,.e l-iha he aimed a. promoting all knowledge for ,h. common b.iufil ofallmen-and lo appro-.,,.,, I0 l0 Americsn eo pie, in a spirit worthy 0f the obi-ei .ni Vir i Iho compliment Ii, hi T pi id In. bv Ll?.f "ar"'1 V di.penseis of a charity whicl, "V" utinost.bound. of human knoe' ".'n , V.g recipient, the men of .hi. MiiV'wmin" The li nita'inn of ihe bequest, then, is to the '.In erease and diHuaion nf knowledge amonr me n ll Jll two obj-cts are aimed at Increase, enlarge,",. nt eilension, progress; and n:flVi.iii, spread, cam m m )'. canon, diaseininalioa. These ilia bill s,,ks to aeco". nhah bv various means. It nmnn.,., knowledge by co'leciing sprriitieris of tha worka of .,v. i n , ui i r, n j m eicn oi her king dome; by gilberingohjecla in evafy braarh ofindus trial, dccoraliye, representative, and imiinativo arti bv aecumulalimr Iho n! I,, J thought.and imagination, in every firm of literature by instituttn- experimental researches in anieiilturr in boriiculluro, in chemiairv, and in oiher studies' founded upon observation, li proposes to (if,,,, the knnw Inn I i,i n--i,mi,l.,.l i ' . . i. .i.. - ' ' 1 ('"'en, ono extended, hv throwing open to public usa ilie diveraified collecl linns or tha insiitution in every branch of human in QUirVl bv lectures unon everv ,l.ldA, Ari.i , .. . et by a achool, where teachers shall become pupils, and lbs best modts that experience has devised for imparting Iho rudiments orknowledge shall be r i"ianng ami Jisirm-ning models nrscicnlific apparatus, and by ihe publication of lee" turca, essays, manuals, and treatises. Of ihe virion, inslrumentolitiea recommended bv this noble and .uipriinB acheme, I ha simple.! and most .llicient, both a. it re.pecta lh. incre. ,nJ ,e dirTisinn of knowledge, is, in my judgment, tha nrn. vision for eolhctine for public use a library . ma.t urn, ami i jallery or art; sad I ,houJd persoiilly muchprcler, that for a reasonable period the entire income cl iho fund should bo expended in carrying out t.his branch ol the p'nn. Ilitt-m cxnraBsint mv l-reft-renec for such a present application of tho moneys of Mio lund,'aiij my belief that wo aim ilJ thus brst n"Ciinphsli tho purposes cf mc uonor, 1 uesire roi to do unucrstooa asspcaams coutiniptt.oiisly ofrcrearch and experiment 111 natural knowledge and tha economic arts. I havo too tii-ch both ofiiilerrst and of feelin? tskcd upon llior'09' penty of Ihesoarls. and they are to mo subject; too intrinsically attractive, to allow mo lo he inditercnt to any tneiaure which promises to promote MiV nd vinceinent. I am even convinced that tlieir earnest cuhivation and ex. tension ate absolutely liidispi-nsal lo toot.r nalional prosnerilv, our true independence, and almost our po'iticil existence) and I nm arvfl tunes ready to maintain their claim to nil (tie legislative fivor which it is within tho power of the General (Journment to brstow. I would not, therefore, ex elude tlitm from thu plan of a great nmonal institu tion for the. promotion nf all pood learning 1 but I desire to :issin them their true place in the scale of human knowledge, and I most be norunltrt In ,rnrM, my dissent from tha doctrine imr.lini bv tha In f onginally framed and referred to the Spscij1, Coinmit- ice, wiucn contftca all unowicdLT, fl science, lo the numerical nnd quan italics Values of maiciiil thinjs. IlCSCatCbCi 111 SUCh limni-line no ll.n rnrxrl nil. jects of that lull, Imvo in central litlle ot a really ue-inric inaraclcr. Ueolojy, mincralosy, even fliemistrv. are but aRsemhlKros ,ilnunnrrnl l.ieu pin. pincally established and Ibis must always be true, lo a ureal extent, of every study which rcsis upon oh. a 'rvaiion and experiment alone. True science is Iho classification and arrtnj-enicnt of necessary primary truths, according tu th"ir relations wilh each other, and in rcferenco to tho logical deductions which may be mule from them. Soch science, tlieonly absiluto ftioiceJife, is tho highest and worthiest obje ofhu man inquiry, and most bo drawn fioni deeper sources wiiji mecriiciuie ano me retort. The lull provides lor tho construction nf huildinis, wilh suitable apartments for n library, and for collec tions ia the various branches of natural knowledge an I of art, and direcls the annual expenditure of a sum "not exceclina an average nf ten thousand dollars, for iho uradui! formation e f n library composed of valual lo works pertaininij 10 all deparlmonta of hu man knnwledce." As I have nlrea ly indicated, I eons'iler this iho most valuable feature of the plan, thoneh I think the amount unwisely testrictcd ; and I shall confine tho few observation 1 deian to sub mit respecting the I ill chiefly to the consideration of this Mii(jle provision. I had orisinallv purposed to examine the s ibje:t from quite n different point of iew, but iho eloq lent remarks of tho Chairman of the Srpr-ial Committee, tMr Owen,) which seem to be intenlcd as an argument rather against this provision I Ihsn in nf tltf, hill nn.l n r.nti. n ,I.a ni.! ....I brilliant sp'sch of a distinguished inembcV nf another branch of Coneress, upon n former ovasion, (Mr Choa'e,) Ins induced me to tike a somen iiat narrow er ranae than I should othcrvvisa have done. I wish, sir, thu Senatorvvere here to rejoin, in his own proper person, to the beautiful speech of ihoircntlcimn from Indiana, who serins rather to admire the rhetoric, than to I e convinced by the logic, ofthceloqucnt ora tor to whom I refer. In that ease, air, I think my friend from Indiana, trenchant a3 are ins own weap ons would feel, as many have felt before, lint Ihe polished blade (f the centleman. who lately di I such honor to Massachusetts in tho Senate i f Ihe United Stales, is not iho less keen, because, like llarmodms and Ansiogiton, he vvrap it In aprav of inyrilc. It Ins been objected by-some, that the appropriation ,i in, nu;? jor inc purpose exprcsscfi "me crartual lormiiion 01 a lihrry composed of valuable works cons-ilertho va-t extent nndunsurpissing vilusofihe perla.ning to a I departments of human knowledge." I lneraiure of (iermanv. Of the 3 000,000 difiirent vol Hut if we eons der how much is embraced in theo 1 umes of printed books supposed lo exist, it is computed cuniprciieiisive worm, we snail arrive ni a verv dit - f'reilt ClriclllS.nn. Tbeereal bhranes nf t!lirnne rnnee fiom 200,000 lo half a mi'linn, or perhaps even 750,000 ,uluul". in.ti in inu eiiuvrrsiiv ni iinmnger. ine uselul i.f all fur the purposes of general scholar- ship, contains about 300,000. How long would it require to collect a library like this, with an annual expenditure often thousand dollars 7 The library of Conjrcss is ssid to have cost about 6 1,50 per vulumcs but, as a whole, it has not been economically pur chased, and though composed chiefly of works which do not maintain a permiiieutly lush price, vet as a lire proportion of the annual p irchnscs cnn;i.ts of nete ooous irom the press ot London, the dearest book mirkei in Ihe world, its cost has been much higher than tliatofanreat miscellaneous library ought in I e. lorn.31. P""'" 'b'y.y n America, for its extent, 1 " " ""-'i "oi-.i i uiu nappv 10 say is mat in the university of mv native iatc, ermont, cost but p,-'"- - i-L , "3 uiai r." i en iiiwnys p-iys mo nigiiesi price, VTll he SO fjv.lrab V del t Willi ! nnd if IS ee.i-eel, ,n be hoped, that it will succead ill securing thes-rvices of si faithful and sa co-npetcnl an agtnt as was em plovedbv the Univesrliv of Vermnnt. I have myself been, unfortunately for my purs, a bo'ik. buyer, and have had occasigu lo procure books, not only in this country, but Irom all the principal book marts in Western llurope. I-'rom my own cx- it iien'-e, nnj ome inquiry, I inn satisfied that the whole cost nf audi boo's.s ns n national library ought (0 consist of. including nnd sllnlher l,-..,,... except the compensation nnd"lravellingicxpcns9s of .... .... ... v,.,i, .raw mo uouir per volume. Ifyou allow 3J.OO0 for the pomncnsainin ml sc of an agent, (which would not bein.-roased a consilerablo larger expenditure,) you have 53,003 re mainm?, which, at Ihe average co-t 1 have supposjd wauld purchase four thou-and volumes a year. How long, I rcpjit, would it req lire at this rale to accumu late :i library eqtnl m extent to lhat of Gottingen? Merr Ihan icventy years. In some icventy years, then, in three score ) ears nnd ten, when jou.sir.nnl I, and all who heir my vo ce, an I all iho present actors in this busy world shall be numbered with tho dea I, we may hope, lhat free, enlightened America, by the loo -.piling ii- of the generous bounty of a stranger, will posses, a collection of the reeotded workings of the human mind, not inferior to lhat now enlived In ,v,n e.s..t,. ..n o,if,-.s r.,, i.,... ...7 .. .,1. ihecurrent literature of ihe day. (tottmyen mean time will go on. Her 300 GOD volumes will increase in . l.,r til , , ..i,i j i-'ii s in (, 111 u 1111111. i, mm vvc snail i.iii lag 201000 vo'uma bhind. Tho iiiilny of great l.braries has been questioned, and it has bvnconfijj.itly asserted, that all truly in' lekm.vIcdgo is oomprised inae.imparatively small nn-niier 01 volume". 11 is said tint the vast ca'l liins of the Vatican, cf Pan., nf .Munich, on J of Co-p-nlngei are, in n great intas ire, eomp sed of work "''-''"'"y ' -"hies., nr now obsolete nr urcis!e.l "''W..P'.' lr treatise . .That .i , tJa'" 'l "s opinion I shin r.ol "'-") , uiu inn r cverv n il i nv: but nfti r everv d.-d i .'im, is mi te nr..,, , ii.a a-ca nts, there will stdl rcmnn in nny of the-e l.bra rieiagreat number of works whuh, hiiingi ri"iiially hid inlrius.c wortli, hive )ct their permauenfvahe Heeausc a newer, or belter,' truer bi.ik, upon n giv en an' isci, nn.v exuts, it does not iie-esirdy follow that the oidr and inferior is to ho rejected. It may no-rum imporiani truths or mierejnn views tint ver. am, upon the whole, ln-tter au hors ban- over looked -n mav pinhndy cuii.iiu noe-dole-nr f ir"olte times u miy be viluiblso an illustration cf iho hi, tot y of opinion, or as a model if companion ; or if nrgreit antiquity, ,t msv pnness much interest as n apcei,nn ofeirly ivp-igraphy. . Again, beeausu anv one mdividua', even the most learned, cannot, m this ,i,o rxlmusr oil an, be ci ise he can thnroughlv nns-er but n few hiindrel vo unics, read, or even have occasion lo consult but a few thousands weare not therefore anihorized tncon clu le that all beyond these are superfluous. Kach of Ihe hundred authors, who hive pro luccd those thou, psnde of volumes, has rtad also Aft Ihousnnds The scholar is formed, not bv tho bo'i'ia ihsi k. i. read, but he receives, at second han i, iho essence of miii uuces oi oinets; mr every coed Don',: supposes and implies the previous existence of numerous other goo I books. An individual even of molerste means, and who is content to con fine h,sslud, within aiinowhat narrow bounds, may select and acquire for himself n hbrarv iliquiio lo hia own inle'lecluil wants and tastes. tnoujn entirely unauito.1 to tne purpose mono or dif ferent nr Itrger aims, and by the diligent use of this, he may alMinalngh decree nf mental culture ; bills national III rary cm be accommodated to no narrow or aibilrarv standard. It must cmbiace nil science- all hi torv all languages. It must bo exlen-ive sne-tgh, and diversified enough, (o furnish aliment for Iho cravings of every appetite. We catsbhahment, that shall not hoard its treasures wilh thciealous niggird!ine-a which locks up the libraries of rtritain, hut shall emuluie the generous munificence whieh throws open In iho world the hound'e vtores of literary weslih of (lerniiuy nnd Trancesome ex. haustless fo intniu, where Iho poorest and humh'rst aapirant may slaks his thirst for knowledge, without money and without price. Of all places in our territory, this central heirt nf ;ne nation is Hie fi test ror such an establishment. It isMtuaiedin the middle ions of our system eas ly and cheaply aeceasible from every quarier of ihe Union b'ria-d wilh a mild, aal .brious, and an equa b e climate nbundant in the neeossaries and i-omfoils ofphysiea life f,r removed from iho din of com mence, and rres from narrow an I sectional influences. l ei us here erect such a lemplo ol the muses, aerved aad guirdfit by no exclutiva priesthood, but with its hiindrel cats thrown open, that every votary nny ontcrunquesiioncd, and you will find it thronged wilh ardetu wonliippets, who though poverty may com- pel them lo siiltar. Iiko Hevne. fill that It.arlei nt a. and the parings of roois, ahall ycrorgct lbs hunger or iii'uuuy o nunc iisviiig wanlaortlio soul, from the lunilcd powers orour Nalional Govern menl, nnd tho jealous lore with which tlieir exen-isa is walched and resitted, in cises where Ihe inieiesis or mete liumanity-not parly-arocorieerned, it can , have leen appealed in in liceulu between llift rival lolnilofor the general p'omotion or hirratiire and clainia or the corpuscular and Iheiindulaiorv theoriea science. nU pteai-nt is a rare opportunity, the only oriighti or to ascertain Iho proportions and relations one vel offered, and never, perhaps to bo repealed, of elementary ho he. not appreciable by any of ihc for taking our proper place amonc Ihe nsliona of iho I senses, in chemical combinational or, as luv accoiii earth, not merely as a political socie tv. but as patrons plitbel friend from Souih Caroljm (Jlr, Holmesi ot knowledge an I the liberal aria. The Ircantrea of augeeais, that ihe authenticity or a diinuted text in our national wealth are.perhapa.not at otireoinmand the Scriptures woull be determined by an aNehraic Tor Ihe lurpo.ei and it is only by the discreet use nf theorem? What do not a.tmnomr navigation eiiil this bequest, end or the bunds which private liberality engineering, practical machines, and all the eincri will assuredly contribute ID extend tea anaeae of the menial .eieacea, owe to tkis en science, hick in He Institution, that we can !up,Vo l1 Jom,n"7' whoso light shliencompasVj'?rtl1' tiie illumination vveh"rv0 '?r.ro1ild from Th? library of Hollingen ''ci' "'"J0 Ef,'te';! cnntiins six times as many 'oll"nc' ns t,he. Ur";"l ........ ...11. . .. , 7. leen nccumula cd within .-IIIIL-IIUAI, sut,ci;i."l, I 1 a comparatively short periou- "1, "TJT and, having been selected upon." L "x,Cl? nor" 1,.y "" ablest a-holats in the wotld, i onjains few bio'is oiigmally withoul mcrii,fowdiipli.V.MnJ fcw w,lllcli the progress of science and Iiiiia';,r0 "v? rciitlcrcl worthies-, aim yet, inougii une - ,,,s ,.3, oaisiiiii; iiuinrv, 11, in '; '-c.'Jiun :-l s-ws ut,- itmseti 1.1 rnmnleteness. an 1 l ie .-tiolara who lesort 10 it are often obliged to scsle cls.'here sources of knowledge which nultingcn docs net allird. We shall ncrbans he 1iet nbU til e..ttni9le nur mm deficiencies and wants by comparing the contents of our ;ongressionst iitirarv witti toe actual extent ol existing literature. The l.lirarynf Corgrcss contains more than 40,000 volumes, in general valuable and well chosen, wilh not many duplicates, not many dooks tnai one would nitogciiiir reject. 11 is noi composed, like too many nf our public libraries, in any considerable degree, of books which havo been ercen. beesuso the nronrL-tor fo-inl Ihem loo worth less to keep, but it I113 been almost wholly purchased anil s;iccic I irom the nest liuropcan sale catalogues, and yet there is no one branch ol liberal study, eien among tlioscnlgrc.ilcst interests to which it is not miserable deficient. There is, peihaps, no better general catalogue of sucn hooks, in tno vinous iicpiriments 01 I'irning, as mo prized by e-ollectors, than the Tab'c Mcthodi que. in the last rdilion nfllrunct's Manuel du 1-ibrnire. Ilrunot enumerates more ihan 30.000 works, making. in tho whole, about 100,000 volumes, end professes to specify only the most important and the rarest. Tho list contain", no doubt, vcrv tinny works of httlo in lrins;c worlh. or even interest: but it is. perhaps, not too much to siy, that a library of lha larger class ought to passcss at least 23,000 of tho volumes it specifics, lint this list i evrn to'erahly complete in but few denirtments. In French historr nml literature in civil and international law. in the liistory nnd literature e.f classical anliquily nnd nf ciriy lypojrnpiiy, in tiieniogy, in ruoiiiciue, you win iinu n perhaps neirir siiisncioty ; oui in tnc history and literature ofall other nations, and in nlmoitrreri- other field of inquiry but those I have mentioned, ihc learned scholar will miss the title of many more vil. liable works ihan ho will find, while many highly interesting nnd important duplets arc almost entirely blank. The Congressional bbrarv does not proliablv contain one-fourth even of the small proportion of iminei s ut winch I liivcdesrn'icil as ot intrinsic and permanent value. Hut are there not numerous branch esnf knowledge well worthy n place in every great literary repository, and which nre vet whollv unren- ro-rnled in our alcoves? I,ct u devote j moment to some urv statistics roncerning the literature of i-ontr lientnl Hums. Tin ll.liholhfea Illstnrica Suen. CSolhiea of Warmholiz, the last volume nf which ap peared in 1917.enumeratea no less than 10000 works ilhistraiive of the liishnj of Sweden alone; and the iniriv vearssmec nive a,l led grcauy to ine numtier. The f,iicritiir-I,exicon ofVveniD. puhlishe I in 1S'0. gives the titles of probably an equal number nf works uviongins 10 ine literature 01 ino countries sufieet to tho Danish crown. Holland, 101, has noble histori ans, naturalists, poets, and dramatist, and Ins pro duced many works of unsurpassel talu" upon the history of commerco nnd navigation The hit of llruneteontairs not one in a hundred of thoslandsrd authors if llie-so several countries; and the hbmry of .,iiiil's3, a mr as i remcmoer, uoes noi possess a volume in ine language ot inner ol them. Agiin, , mil more man one-ilnrd are In the Herman Ian-mige. The I nrninn nlllirmnnu nml,M..u ...... 0.ll.-i... man inquiry, nnd tho efforts of her sclnlars have dons more lo extend I irl lio-llids nrmnern Lliniv e( ee II. -n the united labors of the rest of the Christian world. I-.verv scholar familiar with her literature let ine nut siy.Mmittar, nr life is too short for anv mm to count its boundless treasures -hut mm entitirn-i student who has but dipped into it, will con fess its infinite superiority to any other, I might almost say to all other literatures. It has been affirmed, that moro thin one-half of our population is of recent Ger man origin, and German is the vernacular tnnguo of extensive districts ol Ameri' .ml. Vet ibelihrnrv "f Congress contains not one hundred, prolnblv not fifty, volumes in that nolle lanimane. Vnii'lii-. none of the numerous writers of ihe vast empire of iiussn, nr ot rounds notliing ot the curious litcra- turesof Hungary and lljheniia; only tho commonest I'u'irti in 11'ni.iii ana npinisn; noi a voijnie m iho nng-iigoot IMrt.igal, ruhnsit is in various li'enture. nnrl esneel-tli. In ....1.1 e discovery and conquest, lhat comes down to us throii"h the pages or learned Ue llarrosand q laint old fa-landed l, ringing upon Ihe ear and stirring the blood like the sound of n far-oil" trumpet. In the boundless world, too, oforienial learning, ol wliieh our increas ing commercial relations wilh the countries of the Kast render it hishly desirable that we should possess the tn?ans ofncTiiriug a knowledge, you have nothing 10 biicw oui n lew iransiauons ni the liiulc, nml per haps some works ofilcvo'ion or elementary religious do -trine, which American missionaries have present ed vou. Will it not bo admittel that on American library, the nniionnl library of n peoplo des.-ended frmn men of every chine, and blood, and Imguago-a country winch throws open its doors as an asylum for ihe up press'il of every race and every tongue, .should be somewhat more comprehensive in its range ? That it shiiild at least have sum- representatives of every blanch e hiinnn learning, some memorial. of every written tingno that is spoken within Ha borders ? lint, even in Kngl ah l.teralure, our librnrv is sadly meagre. How fir arc we Irom possessing a toleribly eempl-le series of ihe English printed bonks of the fiftemth and sixteenth centuries, or even of lhat lest ageof Knglish Laming, lhat nge wilh vvhieli every honest American mist truly sympathizes, the n"i of Cromwell and of Milton? Woull it not be well to have nt o-ir cominind the nicins of enabling soma dili.'ent s-holir to wrilo what Ins not yet been wor thily written, or indeed scone even attempted, n com pi -te history or the H'crnture or our Anulo-Sixnn timber tongue or to perform that Herculean Hale, which, in spite of the vaunted but feeble labora of Weli-ter, remains still to be accomplished, the prepar ation of a respeclablo dictionary? inhere is any department of leirning, in which a library selected fur the use of Ihe representatives cf a demo-racy shrj'd bo complete, it is lint of history. It'll what hive vv-3 of the sources of b'-slorical investi oithn? llitortf imbed vvi hive, but linlc hittory. True, we, hive II bertam. and Hume, and Voltaire, nnd Gibbon, and, nbovc all, Alison, a popular writer in these days, and "Like Sir Asrippa, for profouml And solid Ijtnjf, much renown. d;" hut of those nnieriils from which (rue hutorv is to I r driwn, wo hive lilile, very Int'e. '1 he works be longing to Ihe proper histor.v of the American conti nrnt nlone, every one nf vvhich II would be highly desirable lo possess, nurtibet certainly m .re than 20, 003 volumes, filly equal In one-half thu Congression al library, and of Ihesu we hive, as ye, but a small propiirtiin, inhe lounlyofthe generous foreigner, in epite nf the broad langingo which expresses his liberal pur pose, ito be confined lo the narrow u-es which some gentemn propo-e, the appropriation of SlO.OOOpir innumis iinncciiiiaty large, at leist for permanent expen litnre. A moderate amount would culled all that is w irlh b i mg in tho experimental scienci s.ind a small ami nl appropriation would keep up wilh Ihe advince of knowledge in Ibis ilepnrlincnt. Hat it is dim to ourselves, due to nur age, due lo the lofty views vvhich inspired n bcncfictian so splendid a gift clogged wilh no mrrow conditions that wo act ni a moro generous, a wider, a more catholic spirit; that vje remember, ihil ' know ledge' embraces other aria than Hwse of bread ; lhat nun's economical interests ate not his highest. The purpose of the testator, which wo are to cirrv out, was "l ie increase and dillusion cf knowledge a nnng men." Whit, ihen, is the most efficient means of increasing mid di using knowledge? Increase ac cumulation, must precede", hir.sion. K,c ' , ',u' poses a fountain; and knowledge .ainiot ''tliwdown our sirrc.a like a nver," ,,bo3i there be Ii i, l ull" and filled a rapacious reservoir, from which iho streams shall issue. Ins an error to suppo'e hauho accumulation of the store, of exisiing'fiarn n 2 nmiiias.mi. of lha tecords of Intellectual a.-tion docs not tend also lo incre,,. knowledge. What is , ern nrie mthe ina'e-rial wotld, eicet by cxlrac'.on I,, con,' , nation? How are new substanieVr.rme,1 or Iho sloc't of a given Mibslincc increased by ' tl,e,-l,em tstry or nature or .? Hy nevf ci.uihin.ifon, T composiiion. of known and pre exisung eleinem, -The products orthe experimental or man lit. ict, are no new crralions , but. their elements n tracted by the decomposition of old compound, nn.l then recomlincd in new torrns. Thus is it olio ; some degree, with the immaterial products of ihe'hn man mind ; but there is ihia diffcrencei knowled grows not alone by extraction and combination hi", unlike tho dead milter with which clienn.lry deals ii ,s itself organ c, hung, projuciive. There is nioreicr a,s I hive already Innled, bt-lw-ecii all bronehes u'f knowledge and ofliberal nil, wheilur apeculativeor expciimentol, such an indissilub'e bond, such a rf,. lion o( ; interdependence, lhat youconnol advance-any one without at ihe same limo promoting all others The pioneer in every walk nf s.-ience strikes out sparks, that not only guide his own researches, but illuminalo also ihe paths of ihose around him, ih0' Ihev may bolaharingin quite oilier directions. Hx,. amples of llu, kind inighi be multiplied vviihoutrnd but I will content myself wilh on illustration f-r twd from a science which deals only in abstract numbera nun iiiiapiuary q-ianiuirs, ou i utterly rciccis experi ment an I observation as icsia or iruth or ns inslru menti i of its ihstovery. Who would have supposed lhat Iho interval, nfibe diatonic scalo in music were capable of ixiet appreciation, and their relations nn precise ascertainment, by numerical quanniiesl Who wuuiu nave cxpeciei mat pule mittiemilies vvou'd investigations appeals to no empiricism, calls in the nm oi none oi tnc senses, nono oi tno machinery ot nn or of trtttiro? Hut, independent of this particular point, the aid which the physical sciences nny expect lo d.rivo from .mere speculative know ledge, I should liopo tint at this time, and in thi.aplace, one might eifcly veil tnrc. a pica in behalf r all lint higher knowledge which serves to humanize, to refine, to elevate, to make men more deeply wise, belter, less thoughtful of tu atonal interest, nnd mores rcyirdfulnf eter nal truths. And lot it not bo said that our own brief Irslory proves tint croat libraries nro f tt pcrfluoun, because without them we have pro. ditced statesnT-n, civilians, orators, and jurispru dents', in vvico inferior In llio ubtoBt of their l'uropeati conter.iporics. WilliiutiKvollitijnp on the stimulus r.f popular tjislitiitiniis, anil Uiu sllrriii!roxc.itetnnt of nur revolutionary and la. tor history, which have tended to encourage! the development of this species of talent, llio objec tion is sufficiently answered by saying tint, in the case of uvislof the American statesmen of the Revolution, -as. well as of many of later dale, private wealth Ins supplied the p'aco of public provisions for the attainment of Itnuvvledo. In the period of nur colonial history, llio sons of wealthy families wore often educated in lite best schools of Muropc, and the framorsof our Con stitution vvercchicily men nf high education ami elegant attainments. Jeflurson, whoso writings nro canonical with tho Democracy, had tho beat private library in America, and was a man of tnultilarious, if nut of profound learning. Tho .State papers of tint romaikablo era are, with few exception, obviously productions of tn:n not merely of inspired genius or nl patient tho't, but o' laborious acquisition ; a ttd they aro full, not of lint cheap learning which is proved by pedantic notation, but of that sound discipline which is Iho unequivocal result of extensive reading and diligent research. Who luvo been the men, in all ages, that have exorcised the wisest and most permanent influence both on the moral nnd physical vvoll-boing of mm 1 The spirit of the crusades was roused by iho preacli inetif alhouohtful solitary: Columbus a learned Luther but a studious monk. Walt, the great improver of the steam engine, was a man of curious and recondilo learning. carefully educated at she school of Uridine, and was through life a liberal pitron of learning and the arts. The "lorioun rebellion of 1710 was the work of men of the closet; nnd .Hilton, who lo our slnmo is less knnwn among us by his prose than by Ins poetrv, was itsnnos- tic. Our independence was declared and maintained by scholars, and all men know lint llio rroncli revolution had its conn in the writ ings of the Hncycloptc lists. All men, in fact, who have acted upon opinion, who have contrib uted to establish principles tint havo left their impress for ages, have spent some part of their iivvs in bciioiasuc retirement, u is una very point tho maintenance of principles discovered and defended by mon prepared for lhat "orvino by sovoro discipline and laborious study that so strikingly distinguishes the Uiigltsh rebellion of 101!) and our own Revolution Irom most oili er insurrectionary movements, and pirlicularlv from tho Krench revolution. The English anil American statesmen of those two periods were contending for truths, the French atheists and philosophors for interests; tho former bought to learn their duties, the latter concerned them selves only about their rights; iho AuglosSax on v.-as inspired by principle, the Gaul ivus iuali gated by jnsihn. The principles of Amarican liberty, which education and hibit have rendered pr fun liar to iif, lint wo fancy them intuitive or even in. slm.'tive, are m tr-nth no more obvious th in the physical theory f the universe ; and the study oftho philosophical and political history of Iho last throe centuries will convince every unipiir er.that their (hvelopmont from their gorm, as involved in the doctrines of thelle fnrination, lias boon tho work not of unconscious time, but Ins required tho labor of successive generations of philosophers and statesmen. 1 look upon a great and wall selected library, composed of the monuments of all knowledge, in all the most efleclivo means of re. leasing us from the slavish deference, which, in spite nf our loud and vanorintr nrotesl.atmns ,,f independence,-! e habitually pay to Knglish pre- tt-uvum .1,111 .minorities, in an mailers nt opin ion. Our histoid' and tine palii'ial cvpsiuuocu aro so brief, that, in tho multitude of new cases which aro perpetually arising, wo aro uflenata 'oss fur domestic psrallels, and find it cheaper 'o cite an l"oglish dictum th in to invostiL-ale a question upon more independent ground. Not only are our pirliamentary law, our legiaialive action, our judicial proceeding, to a greit ex. tent fashioned after tho'o of the in-jthercu-.tntry, but the fundan.mtal principles of our govern ment, our theory of iho politicil righ a ! mm, are olten distorted, in order tint they may bo accommodated to rules nnd defiiiitiims drawn Irom IjiiiMisli constitutionol law. IIvl-.-i tho mnsi s icrcd of political rights, the right of petition, I inve ns iru uii'.n auicKc.l and defended upon this ll ur, by very sufficient democrats', entirely upon precedents drawn from the practice of the llritish Parliament. Ourcommunitv nf nnin. hriguigc, and law, exposes tho young. r nation in inu constant dinger of being overshadowed hy the authority of tho elder. It is a great evil tn-a joung and growing people, as well as to a youthful and aspiring spirit, to have its energies cramped,. nd I'.s originality D.nnlliered, by a ser vile spirit of conformity to anv one mode! how ever excellent ; ai-el it 13 quite tune for us lo learn, mat itieru ari other sources of instruction then Ihe counsels and example of our ancient mother. Sir. I tniko those remarks in no narrow feel ing ol jealous hostility to Hiightid; still less nt this crisis, when sune aro seeking to rano a whirlwind of popular indignation again! that country, upon which ihoy themselves nny float to po vor, would I join in any vulgar dciiuncta. lions of a people from whom v.-e have borrowed so much. Wu owe to Ilngland much of our political principles, many of the foundations of our civil and roIigio.i3itberties,tinny oftho most vaimuiR matures ot our jurisprudence, some thing, indeed, wo lino rojind. Iluglitnl, in oinmou trim all Larnp-", lias prolred by our ex perience. I ho gra?p of feudal oppression has been rolixed.tho atrocious severity ot tho crim inal law has been mitigated, judicial proceed ings have been Mmpliliod, the subject has been admitted to a larger participation in the con cerns of government, monopolies Are becoming obsolete, the responsibilities of rulers aro feit to be more stringent. To tha credit of many of these ameliorations wo may fairly lay claim ; wiiiio in ee-iencc, anu ns appnc.vtoti 10 thu arts, we have sustaimvl no dnraccfjl rivalry with our Iranslaniitic brethren, llutnn generous man thinks his debt of gratitude cancelled till it is thrice repaid, and wo hivo therefore yet much to do, before wo ran say lint America is no longer Iho debtor of I,et us, then. seize this ono opportunity winch a son of her own has olHired us, and build w-iih it a pharos, wnose ngnt shall servo as won 10 L'linio tho iiiitiuer in the distant horizon, as to illuminate Intra who casts anchor al its foot. Hut what aro we offered instead oftho sages vvhich wo might hope to reap from such a liurary as I liavo described ! H e nro prom, ucd experiments and lectures, a labratnry and an audience hall. Sir, a labralory is a charnel house, chemical decomposition begins with loath, and oxinorimeuls are but tho drv bnnen uf scinnee. Ii is iho thoughtful mcd.titiou alune of minds trained and disciplined in far olhcr halls, that can clotho thiiito with llcali. and b'nn.l and sinews, and breatl.o into them tho breath of 1110. without a library, which alonu can give "' '" im suc:i mscipitne, notn to teach ers and lo pupils, all thesa aru but a ina.miP.I pageant, and the demonstrator is ahaileuum. I',.., ... ..... ..r JI 1 . ma ib ii, 1 a iiiic-suuii vi iui specuiaiion, It IS experience has answered. There are no loci wiii.-li are gathering and reflecting so irucb light upon the arcana of nitural science as the schools of I'jris and of fiernnny, and all schol ars are agreed that the groat libraries of those seminaries, and the mental disciplino acquired by the use of thom, arc. if not the so'e means, at least necessary conditions, of their surpassing excellence. Iliit wu are told that these experimental re sorches will guide us to the most important of all knowledge, that, namely, of cimmon things, Sir, what are common things I Is nothing com mon but these material frames of ours; no h. ing, but tho garments art wear, the habitations that shelter, nd the food that nourishes us ; nothing, but tho nir wo breathe, the fowls of heaven, tho beasts of tho field, tho liorhs, tho trees, diid the rocks around usl Is nothing com. nun u,u um gnui-ring funis beneath our feet, and tho glittering slurs on winch wo ga.o ? Sir, these are indeed common, and well it is to understand their uses, and so far ns otirilim ni ton can pierce their natures also. Hut arc it'oro not things even mnrn common, nearer t'.' our Inmost solve, harder indeed, but moro profita ble to bo understood; objects not limited by the three dimensions, tint ponderable, tint cogniziblo by any of the bemes, and yet subjects of pre cise definition, of Ingicil argument, of philo sophical interest, and of overwhelming import ance! fair, tha soul of man is a very common tiling; his relations to his Maker and toliisfcl lows, the laws of his moral and intellectual be ing, his past liistory and his probable future dcs. tiny, tho principles of government and the laws ol political nconnmy -ill thoso aro common things, the commonest indeed nf all things, and shall wo tnako no provision for instruction in theso ! Hut, sir, tha knowledge of what nro called the physical sciences is of far loss importance, oven in rcferenco to the very objects which they aro supposed especially to promote, than is general ly behoved. There was an ago 1 should say ages brilliant and glorious ages of philoso phers, of statesmen, nf patriots, of hemes, and of artists, anil nrtizans too ; whon, as yot, the sci ences of chemistry, and mineralogy, anil metal lurgy had neither name nor being when exper imental rcsoarch was unknown, and the raw material of tho arts wa3 prepared for subsequent manipulation in no labratory but tho hidden workshops of nature when tho profoiindcsl phi losophers were content with resolving all unto rial things into four elements, and men knew nothing of lhat subtle analysis and tho3o strange po'.vor, whereby tho olomonta themselves nro decomposed, Iho ingredients of the atmosphere solidified, and granite, porphyry and solved into imperceptible gases". And whit, sir, hive our boasted researches taught us to ac complish tn tho industrial arts, that the cunning workmen of lOgypt, and Tyre, and Greece could not do three tlimisind years ago ! Can our mi clunery rear loltior piles than the pyramids, or more ponderous misses than the atones ot I'or sepolis, or the monolithich temples of Hgypt! Is a Ij'iropeatf priiicuss arrayed in finer webs than a daughter ofl'lnraoh, unlocked in colors morn forgcous thin Ihe Tyrian purple ! Can tho rhemiftry of England compound more brill iant or more durable nimeiit.s than thosn which decorale the walls of the catacombs of the Nile! Can the modern artist, with all tho aid of his new imgnifiers, rival the microscopic minute. ness ot some ancient mosaics ; or can the glais workersofour tunes surps the counterfeit gems of antiquity ? Sir, modern rhemitry, metallurgy, and ma chinery Inve multiplied, cheapened, and diiTutj- ed not improved the product, of industrial art ; and herein l.os our superiority, not that we can do belter, but, by bringing to our aid the o bedient forces of nature, we can do more, thin our predecessors. In tins point of view, regard ing modern improvements in these arts as the great equalizers of the conditions of ditfVrcnl rinks in society,no man can estimatn them more highly than I do, and I hopa soon to have an op- poriiiiiuy oi snowing mat i uuiy appreciate them. Hut I must protest against that elasifi. cation of the object ot hininii knowledge, which, by giving them an undue pre-eminence, elevates empiricism above true science, prefers matter to mind, and, in its zil to advance the means, quite loses sight of the end. Sir, the-e arls are the riaht hand, not the spirits, of true progressive iletnocrary ; they aro the lever that thall move the world, not the itn malarial mind that shall guide it. Mr. Chalimitt, at present I neither prnpn-e nor expect any modification of this bill. lam content with it as an experiment, tho' I should prefer thr! appropriation of the entire incomo of Ihe fund for one generation throe times only as long .is it hie now lain idle lo the purpoo of founding such a library as tho world Ins not jot seen. If I support the lull, I shall support It, I repeal, aa on oxpuritneut, but in tho c.mfi. dent bnpo tint the plan will soon be ao changed as to make the Rinithsoniin Institution a fu'inr ruptcscntative of a charity which embraces all knowledge as its ohj.-ct, and appoint the whole human rice Us baneauuncs. FIHDAY MOIl.MKG, MAV 2., I9!S THE WAR. Thn news received since lasl week, ren ders il unqticsliomblo that nctivo hostilities Invo commenced betwconthoMcxican troops stationed near Mitamoras, and our nrmv under Gen. Taylor ; and but tno probable lhat Gen. I . has been forced to 1 desperate conflict, or nn inglorious surrender to pre vent the starvation of iho Iroops. It is to be hoped that we may he spared such a disaster, thn moro especially on its occurrence at this time would probably prolong hostilities, and render tho prospect of peacu far more pre carious. If a respeclablo force can bn gath ered in compliance with the call of Gen. Taj lor, in timo to besiego the besiegeis, and relievo Point Isabel, lltero can bo little fear but that tho Mexicans can be kept in chock till the nrrival of reinforcements. LATER NEWS FROM MEXICO. The brig Josephine, Capt. Robinson, ar rived al Now Orleans on ihe afternoon of iho 8th in st., from Vera Cruz, having sailed from that port on the 2Glh ult., bringing three days later intelligence from thai point. The whole Mexican naval forco was still up tho Alvarado, including the two steamers said to havo been sold, eilher lo the Spanish Government! or lo an Ennlish house. Tho long promisud revolution in favor of banta Anna, had not ye! taken place, nur was there uny apparent probability of its occurrence, ns public attention was entirely engrossed wilh the anticipated war with the United Stoles, (they were not yet aware, at Vera Cruz, of actual hostilities having bro ken out on tho Rio Grande,) and an attack on Vera Cruz. This oxpeclcd attack the militnry authorities wero actively preparing lo meet. There were about 2100 men in the castle of San Juan il'L'lloa, and they wero constantly c-Merci-cd nl tho guns. Tlio military forco oftho placo was daily increas ing. Tho casllo was in admirablo order of defence well mounted, well provisioned, and iho gum manned with French and Eng lish gunners. A loiter received by a commercial houso in Now Oilcans, states that Gen. Alvarez has pronounced in tho South acainst the Gov ernment, nnd in favor of (he Federalists - calling meantime for a triumviralo comnoscd of Santa Anna, Ilerrern, and Rincon, who wero lo govern until a frco election could be had foi President. Il, however, was r.. garded as of no importance. The Diant ol the 19th, announces thai Gen. Arista had accepted the command of llio north, Tlio Dinrio contains n loiter from Canales to Ampudia, from winch tho following ex tract is given. It is dated at Malumoras, April 5th : Thn Ifnilnil fstntoa Arms, ia nn.s,...l , r , , , .. , 'J '' '-"-an, ii:u Oil ino oft bank of tho Uio Bravo. .Slight fortifications ..... ...., ,,.,,. nun,, ur rainsr large ditches have been dug.tho earth of which has been used for entrenchments. I havo redoubled my efforts- to attack the enemy morally, and Hatter myself that I havo succeeded, for deser ters arc daily Bwcllmg our ranks. I have Oo uius lar, six wero drowned, fee. I liavo in. spired such terror in tho foe that they know ' fin! U'll-t In ,1,1 .nni'ln.n,! - 1 A . .. s, s.s,..,,,,s.ts, ,ia winy arc, mat ihoy cannot leave their camp without heavy loss and exposing themselves to defeat. Those few lines will enable you tn appreciate the advanta- s "I a prompt arrival, oeioro ray tor has timo lo receivo reinforcements, and be enabled lo tnako a vigorous resistance. 7'ho triumph ie certain to-day--to-morrow it must be disputed. Canales." Another loiter from Mejia declares " that Gonernl Tnvlor is compelled lo emnlov ono- halfhis army in preventing iho other half Irom ucscrling." Letters havo been received ot Vera Cruz, giving information of iho nrrival of General anil his detachment ut Mnt.imoras, raising thu Mexican army, al lhat place, lo near ict'cit thousand men. His notico lo Gen. Taylor, lo rcliro behind the Nueces, was known, and tho Vera Cruzinos expected next lo hear that hostilities had commenced. Tho New Orleans Uulletin says, " Wo have heard it reported that the British Consul saw tho letter from Ampudia to Gen. Taylor, licforo it was sent, and that he approved of the same." The samo letters estimate the United States forces at 2300 men, with 300 cavalry. They also sUlo lhat tho Consul, together with all the citizens oftho V. States at .Mat.iuioras, had been ordered to withdraw to the interior, and wero sent, for the present to Victoria. The Republicino of April 19lh states that Ihe 31 tcgimont of infantry of the line had left Iho capilal for Vera Cruz, and lhat, on tho next day, the 3J ofli?,t infantry would leave, for thu same destination. A call hud been made, by tho Govern ment, for Hits of all the naturalized citizens oftho Republic aimed, probably, to Amer ican emigrants. DESERTERS. It is fully understood that the Mexicans have been sustained in their hostility to the United Stales by foreigners. So after all it I is not quite so magnanimous to be so cool and comfortable under insult as might bo suppos ed, oven if our soil wero not invaded. Jul we will give n translation of a Pioclamation winch Ampudia lias found tho means ofdis- tributin" in the American! camp, hy way ofi letting our readers into tho secret sorvico of citing our readers into tho secret sorvico of ! tlio war now waging : 'I hs Cmnmandrr.iti.Chi'f of the Mcxicxn army la the Ihiglis'i and Imh under the orders nf the American Ucncral Tay'.ur : Know Ye: That the Oovernment of Ihe Uni ted Stales is coalmining repeated acts nf bar turous aggrcMiun against the magnanimous Mexican Nation ; tint the Government which exists under "llio flag of the stars" 13 tinworthv , , - -- I- .,.,, a , ii hi 1, 1. -- - -svls.!Jlli:s.l lllul vihi wero born in finnt Iirit-in . Il.s, ,t.rt V. --.--......,,,,. i,iir.i,,i;i. ican Government looks with coldness upon the poivcrlul thg of St. George, and is provol,-ift m a rupture the '.varbku people to whom it belongs, President Polk boldly manifesting a desiro'to take possession ol Oregon, as ho has already d me of Now. then come with all con. li leiici lo tho Mexican ranks, and I guarantee in you, 11 pui my honor, good treatment, and that all your expense-, shall b defrayed until yourarrival 111 th? hciutifu1 capital of '.Mexico. Gerinin?, French, l'ol-s, and individuals of other nations ! Soperato yourselves from the Yankees, and do not cnmr.butc to defend a rob bery and ureupil'sin whieh, he assured, the civiliz-'d naliuiis of Kurop." Ion!; upon with the utmost iiidigna'ion. Come therefor?, and arrav yourselves under lha tri.culorcd flig, in Ihe COIlfidi'llCe. lh 11 lbs. (S.iil nf Aui.u r,7,o,a arid that it vv.ll protect you equally with the " ''-' 1TDRO UE .VUrUDIA- Fk.vncisco U. Moreno, A-ljt. of the Ciiinininilor-in Chief. Head Quarter; ti-sn (Wiaf. to ,a.j moras,, ) April 1, 1JI5. j This exhibits the machinations of the bot tom of the pitsent enterpiiac. The Mexi can for! of San Juan do UI0.1 is filled with foreign engineers, and llio Arniv now this side of the Rio Grande is accompanied by French, English and other nrtillerymen. An army altogether formidable enough to excile the spunk and exorcise the military abilities of as gieat a people 33 popular oratora des cribe us to be, awaits us. Mark this. And since tho war has begun, let it he pushed for ward with vigor. A tiny, Lilliputian affair will but tarnish our arais. To cud the cam paign as becomes ihe honor and dignity of lite Kepubltc, an American General should dictate tha terms of peace in the city of .Mex ico. A'. U.l'ic. It would seem that Ampudia has nut mis taken his men. The desorllons havo been numerous fifty having gone over in ono body and one account says thai Gon. Tay lor is very much embarrassed ia his opera lions, front fears on this head. Abmv Movements. -Reinforcements nro beginning lo mote from various quarters to the army on the frontier. In New Orleans, the requisite number not being likely to vol iinlccr, Gov. Johnson has issued his order for a draft of inilili.i. A similar courso will probably bo adopted in othor States, should not tho alaim subside. Accounts from Washington statu that Gen. Scott has been ordered to Texas, to lako command of llio army. This report however needs comfirmation. The ntililia of Texas do not rush lo the onsot with quito tho alacrity that was ex pectud, Tho' New Orleans Picavuno. in announcing nows fiom Galveston to iho 3d install! sa)s : "Wo regret lo say lhat tho Monmouth left Gulveslon for Brazos Sanii- ago wall only sixteen volunteers on hoard. Tho people wero awailins further ir.l,. from tho Governor before enrolling ihem- elves. I he steaniboal Col. Harney had not left Galveston when tha, sailed." ' FKOM TUB SKAT OF WAK. By tho nrrival of thn Schooner Ellon & Clam Pn, .I..!,, fOV.n-... "... ,1. Itrf,nS Sf viuiu, vyi. ,,,(,, ii solium, until i,,i ,.,u,v ..... Jngo, wu havo accounts from I'oinl Isabel .1.. r .1.. tiii.l. . .!,;. 'Pl. io ine; illuming o, lliu uiiiiuu. a nu news is only ono day later, and of courso not very definite or satisfactory. Tho f.icl, how ever, iImI no communication had been had for three- days between I'oittt Isabel and tho Camp of Gen. Taylor, is alono sufficient to keep anxiety on the tip-toe. vc learn from Capt. Griffin, nnd Dr. N, iriggs, a p.issengt'S, who lias ueeii several mntitllQ w Itti tl,n iirmv 'tint f'.intntM l(itkpr. - -s- - J I ...... .. ...s.., formerly of thu Toxan revenue service, who ha3 boon slalioncd bclwccn Point Isabel and Gon. Taylor's camp, with a body of twenty four Texan Hangois, found several of tho teams which had started from iho Point for tno camp wero returning, nnd reported that tho Mexicans wero on the road, ile started from Ids camp on iho 23lh wtlh his wholo .S..V-I m luiuiinonro, ami, u possiulc, ripen a communication with Gen. Taylor. Ho had proceeded ns far as nbottt midwny between I omt Isabel nnd tlio camp, when an over whelming Mexican forco appeared very sud denly ; a portion of his iroops wero raw, thoso ho instiuclcd lo keep on his right, and gave orders to the w hole to retire under cover ol a chaparalla in view. IliUhis raw troops, panic stricken, scat tered in confusion, nnd tho Mexicans od vnncing in overwhelming numbers, he was compelled to retreat, llo was followed by tho Mexicans until within a mile of Point Isabel, whero lit) arrived with only two of his men. Six others subsequently came in. Capt. Wtilker estimated the number of Mexicans liu encountered at lol-O, and his supposes that at least 30 of them fell during thu lo minutes which he engaged them. This forCO is SUnnoscd to bo u nnrlinn that which had al the last accounts, crossed tlio Uio uranili! some iiO or 2j miles nboro, and which is estimated at 300D men. It is believed that they had nrr veil at thn position they occupied by taking a cir cuitous route on the Lastcrn side ef General l .iv lor s camp, No communications had been had with General Taylor at Point Isabel for three days previous to the departure of the Ellen iy Clara. At the hist accounts it was reported that ho had but ten day's provisions, dpt. Walker immediately after his arrival, callant ly tendered his servicrs lo Mnjor Monroe, tho commander nt Point Isabel, if four men would accompany him, to make his way to General Taylor with despatches, or die in tho attempt. His offer was accepted, and accordingly he started at day-light on tho morning of the 29th ult. During the nights of the 2"lh and 28th, the iroops nt Point Isabel were in constant expectations of being attacked, and disposi tions wero made accordingly. The masters and crews of vessels in the harbor were call ed on thu 23th, and spent the night under arms. On that nigh, 500 men wero furnish ed with arms, of which about 50 were sea men. Tho works were bs perfacl as il was pos sible to m.lkn tbpm Hurler lb elrer,,o,: n e and il wis generally believed ihit should but e. e. t i ,s, . . fifteen hundred Mexicans attack tho place, "iey could toe at least held at bav until lein forcement3 arrived. Messrs. Alunroo and Saunders, it is staled, deseive gruat praise for ihe manner in which thoy fortified Point Isabel. Capt. Griffin and Dr. Briggs inform uj that the officers of the army spenk of tho Mexicans, as being in a very high stale of discitolitle tho cavalrv nartlcnljrlu Rn. sides thn thrcn thousand who havo 'crossed , siua I,,,, ii,,,.,! iiiuiis(1IU 11 jm uavu crossetl about five thousand nt Malnmoras. nnd it is supposed that tlio Mexican genernl has not yut displayed his full strength, but has kept a large reserve back of Matunioras. Il is bel ieved that the Mexicans have pos session of nn Islunri nt the mouth of tho Br.issos, which commands the entrance. If so, it is apprehended that the troops bv Iho Now York will not be able to net in " Tl, island is laid down on some of the. maps t -urassos mage." It is a natural fortifica tion. A small schooner, thn Aurora, sailed from Point Isabel on the 2Sth, for this port, with despatches. The weather has heen Ty severo on the coast, nnrl it in in h r,ro.l 11,,. she has been diiven ashore. iYcic Orleans uuuciin lxtra, Man 9. coNannss. Satlt.dav. Mav-0 Thn . session to-day. ' " "ol ,n In the House, Mrfi.rrelt Divis clTered rcso. lutio-is calling o ihe President for informition whether any dotachmenU of ,he army on tho Uio Grande have attacked, or been attacked by Mexican forcoswhethpr r,m-.. , , . ' hive b-en killed in such attacks ; ,f so. ,0 re port ihe mintier, and n. state whether they were" ........ v., .auivi ii.iii ur nit-T r-n 1 lap- ld!v. To renort ivbetbpr m. .i.v - . : 11 .(! ica 01 our army hive been e-ipturcd hy the Mexican- and win' efljrts, if any, made to recover them ','Jly. To resort whether any 3Val comrnan. der has blockaded the mouth ut the It o Granda ' -r vip ureu or ordered off- 4ny American, Britislior Mexican ship from Mata mora- and lo communicate all orders 'undej which eui h naval commanders acted. A motion to suspend rules to receive the re solution, was made and lost AveeOl ,V- r". Mr a,ked leave f, r hfs f ecta 'com mittee in rait,.,,, to Mr Ingorsoll's charges, , sit whil, the House is in session; and ba !. lowed a clerk. "' Mr Shcnck asked for, clerk for hia committ'so appointed to ct.quire who ,t was that had to" ed the confidential papers of the Stale neear mont. Ile , ,d not ask lor leave to sit whilst lh." Iloute was in .ession. 1 ln a c'l'erk.I,0UiB "'' alW eilher "m.nitte. Mr Petti! then tendered his reslcnation . The Itoune. then proceeded to consider kill, on o qalondor. and then adjourned. re'-S, Ion;: debate e ,J K""'1''1'. 111 3 on .1d. ary Affaire. I d th? r nmm'"' p.,..,.-.. I,', '. Cnmmi'lee on iheXe,,,'., P UCU- "hcr action on it in STn 8 V"'.0 brmi-'" speedy conclusion. whole" M7r,:,"!:il,',i0 'nHjee of the look un 11,11 iV, V ' c'"". and -oseonmo io'nn M e 9sV"m'! r - ,,, inu Hours. 1 10 lnilsn - , nn.- loners oetvveon the f, ecu.ive Department, and the officers of ih." Army and N.vy. and others, including tno ers lo the Governors of Alabama, Eouisi.n. I'exas, Misai.sippi, Tennessco and KentiekJ in ro erenc. to volunteers which micht b. eall into the e erv,ce. The corrcpor3encl b' t

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