Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, January 1, 1847, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated January 1, 1847 Page 1
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Vol. XX. No. 90. Whole 3Vo. IOIS. BUKTillVCrTOiV, FRIDAY MORNIiVC, JANUARY I, 1817. iraw si:uii:s, iv. 27 BURLINGTON FREE PRESS Published nt Burlineton, Vt., 11 y II. W. C. CLARKE, Editor and Proprietor. Tertnsi To Village subscribers who receive the raper by the carrier 83.00 If psid in advance '2fi0 Mail subscribers nnd those who take it nt the Office, invariably, 2,00 Advertisements inserted on the. customary terms. There is not much poetry nfloat in thc3c our iln ys poetry worthy the name cither in hooks, magazines or newspapers ; but occasionally we lic,ht upon n spe cimen that stirs the blood like the far off sound ol n war trump. Such is the following. Where it came from originally we do not know ; our first encounter with it was in the National Intelligencer. U'hat shnll be the em! of these tilings T When another life is ndded To the heaving turbid mass ; When another breath of being Plains creation's tarrisbeil glns ; When the first cry, weak nnd piteous, Heralds lonir-cnduri,i pain, And a soul from nnn-exi-sience Springs, that ne'er can diengaiu j When the mother's passionate welcoma Sorrow-like bursts forth in tears, And the sire's rlf gratulation Prophecies of fuluie year? It is well we cannot see What the end shall be When across the. infant features Trembles the faint dawn of mind ; When the heart looks Irom the windows Of the eyes that weie so blind ; When the incoherent murmurs Syllable each swaddled thought, To the fond ear of affection Willi a boundless promise fnrizht. Kindling great hopes for the morrow, I'lom that dull uncertain ny, As by eliinme.ring ol the twilight Is lorsho.vn the perfect day It is well we cannot sec What the end shall be. When the boy upon the threshold Of bis ull-cuinp.i'iiis heme, Parts aside the arm itutTinl That enlocks him ere he roam ; When the cauvnss of his vessel flutters tu the fainrint; gales, Years of solitary exile Hid behind hi", sunny sail ; When hispid'es bent with ardor, And Ids sinews --ireteli lor toll, And a hundred bold emprises Lure him to that eastern soil It is well e cannot -o What tha end shall be. When tbn youth beside the maiden hooks into her cirduloja eves ; When the hcait upon the surface .Shir..?, too happy to be vice ; He by speeches less than ircslurcs Hiutelh wlr . her hopes expound, Laying o.it the waste hereatter Like enchanted garden-ground j He may palter so do many ; She may suller so must all : Both may yet, world disappointed, This lost hour of love recall It is well we cannot sen What the end shall be. When the altar of religion Greets the expectant bridal pair ; When the vow that bi-ts till living Vibrates on the sacred nir ; When man's hush protestations Doubt of nfter-t'unge defy, Comforting the fiailcr spirit Bound his servitor for nyc ; When beneath love's silver moonbsanis .Many rocks in shadow sleep, Undiscovered till pnsse-sion Shows the dangers of the deep ,. i -s --II TC V.1II1II.I Sv What the end will be. Whatsoever is beginning Tint is wrought by human skill, Every daring emanation Ol the mind's ambitious will j Every first impulse of passion, Gush of love or twinge of hate ; Every launch upon the waters. Wide horizoned by our fate ; Every venture in the chances Of life's sad, oft desperate, game, Whatsoever be our moliv e, Whatsoever be ournim It is well we cannot see What the end shall be. sufficient Ciittso to require the United States to I verted, by our army ; nnd all tins was as well nrtko war upon Mexico, the President himself known to tho President as to nny other man. ha, in referring to the example and message of1 Uotli Mexico nnd President Polk have declared President Van'iiurcn, informed tis what was 1 to the world that tho United States and Mexico his own duty in such a coiiiuncliirc. He says "President Van Huren, In Ids Annual mes sage to Congress nf 5th December, 1837, states that, 'although tho larger number' of our de mands for redress, 'and many of them aggra vated cases of personal wrongs, have been now for ye irs before tho Mexican Government, and some of the causes of nntionil complaint, and those of the most offensive chiractcr, admitted of iinm;diutc, simple, nnd satisfactory replies, it is only within a few days past that anv speci fic communication in answer to our lat demand, made five months ago, has been received from the Mexican Minister;' and that ' for not one of our public complaints has satisfaction been given or offered ; that but one of the caes of personal wrong has been favorably considered ; nnd that but four cases of tith descriptions, out of all those formerly presented and earnestly pressed, have as yet ocen ueciucu upon uy iuo Mcxicin Government.' " President Van Buren, belicvine that it would be in vain to make any farther attempt to obtain redress by tho ordinary means within the power of the Executive, communicated tins opinion 10 Congress in tho Message referred to, in which he said : "On .1 careful and deliberate examination of tho contents of the Correspondence with the .Mexican Goernmcnt, and considering the spirit manifested by the Mexican Government, it has become my painful duty to returi 0 sub ject as it now stands to Congress, to wnom it hrlon:;s to decide upon tue lime, tno mode aim the measure of redress " Such was the coin.-e of President Polk him solf. How pointedly docs it not rebuke his own course under circumstances not matctiallv dif ferent! .Mr. Van Jiuren did not deem himself, authorized by thce considerations, in the exist ing state of things in Mexico, to " recommend-' to Congress to declare War against her; nir did Mr. Pollc think, at the beginning of the last session, that the injuries which ho now enumer ates authorized that extreme ir.ca-ure. or be would have tent in such a ' recommendation'' himself. lieing convinced that war was a "tioccssa-y and expedient measure,'' it was his constitution al duty to " recommend it to Congress ;" nnd, failing to do so, he would have In en culpably derelict. If, in tho conr-e of the ffsio'i, any thing occurred to bring him to a different con clusion, Mr. Van Huron I id instructed him that it was his duty to lay tho whole subjort before Congress, ' to whom it belonged to decide upon the time, the mode, and the tnea-ure or redress" to be had from Mexico. Nav, Mr. Polk himself was, at the opening of the last seinn of Con gress, (ally sensible of what his duly was, vvh"n he informed the two houses, in his mutual mes sage, that he foieboro at that time "In recom mend to Congress such ulterior measures of redress," &c. in consequence of the pendonev of tho mission of Mr. Slidell. Let it bo admitted that the United State hive suffered much wrong from Mexico enough without swelling it by the elaborate exaggeration In which the President indulges himself in his message. Jint who hac been the immediate wore at rcace, before Gen. Taylor v;v ordered to march from the Nueces to the Kio Grande. Certainly Mexico had not tnado war upon tho United States. No person will deny that a war-like act Is war. Arc not the nnrch ing of tin army of one nation into territory that has ever been in tho unbroken possession of another with which it is at peace, and where tho jurisdiction, laws and authorities of the country thus assaulted have been daily enforced, and the overthrow of theso laws and authorities by the invading armv, and the substitution of its military rule, warlike acts ? If theso acts necessarily lead to war, it is not competent for the President to nuthoriso them, because tho Constitution vests tho whole war-power of tho Government in Congress. Hut such acts arc War, and in a most offensuo form. Our ar mies have taken possession of a good part of New Mexico and Chihuahua, vv ithout any ac tual conflict of arms ; and who will not say that we have not made war upon those Mexican States 1 No i the President has no more right or constitutional power, of himself, to under take such acts than he has to appropriate money m me treasury, or to decide causes in the su preme Court. lint the Message assumes foldly that the rio Grande, fion its mouth to its source, is the weft ern boundary of Texas. t predicates this con clusion mainly upon the grounds that Texas for its Eastern boundary. In 1824, Mexico ha ving achieved her independence, established a Federal Republic, constituted of several Slates, upon the model of our Union and Constitution. Under this system New-Mexico was one of the S a'es, Coaliuila was another, and Texas a third. The two latter did not unite and form one State of tho Republic, as thomessago states. They were established and existed ns separate and dis tinct political geographical divisions, hut were united under 0110 common Legislature and one common State Government. They existed as separate territories, having distinct and separate boundaries, and each by Its known and mutual ly recognised boundary, and by the name ol Coaliuila nnd Texas respectively. The same River Nueces wa a common boundary between them, being tho western line of Texas and tho eastern lino of Coaliuila. Texas did not, in fact, nor did sho then claim to, extend further west than tho Nueces ; and as to tho reaching afar up, nnd comprehending all nf' New-Mexico east of the Rio Grande, Includ.iij her capital of Santa IV, such an extravagance had not then entered into any man's imagination. Tilings remained in this state, until Texas, in 1835, declared her independence ; but Coaliuila remained a State of Mexico. Texas declared herself independent by nunc, nnd did not iWine h"r boundary. Sho ineffectually endeavored to prevail with Coa liuila to take tho same step, and then left her in Undisputed possession, ami in tho exercise of tier separate jurisdiction and authority up to the Nueces. No question of boundary had then arisen between them. What, then, becomes of had always claimed to that boundary i that her I tho President's Position. " Texas, as crdvd to Congress, by the act of 1G35, declared it to be , tho United States by Franco inM 803, lias been so ; that " in her treaty with fanta Anna, 111 always claimed as extending west to the Rio .May, 183G, he recognised it as such j" and that Grande ?" " I e:;as, ns ceded to the United States by France j In April in 1 00 j, nas uecn always claimed as cxtenuing tho Texas west to tho Rio Grande, or Rio llravo," His proposition, then, is, that as Texas by annexa tion, boenmo a State of tho Union, and her west ern boundary was tho Rio Grande, tho United States extended to that lino, and it was his duty to ' sco that her laws were faithfully executed.'' up to it 183G, Santa Anna was captured by army, and, while a pri-oner of war, prior to the year 18 15, as the President now ar- Mexico, twenty thousand volunteers would an L'ucs, justifiable cause of war, but whether he pear," &c. 111! President had constitutional power to deter- And ,n tho 22d of the same monlh, replying mine that question much less to act ns he did to tho Cincinnati Gazette's exception to the Un that dctcrrnmation. Die question of the spirit and temper of the abovo intimation, the sutliciency of causo for war was onojbr Con-1 "Union" said gross, and not for tho President to decide. Con-1 "Wns it wrong in us to toll tho tendon Times gross was in session when the order Was expo- that, though we might not have regular troops ititr.d fnr thn inarch of tho Armv to Ihn llin nm.nirl, t .Jnntnnt-c ...nt.t.l .,.. .... ... .l. Grande, and upon that decisive and conclusive lirst sound of the bugle by the Government of Ci step the President failed in his duty to ask the the United States, sullicicnt to oicrmii .Uexiro,' Hi sanction of tho Constitutional authority. j occupy the Halls ofMontczumi, and conquer the ' tu; T,i the Government of Mexico, and as between tallwx nf Califiirnin I" I tin lu entered info and signed certain articles with some oltho principle oliicors of the Texas armv. It was provided expressly in one of the articles, that the whole ariangetnent should bo submitted l nsnnrf lVntf In ttm I Im-m nrr-onla rf fIVvoc .mil .Mexico ; ami the latter rejcrteil it. S.inta Anna 1 and commodore .-stocKion.irom ".110-0 iirsi proc Iliad, from the lii in of inarchmi' to invnd.- To;: as. 1 !.inntie:i, sisned bv him as ' Cammander-in- To the Government of Mexico, and us between that Government and tho United States, it is of little consequenco how the war was brought on. Tho war now exists, and must be fought out, unless the Almighty shall breathe into the coun cils of both countries at once the spirit of peace. Hut, as between tho President and tho People of tho United States, it Is of infinite consequence to know for what ulterior vhjecls, this war is to bo farther prosecuted. " Thu war has not been waged in the spirit of conquest." So says the Message; and, if the declaration of the Message were not contradict ed by notorious facts, wo should most sincerely rejoice in it. lint, have wo not before us the rescripts ol our military and naval commanders, openly and ollicially proclaiming the contrary ? Did not General Kearney, on taking possession of Santa Fe, publicly announce his "Intention to hold the Department of New Mexico as a pari if thn United States nnd under the name of the Territory of Sew Mexico !" Did ho not tilso issue another ukase, in which, " hi au thority of the President of tho United States," ho announced the establishment of a civil govern ment for " the Territory" thus annexed by proc lamation, including an entiro judicial system, as well as a Governor, Secretary, &c. dtling tho same at " Santi Fe. tho capittl of the Territo ry of New Mexico, in the seventy-first year of the Indonendnnco of tho United States ?" If this be notacquisition. political and territorial an nexation, as well as conquest, what can on- tituteit? And so, 111 tin case of t.ililurnia lallms of California What thoughts were running in the head of this Administration, on tho Very first accession to power, is sufficiently shown by these indica tions. Nor, by the way, was the thought of bringing 011 a war by the advance of Gen. Tay lor's forces to the Rio Grande entirely out of the mind ofthe Adminisl ration lonobclore that march was actually ordered ; for, cntbolltli of Sep tember, 1815, many of v:r readers must well remember, tho Union held tho following lan- country, and held sacred nnd inviolable when it is ceded by treaty, with or without anystlpula lion to such effect; rod thriaws, trhtlherin wri ting ore tic dlij the x'sagr. and custom if the concurred ormhil coiiiiiry,rorjinue in force until altered hythe new sovereign.'' Sliolhcr v. Lu cas, 1 Peters, -110. It is clear, therefore, that tho United States acquires, by the conquc.-t of tho chief ports of California and of the capital of Santa l'e, no rights but those which pertain to it us the mili tary tenant of the' territory, dining the eontiii nancoof the war, ami that the claim of title ect up under that occupation, v. ill count for nothing when the two governments come toa reckoning nt the end of tho war. Upon the explanation which tho President has made of his purpo.-o in rlloiving, nnd indeed en couraging the return of Saxta Ansa to Mexico, we have but a single remark to rnako. We am perfectly v.illini; to give credit to tho President for L'ood intentions in Dorsum ibis rnir. Kn we cannot shut our eyes ,u tho fact that tho Mil- itary Chieftain thus gunge: ptary ineltain thus permil'ed to return to his "If Arista dares to carry out his braggart! country is the very iiidr.io'ial ,ic'-r vvh.se Presi tlircats if be ventures to cross the Rio Grande, denry were perpe-rated tin "dcliv.s nnd denials with reinforcements to any little armed post of Justice tor alleged nntrtrs n jain-l our citi vvhich Mexico may occupy "on the east side of ! zcn,out of which our Prc-id 'of has, in his Mcs that river, General Taylor will attempt to pre-1 sayc, compiled formid.il!" a list cf grievance vent him blood must Jlow What jiuut hs- a tu con-titute, in his opinion, in-traii-cofwar. sub." " j 'i'licro js an apparent incongruity in these facU Arista did vol cross the Rio Grande : and so, v.liich it is for tho-e to reconcil "who can.f after waiting four months in vain for such a god-l Wehad intended to follo.v the view which wo send, tho Ainin'n-tntion ordered Gen. Taylor to 1 liavo taken o'.'the Mexican hit virh romci-liscr-march his force to the Rio Grande. Willi nhut vatioiia .it the danger to tho itop..bl 1 of inilul object ? For wh.it purpose 1 Thce are ques- j ging in a si irt orcor.qu"st civl dominion, lions which the reder will answer for irimelf, tLe jiro;ientit to which has. In nknidantly ro if he ho not satisfied with the view which, in the vealed with'.u the last few ye.-rs, na 'in the act preceding columns, has been already taken of , and de-igiisi,f the Uxecutivo morrly. but in the that matter. debates which have within that period taken Asrirlvas the Oth of Juno last, tho Union place in Cnnirreis. V.'r hud, hou. -,pr, that what inadvertently disclo-ed tho fact that our squad- j wo have to sy cn that head would cover too ron was Instructed, long before the breaking mud' space for to-day, anlwo le-erve it for out oi'this war, to be in the w.-.y to take po'sos-1 another paper. sionof nClifornii, in the liapc"of nipprfition j In tlie .-ame manner, and for the same reason, that "an American force rnsy po-sibly at this we defer also our consideration of tho nunaiuinj moment bo in possea-ion of the principal harbors topics of tho Message. of ( 'i.lifornia." And liefore the news of our oc- t It would be a refinement of cruelty to bold th? Let us rapidly cxam.no these various pomts 1 ceased to bo tho President of Mexico, n dal're- chief and Governor ol the territory ol Lalilor- cup-iiiou 01 uiosu imruors o. " 'I11;' I'rc-iident rcspn-il.l.. for all the discrepancies between 01 me -vnireis. v.aiiioriua , - '"'w' iv.ii.iiv.. ...n ...... . . , (n 15y tho re-olutiJii annexing Texas, Congress did sidontai interim had been annotated, mil was I ilia," and dated "City ofthe Angels, California ivt recognise tho Rio Grande, or nny other line, 1 invested with, an 1 was then exercising iho pow- August 17, 1810," wo extract the following on us tho western boundary of Texas. There has Crs of that office. Santa Anna was only Gene-' tire' paragraphs : 1110 11. ig 01 me uiiiieu oiaies is now iiyioi; from every commanding position in tho Terri tory, and California is entirely free from Mex ican dominion. ' 7Vie Tirritury of California sow rtnt.oGs to -run Umted States, nnd will ho governed, is soon as rircumstanees mav permit, ny om- liys at -Monterey, and pernans at .21111110 ; una poucv, am win, me uenci umi-ir.e iniesm that Gen. Wcnl will he at Chihuahua by the ions" of whieli hisieiumto ..k-.w-o viould be , r.i. r ,...i siun ..... it,,. r. .1.1 Iv llic Lull, vvju, 1 len j iu a fii.-caa e iieaee w loin ui in uuum, couniry,ii1Mn:Uci.3ereciieiitQ;l1ei;ll our arms aiiu reiui'iui-ii line i, mv- nurnaval inrees m the been at no time a controversy or doubt upon the t ral-in-Chief, and nl-o a prisoner of war. One of 1 true position of any other than tho western boun- tho articles of this arrangement stipulated that, ilaryof Texas ; and, in refv-rence to this line, "the Mexican army should retire west ofthe Rio tho resolution of annexation expressly included Grande." and this is the only provision beariii" only " the territory properly included within, and upon the point of cession of territory. It ue'i Hg'itrullv belonging to the RepubMc of Texas ,"' thor attempts-, nor, bv any terms which might j cautiously providing, in addition, that said Slate have been adopted, could it b:ivn settled bin'in. I ''of Texas) wits" to bo formed subject to tho ad-' dirv. or coded any of the territory nf Mevico. 1 cers and laws similar to those by which the nth jusment by this Government of all questions of JJ.;cause, fir.-t, Santa Annn was but a military rrilorics of the United Istates are regulated boundary that may ari-o with other Govern-1 commander before he was taken captive, and and protected." moiit." lliro is a distinct recognition that this COuld not, n such, nuke a treaty to bind Mexico. , It may not bo amiss, in th0 same connection, western boundary was unsettled, and a conJi- Secondly, if lie was clothed with such a power, to remind the reader of that letter of authority lion imposed which, in terms, was acceded to by ' its total suspension ensued iminedialely upon and instructions given by tho Secretary of War Texas, that its adjustment with Mexico should ids captivity and reverted to -Mexico. Thirdly, to Col. .1. 1). Stevenson, of tho city of New bo made by tho Government of tho United tho arrangement itself provided for its ratiliea- York, when authorizing him to raisou regiment States. Will any one maintain that the Presi- tion or reje'etion by Mexico and Texas, and .Mex- of volunteers to bo employed in Upper Cat i (or- dent, of himself, can adjust and determine the un- jco rejected it 'This is what President Polk uia, showing that they were intended to bo of settled boundaries of tbo United States? That terms a ' Treaty made with Santa Anna in tlie character of colonists and settlers of a con- can ho done only by the treaty-making power, may, 1830," by "Texas, in vvliich " ho reco"nis- qucred territory, rather than soldiers to take tin, lrn!.lrtnt .in.l lint S-Vn.ifn Tietltiff In- - if i!., ' , . . . , ? .. . 1.. ,1... r,Ct, i.ru-i. 11,- lliia li.lti.r llin . . . . ... ... ...... .. - cu iuo mo viranuo as ner western uounu.irv. 1 . . . ,.:i,:J ,,!.,. -i thirds ; and this true and constitutional mode of U is difficult to deeido whether the President volunteers were required, as fur as practicable, 'ear. lie has lcaU'l o r t0"7 e3,f ;; ,).. tl,l.m.itj ..I I... Vl........ n.. I .l.V. L.-L. v.. siv, on tho 215th Septcinbar,) the "Union " dis- from time to tinn anpeirvd c n the same s uhjeeis in co'nr-ed a follows: i the Goverumeui pap-r. liut sorcc of them r.re too "Thero is every reason to believe that Gen. , ''''' ""' "'.r 'nl'i.uary notice. ir i f (j i t . 1 im the surjji vt nt aiitu inia f rrturn, for eHIIlnl'. Kearney is already in posCs-ion of Sante In : U' rn,ls u, mat. m,i . Sa,mrt,S: that Gen. lavlor is tnw or will bo hi a tew unndmn ofnm' -s,, usby huuul "mi entile elumreof le divn-eertnin. nh this .tnnmnJerof Ullil O'l r'e I Jt i iziw lif 17iw. uui io wiru -i lae reiuru oi oania .vr.l.a lo .vieico. should he e it. c.npt lo icluni.'' Notuithsir.nduig nil whirh we mav have obtained 1 On the contra ry, shall u e not prosecute our victories and mike additional conquests towards California ami tu ward the Capital of M-xico itself." And a few days afterward, the news of the occupation of Santa Fe Invinej arrived, the "Union" expressed the views of the Admini -..,:..., !.,... . .. : .. . ... , . ,. .r. Mexico, or lor tiny sort uj p " the discretion written mirKCU ni, (.uen. a20 an adventurer was in wnabnuton who wisliedtu Kcarnev's) pmcecdiiu's after ho had reached obtain their countenance and aid In some scheme or Sinta Fe, and the subsequent steps which he is oilier connected with Santa Anna. They declined all w Inch, now avowed bv the President buns, It', tin "Union" ol the fiiA day of July put firth the- following eontiiiili'tiim ofn staieuient ivluch turns out to bava been sub-tanually irue, "Wed'e.n .tour ihiy to slate in the mot: pofitivt trrms, tint our Goveruiueut has no sort of nmiirction with anv scheme of .mta Anna fir the rewilutum r.f .Mexico, arjor miysort uj purpose. Some 11 nioutha i ,..ln ,,-;; le k omsirmi one of sori oicon i-ci.ou.co-eiirru.raM.orpHrucipaiioninany ....... .....v, - j r ior, nr ih.. lririiosv. ine v, j.enuneiuol tlus coun MEXICAN WAR HOW HEUUX. From the National lntellisencer of Dec. 12. The I'residrnt's Message. Oar columns have been so occupied for some days with matter of two much cone-quoncu to Lie postponed lo sun our uwu conicine-nco, mai we nave not until to-uay noen aoio 10 commanu tho snaco ronmred lor the review, which our readers havo a right to expect nt our hands, of the contents of the President's Into Messgo to Congress. This task has, on this occasion, beetTmadc an imperative duly by tho attempt of the President, in tho cutset of tint message, to ttiomatise as treasonable the free discussion of measures of his vvhicli havn filled the minds of thinki.'.g and reasoning men with doubt at least, if nut with just apprehension, of their linal con sequences, of vvliich thu claim of Kingly pre rogative for himself now put forth by tlio l'rc sident is an auirurv so unfavorable as of itself to invito a more jealous scrutiny of the rest of the contents of tho message. Tho subject which U naturally most pro minent, and is made more so by the very large tpace which it occupies in tho message, is Till-: MKNICAN WAR. Nearly three-fourths of t' e message is devot- cd to aiusliricatir.n of this war and of the part

,. i ,-...i !... -,.i : ...I-.: ... : WIllC.U Ilia I rosl'ienv lias av-vii in ivi limn in ii. Of this elaborate de'fencc,arplying the old adage. cause and in t u.nrnt of tl.csj wrongs ? i snrp- i i relation to the true locality of the western er.-, men who have dbr-garded and trai:vdcd houml.iry lino nf 'i'e-xas, it was tho duty ofthe upon her Constitution mid forms of law ; who president ofthe I'nited Slates to await" thv ne- luvu put down all order and legal accountant- tion of the treaty-making power with Mexico. ity; and in their stead have introduced urn- , Hut such constitutional delay did not suit his yjisal confusion and military anarchy. So far purposes. Ho was resolved to have what ho irom Having any regular nun uc 'oiiniaiiiu crnmcnt, the social byrtcm of tho Mexicans has tor years exhibited a continued scries ol almost entire disorganization. This sad destiny has been brought upon them by the delinquency, th" violence, and the crimes ol their rulers. Admit that tho injuries which we havo received tit tho Inn Isof.Mixico hive been sufficient to excite a desire for rnlrcss, or, if you will, even lor ven- genco ; yet, when wu look at things as they ex-i'-t in that unhappy country, and relied thai her down-trodden nia-scs, upon whom chiefly the calamities ot war tall, are innocent ot our wrongs, and have not the power to right them, pity und humanity arrest the purpoc that would iullict nnon them tho direful scourge of war. Oar arms mitiht carry desolation nnd mourning Ctlhllf the question IS provided lor by tlioartl- blunders ni,,t in I,,-, i.le.i nf n lref.lv ne in ll.n clesol annexation. To the cxtentof thedi.-pnto ' stateomnt of the f:n ts nflhn case. 'Tlil4ivim. pact between the prisoner Mr.ta Anna und his captors had no e'lect to i!i';ost Mexico of tho country between the Aiiiccs and the Rio ITri.df, nr In iniect 'IVvns vfTlli ite end vet it is the tir.-t beginning and thu only foundation of , "ft!"-' War Department. Though tho g: her claim 1 Never before had sho set up anv Comtnodoro sailed .for tho North-west i purposes, no was resoiveu 10 nave vvuai no lier claim ! ?,ever before had slio eet up any ,""",uu"u "u,1;u iuo -oriu-wcsi v.oasi then thought would be an easy, speedy und tri-1 claim for any portion of the country between the about the lt of November, 1815, it is evident iimph.int brush with Mexico, and, ns his occu- two rivers. In December follnwin''. indeed, her ' enough that ho know before ho embarked, wh it ..r M, - ... . . ..e i . . . J , .. .f" . .' . i :.. In.l....l :.. I.: . ...i i... . ... i.i.. the must remarkable and important events ofthe ..e . ..i. mis noitu. nnu .,io. co in- "is tiuiavn u . lO 00 men Ol lliriuus ijiupuh-., anu euvu us i - , . r would bo likely to remain at the end oftho war I hue tiil's acqcikeu on' if a-r fm'St pronic, either in Oregon or am territory that mav be wliat to stop us in our career, or why will ishe ,i.,.n n nnri..fth .s;,. ovliiluti n.r nlnjrsovorB in tho vv.vr amid so many dilticul- remarkablo coincidence of views between the distinguished Naval Commander and the Chief illaut Coast nation of Texas to tho utmost verge of her set- J Conzre.-n passed an act to di'lino tlio boundaries tlements west of tho .Micces Tor six months vvouM' of tho Rupublic. of Texas, in which tho Rio not extract tho first firo from her, ho was resolved Grinde, from its mouth to its source, was declar- 10 uiaKo iuo war iuinceii, niiiiougii congress was then ill session. He therefore ordered tho army to march in hostile array to tho Rio Grande. If this tn.-itioit of his, that the western boundary of the United Slates extended along that liver Irom its mouth to its source, and it was in the wind. Indeed, in hisaddie-s told; crew, on tho deck of Ids ship, befoie leaving the port of Norfolk, he seems to have hinted nt Ins ultimate destination when lie said: "We e.l to bo her western boundary. All tlm while. . . . . .- i . ., ... the vvliolo country on hotti sides of that river . "w sail ior wniuram aim wreguu j anu, men, continued to bo studded by Mexican towns ar.d i wliit heaven pleases." citie, to bo held and inhabited by .Mexican pco- These arc acts of sovereignty, such as no one pie, to bo governed by Mexicad laws and officers, 1 would suspect cither Gen. kearney or Capt. nnd tn bnmv nn nthnrs ..,.! m-.ltnrj c, r.uniinn.l Stockton of Undertaking tO CXCrcisc Without was his duty to maintain Iho jurisdiction and to ,mtil they were subv erted by the invasion of the ' other authority than their own, though they had execute the laws of tho United States ujitoit, American armv. It is the extreme of absurdity 1101 expressly "declared that in what they have was not an after-thought, why did he not immc- to sav that this' act of the Texan Congress ex-1 ''nno "1C.V 'iavo nc'ed by the authority of the diately upon annexation march our army upon nanded her boundary to the Rio Grande. Con- Pre-iden't of the United States. Do not theso Santiago ; break up the Mexican ciistiim-house , quest and treaty are the only modes bv which ! acts fl'ie'r3' so sanctioned, constitute sufficie-nt c- , , . .. , : , , i I v s m hwii uic iiiu i,ni inuues i,v iiivii , - - -. , . , - ' ,, , there, and drive her olhccrs, laws and authoiity territory can bo transferred from one nation to rr"f ,,iat 1,10 spirit of conquest has from the soil oftho United States ? Why should ' mother If it Kbimld ixJnm, l,v tlm mn.ln mlnnt. something to do with this war ? When wo into all the hovels of tbo miserable masses of , frmn the soil oftho United States ? Why should ' another. If it should be done by the mode adopt Mexico, while the real delinquent-, would bo , he delay this work for months, it he was so ur- ed by Texas, all her territory would now belong well-niL'h as secure from harm as the true an- .rent v mine d ed bv his oath and duty ? Santa , vi.!i.-. ;.. ,i..' i . : ?. , .. .i- , .1 1 I Y, , . - k s. . -i w is ' ti.3 vmumi n I iiini?.iiiii iiinu-, m v vi , llior oi lllis war, iiimosi uiiiiiioiivu u lie i tbo palace ill this .Metropolis. Hut had the I idem recommended war instead ol deel 'hat ho furebore to do so, Congress might ad soiiiethinirto do with this war ? When wo look too at contemporaneous indications oftho dispo sition of the lixecutivo and lus official advisers, try tleclinri aH inch intrigua or larsnins. They Km e luatle war openly in the fjee ofthe world. Tbev mean lojines-cule u Willi till their vior. They mean to force Mexico to do ju-uci al the in.ini ntllie sword. This, then, is th-ir design llus is their plan; nnd it is worthy of a bold, htjU-imuJcJ, and energetic peo- I'l-" SPEECH Of Mr. GnsTiiv, of Tennessee, on the Prcsdent's Message. The committee resumed the consideration of might not have declared it. Probably not. the President admitted that an existing Govern nient in .Mexico was disposed to receive a Minis f. too, tno capital oi acw-jicxico, was some possiblo form, and still does, the whole country as is supplied ny tno columns oi mo vjoverumeiu re-. miles within the United Sta es. accordinn-tohis i..,,,..,.n " I naner the most ultra and mo-t odious doctrine aring , present position. It was tho siat of n foreion 'i'i, i. ti.. ii..-i.i, of which ntraln-t nnblic liberty tho President has or conflicting Government, Wiiich was then main- ouractsof Coin'ress mssed since annex ition, just endorsed in Ins Message we cannot doubt ties 7" We have neither time nor space to multiply proofs, which might be r.dduccd,of tho intentions of tho Administration to consider New Mexico and California at least when overrun, as having been acquired by commcst for the United States. 1 no l'resident Inm-ell .lmost avows lie design (hc rcollllIons submitted yesterday by Mr. II rod- ,, , ,.r,u,,u,,,,-,w v.., inrehtiou to a rcferenca ol Uiu l'rei- i.f these tmimrlant conquests, by making appro- ' ' ,4 ae priatiot.s for fortifications permanent, of course; 1 ,l ', , ... ... ,., Held fortifications or other operations proper to a M. vTnv addressed tlio committee. He had state of war not requiring such specific at. propria-, IntendeJ, at sum? more advanced period of tho tioiis-and for delravii.J the cximscs of the civil session, when it presented itself in a tangtblo government which our officers have, bv order of to say something on the rjr.estioti of tho the President, cstablishodin these "Territories of Mexican war. l.uf the .c .ate jester, ay, al the United States." This recommendation by well as tho denunciation Ins Mr. G. sj party, the Uxecutive is a full recognition of what his of- had induced him to change his imrmse, and to fivers have said and done. I ak now. It was moie to show tint he was The Picsidcnt rc-rers to the Law of Nations as , not afraid to speak, than from any other object, n.,ii,-:,;., ...i.nt i. i.... a , .' fbir hn rid sneak then. The President had dc- .......... i...,. iiu, nv nas lliillL', UllU lIO'i,l' IU -I . . . , . I - , . I . do ill California and New Mexico. Uav ing him f cended from his high position, and v lo ated Us to settle with Congress how far a state of war proprieties, by declaring in his message that they nreet nn Pviwnllm n ,..l..l... u-bn nresnmod to fall 111 nuetl0ll hlS nrildeUCO ... swv .... u.Sb.-v. , . .....II, 'I I.. I'll ll-IV IJtl'l UUUI - , . f . Congress and tl.e Constitution, wo will content and wisdom m conducting the vv ar, were, in feet, ourselves with saving that, in vv hat the President 1 guilt' of treason ; and tbo President s liegenwn nunriiiil,silin'ri,i-,,.i .i,,..r,u ! emi1 reodvio v r luntcer ill tha work ot rcite- ...w ! V C! IU UIIVV Wl .IIV VU1IUUV1' taining an adverse n isse. OVeT UbOUt as IliailV . n.fnMi.liimrn nr.rt .,l .t..!i,re nt 'nr,,ns Phrioli Mexican towns, cities and people cast ofthe Rio ., I ,, n,..,.7, Hltt ni ttfn ii'rict nf tint V n tt (U Grande as there were in the entire country be- , 'Pi.; i...-is!niinn .li.l in,nrf.,rn ni, ti.r. Tnvil try irom us to settio existing uimcuiiies, anu tvveen t ut river anu the habiuo which arkuowl- cn people and authorities soiled cast oftho Rio also t.iai tne country was on i.ie verge oi one o. ; edged lie jurisdiction il Texas. ,,, lowor t!ran.l. Rut, if our Congress hid passed an act its frequent revolutions. If di-posed to take a pa.t of that stream was tho boundary ofthe Unit- , i t12 vnxiu of tho previous act of Texas, do reincdy into our own hands, J.ongress might , ed States on the annexation of Texas, according ' clarin" the Rio Grande to be tho western bnun- navu . uinoriM-u n-prsais upon ,ie.-ico a u e-u-, ions own po-uion me river was a continuation ,hiy ofTexa, it would neither have strengthen sill v si li 1 1 1, wi nai, n invil i II recommended, and which times amply sufficient for redre Christi, on tho west batik of tho Nueces, and within tho line ol' tno Texan settlements. It! cede 1 Texas to tho United States at all Qui s'excusc. saccule, we might perhaps con-1 to War. InAugtut 1815, the American Armv. tent ourselves with saying that such a defence by orders of tho President, took post at Corpus i. ir ...... r;.. ,.r rrr.r n.., 1 ci,-:.,; n i i.,.i. r i... v.... IS OI liseu a v.ijiiii.j-;ivmi .'i vnui. i.iivii this vindication is put upon the ground of cor recting intentional mis-representations; of tho conduct of tlio Kveciitivv, charged to liavcWn made with intent to givo "aid and comfort" to the cnemv, we are obliged to enter into a more particular examination of the points of this do fence, anJ to show wherein they aro erroneous, illusory, or deceptive but "the spirit of conquest" entered into the mo tives of this war ? We find in that paper of the ISthuf .May last, immediately after tbo receipt cf tlio fust news of the collict of arms on the Rio Grande, exhortations to "throw volunteers at oneeacioss tho Rio Grande, march into Mexico, and terminate the War with Mexico, if necces sirv, in t'ie halls of Montezuma'." Nor was this hankering after the halls of Montezuma a new idea with tho Administration, thrown out in the heatnf pursuit of a retreatingarmy. Tho purpose except to despoil .Mexico of a portion i Santiaio. was lionot under a stronger nhliir.niim i i i.'e.... u....i. .i..,. -e ,i!.. 1....1 same idei was broAched by thoonwn of the pros- r ,' . i i 1 t . ,i .- " , , suiuii ueiuie. .ucit is iiiiutiivi m iiic uiuiwii . . . . . . ,i 11 i .i it of bcr teintory. to expel a foreign Government irom Santa IV, rccds 111.011 which President Polk leans in this out Administration in cold blood within three diu, io reiurn 10 mo maicnai question no-1 niuto reuuee tnai capital uuu an its ucpendan-, great strait. tvveen President Polk and tho Amfkicav Peo- cios under our laws and authority! Vet this1 lint tho President is so hard pressed that ho i'u:: llo-ranl by whom was this war bejim ! ho never attempted or dreamed ol, until Con- rather" unwittingly, it would seem, quotes his II by .Mexico, he stands absolved; if by him- gross recognised the unconstitutional war which j anua"e in reference to Texas, from tho dis self, ho has fir surpassed all his predecessors in bo had commenced. In such difficulties does a patch of our Secretary of State in 18 Id to our departure irom pnncipio involve men. Minister in Mexico : "Texas, as ceded to the United States by ' " Practically' freo' and independent, acknovvl I' ranee, in ISO, his been always claimed ns cdge.l as a political sovereignty bv the princi- i-vleni'iii.- Ve.l tn thn Ulo Ifrmufn n- .'...?, ie.t 11 .. . i '..-i . . . A.,?..- ;;-n ".--.."v, ... .i" roivcrs i.i iuo worm, no nuxmejoo' r-ii, jn.iio, asj uiu ,xvi33.iv. nun , i raiico never ipon ..Icmco ; a mea-, to his own po-ition the river was a continuation ,h, v ofTexa-, it would neither have strengthen 'resident Jackson had of the same boundary lino to its source. If he t,j le ri,rllt 0f tho United Stales nor have weak was then and at all was bound as President to uv-crt tho jurisdiction , vnct tl,:Vt of Mexico. The question of right redress, and for every , oftho L nited hiatus, and execute their laws at .ouu imo )(fcM oft j,, where it was, nnd ns it bold abuse of power, No threats on tho part of Mexico amounted months after its first establishment ill office, and within ono week after the editor ofthe new Gov ernment paper took his mist. In the " Union ' nf tho 8th of May, 1815, referring to some spec- asserts to be or, he and Ins advisors htve evidently suffered themselves to bo misled by the antiquated max ims of writers upon national Uw who flourished nt a time when such a thingas a written Consti tution was as unknown as the -Magnetic Tele "ranlr, at a time when all power wa deemed tho prerogative oftho ruler, and all rights of tho peo ple rtgarded as gracious concessions by him in their favor. These maxims, therefore, so far as thev concern the relations between our Rxecu- seemed ready to vrlimtrer in tha work of reite rating that denuT latum against every American freemen who bad the insolence to call in ques tion tho conduit ot tho lixecutivo. Vow ho Mr. G.) spoke in order to bring himself within the range of the-o denunciations. He and his friends were put oi tlmr mettle a- well a- the'r pitriotisin. They were c-tll-d on to proclaim their independence a freemen, or to truckle to Executive menace. Therefore, ho nwke. Ho did not intend an elaborate discussion of those tive and his constituents or their representatives ! constitutional uni-tien which mid been iiitro- i,i CnnirnHa. Iiale. in innnv e.nes. nn it nnlieatinn ' duccd hv learned L'l lltleini-il III toe roUTSC Of IhO atall; and certainly have none when thev are resorted to for the purpoo ofdrriv ing from thoin for the President powers which are denied to him by tho Constitution. The President has of him self no lawful authority to annex or arquiro ter ritory, or to establish civil irovcminetiu over ter ritories cither within or w ithout tho United Slates. gn lo lus otnee, and m the remained in that position, unmolested by the Mexicans, untill March, 18 Hi, when under or ders of tho War Department, it moved forward to occupy a position on tho Kin Grande, In tin execution ol tho orders of the Preside' '. the Commanding Geneial overthrew by m iry force and cxpelk-d the Mexican authorities frnfn Vn r,.m enn havo nerused this loner defence of S mtiago, took po -t on the Rio Grande, fortified thoconliict of Iho Kxccutive, partaking more I his camp, mounted his cannon so as to com- she ceded Louisiina which, the United States con tended, included all tbo country between tbo Mississipi River and the Rocky Mountains, from tho sources of that rivcrtotho Rio Giande The statement that Franco ceded to the United States Taxas co mine, can havo no other effect than within her f Texas I terriloru for six or seren wars. and Mexico herself refraining (or all that period from any farther attempt to reestablish her own authority over that territory," &c. This is testimony adduced by tho President himself ; nnd although it tnnv prove that Texas was independent, it establishes conclusively that, m tho jrdgmento( the then Administra to produce a false impression upon tho public i tion, Texas did not extend to the Rio Grande, or mind. S.iain always controvert d tho position , jndudo all Mexican towns nnd neonlo east that IjouUiana extended to tha Rio Grande. 1110 CUIl HIV-- ui inv ........ , j-..- n r i ' e , ........ - , ' " of the character of a one-sided argument by a maud the town of M.itimoros, nnd rut of' all But that is neither the main nor a collateral professional advocate, than Ihn calm, fiir, and communication with it by blockadim; thn mouth frank exposition of an important subject by the of tho river on wmcn it stands. Up to lint time Chief Magistrate of a great Peoplo to their Re-1 Mexico had sent no forces acro-s tho Rio jiresentatives, without remarking that the re is, Grande. The Texans had no settlements or in it a systematic attempt to bring up new is-, posts (nor ever had any) on tho Rio Grande, question In this matter ; it is only threw u in to dictvact nnd to lead the mind 'from the true points, l.oi'isian-i and 1 exas onco had a com mon recognised Iwuiidary, and that was the lltvor Mieces. 1 fie query, however, is as to of it, from Santiago along its whole course to the cities of Santa t o, Tans, and upward. Hut tho President, in this Messugo, protests that ho could not assume ' "tho responsibility cf yielding up tho territory west of thu Nueces to Mexico, or refusing to protect and defend this territory and its uihabi ...,.. i. .-!...!: rr,,...,,.. r-o...:.,: .... .....n ..i... sues, in order to withdraw the public mind from upon any of its tributaries, or within its long , the boundary of I exas. .Spain owned and was jtatits, including Corpus Christi, ns well ns tho ilia tirst and main one, ivauey, irom us sources ions uioutii, i exan i pusiussi-u oi imui.iiuu, winen snu ceueu io rouia (its mouth. Texan i possessed of Louisiana, which sho ceded to remainder of Texas, ae-ainst thu threatened inia On the 11th of .May last, tho President, by officers, laws, or jurisdiction hid never boon Frinco by tho treaty of October, 1800. liefore I sion," his Message to Congress, proclaimed that w.ir seen nr existed anywhere on the borders of the ' this cession sho was undisputed sovereign oflTo which it is enough to reply that Gr tcral more than ono thousand miles up tlio Kin Grande, the .Mexicans had east of that river towns and cities, Santa Cruz, Santa Fo (the not begin this war, tha question is, was it by Alexico or by the President of the United States that it was brought on ? VVu's is tho iinportnnt question vvliich the President would eludoinhis elaborate enumeration of wrong inllicted b; klovirn nnon the United States, which hn enn. eludes were sufficient to havo authorized the other provinces of Mexico. She held and pos- every Texan settler west of tho Nueces, anil sesscd them nil by certain and dclinito Imuiida-' thu President will not say to tho contrary. A exi ry, and tho Western lino of Texas, in which j co made no military movement on that border, sho tnado settlements more than a century ago, I until Gen. Taylor was in full march to tho Rio was tbo River Nueces. Her ancient, first mid Gr.indo. It was not until her own pooplo nnd , ....... .e s.- .i i . i .. t .. .. .. ..... . only capuai oi ativjicuru euiiiiinie-ii io eo authority on m i iuo iiranjo were invaded ov Santa Fe, which it could not have been hud the ; the army under his provinces dr.nde. armv under lus command that she nremred I ....! : I.. I ... .1 II- l . r ... . i,-jiiisiuii.i i-Mi-nucu in i u-j iuo, ior resistance aim to ueienu incm. J lie nrcsp existed between Mexico and tlirf United Slates. Rio Grande, Irom tlio Green Mountains to tho) Loaisiam, of I exas, Now-Mexico, and all tho I Taylor's post at Corpus Christi protected amply wougress ismo oniy power vvliie'i can nghlluiiy i tiini. un in" coiunirv tue wumu lengtii ot the nnd constituliQiully put the United States at country had h.'PU di-covered by tho .Mexicans, war: that body had mado no move toward cs- and th"ir uninterrupted p isspsioii had continued tablishing that relation between iho United i up to that day. ileginning with the city of Tuns, tnaicn anu ...vaivo , unu yei, o-ioro tills .VICS-i-ago was penn?d, the thunders of tho cannon o! Palo Alto und Resaca do 1 1 Palme, b .ill u n rvrv 1 1 n s cd it to me vvorni. as Uongress certainly did I capital of New Mexico,) San Miguel, San Do mlngo, Albuquerque, Jorreon, lotilkis, Tnji qui, Nut rets, Tabiri, iilverde, l'ra Cristotiil, Old Presidio, Djlores, Laredo, nnd Point Isabel, stretching Iho who u lenutli of tho riwr from I Its sources to the Gulf. From t in limn Hut Mexico became Indenendeiil i..rlwll,.tl, 1.-.-t '....I 1 . 1. iY? . i i w. -.- .... - i-iiuimiin, ih-i lavvii. iinu iii'r niiirpr. nun wu-'in. United States to declare war against jvioj,j,0. ed over all tho,o cities and tovvus, and the e tiro Grunt his conclusion, and whoso business and rural population of tho country s nover right was it to make this war,? It belonged to , had had a foothold in the country ol ? thS Rio Congress only, not to tl.e Present, or any other1, Grande. Such was tho state o( Zn until it authority on earth. Grant that thore exl.ted was first interrupted, and has ince Wn sui , .. i ,, , c, iMl such ae-is mil-lore-inn 13 lesions of 3 eJiSjuWiiceofany authority derived from Congress, not t!,uuu u en nor -,ooo wo.uu ue- u V" ;.' , , - , ,......,,. lc,m,orarv ms'session, would D3 enough io march , - ;v -- , v ", i.. IVIll-lvii. w..v ..... debate; but it was toannoiince lus own opinions on tho war, and as-iune their full responsibility. A man, he held, might be loval, an I jet opposed to tho President. Attachment to the I.xeciitivo was no necessary mirk of patriotism. The mis takes of law ami fact which had been made, aiose from the melancholy impression which ap peared to prevail, that tho Frtidenl was tho Go vcrnnient, und s-e,.-od unlimited power. They seemed to be rapidly advancing to that maxim of monarchical allegiance, tliat iho king could do no wrong. Though a man might vote supplies and light" on the battlefield, hj was, for-ooth, no patriot, unless, spaniel-like, Im knelt nt tho feet of the Kxecutivo. That win- the spirit which had characterised the debate. Ho protested against it. Let those whose senility of soul nniliiioil thorn for the meiiul r li truckle to the '. . . . I . 1 I I- 1. .. .1 . l.-.l ...ll. Pill no ana ins mv.ius Jl.Ul O. iioDicr They stood for the defence, of Jiae! no disposition to proper to isuc that oruer, ice. iuuuj.ii j . f' cisions of the Supreme Court, wlncli wo navoia- irucsiu o i-m ' '": .' ' . e. r- . .i u-pr- in.l , i .lesimteh nf eisiuii .11 inv . uj .v... t . .f ,1... ...nn nF Ills I.U'll ... M...ir ,,, Mexico, transilllltinz the decision of keil oel.llon 10 COll-llll, wo ' . , ' I ,!,. nors.n.nl e eirieteruas nnu-iir. the Co leilofno.erniiient of .Vlevico. advi-ing that volume 1, til-' law on this suojoa is ve-rj cieam he should not be received, and aim the despatch ot iaj,j jow lls fjllows '. nor Cons.il residing m lh", city ot ..ieico ine mer bee ing uutcou tne iiin, una in of n.-ceinhir. IS 1 were rcceivei hat that 10,000 men iiron Mexico, adding as follows: 'Sound tho bugle through tho West and Snnih.west let tho United States raise the standard to-morrow, and ill this proclaimed cm- nlit:iuind bv force, is a tho President no power to go tortn wun arms in his hands to wrest territories from a foreign p ivv er.but Conoress cannot lawfully- authorize htm sade,j(ac U.lls f Montezuma andthemines of , "n "n, t daV - w President, in justification ofthe order of 13d, 1 over the worfd, but in our country It has been hxec live , but I.o and Jani ry o7,he marcliof ,ir army to the Itiofjrnnde, I 0ng ago adjudicated and settled by its ugliest de In ) to .Unl- llioy fto statej. as circumstances exUtmg when it was deemed jc'ial tribunal. In Peters's Digest of the De- the constitution. proper to is-ue that order, the lollowin : J nUinns of the Sunreme Court, which wo havota- truckle to a pst ) usurper, . ... ... I!.-. -1'iif.ui. e..miiiiinieniiuiis i.i.rl.K- ..'rnlnlile. it not nlwoliitrly certnin.that our Mill bter .vo.ild not bo recen ed by the ( Tins iua I s ,i,o ref-unl of .Mevico to receive our .Minister na , C turwnr wun .i--iv.., ' " .,"".'v Hie Klo iirnuje. imi u is vu- litrrenliy intnijs wero reposei ieu afuHhe l3tterJoT.,thhe H.h I "B v a conquest tl.e conqueror acquires oth vcvivnl file' I ing bat a temporary right of possession and gov iiunications rendered it enuiK'nt over tbo territory conquered, until ap.i plv certnin.that our Mill-1 -in,. ,, inn ml CTinnot ill tho meantime, impur, ic, ii i. -.. j - . - i iiiicaiiuii, mm .at,..". - .... . . , atbo wived by the (.ovcriiiuent.' e. I , trmsfer. iho rights of tho lormcr sove- no leasou tin nrniv to nous to sec how . After b'ie ceded Louisiana lo France, dent was nut required even by Mexico to yield the vvliolj period of its po-sessi-n by tint , nn anv territory : but. of his ovvn will, und while power, and after its transfer by her to the L nited Congress was in session, ho marched our army States, Santa IV, continued to be the undisputed inton country whero the military force of Texas ... I .... M. .. I.,.. I, . ... li ., I . I ... I . I .r...... I . 1 .. iiv-iv us i;.i,i.-iiiiiioiii i ii tu never oecii otu io oo uMicaiej i ue, upon u uptedly iiilministored. own mero authority, invaded u country that wi 1 States to Texas wits and ever had been in the full possession of .Me capital oi Aew-.vicxico, vviiereiis government i n id never lieeu out to oe il'ieaieJ J lie, upon in was fully and iininierrupieuiy iidministored. own mero authority, invaded ti country Hut wus Tho liirht of tho United States to Texas wits and ever had beenln the full nos session of .Mex coded to Spain by Iho treaty of 181!; and from ico.and expelled her officers and laws from It by that time until Mexico revolted she held and i force of arms, governed Texas by tbo Nueces as its Western I 'iVius began tho War, Boundary; and lamaulipas, another province,! Tho true isme, therefore, between the Prosi here by ihe (levernuumt paper "d the Uiv' ol uw uaie M he inrebing order to lien. Tailor. On that very a -(tl. 3th January 18 It'.,) the Union contained un l,uc of a letter received at ihe -Navy );partme.u rom Very Crur, sliilius that -Mr. Shdcll had been la teiing y reeei'.edtheTe. &c.-and on the , uf he fo "ov iiui monlh (IVbiuary)tlie Union published the lol'owinn 9iia offi"'"! inlormalion Fbo. MA;co.-hetters were received last niiibt I lie iriwi. M. CI1.I..1I ,,. at which nine iJiiav,, ... ...v peeled to strive nt Jalapa on the lith. Cnn I lil, Ini.nnrv cuy.uu . . v.. ,h slightest insult bad been of.en-d lo bun, ns has l?n reported ; but be bad been received with much courtesy, nnd he had been welcomed ui the society of ihe metropolis ns an eleijaiit and ' f..i .....ii.mmi In nd not vet been re- QCCO'llUllsiiea ...v...-. , n- - I -. - - ceived by the Government m his oflicial Ml'iy-. receded," if n,itAer Ld they declined his reception i ; ; and m fict, t ' na'iiv. and vvlio-e personal charactervvas unwor thy the favor of the uuanest min on that shouted in his train. The American spirit yet lived ; and would not sustain the acts of the pre-ent accidental President cf the United States. Ho held it as a general rule, nnd would, in ordinary circumstances, gladly conform to it, that in timo of war all should uuito and wait until its end, then to call its public oil'icials to a strict account. Hut they know not for what obiccttho war was vva"evl they had no assurance lliat 3aco would i. T In view of all these circuiiistan- .i.,, ,v. ii erimo : and it was the duly ol all rcr about .'i.. ir...n. ,md Rieii as conunander- oiucero, , ,o v..,. - of "In cases of conquest, (lie us-ige of the world is, i -c ( jd ,wd )l0 ris,ht v.-hat-otacr to make ifn .eiilni, Is iu t wholly suIkIuciI, to consider the ",v "...'.'.. recent such as had been lie s' conquered territory as merely held by military! ,vii 0 national legUlat.iro. He Mr. G 1 . . '. ..!- I Ci . .I...1I I.o . . .term lied bv CiarVU ,, . l.rp.i.lnnf , oecnoiiiuii. u nil i us iait ouan wv vs. j r,, .1,,rt,i n,, u,ii. i.-o... a treaty of peace." I li.V, ,r veracity. Ho did not believe i the as- t: r. ioi 1 ,,.er,-,,e. raii7iirrnf I'll Q'l tmmy, is nut io i.',,.lenvln inniriHirat'd into the domini ms of tat enemy, without it rcnnnci.itiim inn treaty peace, or a long and permanent jxuve jjion. United States vs. Haywood, ! Gallis.C. C. R. SOL j'o the same effect we find tho following pas. sago in Judge Story s Commentaries : uleiico was a crime ; and it was tne nut oi eprcscntatives of Ilia people to freely it tho object--, motives, and conduct or the cutivo. The President was the executive) Rut,' farther, the Presides! says, in his Mes- M'"; 0'f Ul0 i.resident, that tho war had not sage; ,. I been waired for com ue-i. V" " C'"" llv the laws of nations a conquered icrr .. . . tl) i!l0 urcgon lerruorv i n c uu i running across the Rio Grande to tho'Nuoccs dent and the People it not whethitthere ev'"i ..nitnt of 1'- ti - - IviiKiyoT?.s' f (lines, .u is subject to be governed by the conqueror. ,mt the President ,d abou tlie.. i.i ii .r.. " .y., minmiin rumor Hist before the pro- in .fict, :L' rrt h,, ,lided oUierwise: '." i'.r ,.,5!,lt was submitted to the Senate, Wil-onK, A 4 I !7w3 V WESTON, Ji'flLim