Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, October 16, 1846, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated October 16, 1846 Page 1
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voii. xx. io. is. Whole n. iMr. ihrmxtoa, fkiday morxiiscj, ocioitinc 10, wnw si.isii.s, ivo. 10 IJUllUNGTON FREE PRESS, Published nt nnrliiiElon, Vt lly I). Y. C. CIiARKC, Editor and Proprietor. Ter mil To Village subscribers who rciicivc the pnper by (he enrner $3,00 If piid in advance . . 2,50 Mail nlcrilT nnd lhoe who tnkc it nt the (Mice, inv.irhhly, 2,00 Advertisements inerlcd on the customary terms. From The Tribmie. to s.vjiunr. i.ovi:h, esq. " Crad mile Failtc" Am. lnil ! from tin country of sorrow nnd wrons;. At whos- shrine the. lirt fruits of nfTcctinii thou pliable.! ; In tlii"hl of her f.enhi, her Music, unci Sonpr, Mii"l thine own ever sliine as the purest and bright est. In lhe land of Columbia, fnr, far from her shore, Slay the "on ot thine own, to their honor, discover How proudly they vnhie h r l!"itv O'.M. sc.' How fondly they think on the name of her Loveu ! What visions ol Freedom enraptured thy soul, On reachim; the land of a Wamiinoton's (dory ; Lcssd-nalim; and bright is the Uah of the pole, Thin the halo that circles the page of his story. Alas! lint a rloud should o'ershndow his tomb Tint Liberty's footsteps should weary or falter. Or rabid Intolerance cover with gloom The hearts nnd the land that gave Freedom nn nltar. T un thine own native soil that cave soul to the strife In Peril's dark hour, with bold heart and strong arm; SSliU dauntless as ever, anil reckless ol me, Was she ever found in the brunt of the storm. Kirn now 'mid that strile lloats the banner of creen. Willi ' Old Itoinjlinnd Ready' his perils to share in; And il in tlie battle n traitor nc seen, A'o natirei is he of the grecn-bosomeil Erin. Tlii-uhiil! beloved son of once proud1 Innisfnile! What joy tills the soul to behold our own ' Andy!' Knrlnre. and for Innehter. and fun. I'll no bail The wide world well knows 'I is yourself that is Handy.' Cold, cold must tin- heart of ibe Irishman lie Tint feels not n thrill of the loudest emotion : Then " ceail mile, l.iilte, a eushlaniachree," To the exiles ufjr from the Isle ol the ocean ! J. O. D. Gen. Taylor. t An Iiislunan must feel just pride that the accusa tion of desertion, cowardice or treachery, is utterly erouiidless, and that, under every species of calumnv, lie is slill Irue to the home of his adoption. Vide Lieut. Walker's Note of explanation and vindication. New York, .Sept. 2S, Hid. From Jerrold's Magazine. MINT. IS THINK. Mine is thine, and thine i mine Such is Love's most holy sinn ; When the mother's bosom bare tiivclh milk lo baby fair; When the niling inlant's cries l.rillg tears lo lb- luolher'seyes; Smile for smile, nnd eye for eve, Tear for lear, and i,'h for sigh ; Then appears the ray divine Mine isilime.and thine is mine. Mine i iliine. and lliine is mine Knell is L"V e's inn-", holy sb'll : When the lover lakes his brnle. Each hill -hire the same fireside, llaeh lb' blni' sky overhead, Each the board and each the bed, Knelt the ni'ihtand each the day, I' u'h ibe lod and each lhe play, I'ulse to puli and start for start, Ileal fir beat auj bt-iri lor In-art ; Thus thv show the law- divine Mine is thine, and thine is mine. Mine is thine, nntl thine is mine Sueh is I.ovc's most hnlysiijn ; When the members of the Stale Children lire of .Mother great ; tine in heart, and one in hend, Like two lovers ripely wed ; When they each hnll share as one. Mornim; red and evening dun, ilncli the tp nle and ench the lute, I Inch lhe work and each the fruit, Ihch the eoinmon table spread, Kaeh lhe blue sky overhead j Then shall rule the law divine Mine is thine, nnd ihiucis mine. iTariu. From the Rochester American. Interesting F.xpciimentH in Wheat Culture. USE OF llOtlS-SlIAVISGS, LEAGUED ASHES AND SALT. The following is a report of experiments made by Samuel Davidson, of Greece, in this county, published in the recent volume of transactions of the N. Y. State Agricultural Society: About tho middle of June, 1814, I finished breaking up a field containing nine acres, (chain ed;) harrowed tho same about the middle of July, and about four weeks after dragging, I cross ploughed thosamo; after ploughing, 1 harrowed St again, and nn tho 10th September I finished ploughing the third and last time ; after which, 1 divided the field into six parcels, of which the following is a diagram, and treated as hereinaf ter mentioned : .So. 0 contains 330 square rods. 10fi bushels & 1 1 pounds. Tart Hint and part bearded Tit-cmy, No. 3 contains 153 square rods. 3(1 bushels, -17 pounds. No. a contains JM square rods. IJ bushels, 32 ioiitids. All Hint All flint No. a contains 315 square rod. 17 bushels. All bearded Tuscany. No. I contains l'.Mi square rods. 21 bushels, 20 pounds. No. 1 contains 210 square rods. 37 bushels, 20 Hunds. Part flint and part beardpd Tuscany, All flint. No. I. No. 2. i ll'rs. Sowed as abow prepared. I put on sixteen bushels horn shav- No, 3. I put ten bushels horn shavings and fifty bushels leached ashes. No. I. I put fifty bushels leached ashes. No. a. 1 put 100 bushels leached ashes and one barrel of salt; and on No. !. 1 put ono hundred bushels leached ashes, one barrel of salt, and twenty bushels of horn shavings, 1 hu above wcro all applied fo mo groiiuo neiuru mo wncat was sowed. On tho 1'Jth of September, I sowed my wheat, which was all well bruu-il and limed, and nil harrowed the day it was sowed ; and on tho 7Ui day of July last, I commenced harvesting tho above, (which was fully ripo for the sickle,) and in harvesting, putting in tlio barn, thrashing. measuring and weighing, Iho several iarcels were kept separate aim tno prouucis or each !j .nlin ltd (trrttuir d;if-i ill tin nlti..k .U.. ill I U is m-hii j--- -si ...v u"m inn' irrillll. Tho u'hole expense- of salt, nshes, and horn shavings, was tight dollars and forty-fivo cents, on tho ground; two days' work with a team, in spreading lhe ashes, threo dollars which was none Willi a MIOVOI nnuoui oi un tan i ijiiu u-ij sowing Iho f-alt ami horn thaving, seventy-fivo rents. Tho wholo amount ol extra exiense, (from tho usual course of fallowing without man uro,) does not exceed tweho dollars and twenty- live cents. Tim two varietiesof wheat, tho flint and lieanl rd Tuscany, as remarked in lhe diagram, weigh ed as lollous; I' lint til Hjuililalo uiu uiimivi, uuu j uscdiiuy bo pounds As inucli lias been said in agricultural iour-1 nals nliout guano, anil its fertalizing properties, ascertained from analysis, I liavo cotno to the conclusion tliat ovory farmer may tinko some tons a year ol aneriial lortaliiier, and at a trilling expense per ton, comparcil tn gnano. Within tlie last Iwelvo months, I have prepar ed and appticd several tons with satisfactory re sults, unc instance l will here stale, alter Id ling tho manner of preparing the above mention ed substitute. To one barrel of human urine, I add six pounds of sulphate of magnesia, after dissolving the salts I mix this with as much dry gypsum as will form a mass about the consistency of leached ashes ; of this I apply three bushels per acre, to grass or ploughed land. On Iho first of May last, I commenced plaster ing with drv piaster a field of six acres, fold meadow ;) on the first acre I put three bushels of nry piaster j tno next two acres i put tno nhovc preparation three bushels per acre ; on tlie bal ance ofthc field I put dry piaster, tl rre bushels per acre; I then turned the sward over and pre pared it with tho harrow for corn, and planted it. When tho corn came up, I put dry plaster over the whole alike, and tilled it alike. The last of September 1 chained off an acre of that which had tho compound on, nnd another beside it of equal qualitv ol soil, and each were husked scp arate: the first yield was one hundred and twen ty-two bushels, and the other ninety. So my thirty-two bushels did not cost to exceed one cent per bushel. Greece, Monroo county, N. Y. To Preserve (i rapes. At a recent meeting of tho New York Far mer's Club, Dr. Underbill read a private letter irom a gentleman ol mat city, recounting his ex pcrioncc 'm prcemng grapes in wheat bran, kiln-uricd. which had proved perfectly satisfacto ry. Dr. U. stated that lie had nut tin 100 nounds of Isabella grapes in the bran, and sent them to .viouuc. Aliouttwo months afterward, lie learn ed that they reached their destination perfectly sound. Tho next year ho tried the same experi ment again, and failed, on account of tho bran not having been kiln-dried. The Doctor said that fruits could be preserved ill almost any sub stance which is perfectly dry, so that it may ab sorb tho moisture ol the fruit. After being pack- oil, fruits or vegetables should of course be kept in a spot as cold as possible without freezing the temperature should not be lower than .10 de gree nor higher than 35. Rochester Amcri-an. From the Ohio Cultivator. Model I'n nn in Ohio. The model farm of this state contains ono bun dred acres, seventy-live of which are well clear ed and the whole under fence. Sixty acres aro emuracco in one enclosure, anil this includes all the arable and meadow land upon the farm. The niuminirs are all ol stone, neat. dumb e am com modius. 'flic dwellinir is not l.irire, but capa cions enough for the use of the family aliil room and a bed or two for an occasional friend. The kitchen and the stables are supplied with water from tlie same spriiiL'. No stock but hoys and sheep are permitted lo graze. The cattle and horses are constantly kept in theirst.ilN, and are always in "ood order. The cows aro at all times fat enough for tho butcher, and-tho grow ing siock at two years old attain tho wemlit ol ordinary steers at four. During the summer they aro soiled with ureen food, consequently iwcmy ncres in (rrnss is suuicieni to Keep lour horses and ten cows with their offspring, until the young stock nro ready for tho market ut threo or four years old, when they average him thirty dollars per head. Of these ho makes it a ioiut to sell ten head a year. For his slock lie raises one aero of roots, sugar-beets, inanglc-wuzzle and turnips, each year, which yield him on an av erage nliout fifteen hundred bushels. On com he cultivates five acres a year, which by proper culture and judicious rotation, yields liim five hundred bushels. Five acres in wheat give yearly one hundred and fifty bushels. Five acres ol oats three Hundred hulicls. He has an orchard of oiirht acres, in which ho has two hundred apple trees, twentv-l'ne near. twenty-five plum, one h indred ieacli, nnd fifty- live cherry trees ; tins is divided into four com partments of two acres each. Two of these he ploughs up every year and in the spring plants them in Jerusalem artichokes. Hero he keens bis hogs. In the two that are not ploughed ho has a clover and orchard crass lev. in which tho swine feed from the middle of May to the first of liuiisi. wuen i lev aro lei into mm nt tho ot-ti. choke yards, and this till winter, when they aro passed into the second artichoke yard, where they are kept till tho gras has sufficiently ad vanced in one of the fields to turn them into that Thus upon grass, roots, and fruit, the swino aro kept so thrilly that a few bushels of era in are sufficient to mako them ready for the butcher. 111 Ibis way ho niannoes to kill thirty boirs o mar. which will average lOOjwimds each, lie gives them beet wintering. His sheen raniro principally in the woods, with asmall past nro of live acres. Hu keeps seventy five licad, which yield him 300 lbs. of wool'a year. As this l.irmerhas raised a largo family, and raised them all well, having given each child a good practical education, I was curious to look inn. ins itu-iirs , nun as no Keens a reiruiar ac count current of his transactions, it gave liim no trouble to inform meoftlio result ofhis mode of proceeding, which is briefly as follows : I'KOPL'CT OF THE FARM, 10 head of cattle, averaging $30 jier head, 8300 25 hogs, at $12 per head 300 20(1 bushels of Corn, ut 25 cts. per bush . 50 l'roduct of sheep 100 lo ol Hairy 200 do of orchard Other and smaller crops 300 100 81,300 Average cost of hired labor jer annum, 300 1,050 Thus, from ono hundred acres of land, even in Ohio, this man has been ublu to lay by and in vest an interest, on an average, 500 a year for tho lat twelvo years. Who has done better on a farm of one hundred acres ? Of course, like others, ho has suffered somew hit from imfavor-1 work has londoiie,aiidf.ir greaterprogres has ' gcr, he was Moved by all who knew him. able seasons, in somo of his crops, but his correct "een made, than wo should have deemed msihle There was a gentleness about liim nnd purity of system of culture, ami intelligent management, under Iho circumstances of Iho case, Thu main I feeling Iho life ofa camp could never destroy, generally mako up for every loss experienced employment of the prisoners is novy.and of course Napoleon loved him for through all tho clian from Ibis source. , must for somu time continue lo be, tho comple- 1 gos of his tumultuous life hu hail ever found his His system of saving and making manure l'11" f Iho buddings of tho establishment. Their affection and truth tho same and it was witlinn turns every thing to the improve.iient of his soil ultimate labor is to botho digging of ore and man-1 anxious heart and sad coiiutenanco he entered I. Z. t.- . .1 ..ll-.l ..f t - . i . I. ..CI A ....!.. I! .... .. .... ... ... vveeus, usues, iiiu uiiai oi ms siock, soapsims, hones and every thing that will (i-nd to enrich it is cureluliy saved and properly applied. Tho history of this man is brief, hut to tho far mer, interesting. IIo liegau with tho patrimony of gooJ sense, sound health and indii-lrious liali its. Excellent so far. In 1830 ho bad 3000 in cosh. Ho bought his farm in a statu of nature, in 1330, for which ho paid 8 100. Ho exK'iuled 8 100 more in clearing his land, in addition to his own labor. He first put up a f cmporary cab in, into which ho moved his family. Ono thou sand dollars he put out at permanent annual in terest, and the remainder, with theearlicr profits of Ins larm, ho appropriated to tho erection of his building, which was completed in 1831. In tlin snl.if-llnn nfliis fruit lut emu. lit llinls.st varities, whiclmlvvaysgavo him tlio "preference in the market. So ofhis ttock. Everything that he docs is done well. l.vcrything he sends to tho market commands tho highest price, be cause it is ol tho host Kind. In his parlor is a well selected library of some 300 volumes, nnd tho booksare rend. He lakes one political, one religions, and two agricultur al papers, aniline North American Review ; rc- luses all ollices, anil is, Willi Ins family, a regu lar attendant on church, and a pious, upright and conscientious man. He is tho peace-maker in his neighborhood, and the chosen arbiter in all their disputes. Ho loans his money at six per cent, and will take no more. IIo says ho wants no more land tor Ins own use than ho can well cultivate no more stock than he can keep well. He is a model of a man and a farmer, and has tho model of a farm. Who will bo happy and follow his example-? From the Courier and Enquirer. Clinton Count)- I'rlsnn. Some weeks since, durinir a brief inid-snm- mer sojourn in Vermont, wo took occasion to visit the State Prison newly established in Clin ton county, of which Mr. Ransom Conk has hud and still has tho management, under tlie direclion of the State authorities. o saw so much there to interest us, that wo deem some brief ac count of it likely to interest nt least a portion of our readers. Crossing the lake from llurlington and remaining at l'iattsburgli over night,wo start ed at an early hour in the morning upon a horse back rido to tho site of tho new establishment, which is alwvc seventeen miles west from l'iatts burgli. For most of tho way the road lies along the channel of the Saranac, which, taking its rise in the wild region whence flow at once, in exactly opposite directions, tho Hudson and the Racket rivers, runs northeasterly and then dis charges its waters info hake Chainplain. Its up per branches flow through dense forests which bear only tlie woodman's axo nnd tho hunter's rillo: and at various points along its course, immense quantities of logs have accumulated, that have been floated down from their native woods, to be sawn into timber and sent to market. About 13 miles from l'iattsburgli, the road to tlie prison strikes directly north from the main route, and leads first through rough fields and then thro' a dense forest to tho little settlement of D.mne mora, which has grown up around tho prison and the iron works winch, previous to its erection, were already established there. Tlie new penitentiary is thus situated in the heart of the forest, out of which an open space has been cut, just large enough for the special service to which it is devoted. A little more than a year ago Mr. Cook, under the direction of the state government, took about a humlred con victs from Sing Sing and Auburn, into this for est, and set them to work, first, in clearing off a spot lor the erection of a prison. He had no' building in which to confine tlicin, and erected a long, low shanty, made by driving posts into the earth and nailing upon them rough boards, which with an equally simple roof, limned not only their sole defence from the elements, but the on ly walls between thejirisoners and freedom. with tho aid of about half a ifozeTTiieencrs. Mis Conk nevertheless kept them securely, taking them out lo work during the day, chaining them at night, and treating them at" all times with kindness and as men. In this way ho succeeded gradually in winning their cunlidcnce ; and fin ally rclvund them enlinly from thrir irons, tel ling them that ho lielieved they all felt it to lie for their interest to obey tho regulations, to lichave themselves well, and, when their time came, to leave the prison honorably, rather than hazard their lives in attempts to escape, which were al most certain lo lie defeated. They slept in runs two or three feet apart, with a hoard petition some two feet high between them and an open hall thru' Iho center between tiic 2 ranks. Along tliis hall the keepers paced in their watches. Plots for escaping were by no means wanting, and many of them involved the murder of their keepers. Hut they wcro all foiled by theaddrcss of the Siiperintendaut. In most eaes, when more than three or four wcro concerned in them, some one of them would jmiek : and tho plot was allowed to go on until those engaged in it wcro detected by somo act of their own, when tho leaders wcro sent to tho dungeon and the rest warned against their examplo and their fate. In one instance somo 15 or 20 of tho convicts had formed a plot to rise in tho night, murder their kecers, rob tho Superintendent's ollice and then cscaiie. It was betrayed, but allowed to go on until fhedayappointed for its execution, when all the convicts were collected and told by Mr. Cook that he was awaro of the whole thing, that he knew the uell-disimsed among tlie prisoner would be more than a match for the disaflected, in any attempt to do liim injury, and that he in tended on the spot to search every one among them! Ho did so no resistance was made and upon tho persons of ten or fifteen convicts were found large stones which they had picked up while out at work, and tied in tlie ends of tho towels they always carry. These were taken away from! Iiem ; tho ringleaders were sent nlTl to piini-hment ; tho rest ery seriously but kind ly admonished ; and everything went on again quietly anil in timer. Thu work advanced with a good deal of rapid ity ; and by the arrival of cold autumnal weatb er, a spaco ot somo live or six acres nnd neon cleared away and surrounded by a high picket lenco, and a stom liiulding Had luen erected fur their comfortable confinement during thu win ter. From that time forward tho work has gone on very rapidly indeed; and at tlie time of our v isit a long and very elegant stone prison hail been built, with two tiers of cells, ono ahovo the other, uism tho inside of a vvidohall rutmiiiL' en tirely around the building, lighted from this hall, iiiriiisneu wuii iron ueu-teaus, secured nya new and apparently fnmrcgiiablo kind of lock, and in every respect tuny equal, and m somo decidedly I superior, to those of" any other prison wo have ever visited, ui tneso enough aro already pro- ! vided for about 250 prisoners ; and it Is intenled lo erect, as soon as Kissible, another building of! thosamo ciii.icities. A largo chapel has been 1 built, where Iho convicts are assembled for vvor-) ship. A hospital has lieeu provided for tho-o who are sick ; a building has been erected for tho various mechanical iqieratioiis that aro car- riedon; a machino shop, driven by steam, has I been put up and a much greater amount of iii.iiiuru oi ir i nui m uru runs uirecuy iiirougu tno yam, wuicii uas nueauy necn exci - vitcil lo some extent, nod is Mieved to bo by somo.quito inexhaustible. Others think it will soo'i bo exh mstod. Tho quality of tho ore which it yields, at ill events, H unimpeachable. was singular, Tlio ground rises as it recedes 1 IIO V ieW Oil St-llll-M IIO V I1AIU III! WIU IUIBOU from tho road, so that wo had ut onco a view of Iho whole yard. Tho largo gates stood wide oien, scattered alsiut tho yard were groups of moii at work, somo hewing stone, others drilling1 rocks for blasting, ami others lalsiriug upon tho walls, while occasionally a blast uihiii a born would warn all in tho vicinity of a c ig blast, 'I'ho men seemed to 1m at work entirely at their own discretion, conversing freely among tbeui - ' selves, leaving tho yard wlienover their lalmrs required, and in all rebjuicts tave tho uniform dress, appeared like tho ordinary free laborers who were at work among them. In two or three sentry lioxes at different points in the yard, were visible guards with loaded muskets, two of whom also watched ut the gate. Several over seers also superintended the labor of tho different groups; but there appeared to be very liltlo of restraint or compulsion in the cac. The pris oners nil seemed cheerful and labored steadily, nnd apparently with good will. We were told that escapes were very seldom attempted now; that several had been severely wounded by shots from tho guard while making such attempts: that others had succeeded but been soon retaken; and that cases had occurred in which tho prison ers, unable to find anything to eat in the dense forest surrounding the prison, had voluntarily returned to its walls. These mishaps have had adecided effect upon the prisoners, to detcrthem Irom making similar courts. And the peculiar management of tho Superintendent, in treating Ihcm kindly nnd considufritcly, Vn avoiding se vere punishments except in extreme cases, in never Hogging hut when nothing else will prove effective, in teaching the convicts, allowing them bonks in their cells, lecturing tliein upon moral topics upon the sabbath, nnd other measures of a similar kind, is said lo have inspired them with great respect for him, and to have disposed them to follow his directions and obey his authority with very implicit confidence. Alter rambling over tho prison grounds and examining the buildings, &c, under the courte ous and instructive guidance of .Mr. Charles Cook, whoso father was then ill at Albany, we crossed Ibe road In the small tavern wheni din ner was preparing. Upon entering the room, uo found a lady reclining upon the sofa, conver sing fatuiliaily and very intelligently with a large, muciihfr man, of round features pleasant manners, and an agreeable address, but clad in prison uniform. A young man, the only other Person present. sat by and occasionally took nart in the conversation, which clearly indicated that the apparent convict was a physician, and that theladv in question had come thither to place her self under his prol'es-ional care. Tiicy spoke of mutual friends, of tho characteristics ol flic place, the incidents ol the journey, ivc, and to a remark from her companion that on his way thither lie just missed some friends whom lie would have been glad to see, tlie lady asked if lie would real ly have been pleased to see them. ' Certainly,' lie replied, wliv lint " Uli, said she, " your position now is so humiliating that I should think you would rathershuntliuninectvnuruldfriends.' "Oh no." ho renlied. "thorn's I'lothlorr lininll!:i. ting about it ; it's unfortunate to be sure, but nothing more. Alter a half hour s conversation lie took his leave und walked into the prison yard. Wo learned upon inpniry that this was Dr. Houghton, thu somewhat notorious liig 'I'liiinil-r

ofthe Anti-Renters, whose sentencoof death for tho share ho lioro in the murder of D.'puty Sher iff Steele, was commuted by the Governor to im prisonment for life. Hu lipjiearcd perfectly at ease intelligent, mild and agrecablein his man ners, am! f.ir more liken zealous, impetuous en thusiast than a deliberate criminal. IIo has been made chief nur-e in tho hospital, the duties of vv'hichTTo UJehargcs with great fidelity and a good degree of sk"T.liu ;?-i':!.'!!lt'lp-'inly in Ids deportment, and perfectly obedient to the regu lations of tho prison. 'I'ho lady w itb whom bo wiib conversing, wiu Ins wiio w-uo ii.ui jhm reached tho sceno ol Im ignominious punisn- ment. Wo left tho orison with most favorable impres sions of the manner in which its "concerns aro managed. Tho convict have cert linlv iierform- ed an immense amount of labor, and "have been kept under very admirable control by the Super intendent. Mr. Cook's method of "discipline is much milder than usually obtains in our penc tentiaries. He does not'iilirely reject Hogging, but confines it to extreme ca-cs, in which noth ing ele will answer, and substitutes for it tlie dungeon in other cases. Hut in general ho ap peals to Iho moral sen-o and solier judgment of me convicts; laKesnamsto instruct them; al lows them booksiutlieircells: encouraires them to study and read ; lectures tliein fiiuiliariy upon practical topics ; takes occa-iou to show them that ho trusts and puts confidence in them ; and in various other ways substitutes n moral control fir the force upon which alone hitherto reliance h is been placed. At the same time ho very ju diciously avoids the extremes to which the fa- n Uical reformers of thu day would carry this prin ciple, and unites the two methods of discipline w ith a good deal of skill andjipparcutly, thus f.ir at least, with complete success. Ho seems to lie admirably qualified lor tho very resnon-iblo no- sition in which he has lieen placed, and under his direction wo aro confident the new prison will more than justify tho expectations of tho public. N.vi'or.nov. We make the following highly inlerestinj extracts from ibe second volume of " X.vrot.r.ov niul ms Mak siivi.s," by J. T. IIi:vdm.v. Mr. H'.s diss-riptionsof Unties arc lhe most graphic, and powerful we have ever seen. PEATII OF ni'ROC. NaiHileou's greatest mi-fortuue, that which wounded him deepest, was the death ofhis friend Duroc. Ashe nude a list elliut to break the enemy's ranks, and rodo again to tho advanced Kists to direct tho movements of his army, one of his ecorts was struck dead by his" side. Turning lo Duroc, ho said, " Duroc, file is de termined to have ono of us to-day." Soon after, as ho was riding with his suit in a rapid trot along thu road, a cannon b ill suioto a treo bo-ido liim, and glancing, struck General Kirgener dead, and tore out tho entrails of Duroc. Napo leon was ahead at tho time, and his suite, four abreast, behind him. Tho cloud of dust their rapid luovemeuts raised around them, prevented him from knowing at lic-t who was struck. Hut when it was told him that Kirgener was killed and Duroc wounded, ho dismounted, and gazed long and sternly on the battery from which the shot had been 'fired ; then turned towards the cottago into which the wounded marshal had been carried. Duroc was grand mirslnl of tho palace. and n bosom friendof tho Emperor. Ofa noble and generous character, of unshaken integrity and tiatriotism. and lino ns stool in tho hour iifd.ui. mo lowly cottage wliero lio I iy. Iliscyeswere . idled with tears u ho usked il there was hojio. When told that there was none, ho advanced lo i Iho hcd-hlo without saying a word. Tho dying marshal seized him by tho hand ainl said, ' My whole lifuhas been consecrated loyour service, and now my only regret is, lint I can no hmgei lw useful lo you." " Duroc !" replied Naoleoii with a voice choked with grief, "there is ano ther life there you trill a trail in, and we shall meet again." "Yes, sire," ronliod tho fainting null'crer, " but thirty years sli ill first iiass away, I..... on t. . i .' .v' and ivti jin, ..iiiiiiivu in iiiupueii over y our enemies, have endeavored tuba an honest man ; I'liavo ( nothing with w hich fo reproach myself." IIo i then added, vvilh a falterim' voice," 1 haiea I danghUr ;ijour majesty mil h' t A, Najiolcon grasped his right hand, u r lo her.' und titling down by the bedside, and leaning his head on his left hand, rem titled with closed eves a quarter or an hour in profound silence. Dimic first spoke. Seeing how deeply Ilomparto was moved, he cxclaiTncd, " Ah ! sire, Icmrwr; this sprclaclr lutins yon .'" Tho stricken Ihnperor roe,nnd leaning on lhe arms of his equerry and Marshal Soult, left tho apartment, saying, in heart break ingtouesns lie went," 1irni rll.lliin,7wjfrinid!'' The hot pursuit he had directed u moment be fore was forgotten victory, Irnphies, prisoners and nil, sunk into utter worlhlcsms,niid ns at the battle of Apcrn, when Lunnes was brought lohim mortally wounded, ho forgot even his army, and the great interests at stake. He or dered his tent to bo pitched near the cottage in wlncli Ins Iricnd was Hying, aim enienng n, pissed tho night all aloin" in inconsolable grief. Tho Imperial Guard formed their protecting squares, ns usual around him, nnd tho fierce tu mult of battle gave way loono of lhe most touch ing scenes in Idslnrv. 'IV.ILht was deepening over the field and Iho heavy tread of Iho ranks going lo their bivouacs, Ihe'low rumbling of ar lillery wagons in tho distance, nnd nil tho sub dued yet confused sounds of a mighty ho-t about sinking to repose, rose on the evening nirim pnrlingstill greater solemnity tb lhe hour. Na poleon, with his grey grctit-coit wrapped about 1 1 i in . his elbows on his knees, and his forehead resting on his hands, sat apart from all, buried in tlie profoundest melancholy. His umst iuli inato friends dare not approach him, and his fa vorite olliccrs stood in groups at a distance, gaz inganxiously and sadly on lint silent tent. Hut immense consequences were hanging on the movement of the next morning a powerful enemy was near, with their array yet unbroken anil they at length ventured to approach and ask for orders. Hut tho broken hearted chieftain only shook his head, exclaiming, " Jliery thing In-mnmno .'"and still kept Ins mournful altitude. Oh, how overwhelming was the grief that could so m ister that stern h-art Tlie magnificent spectacle ofthe day that had passed, the glorious victory hu had won, were reinciubeicd no more, and he saw only his djing friend before liim. No sobs escaped him, but silent and motionless ho sat, his pallid fnco buried in his hand, and his noble heart wrung with agony. Darkness drew her curtain over tho scene, and thu stars cainc outonoafter another upon the sky, and, at 1 .1. .1 ..I ll. l.:ll. 1 ... .Ii'l.lr. til 1 length, the moon roso above the hills, bathing in her soil hums the tented ho-t, while the flames from burning villain's in the distance sheila 'arid light through the gloom and all was sad mournful, vet sublime. There was a dark cot- t.ige, with the sentinels at the door, in which Duroc lav dving. and there, loo, was tho solitary Tent of Napoleon, and within, the bowed form of f tlie l-.mperor. Annum it, at a ui-iance, sumo wo squares ol the uiiHuiam, anil nearer nv , a siieiu language ot llr. I oojier plainly implies group of chieftains, and overall lay tho moon-1 that Aft considered this opinion of you, which light. Tho-e brave soldier, filled with grief to . ,n attributes to me, ns a ilfspicablc one ; hut he see their Moved chief borne down with such allirms that I have expressed somu other, mure sorrow, stood for a long lime silent and fearful. despicable, without, however, mentioning to At length, to break the mournful silence, and to whom, when or where. "Tis evident that the express the sympathy they might not speak, the phraso, " still more despicable," admits of in h mils struck up a requiem' for the dying marshal, ijnite shade, from very light to very dark. How The melancholy strains arose and fell in prolon- ,,,,, to judge of tho degree intended ? or how ged echoes over the field, and swept in softened shall I annex any precise idea to language so cadences on tho car of the fainting warrior but jdetinitu i still Napoleon moved not. They then changed I Retwecn gentlemen, dcpiealilc nnd more lies the measure lo a triumphant strain, and the picahle are not worth tho pains of distinction ; thrilling troniiiot breathed forth their most joy-1 when therefore, you do not interrogate me a to fid note, till tlie heavens rung vviu. I ho melody, the opinion which is specifically nscrilied to uiOj, Such bursts of niii-ie. had welcomed Nam!eou I nuist conclude that voii view it as within the as he returned Hushed with victory, till his eye kindled in exultation : but now they fell on a dull and listless ear It ceased, and again lhe mournful requiem filled all the air. Hut nothing could arouse him from his ngouizing icllections his friend lay dying, and the heart ho loved inure than his life was throbbing its last puls.i- tion. Whatalhemofor a painter, and what a eulogy on Napoleon was that scene ! That nohlo heart which the enmity of the world could not shake nor tlio terrors of a battle-field move from its calm repose nor even tho hatred and insults of his, at last, victorious enemies nuinliie uere sunk in the moment of victory before the tide, of affection. What militiry clueftiiu ev er mourn ed on thus tho field of victory, and what soldiers ever loved a leader so J MAIMIAI. sun.T. Marshal Soult had le-s genius but more tellect than most of Iho di-tingiiished French .Marshals. IIo had none ofthe high ehivnlric feeling which so frequently bore them triuin - phantlv over the battle-field, but ho had in its lace a clear sound judgment, and a leaness lonrt. Il roou n-d on tloiodnnil' eonnoii to c ear i,;- ;,l..-sl,;J ii.....i, ,.-.., ,.l..-.,-s ,-l,.ir nml hishandever ready" to strike, lle'depended on the conclusions of reason rather than on the lime have conceived the import of' my expre.--in-pir.itiou of genius for victory. He calculated sions, different from vvliatl may then have in the chances before-hand, and when his purpo-o j ton led, or nny ul'terw.irds recollect. 1 stand was taken, it was no ordinary ob-t.icle or dan-1 ready to avow or disavow promptly and explicit gerthat could shake it. Such men as .Murat, ly any prcci-e or definite opinion which I nny ood I .-nines, and Anirore.ui. relied vvrv much on Iu charged with h tying declared of any gentle- thu enlluisiasiii oftheir soldiers, an I the power which intense excitement always imparls. .Noult Iroui me ; aim especially it c.innoi no reasoua on the contrary, on the di-cipl'ine of hi- troops, , ,ly expected that I sli ill enter into an explain and the firmness and steadiness, it give, either iu i turn upon a liisis so vague a that which you a-ault or retreat ; and hence, when lelt alone, i-oiiblbo deiioniled on us an able and efficient general. Though inipi'tiuius as a storm iu tlie early part ofhis life, It was the imietuo-ity of youth, rather than of character ; an I one fami liar with his career, ever thinks nf him as the stern and steady Soult. Ho was more of an Englishman in'hi natural character, and suc ceeded lieter than most of thu other Trench generals when opsi-ed lo English troops. Hut though methodical and practical ill all hi plan, bo knew tho value of a headlong charge, and could mako it. Still, he does not seem to rise with the danger that surrounds him but rather meets it vvilh tho firmness of ono who has set tled beforehand that it shall overcome him. He did not possess that versatility of genius which enabled Houaparlo so frequently to turn his very defeats into victory ho deiended ra ther on tlio strength and terror of the blow be had planned and if th.it failed, it b came him to iaise, before ho gave another, hike thelion, ho measured bis leap before hu took it, und if ho fell short, measured it over again. Hut with all this coolness and forethought, bis blow was sometimes sudden nml deadly as a falling limn derholt. A more prompt and decisive man ill action was not to bo found iu lhe army. As cool amid thu filling ranks and fire of three bun dled cannon us on apirade, his onet was nev ertheless a mot terrible thing to m -et. Ho carried such an iron will with hiiuintotho kittle, it ii i disputed every inch of ground with such ten icily of puriso, that tho courage of Ibe boldest gave way before him. Though ho ier formed perhaps few er personal heroic deeds Unu in my oiners, no aiso coiuuiuieu ii-wer iaun llllllV Oilier., JIU ai.-ii luiiiininui unit is-iiia. After seeing him a few limes iu battle, one uu- consciously irct such an opinion of his iiivin cihility, that he never sees his columns moving tuthe assault, without expecting sudden victiry, oronu of tho terrific strngglesto which bravoineu am ever cxpneil. Wo do not expect Iho pomp and splendor of one .Mural's charges of cavalry, nor tho majesty of N'ey's mighty columns, as ho hurls them on the foo ; but the linn step, ami stern iurHie, and resistless onset of one who cts Ins naked deeds reiKirt his power. Soult's eye measured a battlefield with tho correctness ol ,apoleon s, and ms jiiugeiueni was as goon Unm a drawn luttlo ns iimui n victory. Not having those fluctuations of feeling to which feat produced no discouragement, and lienco a victory gavu tho enemy no moral power over liim. Il was singular to see in what a matter-of-fact way lie took a beating, nnd how litllu his confidence in himself was destroyed by the great est disasters. A linn that is not humbled or rendered fearful by defeat, can never bo con quered till ho is slain. Tlio Duel between lien. Ilnmillim nml Col. Iiurr. Having accidently met with a detailed account ol tlie celebrated duel, not generally iteei-'sible, says the R ileigh Register, we have thought the uiYrativo might not lie uninteresting tn our readers. It will be recollected that in tlie vio lent party politics consequent upon the slate of things alter the close ol the llevolulion. mat Iho-e two gentlemen, each holding prominent positions, were noliticnllv opposed to each other. In Juno, 1801, Col. Burr, then Vice President of United Slates, iiildrus.-ed .no following letter lo (Jen. Hamilton, requiring his acknowledg ment or denial oflheiiso of any expression derogatory to hi honor : New-York. June 18, 1801. Sin : I send for your perusal a letter signed l'l,.l.- II ('...,,- l,;l, ll, .,!, -itinirntitll- published some time ago, has buf very recently ! Mr. Van Ness, win does me the honor to deliver this, wilt point out lo you that clause of the letter to which 1 par ticularly request your attention. You nny perceive, sir, tho necessity of a prompt nnd unqualified acknowledgment or denial of the Use of any expression which would warrant the assertion of Dr. Cooper. 1 have the honor lo be vour obedient sent, Gen. 1I.vmii.kim. ' A. HURR. Which received fioni General Hamilton the following reply New-Yokk, Juno 20, 1801. Sin : I have maturely reflected on thu sub ject of your letter of the ISth iiist., and tlio inure 1 have rcllcctcd the more I have become con vinced lh.it 1 could not. without manifest impro priety, m ike the avowal which von seem to think necessary. The clause pointed out by Mr. Van Ne- is in these terms : " I could de tail to you a still more despicable opinion wlncli c ncni'l Hamilton has rxiinsu-d of Mr. Hurr.-' III I .1. '.I . - .1 . I'd endeavor to discover the meaning of tlii lecl.iration, I was obliged to seek, in the an toccdent part of this letter, for the opinion to . .ebieb it ri-l'i-rn-d. ns having boon nlrenilv di. closed. 1 found it in the-e words : " General Hamilton and Judge Kent have declared, in siiin -e. tbot Ibi-v Iniiki-il inimi Mr. Iiurr tn be . a dangeroni man, "and ime trim ought nut lo hi: nin inlli the reins oj goiernmcni. ' lj,,,it, to vv hich the animadversions of nolilical ' ,,,w.ni. noon oilier may iustiliablv ex. tend, and consequently us not" warranting tlio idea of it which Dr. Cooper appears to enter- If so, what precise inference could you ' draw, ns a guide for vour conduct, were l" to acknowledge that I hail expressed an opinion of I v,m siiU nZre'dupicalilc than the ono which is particularized How could vou bo sure that ,(VP this opinion hid exceeded tlio bounds which you would yourself deem admissible be - tween imlitical opponents jiiu I loruear luriner coinmeiii on ine etuoar- II . 1 1- I ... .'"..I . . .. .1 russinent, to which the requisition you liavo. made naturally leads. The occasion forbids a more ample illustration, though nothing could be mnrue.isy than to pursue it. Keieating that I cannot reconcile it with pro priety loin ike lhe acknowledgment or denial you desire, I will add that 1 deem it inadmissible on principle, to consent to hu interrogated as to i the ju-tness of the inferences which may lie1 j drawn by others from whatever I in iv lrive said of a political opponent, in tho cour-o of fifteen j years eoinpeiiuoii. ii mere was no inner oo- tect on to it. tins is sulhcicut. that it would lend tn iimioso inv sincerity nod delicacy to iniurious Imputations 'from every pcr-on vvhii niay at any man. .More than this cannot fitly lie expected) Have adopted. I inist, on more rcueciion, you will --eu the Inalter in the same light Willi me. II not, 1 can i 1 can niiiy regrei ino circiiinst incu unu must abide tho consequence Tlie publication of Dr. Cooper was never seen by uio till alter ine receipt oi your letter. I have the honor to Im &c. Col. A. HAMILTON'. A very haughty, and, in its tone, offensive reply was returned in answer lo this letter by Col. Hurr. and lhe matter i.is-ed into tlio bauds of Col. Wm. P. Van Ne.s, no the part of Col. Hurr. and Nathaniel Pendleton, E-q., on that of Gen. II million. Several communications passed between these gentlemen without arriv ing at any satisfactory result, thu tone of Col. Hurr s demand being dictatorial and uncom promising. On the lith of June, .Mr. Pendle ton vvroto as follows : 'Jlith June, 1801. Sin: I have communicated the letter vvhich you did .me tho honor to write to ine of lliisd.ite, lo Gen." Hamilton. Tho expectations now dis closed on the part of Col. Hurr, upicar to him to have greatly extended Iho original ground ol in piiry, and m-tead of presenting a jurticular and definite case of explanation, seem to aim at nothing less than an inquisition into his most confidential conversation, as well as others, through the wholo ienod of his acquaintance with Col, Hurr, While ho was prepared to meet the particular case fairly and fully, he thinks it inadmissible that lie sliould be e.iected to answer ut large us to every thing hu may possible have said, in relation to the character ol Col. Hurr, at any p...... -i "j .ij coucious-that any charges which uto in circu time or mum any occasion. I hough ho is not latiou to tho prejudice of Col, Hurr, hive ori ginated with him, except one vvhich may have been so considered, und which has long since been fully explained lielw een Col. Hurr and him self yet ho cannot consent to lw questioned generally us to any rumors which may lie afloat derogatory to tho character of Col. llurr, with out specilicilion of Iho several rumors, many of Ilium proliably unknown to him. Ho does not, however, mean to authorize any conclusion as to lhe real nature of his conduct in relation to Col. Hurr, by his declining so loose und vague a bisis of explanation, and ho disavows an nn - vv ilhngncss to como to a satisfactory, prov ided it l. an honorable, ucenmmodalion. His ob- jeclion it,, tho very indefinite ground which Col. come to my know edge. Mr. Vim Ness, who)1"";'. : ""' I"' I""-'; . . , . J. r .. ... ... . . . Will tins now. I.i-tl. I loon Inn Tins linnti Col. Iiurr has assumed, hi winch he is sorry to bo able to discern nothing short of predetermin ed hostility. Presuming, therefore, that it will be adhered lo, he has instructed me to reccivo tho Ine.-sagi' which you have ill charge to de liver. For Ihi purpose 1 shall beat home, and at jour eonunaud, tu-niorruvv morning, from 8 to 10 n'clock. 1 hove tin- honor lobe respectfully, Your obedient servant. NATII l. PENDLETON. Wvt. P. Van Nrs, Esq. To this lutler Mr. Van Ness sent a reply en closing a nii'ssnge in form lo Gen. Hamilton, which was accepted. Gen. Hamilton, after coin nionling upon the rouiuiuuication, gives tho following instructions to Mr. Pendleton. " Whether the ob-ervations on this letter aro designed merely to justify the result which is in dicated in tho cloo ofthe letter, or may bo in tended to give an opening for rendering any thing rxplicit which nmy have been decn.cd vague heretofore, can only lie judged of by the sequel. At any r.ile, it nopears to ine necessary not to be tiiiuiiilorfto"0. -Mr. Pendleton is thcreforo authorized lo say, that in the course of t he pre sent discussion, wrillen or verbal, there has been no intention to evade, defy, or insult, but " 'i".c"u 'lil"jt j' ?..! extremities, if it ready to enter into a frank and tree explanation on any and every object of a specific nature; but not to answer to a general and abstract in quiry, embracing a ieriod too long for any ac curate recollection, and exposing him to un pleasant criticisms from, or unpleasant discus sion vvilh, any and every person, who may liavo understood him ill an unfavorable sense. This (admitting that bo could answer in a manner the most sati-faclory to Col. Hurr) ho should deem iiiadimnhle. in principle and precedent, and humiliating in practice. To this, therefore, he can never submit. Frequent allu-ion has been made to slanders said to bo in circulation. Whether they arc openly or in whispers, they have a form and ehaie, and might lie specified". ' If the alternative alluded to in the close of the letter 1 definitively tendered, it must Iks ac cepted ; the time, place, and manner, to lie after wards regulated. I should not think it right in tho midst of n Circuit Court to vv ithdraw my services from tho-o who have confided important interests to me, and expo.-o tliein to the emuar- ms.mcnt of seeking other counsel, who may not havu time to lw sufficiently instructed in H"''" causes. I shall also want a little time to make somo arrangements respecting my own nll.iirs. On Friday, tho (ithof July, the circuit lieing closst-d, Air. Pendleton informed Mr. Van Ness that Gen. Hamilton would be ready at any tiino after the Sunday following. On'Mnnday the particulars were arranged on Wednesday tho parties met at Weehawk, on the Jersey shore, at "o'clock, A.M. The particulars of what then took pl.ice will appear from the following statement. It was nearly seven in the morning when tho boat which carried Geu. Hamilton, his friend Mr. Pendleton, and the Surgeon mutually a grecil on, Dr. Ho-ack, reached that part of tho Jersey shore called the Weehmih. There they found .Mr. Hurr, and his friend -Mr. Van Ness, who, as I am told, had been employed since their arrival, vvilh routs oil', in clearing away the bushe, limbs ol trees, .V.c, so as m uuiLo ' ! u fair opening. Tlie parties in a few moments were at their iillottedsituutioiis; when .Mr. Pen- , dleton gave tho word. Mr. Hurr raised his arm slowly, deliberately took his aim, and fired. His ball cnterred Gen. Hamilton's right side; as ' soon as the bullet struck hiin, he r.ii-ed himself involuntarily on his toes, turned a little to tlio lelt, (at winch moment his pistol went off.) and fell uiion hi face. Mr. Pendleton immediately t called out for Dr. Hosack, who, in running to , tho spot, hid to pas .Mr. Van Ne.-s and Col. Hurr ; but Van Ness had the cool precaution to ..n.-.l- .1- ... ,l-ll.,l .I t . I. -..In ... - -.i. s.,..., .,,, .... ,, ,!,.,,, nl mm Dr. Hosack should nut lie able to swear that ho saw him on the field. What pas-ed after this, the reader will h ivo iu tlie following letter from Dr. Ho-ack liiinself: August 17th, 1801. ' Dear Sir To comply with your request is a painful task ; but I will re"pre-s inv feelings while I endeavor to furni-h you with an eiinm?raticm of such particulars relative to tlio melancholy end of our b -loved friend 11 uniltoii, as dwell mo-t forcibly on my recollection. When called to him upon his receiving tho i t i .- i i '. i .- . . . . I i-o-ii woiiiiu, i loiiuu uuu n.in silling on me I ground, siipisirted in the arms of Mr. Pendleton. )li'i couiiten luce of death I shall never forget h.' had at tint in-taut jut strength to say, 'This is a mortal wound Doctor ; ' when he sunk away and became to appearance lifeless. I immedi ately stripped uii his clothe.-, and soon, alas ! as certained tint tiie direction of tlie hill inu-t havo been through some vital part. His pul-es were not to lie felt ; his resjiir.ilion w.is entirely sus pended ; and upon laying inv hind o: his heart an. I perceiving uo in diou there, 1 considered him as irrecoverably gone. 1 however observed to .Mr. Pendleton, that the only chance lor his re covering was immediately to get him upon tho vv.iler. We thcreforo lilted him up, and carried him out of the wood, to the mirgiuof the bank, where the birgemen aided lis iu conveying him to the boat, which immediately put oil'. " Duringnll this time I could not dieover tho least symptom of returning life. I now rubbed his Jace, lip nnd temples, with spirits of hartshorn, applied it to hi neck and hrcnt, and to the wrists and palm of hi hand, nnd endeavored to pour some into hi mouth. When be had got, as I should judge, about filly yards from the shore, some inqierlect e flints to breathe were for the first time manifest : in a few minutes he sighed, and became seiis'iblo lo the iinpreion of the hartshorne, or the fresh air ofthe water. IIo breathed ; his eyes, hardly opened, wandered, without fixing upiui any ob jects ; to our great joy ho at length sxko : "My vi-ion is indistinct," were his first words. His pulses ln'cuino mom iervc ptiblo ; his respiration more regular; his sight returned. I then exam ined tho wound to know if there was any danger ous discharge of blood; upon slightly pressing his side it gave hiin pain; on which f desisted. Soon after recovering his sight, bo happened to cast his eye upon the case of pistols, ami ob serving the ono lio had iu bis hand lying on tho outside, ho said, "Take care of that pistol; it is undischarged and stillcocked; it may gooll'and do harm ; Pendleton knows, (attempting to turn his head toward him) that 1 did hot intend to tiro at hiin." "Yes," paid Pendleton, understanding hisvvish, "I havo already made Dr. Hosack ac quainted with vour determination us to that." lie then closed his eyes and remained calm, with out any disi.sition to sjieak nor did ho say much allervviirds-, excepting in reply lo my questions as to his feelings. Ilea-ke.l ino onco or twico how I fou ml his pulse; nnd ho informed mo that his lower extremities has lost all feeling; mani festing to mo that he entertained uo hojies that ho sliould long survive. I changed tho posturo of his limbs, but to no purpose ; they had totally lost their sensibility. Perceiving that we npproacneu mo snore, no said, "Ut .Mrs. Hamilton bo iiiuneihately sent for let tho event lw gradually broken toiler; but givo her hope.' Jwking up wo saw m , friend Mr. Hayard standing on the w harf m creat agitation. He had U-eii told by ins servant Mat Geu. Hamilton, .Mr. lVndletou, and luyseil, naa crowed iho river in a bjat together, and too eil r