Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, July 31, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated July 31, 1846 Page 1
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THE BURLINGTON FREE PRESS, WHOLE lo. 007. niKMCJTO, FRIDAY MORNING, JULY 31, 1846. VOIi. XX. IVO. 8. SPEKCII OK hox. uv.o. p. MAnui, op viiimio.vt, ON THC TARIFF QUESTION, Dcl'mrrdin the Ifmiv nf Kemenatics nf the I'nllal Slakf, Jnnr 30,1810. The Mil rennrted hv tli? Committer of Ways nnd Menu", iro)fiin; to mluce the ilutiei on import., I lieini; under consideration in Committee ol the ! Whole on the Ktnto of the Union Mr. MAItSIIsiiid: ' Mr. Chairman : Tlio reduction of the existing For the IWInur.on Free Press. lorifT oftiullo-.h rl upon grounds of both My Grandmother's Address to lirr old Clock, public ami pnvi.tr- economy. I ho peculiar friends of tlio iitia-.uu regard it ant patncea lor which ton nnv years .no hand iict ntr. ovv.v all lin.mc'ial evils. 11, til pro-cut, mo i rensiiry BURLINGTON FREE PRESS, I Published at Burlington. Vt., ' By D. W. C. Cf.AKKi:, Editor and Proprietor. Termii To Village subscribers ho receive the paper by me carrier, s.ij" If paid in nih mice '.VO Mail sabscribcrs and those who take it at the Office, invariably 2,00 AmnfiTisG.tE.XTS inerted on the tutonnry terms. HAD WOUND. My feeble hand performs once more, III wonted oflico here. But while I gaze upon thy face, There trickle down a tear. For fifty year, my faithful friend, The flight of Tune thou'st told, And numbered every fleeting hour As past the years have roll'd. When first I saw thy truthful lace, My own wax flush and lair ; But Time has wasted all its bloom, And planted furrow thrre. My thought, ritum toother davs When with a inotln.rV pride, 8o joyfully I gazed ujion My children at my side. These silent walls, that echo now So mournfully thy tone, Once rani; with merry, merry peals, In happy days by gone. My husband's manly form I hoc Annd the joyous throng, That gathcr'd round the winter1)- hearth With pleasant mirth and Hong. Ah ' pleasant 'tis to dwell uj on The scrncs of other years, Though open'dby these inein'rirsnre The fountains of iny tears. My husband and my dear ones too, From earth have pass'd away. And soon beside him in thcr-rave Mine aged form they'll lay. For eighty winters now have pat S'jswiftl) o'er my head, I waree could notr their fleeting by Itut for the fro-t-thcy'vcsli(.d. Mine eyes are dim.tnyfonn is bent, My tottering steps are slow, My lock-., tint once so silken were, Are bl-'aeh'd as white as snow. I jTiue. upon thy tamest face, And watch the moments fly, And think ere lone;, thine hutie-t hand Will point the hour I die. Mj dear old Cluck, -till mark the hour-, I love ill) sol'.'iim ton Ofhous-huld objerts once so dear, Tlwu'rt nearly left nlu.-ir. I thank dice for llie w-irniiig notes, So o!t-i, thou hast given, And which have filled my soul with p-a-e, And tunv 1 i,i) thoughts to Heaven. OK C their fibrication, lint because protection to tlio minufacfurcd warn Is nlo protection lo all who contribute, however remotely, to its production. Tup bla'kstnith who forces n horseshoe, does not monopolize tlio whole profit upon the pale of the article. It is shared nNo by the charcoal humor who supplies Ills fire, the carrier wlioha transported the iron, the ironnn-tcr who smelted ntd the minor who excavated llio ore, and the f irmer who Ins furnished all of thro with pro visions. The continuance of a system, which shall secure to llm-o engaged in the conversion of the raw material a reason ib'p protection against foreign comtiotitiou, is demanded, then. ttouiir tneir iiinetit alone, but for tlio interest of tlio vastly greater number who are employed is affected with atrophy, a reduction of duties ' "M , tie raw tin ei iat, ami ot me will, it is said, replot.i-l. it. hv inducing- a great t! V"f, e ",( mm '-". cmhiiiiic.. ;..'...r !,,., rfntln,... if!, U c.n.,t .i. 1 1 llt!"ntiiif.icturer must have promise of a fur eliont. a further reduction will serve to dc- J?'1 , " l" t'10 fr '"T"' " "' pleteiMiyJiinini-hinj-tlie receipts nt the ens. b',w ""V,!" 'i'0" '"! ",'l",','llll,' '" ton. house. For Ml. or tho-e ill conditions of! l"h "n ""J "" 'W'rtun.ty to ell -.he ttational exchequer we have, then, hut one , f"f l Vi i" ',' a P"1' to be applied to a single class ol citizens, a sm-1 h t ....- c .i . . . , i ent ltiids,.hiit nil the present humors of the i,iift-r iriih-i.. ",?.,- If I..,. I . r. I, U... (t... tl.. 1. .!, " " w ,- """'---iwsu.l" , eum . . .. . . . 1 e.11 s"1' I or tinder ner noimri aJ. tlin iihtee public veins, nuoth Dr. Walker, Weed the tin. chanic, the numifjctiirer, and nil interested in the prosperity of the industrial arts; phlohoto I mizc the riofit arm of the republic: if the in- tiotiil arteries throb with two full n pul-o, then, says anomor oaten ot uie .tno school, the chairman of the committee of Ways and .Means, you have notliiii"; to do but bleed it :iruin. Uut the people, wo are told, demand the pro- poseu ciiatiffe in our revenue ssicin,n a mejs per iioimo at the nlaeo ol e.nnrtation. an ad valorem duly of live per cent.; on all oth crwooka specific duty of throe cents per pound, and an additional ad valorem duty of thirty per cent. The iiv cr jeo value of Imported wool, costin over seven cents, is proh.xhly not far from thirty cents o pound, and tlio duty on such wool is consequently nbout forty per cent., or the same as the duty on woollens, which is forty per cent, a'l valorem. Now, the provisions of the tariff of 1 S ll in respect to t.reo private economy, oceans, it will enable ;V(Xll are :li(, ,v lho.(. I)f iu B10 w , them to tirocura their suiTiih-of all inaniif ictur- ... i... -.: !i.. ... ,i i :..!.....'. ed aiticles at a rcductio i of price equal to the ' amount of duty taken o T; and will, at the same time, secure to thorn a steady foreign outlet for their agricultural r-urplut, intead of an indili'T-' ent dome-tic market. I it will be reailiiv aiiiinito In- every person in"rca-c our importations, and consequently the f m-ifrn debt of our ritt7.ens, perhaps some fifty millioni. The financial plan of the Adm'tnitr.i' lion is a slidino; scale, praduated only down w trds, an exemplification of the btthos, or art of sinkin-j, applied to political economy, a bottom less pit, in whoso lowest deep, a lower deep, I Still threatening to devour us, opens wide. Now, there are two modes in which such a system mnt injuriously -iffect the arts of me clianical prolurtion, and tho various auxiliary hranchos,of imlitstry. Theono is the fluctuation of duty on the foreign article with which they compete. To all inibislrial pursuit', stability i imooitant : to those which, like manufactures, require a large capital and a long period for or simizition and preparation before any returns cm be received, which employ nittmrous labor ers; and WI1030 rerrular serio of operations ex tends tliroiifrli a corisi lerablo time, it is absolute ly Indispensable. .Many m mlh always, some- limes even years, elapse ibitw. on the purchase of in raw m iton U ani tlio sate ot mo elaborate i )iroiluct. The prico of tlio material ought to be regulated by the price to bo realized from the -ilo of the" fabric. This, with a permanently lixe.l tariff, can bo calculated with an approxi tuition to certainty, wi,'.b a sinking scale, it i milter of blind conjecture. The producer will iu-i-t on si prico warranted by existing rates ; the manufacturer, fearful of a reduction before he can elloct his sales, will seek to buy with re ference to that continjeicy ; but tlio hopes of ennrgetic men usually predominate over their fears. ml even their judgment, and the chances are that the manufacturer will tako the wliolo risk, and pay n losing price. This tendency was remarkably exemplilbd in the woollen manufac ture under the compromise act. livery reduc tion of duty oeca-ionod n greatly increased im portation of cloths, and woollens ft. much fas ter limn wool. The wool vn-, as it usually uiti-t be, porch-is, in the uinmr. Hefore it was manufactured and conveyed to market, the January reduction of duty produced a fall in fess to be friendly to the wool-irrowinir interest. to bo faulty in two pnrtieiiltrs 'he imposition of tin ad valorem duty on cheap woo'.stnd too low a daty on those of higher co-t ; audit is said that th" fraud- noon the ad valorem dutv on eoar.-e. iin. tiie low rate iniposoil on line wools, are the woolen, and the tn tnnf.ictutcr was niton obliged ,,! ...i.i, ,T ,inn ,.,,,.,,. '.,r It , V.."."- ""'"y" i""-1'1" '"""I1 11 'to mil Ins bro ulcloths tor even le-s than the "o4u itions in political econom tl it he re-1 " 1 T ,U I'l0". lnem" aT- a 1 lllcll,,l I Wool had co-t him. Thi- state of things contin sulu onholIdedlattioll'M, ,w X !?. ! " , 0T!"J"T I -lude -inking process; atid the. te.n of public tit.anco do not udinil ol rigorous , n-rfjlllnIlt ,, ,in the whole 'hill now proposed, , calculation, and it is m a considerable degree , wlicll levies, (duties upon the ail valorem prinl .purely e.xmrituei.ta . As an experiment, there- .,,, no Djmocrat, who has condemned I fore, it I- liable to the general objection again-t t,0 tarillNif 18 12 for this feature, can hone-tly lull unnecessary, sudden and abrupt transitions lho bm ,)f tho coln,nUt,;c. A, ,0 th, in all nrs involving great and complex mlores s ; 0 linr woo) w,lile , ai,n)it th u . on(r, and it t- i.icumhe.it on tho-e who advocate this I )3en Wh,.TA.el , itlfiel i( is rt.l.llivcH-7iiuch chinge, in the face of the undeniable general a!)0VC, nt O,7woollcn l!lU,10 wno.mv.. I prosperity of all great public and private Amen-1 - ...nnl,i .... in,,,-,..! ,, ,,,,;,, ",, .. ; iaii iiuei -L-. .-uov uiii; io ueaii , nidi inv ' system now in lorce is it mu.r.il if in I ttnrti;il . ; i : .y . : . . ,: : ins notorious tint, with tlio pre I v u,uue,.,e u. ..uu.iu.u . mui . -r woollcll factories in general are bire- ,r ,'. ,- er.ioie y ,,,-tainrd. An increased duty on cloths would fns tit... vol. lit lira, coiiil itirnii it f.vr.- Gt'.tnm i.l . ... .. - . ......... v. pve n. o mnrn nl ,-w-tn.i e i.n. tho same paper, which, with tho consequence de duced from them, nre not less remarknble, That most wolhlcss and unreliable of documents, th" cens -s o( 1310, sla'es tho nnmborof "mnn em ployed" in those departments of tncchatiicil art which arc more or loss protected by tho tariff of 18 12 at between three and four hundred thousand. Every mm who has attended to the subject knows that this number (including the working classes 'ng-iged in our minufictures) d'riciw! ani b;n rlt from tho tariff does not exceed 400,000, ol whom not morn than 40,000 have been brought into this pursuit by the last tnrilT." Intho opin ion of tho Secretary, then, no person "derive" iny benefit" from tlio prosperity of a particular Vanrh of industry, unless ho actually labors at it, Hut is this reasoning correct ? Do not the decrepit pirents and the helpless children ; do not the husbands and the wives ; do not the other de pendent relatives of these laborers "derive bene fit," from that protection which furnishes em ployment to those who feed them 1 Does not the farmer, who supp 1 .s the food to those labor er and their families; do tot tho producer, who grows the raw matcri il utul the fibric, also "de rive benefit" from tho system wliich employs them ? Is not the agriculturist benefitted hy the withdrawal of thciiO 400,000 stout hands from tho tilago of the soil ? The same census states ' tho number of "m"n employed'' in commerce and ..... ....... inn .t . .lai.U.,1,.1; UJ MII!l-lU- rial logic, therefore, there are but 93,000 persons who '"derive any benefit" from commerce and the fisheries, mid yet the encouragement of mar itime commerce, which employs, and of course according to the Secretary's showing, 'benefits" only 36.000 men, is one of the great objects tb Ijo attained by the ruin of all the minufactnres and mechanics, with the millions who depend on them lor Dreau. i lie census does not state the num ber of "men employed" in agriculture, but esti mating it as lulmrcrsin other ilepavtments arees- w une 1 '.ocaiiy, u.ai ue ty of ion m ,wnU. cent; cIot, l , is morally iniquitous, that I hmmso of dlU on 10 mv ;nltc,rhl. lal.ind oppres-,e. h,jyfjut J It is notorious that, with the present arrangc- j. ... ..,.... . . i.i. iy. m-,nt Ulp wooucll factories in goner: liich wi,e rulers tolerable y ,,,-tainrd. An increased duty on c litions ot every sv.-tem ol ..i i ,. o- n.. . h. -, i 1...1.111.11; niwie eiueiuaiiv lurt i-ni I uni... governniLMit, or to prove to the reasom-, an,, b . locnri , 1C . hie iti-l iction ol whoso interests the change t.lin ,;roflts W07lM mMl ,,, , , t'ireateiH to affect, that it will augment to a still higher d"gn;e tin' genvral prosperity we now en-j"-v Tint wo are in fact blessed with an extraor 'din.iry d.-gree of such prosperity, whatever par- ti il eil- in.it. here ami there exl-t, 1 suppose no Intelligent mm will di-pute. It U true, no doubt, , til it the acqui-ition of wealth is morn dillicult 1 thin formerly; that it re-juires greater frugility, Ian I longer continued and more l.ibo-iou indus- i try ; but this very fact ii it-e!f an evidenru of i ' greater !i:l'u-i 'ii and a more ciual di-tribu lion of the e!eni"iit- jf tlirilt. iilntr, economy, , and -kill, are Mill ijre ol their reward cirrriNs. whiiat k.vui-y. . nun -Kin, are sun i.re oi ineir rewaru -, nut m7 Ii f "SSS "T"rtV111 Ilheioaie two leason i wiiv largo a-.cumu:ition ati W'aaj UHIl. ino l.mgor so ra-.vor Ho'lrcuuent. The one i- I that the gr iwth Lt our population, wliich is more rapid tlun the incre.t.io of our capital. Kirly cutting is the pr. dice of the lnstwbeat- Mb'-'lf J T' iU'"1K',lil,,rS ,in.ll' I'1"" r3iserswt.,igrl,inisneededfor,,o,,ror! for seed. T,r b 'try li Is out after it is nit, and , tlvj m, , l.lulu(.tllrj,1 , ,,,rL,r. u. whic lc U) rn'e1 fee f.3 & ! ft i . I i .,i J creates, under t ho operation ol the protective but s'eu simply ntvj wi l irennunt: strintr, and ... , i ,i 1 . , . ' . . . . i sv-ti; n. and t in coniiiir.itiw- stolnhtv t i.-it it In sures to all pnraiut-, the certainty ol con-lant competition; r more cer tain profits, would enable him to pay b:tter pri ces for wool. A higher duty on wool, on the other hand, if tho manufacturer is loll ta com pate with foreign cipitili-t, might compel him to suspend operations, and deprive him both of the ab'.Htv and the iudiicem Mil to purchase altogeth er. I lie exclusion or increased co-t ol foreign wools avail- tho wool-grower nothing, unless lie is sec'ired n market for his own; and this can only b- done hv ullording th.i manufacturer such encouragement as will induce him I buy. lit-! ed, the duty on w j 1 m s patently nig.'i. 1 111 tart Ijalinced, or neutralized as a prutocti-iii, hy ciei' ir.-iiling ilutie, oi the r.iu material and other art! 1 -s nores-ary for the m-iiitit.v'tiirer'.s use. If you compute tho du ty on bioinl clotli at flirty per cent, ml valorem, and ctlcnlate the amount of the duty on the wool, tiie dye .-tuff', the oil, the chemical pre- pinitionsti-eii in tltc proce-s of miniifacture, manttpulition, which requires the lalior of n handred hands. Tho third process again mi bo accomplished by a single midline ; nndtlr fourth in turn give employment to n hundred id ditional laborers. Thus "a few midlines, driv en by one water-wheel or Fteam engine, and oc cttpied in oni branch o( manufacture, tnaybriti" together a thousand worl:m"n ; nnl oier.itions I that formerly occupied an cxtcn-ive ditrict I ire now accotnnlished within the walls of a sin glo building. Hy this system you have the en-i TgV, eiricioncy.'lnrminy, economy, and unih ot pornoso anil oi action mat spring Irom cop. cntratlon and intelligent diviion of lalior: ivhilo tho substitution of machinery for human hands enables a hundred men to" jorfortn the work of ten thousind. The modern invention and nn of complicated machinery is one ol the mot remarkable ami Im 'ind atdefiince in the seventeenth? IV'o-c 'hit nf agricultural Poland, which in the .'ays if .lonn Sohieski was the only birrior of CI, i . ondom againt tho conquests of thnOttrm n "uvcr ? It was from h"r manitf ictnring indus- ' y t'lntRnglmd drew tlr rsrmrcos wliich era il -d he-, in:l h in 1 d to erne with almost' t! 9 vhol civilized world, and finally tn overtlirow beco'o sal pewr of a-iolenn. IIr mine5, c co'li ri"s. h' rvastncenm'tlition of m-cli i:i'- tl power, nr.; inexhatisiihte fjuntiins of na tional strength. She has discovered thotrtio In 'ornretitions of themavlm 'In peace prepare for war;' she his lcirn"l tint tho most formidable irmies arc those which create, not thoo which destroy ; and tint tho child who guides tho pow er loom is mightier than tho knight In armor. In modem warfare, when men no longer fight hand to hand, tho material ef war has become of nortarit facts in the bistorv of our race retnirk-1 piramount importance. The soldier fnrmnrK- able and imiortant both in an economical and aioquipied himself with such armor, and such pshvc' ological point O view, as alrr.osMhe faiti muni'ions and supplies, as his mean?, conveni which gives any countenance to the visionary ' nience, or taste allowed ; but tho Increase of theory of tho perfectibility cf tho s iccies. In- mechanical facilities lias enabled the govern vention and contrivance, tlio c inscinti adaption mnnts of Europe to turn manufactures of the in of m"ans to ends, as distinguished from blind i struments of war. and to fit out armies with instinct, are essential powers and charactcris-1 an expedition and an eiEciency which hive tics of men in all ages and all forms of social' 'e:i-fo'd i:icicvsel fieir power. Thus tho tri existence; but the modern talent of mechanical umphs of war have boon purchased by thj combination, if not tl.? drrelopmcnt of a new toils of peace, and Arkwright and Watt" have faculty, i at least tho awakening of a dormant (.p'vod the way for "el!i-toTi and .Vlon. power" in tho human mind. The fundamental 1 In tho present condition of lho niy-ical tcien princi pic of all proper mechanical contrivances is i ces and of mechanical knowledge, it mav ho the a iljugition of the mulo itnconc.iot.s forces safely affirmed, that nothing httt tboe oxtr-nsivp

of inanimate nature to the control of human will. I industrial establishments, vyhich exist only as a M in's rcsoirdi"? into tho laws of inorganic na-j ur' f a ursit tmnufic.uring yterp, can nm ture hae taught him to command those forces ; "lo a nation to make adequate preparation for for hero 'knowledge is power,' and he may now war; and while foreign commerce is interrupt boast without profanity, that, since the invi-iblol hy I anilities, as ft often must be, they are powers wliich sleep in" tho thin air, neutralized equally indispcnsablo for tho supply of thoe undhalanced bveae.hntlier.nrlinnniecrpnt inth- necessaries, which handicraft and household floating vapor, have 1kc:i evolved and conquered labor have, since tho introduction of machinery, by him, the Winds aud waters olioy him ; that he iurKoiien now l0 prepare. ftm.it. ..I if -r.lit.1 n I .llll.iiv... , wu.i.u ll'L .-t.JL.I lllll.'l.. Ul itL IlllJ-L ' Ul llllll. LIIL' .111U- dUU il ILT.- IJ H ' V llllll : lllllLIII' " T. " four millions. Of course tho Secretary must! has now fulfilled the creat command " to sub- There aro numerous considerations, physical. hold, that none but these three or four millions, due tho earth," inasmuch as h; hi3 learned to moral, and political, specially applicable "to our "derive any benefit'' from agriculture ; and as not j control those forces of inorganic nature by fottntry, which seem to recoinmend,with irresist more than one-fourth of our population appear w hoo mini-try Almighty power built up anil , 'b'e force, the maintenance of tho system I am to bo "employed" nt all, the necessary ennse-1 still sustain? it. Although what arc technical- uefeiiding; but to these I can but allude. Among qitence is. that no more than one-fourtli of them I ly cilled the mechani-al vmcci s tho lever, tho l,iem ' "W' mention its configuration, soil, cli "dorive benefit" from indu-trv of any sort. So wheel and axis, the inclined plane, the screw, mato and natural productions. Its gently swel- consequence was tho loss of the entire capital of piepo-lerous are the siHculatious of free-trade the wedge, and tho rope and pullev have b"cn hog ranges ol mountains, of moderate height, tiie woollen factories in New llnglaml, with a political eeoninni-ts ! llongknown.it is only in very locent titn"3 that f irnish unlimited water power, subject neither very few exceptions. 1 hern i-hut one other point in tiie Secretary s ' any of the Torres of inanimato nature have been 10 Ue locked up by lrots nor exhausted by The other ruinous cllcct ol I lie proposed re- repon mui i n.-ire in nonce, it is me great mine available lor mecnanical purposes, except n-iui uj u inm uasnyacccssiuie iluctioil is tho cncoura'remciit of importations, ;wrc argument on page (1 of that document. in Mich simple applications as that of wil d to ' common road?, and neither too elevated nor ....... r . .' , , f. ....... ! . .... I I.e.. . .... i e . . , ...... ,, 'e .i ' ' . . . Iiui n ..m.l In 1., ,..n..n.l 1... ll 1. on WHICH tiie secretary s argument i loutnieu. -"" "'" "i "ari. wun loruigu naiion-, , propel nip,oi me current ot running water to ' imiruaus anu ca- llvery additionil foreign articles imported ex- b"cau-e it Ittrni-bes jirolits ahroatj to thousanils 1 turn wheels, of the elasticity of the bow. and per- "s wiuo variety oi srii and climate en- eludes from use one of dome-tic production. of capitali-Kitud wages to hundredoof thousands 1 hips tint also of metallic" springs, to j inject :1"'c? !' to cotnete with the world in reducing Increa-ed revenue, with reduced rate- of dutv, . of the working chtsc ; all of whom would be 1 missies of war. The employment of the weight every known raw material for industrial elabo can only be obtained by vastly aitguiented uri-' dc-i-ply injured, by any disturb nice growing out j of filling water, of tho alternate ebb nod llow 1"',un- --'cry Lurorean domestic animal port itions ; and whenever they fall' oil' mi as to f n .-tutu of war. to tlio direct and ado yiato sup- of tho tides, and tho wind fr driving mills of thrives, and even improves by migration, and diminish tho revenue, tl.ov are to ho stimulated ply of the raw material." The Secretary csti- that union of ropul-ion and attraction which con- there is no cause to doubt that the Alpaca, tha and invited b; a now r -duction of the larill. The mates the value of the cotton crop at 872,000,-1 s'itules elasticity, and gives alike to the vapor f lnbot P!?x anu Perhaps even the camel, may principle of encourag'ng the grci-e-l amount of ()0, and tiie value of the manufactured cotton 1 of water and to coiled -prings of hardmotal tho ! n 1 lo-J" well su t.-d to their peculiar hab iinports is broadly avowed; or, in other word-, fabric at ..o94,000,0U0 annually, and states that 1 power of producing continuous or reciprocating Our silk; cotton, hemp and flax aro not in the Secretary virtually dxlares, that so far us i lhc-"ixtlis..( the cottongrown is exportedabroid. motion ; of the forces nf gravity and electro-mag- leriortothe best Europe or the East produces ; tho power of the (Jovernmcnt extjnds, tho for-1 In order, therefore, to propitiate the good will of netism as motive powers aH"t!iee, and many our hills abound in excellent ores of the most cign shall bj enabled to undersell the domestic ' l"a foreign "capitali-ts" and "working classes" other like instances aro wholly modern. The truly valuable metals ; and our intermindablo producer. Ho is to bo aided not only by low w 10 now enjoy tive--ixths of this enormous prof- manuficMros, as well as all other branches cf forc", inexhaustible coal mines, yield duties, but by tho warehou-ing system, which ' to interest them still further in the prescr- tbs industry of the ancients, were carried on hv clieaP 1,cl for "p'jUurpical uses. But while autliories him to arcumtilato liis'wares in our'vation of peace, tho Secretary argues that the organic force IheunasM-ti-d strength of man nature has supplied in thus abundantly with seaports for a succes-ion of years, and then, at ' Am wan cotton manufacturer ought to be sa- and beast; but it is the triumph of our cm, al- fo "leans and the exercise of mechanical indus. his option, to withdraw them without paving du- crlliced, and the profit on the remaining sixth, most of our generation, that man is n longer tf ho has cared al-o for tho sustriianeo of the ties, or, by flooding tho m irket, to crush at oncu wliich he now enjoys, tran-f'rred to tho Europe- the siiper-litious tlavo of the irrcsi.-tible ele- mechanical laborer. 1 no portions of our conn anv Amoric in manuficture which m iv threaten an capitalists and laborer. The ,ni- argument ments, b-it that even deaf nature has heard his tr..v. Wiicli a boutid tn waterfalls, and those wliich I competition. It is idle to hope that any branch would prove tint wo ought to surrender the en- imperious voice, snbtn'tW her mighty energies clitolly turnisii tlio wool and cotton, the coal, the o"d,ime,tie. industry can e.n-nin itself" nrai.i-t tire profits of our trade, our fisheries, and even-to lis sway, and allowed him to emflov at bis "ood, and the metal-, are comparatively unsuited to I t'il.1 ittiliriK nrnlti it .il inn hntttnon rtiii mi'n 'fine. Olir agriculture, to llnronn.m moreinnts. nnd nleasure. "whether lor f.l-hirinimr n niii nr for fr the growth of brtldstll fT- ; while tue residue though ap-, nrmnmitniiil the ear.it.ilists nf F.nrnne I fishermen, and farmers. Sir. neacn is worth no ! rearinr? a palace, the same forco with which ol our ciom iin is ble-.sed with ti e most bointc- 'J'here is a studied and inidious eflbrt to scp- 1 ""cli s.icralico; and ho has little of an American slio shakes a continent or upheaves a mountain. J""-. oi our own luutgenifoiis maize, ante the Interest of the m iuufacturcrs from that heart who i iiilluonced by such craven arguments ! The suhiig ition of the certain and caiculab'e aJlJ "I all the ccr.il grains of the oldtvorld of the prixliicers -, represent the lormor as a " this. Toicesof nwuroto l.u... u So U.wiioi d , J'"''"'. f'-'Undiul n .mesrle rn,m f.-r tint elm too in-ignilicaat, in point of numb -r, to' The whole argument of those who have framed, in its results, that the degree in which it has inttrctmngo of In t and clothing wincu t:.e ad be regarded in tho broad scheme of nitional pol- and wiio advocate this bill is -o palpably founded been accomplished is the surest measure of the ral,' ,Jl commerce would inuco a bond of icy and especially to treat the subject as an ad- on tho ruin of the manufacturing and in"chani-1 prosperity of a people, and the increase of prop- union between u and Europe, and there is every ve'r'-orv nuc-tion between the people on one 1 cal classes, that I may spare myself the liliorof er mechaiik-al skill i- an infallible token of ud- "e-irablo nnprirtimity t jr tho unlimitt d increase b in,! am the cotton and woollen Miinncr on the attempting to refute tho ullo fallacy that those m- vancemont in tho great eniK and objects of so- a"" 1 AU'n OI 'ai iiuernal trade, wliich even ttranucr, lain deail-riiu seed. v lien on i-lres to keep scd long voyages, or for voir.-, it rhould ripin thoroughly. Where it i- to bkupt lor a lew months irom snmm -r to .-pnng, or from suuv.mr until autunrt 'eed- are even hit ter by lieing gathcrel ft 1 11 eirly. Nothiug is, probably, ald"d'to the niitrilious properties of wicd- in the last stag' of ripening. The changes that they undergo are those tlutt trill preteree tU'ir i iV ii'i. To cut, or gither before th final el.ihorition of cirbon, by which they are lobs preserved, tikes from the seed, then," nothing of its richnes-. nothing of its weight, nothing but the quality of long-keeping for planting purpo-e. The grain is to li j bound up precisely as in lat ter harvesting; put in shock-, and left'to sun for neveral days, according to tho judgment of the farmer, before the c ip aro put on. Hut we vvi-h Mime sixty-three-K)iind-whe it f.iriinrs would tel' us their practice about hirvesting. W's'rrii Fnrm"r an I U inln'r. and the other articles consumed hy tlio hilwiroe I li. . ' r,.i . e .t.... i. : .. .11.. tore-Is. which have insf lieiriin tn thrive itndor rial oneanization. I nW OUlto casU our foreiirtl Cominerco into till, and paid for in augmented wages'by biscinnlny. , ,), ,,'h'ect of free trade proscription is kept oiit Icgi-lative protection, are now able to thrive These proud triumphs arethe results of mod- "bade. Such, then, are tho relative vvants cf er, you will find tint tho ininiifict'iirer. who 'is ()f 'sjbt jjut tl0 reasonin" of tho Secretary, 1 without it, or of e.po-ing the holloivness and cm improvement-in the physical sciences, and ur l,V'll,lp al'd such the means of meeting protected by a duty nf one dollar and twenty 1 .m,j the'provision-of this bill" are ju-t as fatal to sincerity of those who profess to b? friendly U arc in a great measure the fruits of the encour- J m" "! d country wliich extends almo-t from cents on a yard of hnadcloth worth three dot-1 Jj,, juunhle mechanic who is to poor to hire a -hose interests while laboring to uphold a party agement which those studies have enjoyed from tlM tropics to the realms of perpetual frost; l.trs, b..s con-umed in the fabrication of that , ,,,,. -la t'the Vinituli-t who" employs a pliMged to overthrow them. For my own pirt, 1 the m inufacturing and mechanical arts. The country at once divided and bound together by yard other article- -u'.ject to a- great an amount , ,v' ' tri The blow is to be - ruck not i''fer to this hypocritical friend-h'ip the open dyer, tho bleacher, and tho sugar refiner have an jmpunil ohnl vv eb ol channels of natural navi of duty as the cloth he Ins pro luce I. AH pro-1!," but at the miner, ho.-tility which denounces us as legalized plun- stimulated curious researches into the laws of B;t'ou, and misccptiblv, in an extraordinary d- lection to the woollen weaver, which encoura- tn , ,rkmit)i the rhoemake'r, the tailor, the 'h'rors ; or even the jealousy which, in a fit of ch-mical combinition, and proved the most mu- Krei!' 01 "'creased facihtins of communication ; ge- and enables him to buy wool, i- a protection ' .i,.,i,:i,i ,iJ i,.,itor th,. eiliinct.m iker- and sickly spleen, profes-ed to find greater satNfic- niticent patrons of the analytical chctni-t; the il cuntry vvliere lohucal restraints impose no al-o to the wool-grower; " and, in general, pro-' b ,,, ti m is to h enem ri "ed in eve- tion in the prosperity of Mai.ch?sler and Liver-, minor has rewarded and promoted the labors of bj 0 frccit '"torcoitrse and commorce. tectionto tho-e w ho convert the raw mat.triul ' rwl,," l.ui ninr!- f! ...d ni ravv rnatr al Tho pool than in the welfare of Iiwcl and Boston. ! the miiieralogi-t and tho geologi-t ; the furnace ?nJ w,,e,i Plrts and custom-houcs are enures to the benefit nrtho-o who prodt.ee it.-, ft' tTfall profit- that of tL hbor of cm I I s,all, then, as,ume, or leave it to others to of the glass-tlower has furnUl.cd the optician known onl 0,1 tll ex'r':'m.a frontier; a country. W'e a-k, therefore, proteetiiin for iinniiracturos ;! t ,,. i,,'. hi.u-n into the hands of strangers and prove, that tho imposition of duties not lower I with the moans of experim n'.ing 0.1 tlio refrac- w"ue ,re- -y-tem recognizes no governmental iiota-iintiufactiirers.hut as wool-rowers, as ! ,., . ":, 1 ' 1! !, ' r tl , in a.,,1 than tl.0-0 of ISti is necessary for the support 1 live and di-per-ive powers of the glass from '-nopohes, and restricts no man in the choice of dealers in dye stuli-, ns prndncerr. of the f iod," tt, Zhnr ,mnf ieti,rin,r Sti'tes which cnnsuino of our growing inanuficttires, and tint tho pas. Which aro fibricated the h n-es of his micro- "i caiuun , crcau a greater variety of demand the niw material, mid th" other neens-arie- I annually produce of their Mster Stat js to tho val- sage ot the bill now under consideration isde- scopes and telocoics ; tho w itch-nnker has wliich the m iniil'artiiriiig artism consumes, ')u U:,,B hundred milions of dallars is to Im de- s'g iod for, and will accomplish, tho prostration j constructed his timepiece hy which the n iv iga- Ilowever strong in iv Iu the epoculative con-' stroV,.j ,v drivim every iniiiuf icturer and "eve- 01 ,,,'t interest ; and I shall confine tho remain- j tor d.-termines tlio po-itiotf of his ship, of 1111- victions of gentlonrn", th it a different sy-tein , rv nv-chaiiic to alTiiidoii' his workshop and grow 'lor of my remarks to -ome illustrations of the I known idioul-, and newly di-covvreil shores; of liiinicial ilicy would bo better than that 1 b"j4 ()Wn ,reij ' value and importance of inanuficttires as the and the malbematical in'trunient maker Iris in- now iu force, t'ley ehould iioiorthelo-s reiuem-, "md how are thor0 enormous evil' the ruin of m"ius of att litung the great ends of civil soci- vented contrivances, by who-o aid the a-trono- bor.llnt we hive not to il-ri.ln tin iuto ah-, tIin lnii:inns wf,0 d-pe id upon m-chinicarnidus- fty, an element of national w,-ll-bcing and pro-' m-r miy ob-erve and measure tho movement- slr.ict iiue-tioti. w nat intern itioml arr.iniri.tooiiu . .. .....!, e!i. L. i.... e.- !re-s. and as esuociullv commended to us hv- of tho heavenly bodies, and i-alcnlate their rev - are suitable to right re ison wha tntit ml sys- nro'duce to h coniicn-atcd "The market- of ""r physical condition aud our social inUitu- olutions to the fraction of a second, in spit? of tho works it require--, f.vm to point to it as one of tern of Mipply would, n.n the whole, be bt ), war' cotitainih" a pomih'ion of eiolit him- t',11', I hitric.icy of their perturbations. the ino-t ini;wrtaut agencies in the process whicli fur all hut a que-tion conditioned by tl e cir- (ri,,i titillion ijisahled from purchisitv our pro- I'erlnps the most striking distinctive anil char- There is another characteri-tic of these arts, w have h-gim of d-velnping our internal re- ciiiii.tances.iiulin-ii'iititins of our owii oouutry; jIK.t b.. oiir'hi'eli duties on all they would sell arteri-tic material feature of the modern social which even now, when we arc in bilging in wild ', source j. Nor is it less v.ilaablo,orle3 suited to by its physical or accidental ad iptation to par- j ,.xchanf" " are to bo thrown open tons! life of Chri-tendom is the greatly in?rca-ed fa- fancies of national agrandi-einent and conquest , the peculiir cliar.ictur of A-nerican institutions, ' ticular minks of indu-trv: by tho nolicv of m..'.. .1 Ti V,. ' ... t n: s eilitiesfor suntdvinL' the physical wants of and martial renown, mav well r .commend them ' iu its political relations, lt is a policy eminently 111 error, once very general with 11, 1 other 11 uioin.wht 111 we rival, hr with whom wo , ".. ,':,."' ,,',i,Pr to roviil Europe man, and cspeci illy tiiosj g-;at prim iry needs, to the favor .a sober Aoioricau -tatosman. They popular, eminently democratic. It t'enJs to lev- I'.xi-ting interests which have ..,1 i.,.i,,.- v.t. ".,t . nn nntiniKi nf n. foodund clothing. The indii-ttial energies of nrecinpliatxutly th? arts of ioace. Theydraw ' up, to limn mum and renne, by diirusing, ,. .... I 1 ' . " ' . 1 . 1 -.. l.t..ll.. .I:.A-In.l tn ft. la nnrl fl.fttp rt a 1 1 ... .... , f-... ......... .....I !.. ...... .1 C IP.l ll'.tll 11 1'. II II I 1 1 ,1 II T, v'. I. , t nl.lllM, tl... pie are to feed fmm tho surplus ol their n-irners, iann "nn no- nm , u.u mmoiiiuvin uuu n-m.i., .m hi mu. ....,...... .....,....,.-,., 3 !i. r.,,.i.l.;'-sonfiooni .eliii -ire stntrhinir and the m -rely d -cor itivo ar.s, thosi wlii-h lim prom te peace, l'eaco is nces-ary to the mm- saries, the eouiforts the conveniences, and tho out 1 their (iTmUo thVn.i't tho firm coitti- to embJllidi lif Invo boon stationary, if ufacturer, that he may safely dravy from di-tant elegancies of social life, lly brinsiing within .,. . ,,i ,i, ! i. !-,i, n,-.iii' Hitherto the not retrograde -, wliiletheccononiic.il, or tho-o countries tho raw mi'erials which he requires the reach of the poor tho same phv.-ical e:ijoy-'.i-i. , .L.r.,, ...'iJ.'... which are emphatically called tha useful arts, for tin fabrication of his wares: mnco. that the, uient- and advantages which are attainai.!,- by larin nil-uevil u wail oniiiaiiiiuii-" u , .. ... ...I ..... , e. ..!... i I ..... -e i , i i.,. ...... ' '. , i . ft... ,), i, l,mt. .I.,,.-., fl, ,t ,tiin.r.- . ;., ..,.:. uuu uuu- irouiiei-. oi nm loom, iusiorge,or ill- lame, may ." .......... ... .......e is, not whit I,,,,. ,. inplovment and piiiietu.il payment has nude the laborer more regular iu In- habit- of indu-lry; occupations more varied in character, ivjuiriug the exercise of higlivrand more active IlicuHies than the old routine of rural labor, nnd constant ly borrowing from the progre. of knowledge of luiprnveinoiilr, iu trotli proce os and ro-ults, liavo rendered him more oh-erving, thouohtful, um iiiieingeni, aim leiiiiieranco Ins be-towed amii him Irugility and thrift. He i-, therefore, iu a le.s degreu the men; in-lrunient of lii.s em ployer, le-s frequently plundered and -tripped by tho-e who prey upon'tlie vices or the weaknoe i's of their feflovv-, and a larger proportion of he riche- drawn from the bosom ot theearth, or r.ilhcnil by the toils of the iiiiv il tiud tlw loom, remiiiis with him, tho hw eat of wlm-e brow has .anted them. Thus, with f.'W iu-tancos of the .u Iden ai-ciimiil.itioii ol wealth, or oven of such i competence us releives itspo es-nr from th.' iiece-eitynf ltbnr,v undeir.ably enjoy a more general and equal pro-polity th in tli'i- or any other country ha ever hel'om kuovvii. There i of the .Nortli, and now very prevalent at the trade; hy the inr n ,i ii.i ...i if . j ... . ...r : ....... i . ...... ..-,., .v in it u, jiieirniig inn- omvii up uuu t our pa-l legi-lation, -an 1 arc nc loiiuni-irv, cominerco lo inanulacturL-, ex- ileeii'lent upon our pre-ent and fiiture action, cli mgo to production. Tuu error originited, I In all great qu !.--ion, of ,tate policy the fortunes ad, nit, with il-, hut wo hive renounced it ; while of thousand-aro at stike, ami tiie bread nf the tlio noiilli and e.-t.m ridiculing nnd rea-oinug citizen, tho lood of labor, is the Mibict of the ..,..,i,..i. I ....... I,. .......... ..i .i.n .. : . : I ..1..1 .. -v, , ; r 1 ."- Y: the countle-s invriids ...,.,,, inn , ineiuiiiio I-, not Willi us out ol it, Ji ue th 'm-e ves contracted it. uml wo hive exhibited the rare spectacle of oniio- sue p.iriie- co! verilllL' e.ic l ot Per. ' in Cm. urn orin tin icv u-.in h i e..t r.,r ...t;...,J l.,.. . " M necticut p -.Idler had become a cutler and weav-' wh i puticuliir p d.cy, all thi,r, con-idore'l, is - '01'"1!' 111 d'"2'' '"rt '"' er. The little Yankee sloop, that u-ed to double the l.!-t lor that ,plc which his ent us ed i - "";'V 1 . " th.- great capos, now carries brogans and negro welfare tonur hands, whichoiir le.d-I:itiou on- M,m-". ""l "', V ' , , ' " ij t,.i'i..pi.... i o ? . . . i. .... i. .i. I ,. . . r 1 our ih'oiio urn to return to the in- .. ....... ..... H., ,,.&,u,,(1,t alm ..ri n" i. iaiiuiiii.ui ii-.ieji, anu to which aione we. l.'iu'ill :is h.iri.l.itnr-. . ro rosiuiii.il.t.. 1 lie .-sotlttieril planter. Oil the other li.mil lew cIimih.o is inKeiitnn.il iiiu.n ,. . I..,,,., I i . .. turned jobber in 'loxas scrip and bonis of states lh.it it is recomineiided by the clearest rea-ons ol d.itibtlul .-oUeiiey, or siieciilile, as cotton of ju-ticu or expediency"; and nothing cm jus broker; and is enriched to day mid imiiuveri-hed , tify revolution, in policy for thosaki-o? memev. limn uiuvtii- oi e.xi-iini. hvienis are i .iv . .i.:.. . l.. .i,i " i no linn' "'" rrZ Z2, r, ,) ..1 . . c, cele-tialemi,ire;tl,elli..diK,lheniu-r.t..ofl)ic., t , , ,'iruV . LI, ,',,llor,,,ll,,Mlon,,f'1'0ill'eatl.v Arab tho roiice of Mocha; the i hem" lacy than to t,. Urifi vva., a-ked at our hands a-a measure Ikoi- M.(,lv nf Rlmi;l illul .mb.yni, of .hams l in in is to buy, V ''1 'l P''l''t- 'uumco and to private economy. u, , .'r j, t,. i;iifhnian the bro id- "'I'l;'" ' f, the mere ex- ;rgutr.ent, in b .tl. its ,,h ,-es, though often cltbs ., ,.llterv lrelU,ln, .M.,nche.-ter,and f Yi:tl.ovv I'.kow. A more remarkable acqui sition than the yellow 1'aiuny, not a sm ill straw colored species, which is only a spoiled white. but a. true yellow-colored plant, dtK-s not often occur. All that wo know for crtain ol it- In lory is, mti ti vv is receive un u-toti'r, isig. n tliogirdcnof t'n IIrti;ult.iral S riotv.from Mr N.de Ilirtwiss, tlu director of tin S'ikiti (iar den, in the Crinna ; that it is ju-t m n'i m ,-ii in the " hotidoii Journal of II itany," for A'iril, 1811, p.'207, by Dr. Ficlrr. of St, Petersburg, who, in a letter to Sir Williaoi II i ikor, tit ikes the following statement: ".Mr. Ilirtwiss has re ceived many intere-tiug plants from Abdiaria, sunt by Count il. Worontzoll. Among them lie has found a volhnv flowered P.eony, Epitno- ditim pinnitum (confined hitherto to T.i!y-ch alone) and Pinu Nord m inuiana, (an Abies,) .:a ... i... ol.. ...... .....i i. ...... tit. t ...... ii 1 dorstand that twenty-five guiti-as was demand"! forasini'le plant of it iu one of tin rre.it couti nental nur-eries. Tho sp"cie- h is much the ap-, to-morrow, by a ri-n or fall ol a farthing on the iieriment, in P'lrance of Paionia Crctica ; is quite hirdy, pound of Sea 1-landV in the mirket of Liver-' become intc win grow vviicro any otner I'.i-ony will grow, and flowers in May. At pre.-ent we brieve. , There ran lie no irrcater full that the plant iu the ginlen of the II irticiiltural 1 iomi that the proper vocation of Society is unuinu in this country. IS'i'ani-nl sell, and get gam, or that tradi Ueguter. chiugeol couiiii slaic, for each nth.-r nr i;,r n... u-ed hv per-ons profe.-edlv friendly to the imn S X Tt f l''lrl'c"'ar l"'"i'''. - -'"Ive tJI lcnll.jf. with the prosperity of ,ho-e inter5 nwnner of rai-ing clover, s to "ov U on tie ' T' uu,vt,m,M. lur il "''ile, but - well as with the counion weal in other wheat in February or March tho fo lovvine?ve r '"" ""carU" contingent to bo long relation. ; and it needs but a word to shew tint, mow the fir,t Sja relied on a, n sour,-., of national Wl,,lth. Tl5, f fiuauca results predicted from the niltu- the econd cn.p tor seed in the fall ; mow i n- 'j1 ':-'dered as an idu- ion oi mo lam. are o ..lined at all it can only goinalKout tl.ef.Mofthefollowin'r J ly ; lien .r""1:"""nl1' ,! l'roJt.clionot indeed crea-1 '''" utter pro.-tr.ition of the industry of t ,0 plough in the second crop deep, witl,i g ,,d tl1'1'. "'.u ll'oartl.c.al conversion of the crude com. ry, and all thova-t moral and phvMcal in- Slough and good lea,,,, ah,,,, the tL ,,f Septeni. "' '"'- tho cdemei.ts 6p,y, illl0 funlw terest, which depend ujs.u it. ber, and sow the wheat thereon !inui"diatoy l"1" '(1 1 . u"r"l-ineiit, the clothing, or other. The financial argument, the principle long (about two bushels jier acre,) and harrow well' UrV ,', i"U"' . l''0 ruu '"sis of all ciuotherisl, but now iivowed, tint duties are to with nt least two gocsl harrovviii"s; the putrI "t'-'llh, public ir privale, is not accuminiilatioii,1 bj not only imiosed, but arranged, solely with Cictive fermentation i set up up in the clover "r-""1"!."- "'" puree.- to swell a single u view to revenuo the duty on every article lu- tho f'rouud is thoroiigly caturutol and inoi-teu-si l,n;.'. l."l,t.ac,U!il -"Idition totJio general stock of ing fixed at ju-t that rate which will yield the witirthe gas; u rapid germination and growth i "'''' u'u"U!,'f.by drawing now mpplies from tho largest return to the treasury siipio-cs a per- takes place in lho wheat. Conducted in this torebou.-o a, re)sitory of our otual lluctuation. Tlieso duties aro to bo va way I ham never failed of having a grxsl crop ' c""'"1"'' mother-natiue, ' t ricd from time to tirno, to uvx-t tho wants of tho orVheat,tttid my land much improved by lho 0-l1er ll'ular error, and jwrhaps U.u great- (Joveriiui.-ut, and the demands of trade for par- dover Ifi't.ol all coiiuocU;dwiththis1,iihject, is the suie- ticular articles offoreign fabrication ; bul.accor- roBducted as ah.ve, the clover can be re- P""'!""1 th.it protective duties are neednl only ding tothe famous taritl'report of the Committee JZ nH irnctuated fdosired.-O.'ifo (;;,;' "rhe K-cur.ty, and asked only for the advan- of Ways and Means of the -th Congress, which newed and erpetuaieo, ii ue i,i u Q h() ln,ll)lllil(.tun, ,.,,. is ....j' i.Ho be still tin, o.xiKment 7,f tl.., vi,.. perbons directly engaged in tiie various proccs- of tho couimitteu renrling this bill, the varia tcs ol indu-trial converion is not very large und ' tion is ulvvays to lm iu one direction. A few though the amount of capital invested in nimiii. months since, when thorn was on ,,r.,l.,,t;, .nrlunr ammonia which would otherwise cvap-, facturus is great, jet as capital is entitled to of an exces of revenue, wo wero told that the IP' . - I m anA ufntnu. OlM -lltl Vft liriltj.e.t IOII linl v u.i.ltnn, .. I....:,! ..'.I I ....tl I... II .. AHttO and Wlien CXlfO-ou 10 iiioir-'.' - ---o i-t uui .uj'iuiiiu.ie uiiuaieuu -j.ii mu w iio,euieti oy a rctuicuon .. -.. j nf itself in about two object ol tho lostcrtiiL' tnvnnim.n,. nma, mLn pnenc , . ,,,,1,i.f.. nronorlv of char- Government, tho manufacturers are entitled In thn untoward .Mexican war I. Iil.lu in A.... I it will absorb gasea without chemical upecial favor, nuitliur for their numbers nor for a deficit, the President, his Secretary, and the his culliu f and a greater facility of supply, thin tho wid commerce ins cisewtierc Known. Tho minuficturing ylein is tho "grjat pa rent of intern il improvement. Tho facilities of tran. portalioti it demands and rewards, tiie cn cour.igemeni it L'iv,e to the exercise of mechin icil tileiit, to improvements in metallurgy and mo norhiug oi ni'iai, uie extensive tivdrau nc .. :,: ... h ive extended their sphere of action, an lliai an; n.iiuuu lu .oiu , , , . . , . i .1 . . . .1 ., ' V ' ,.!.! ! i,i..l ,1 .l-,i... fl. nl,l ..rri.hir nnd the diamonds lipueil ami unprovvu men proceses 10 u ni-gn-u nun uieir way 10 1110 lorcign con-umer; peace, ' " . .-... ........ .i-un- the gold of l ipliir an.u 10 u .111101 us , ' , 1 , . , ' ,,, ,ln. ,C . - , ,,-, : .,..,. P , .,' .' t 011th it can ex -t under a sv-tem of ooua biws 1 llllll WilMI'S " till-1 1 lUtlllll- t HI l"tnn-t lO'Mjii.' .-.- tiwt iil'ti rv -t III U Ulilfl .lll'l "MIS III 11 ' ! I 1 111 nnlu. tl) CM. ! nu- from tho ficonf the habitable glolie. Or- not bo alli-cted hy the tluctu itions of an uii-tab!o atidiHpial privileges, and makes all men seem. .1...... 1. ' niuint is no longer divorced from utility, an 1 currency. Foaci is noccisarv to n nviritier,. "hat in th-nwcot tholivv thoy are, eachothers' tinosimnlicitJ'cuibelli-hment is sought rather in the graceful that he may freely profit by thn conveyance of' lr"- I lie hiirope.au world is now exhibiting lllljsimpill.liv ., ,.., . . ... ? . i.-.i. .1 .... -, i ..,.... In'iiin, Hit evmnii !ie!ilenin I in . i... r i..,...i:.... nr.. .i. ....I.. ..l-.,,,, n(' il. ,,...,.. lonn nun iieaiiiiiui icxiure oi inn roiiiinoiii-iar- irnii mo maie-i il aim mo ciiuiraien priHiuci. , , - - t - - -v"...., It.'liiro nnv trreit I ... '.. i 7.. ... " i...... . .,.;.,,it.. ,,.t tides of dress or personal ti-e, thanin tha bril-. Peace is necessary to. tho agriculturist, who.uoncieso lie in iniit.icturing system, and nf tho I creaking ol the imnd,- ger grate harsh tlnmde and we shall know of g -ntle herds, and tin u riiuo i nut . . . , . . ,l . .. .1 - 1 I. . . . .. linn oi ni spill in, aim uie I pre-1 snnulles to the minufactiirer Ins ci tton. Ills wool ryelprocjl iiilliietico of xiudar institutions and T';Ta': . '.""icious'tnetals. These result" are strikingly in ' or hisbreadMulIs, and wh ., iu tin fai ure of the .- progre-s of the mechanic arts. In pro- nee inJt.ni I u the ciro acconiance with the social and political tendon-1 mechanical artisan, would lose his be-t cu-to- ,' lovver clas-es are emancipated and ,1 imie h r o ho lo" cv of the ago. The claims of' the masses are nier. 'l"ol " a IMrtacijMUon iu tho legal priviliges till , nut tall irs oi ma piougu. .' ....... ,- mm.. i.j i e..i - nt their Mioennrs. in mm tn r .o ,.. ..,,.. i . .til I.,;.,., it,,, till---in 1 t-i-ofthe ' recogm-ei , anu ino great aim oi uvvi.v niu-.in nm nu e ii KiinuwiBisra iwctnu u nnni i ; r - ..v ,ij, i will bring tiie si ks ant i a-o im f ... .,., ,,n,b ,.r ,i, ,,f,.,-,. .,..7.... ., .,o-f,.,,,iro social condition, in exterior annearane.. i ...,. Illll. M Ol I I IC. , I- SO III irillllO III" V-w.-l Ol- ...... ........... ...v, v, ...u i.,..v. .. -,-...i,.. . , . mu-II.l-Ol If it- i , , . ....... i ..e. I... r..... ..e .1.. i I .i..e. t.-ll cultivation no I nhv-sio 1 no, m,,,. ...... I.' llcce.-lol0 10 llie many insieiiii oi mo u-w. oi ine uiecnanic an, ii was once iiii-iuiii;iojii - ----- v.. j.. m... .,itv i nro calculated aceoriling tn the numbers of war to develope tho internal resource., of b "Pf t-ierelore, m tho elevation of the humbler pplicd at low rates of profit. The trim patrons ligercnt countries, to give a spring to every I raiih- ormgs nevy patronage to tho-e whoso busi il..., iniilaetiirernm the ixior: andtlio weav- branch of industry, to call out the liiL'hc-t ex-1 !'-' ' is to supply the co.nl'irts a id elegance of or. w ho can secure to hiin-elf the supply of the crci-e of mechanical ingenuity, Tho armorer,! ''te. On the ctlKr ban i.tuMneciianical arts, by humblest garment of the lowest elis by that the cutler, and the boivyer, were th.) mo-t im- c loiicninganii ilis.-emitiit ng ;..cc mifortsand h-t of mnoiolies, the cheapest price travels jiortint of artizans. All tho known resource- ' b'gaiice.s and brinj.i ig them wiunnti.e rea"ch of a surer read to wealth, thin the lapidary who of mechanics were exhausted in engines of at- ull clas-es alike, insure tha inf r.or rails v. it i an furnishes the jewels for a crown. A imilar tick and defence, tho principal early improve- anient de-ire toequil in privilege those whm change has taken place in the character and ob- ments in the ca-ting ami tempering of metals, they rival in the mean- of iiiitcnal euji yuieiit, jecls"of our commercial cnterpri-e. Accicnt in ship building, in mining, in con-truction ifj l hc-o art-, therefore, are the great propagators commerce -erved only to Mippiy me niuies ami roausanu can u-, in pyroiei iiinc ii riieun-uy , iiniij -" " . .nu men auao in rxr mats, 1 no oni uavigiiors m complicated and poweiiui mecnanicai cottiri- "s' im-m mu s mio niysic u eiegauc 'S and ic- mi. ....... l. 1 i... 'i e. ...:i:... i i, ...... .,- nl.,.1. I. ..Vila.. .I:.!-... ... i ..." tail8r. A Hint to Farjieus. cpaj among your manure. -Throw refuse char Charcoal has tho ab- WVIN. SaJ, that it will absorb gasea 1. n... o I.. .11, ti.a uninnnt nf I heir in,..l.A...,. II... .... -..II r... .. i....f. . .. OfBancv tit tiie amount ol tour iimi-s iwnwn umn ---.. ... ....miiviiwi. om jiroieu- tu.iiiiiivit-u, .m i'ii iuuuuuoii, ujcanse, mey ihf.iKnitv for thn ammonia of a manure Uun u asked lor manufactures, not for tlio take bay, it will add soma six millions to tin, rcvmiue. jj of those u'ono wh,nri-nnni'.dntely cmployH in and must accordingly, though they do not sty it, Itinninf-'iam-. tho Frenchniin the silks nivl rib bons of i'n vence ; tin Portngeeo th" generous witnsof Opirtonul Mid.-ira, mil glally ex chitige them all for tho turnips and sitatoes of .Maine, the cotton of South Carolina, and the In dian corn of the valley of the Mi-sis-ippi. Ihen il,. i iniliironoiis luxuries of America will grad- ,, ., , r....:.... r..:.r lltllil tilil,' . itiiiy win mi ir way m .o.viK.. ". . ,,.. ,. - ri..,, shall every where -supp am vviu our '"'. llUirbt anil more accessible routes to the vances, were devised for military purpo-os.' imements, aboh.h vi-ib!o dillbiencos, a;-d urti- aims mm iu, ions iriuu- ,i. . . ..... - thofori-eous product" of the Ea-t, and Uut since the era of the practical application' nci U distinction- cannot long stand tliirground. stowed on other climes, ino lenue i em- u. - ,ri,i ,l ,.,, f ,.;.. , thn nets, war is li.-c.otno tho on nil i Thc.-O arts are nion'owr tin, disi elisors of cliiti- I." ....I IT..II.. nn l Cnmi'lliv- Illlll I nilll-n. oi""K". ll m " e V. . . ' . . I VI . ., . . . . ' ... "'"..'" "" -V-- .:,.... nnd nearl, and snice- and r !' . " u. "Il- fl STtX .e ot Me hand t ,a which thev retail'ed at prices beyond the ...ems taught tho soldier how to refine and mingle "I IIV.IIL. riltl, .......j - , scorns tn pluck it. Tho Clnno-e will abandon his bird s ne-ts and insopiuiii lor sau-arsiuuu, Ti. Ii , ,,r,.,,t illil'.reneo in the funda-1 ker of razors and penknives h.i. oiinn to ilmt the nivi"ation or other carriage tlievcncoiirige. ni-ntal organization of manufacturing indu-try. I common sword blade tho rare temper of L)a-'They benefit the ioor indirectly, by withdrawing It has i iu-l ted indi' herring an 1 tobic-o; tho hog and liouniony of tho we-teni s putter will expel tho mist-beef and plum-pudding of old bngianu; urn .tcipim tan l.uzarnne will loathe hit macaroni, and af fect hoecako; the Frenchman turn from garlic an I frogs Miupo miagro, and cry for Weathers field onions and Vankee baked pork and beans ; tho West Indian will reject the ctherial juices of tin plantain, the pineapple, the brcadfuit, tho du r'oa, and the chirimoya, and feed on gross cod fish and iotitoos-, tlio llusnan will cease togur zlo the insipid quass, and henceforth sip mi bav erign but tho t uro Monongahcla ! This is, in deed, a somewhat poetical version of the Secre tary's vaticinations, but it i every whit as une ami as probable. Truly, Mr Chairman "The earth hath bubble.!, too wwr tout , And the k te of ihem " Hu there arc eoino matter-offset statistic! lit I'fiev furnish the ior, in the con-true- of any but'tlio wealthiest clas-es ; but now every itign-dients sf gunpowder; the studious natural . 'ion of the buildings, the hydraulic work-, ortho -luniiiat cm-Mis the ocean i freighted cbielly i philosopher has discovered the laws which reg- engines they require, and of the macliininery with nierchandii-e fertile u-o of tho million. 1 ulato the (light of military projectiles ; the nu-' they drive, in tho various proce-ecs they ue, and iurs a mw b?como emtnonliy a social pnrsuii, miscus ami loieuo; mo Pilllder ot steam en-! "vai laoor irom rurui uiiiii,iikihs j lead of lieingthe private occupation ol isoia. , (rme.- lias invented improved modus of casting i a demand lor agricultural products anu raw lira- iidu lis or families. Tins is partly tho and boring heavy ordnance, and, by the applica- tenals; by cheapening in price, aim improving f thn nirn-reirative spirit of i.i idem times, tion of f team as a nronellimr mvr. indennnd-l ill convenience, durability, and finish, tne im- which lias contrived to reconcile cninmonity of ent of winJ nnd current, has given new ctlicien- plenients of rural and domestic toil, and even by . ...L !.. i:. .: i.. .1 r ...I..... ..r .a. I . . ... i e . T 19 I . . i: ... : ......... , ........ ....... l. ,1... .... aim and niirnoso wun iiiiihuh" m vu .v I J..I..1 -...1 nnrll.. .Inn ,n ,,in inl tion and opinion, and partly duo to the introduc tion of jwwerfulnnl coinplicited machinory. In gaueral, tho conversion of tho raw in aeri al into forms biiited tn human use is elljctcd by a scries of di-tinct processes, somo of which may bo performed by m icliincry, while others require the aid of the hand. A machine, whoso action is e.nnlinod to a single process, often posses the powttr arid porfonns tiie work of a great number 'of iron. The next rtp mty b; -mo "f mrc c to navil wirfate. leading to important improvements m tne pro- ltis iu theso pursuits so peaceful in them- cesses of the hiisUindinan. Agricultural clietn selves, that tho wisest modern nation's havo found itry, of which wo hear so much, had it genn the sinews of war. They have changed tho in the shop of a chemical maniilactiirtrj and lulanco of power by tlio creation of new ele- one such laboratory as tlio chemical works of incuts of financial as well as physical strength. Roxbury is worth more. botJi to scienco and la Where now i the iiower of comuiercial Spain, all useful art, than a hcoro ot prefe.-ror.;, though that in tiie sixteenth century mado the world maintained by Uio munificence of a Mn.Uisou. tremble? Whero is that of trading HollanJ, The improved quality of American in.uirue. which after havina extorted from ajSin tho uc- turct.and tiie Y'LtVL meh h, ImowlHgem-ntorhcr indpendejic. ret Enp- forttn raw material, havp not Isv m hi much in-