Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, February 26, 1847, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated February 26, 1847 Page 1
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Vol. XX. IVo. 37. Whole IVo. lOStt. HUUIiIi'TO, FRIDAY HOItMTVf., I l.llltl Alt! 30, 1817. NEW SERIKS, ,o. 3.1 7-O-Z BURLINGTON FREE PRESS Published at Burlington, Vt Bf !. V. C. C1.AIIKE, Editor and Proprietor. T ermit To Village subscribers who receive the roper bv the currier, $3,00 If paid in advance . . 2,50 Mail subscribers and those who take it at the Office, Invariably 2,00 AnvEansEMKNTi inserted on the customary terms. From the Knickerbocker, The UhosUPIuycr. A BALLAD nv joiin o. sail. Tom Goodwin wns an actor man, " Old Prury's' pride and boast In alt the titbit and sprite-ly parts, Especially the Ghost. Now Tom was very fond of drink, Of almost every sort, Comparative and positive, From porter up to port. Hut grog, like " Erif," Is fatal stuff 1'or any mm to sup j For when it fail to pull him down, It's sure to " blow him up." An I so It fired ith ghostly Tom, Who day by day was seen A-swcllinu, , 'till (a" lawyers say) He fairly " lost his lean." At length the minigsr observed " Hel better leave his post," And said," he played the ery deuce Whene'er he played the Ghost." " 'Twin only t other night he saw A ' loafer' swinj hi- hat. And lisnr.l him cry, 4 Ilv all the gods ! The Ghost is getting fat !' T would nev cr do, the case was plain ; His eyes he couldn't shut ; Ghost shouldn't make the people laugh, And Tom was quite a butt." Tom's actor-friends said ne'er a word To cheer his drooping heart ; Thouch more than one was burning up With zeal to "take his part." Tom argued very plausibly ; He said he did n't doubt That Hamlet's father drank and grew, In years, a little " stout." " And so, 't was natutal," he .said, " And finite a proper plan, To have his spirit represent A portly port of man." 'T was all in xaiu ; the manager Said he was not in sport, And, liken gen'ral, bade poor Tom SurrcnJcrup his fortr. " He'd do, perhaps, in h?avy parts ;' Might answer lor a monk, Or porter to th elephant, To cany round his trunk : But in the Ghost his day was pat He'd nrvcr do for that; A Ghost might jul as well be dead As plethoric and fat !" Alas I next day poor Tom was found As stir as any post For he had ' lost his character," And " given up the Ghost !" iTarm. From the Cultivator. " Fanner.-' CStilts. There i; nothing like discussion to bring out the various points of a subject, and present each in its fue liht; hence wc do not know of a better means of eliciting facts in relation to the business of farming, and thus advancing the in terests of those engaged in it, than the forma tion ot neighborhood associations or "runners Clubs." Those associations have become very common in England, and have been formed to fconie extent in this country, and wherever I .L . r I , ,T.. Know n, incir greai nsciiiiness is atinuucu. un der proper regulations, they constitute at once the means ol acquiring uselul knowledge, and of social enjoyment. The form or plan of association, may be very simple. The farmers of a certain township or district agree to meet once a week, or onco in two weeks, during the winter season, at each others' houses, in rotation, for the discussion of ques lions relating to rural management. Perhaps the following might answer : Article I. The subscribers agree to form an Association under the namo of Farmers' Club, the object of which is to improve our. selves in knowledgo relating to Agriculture, Horticulture, and Husbandry generally. Art. II. The officer of the Association shall be a President, whoso duty it shall be to preside at the meetings, and a Secretary who thall keep such records and in mutes as the Associa tion shall direct. Art. III. The officers shall be elected by ballot, and shall hold there places till others are chosen in their stead. Art. IV. During the months of .the Assn. ciation shall meet at such times as inay'be agreed on uy a majority oi mo memuers, lor the discus sion of questions. Tiie meetings .-hall ha held in rotation, at the hou-csofthe respective mcm- ocrs ; commencing and proceeding in alphabet, ical order. Art. V. Questions shall bo offered in wri ting, and such shall he chosen for discussion, as the Association may agree on hy vote, atany regular meeting. Art. VI. This constitution is subject to amendment or alteration as a majority of all the members shall direct. The following might form some of the ques tions for discusion. In all cases it s'imtlil be understood that the question hme jmrtirular ref erence lo the Jhtrict where the association is loca ted. What course of fanning is most profitable for the different Kils of tlio district What is the best mode of cultivating Indian corn .' The same question is applicable to oth er crops grown in tlio district. What is the best mode of managing and ap pljing barn-yard or animal manures What are the best means of increasing the supply of manures ? Tlio host modes of using peat or " muck ?" Whether by mixing with animal manures, urine, ashes, lime, or any other sub stances ? and the effects on various crops as compared with common animal manures ? These am but few of tlio questions that might bo discussed with advantage. Others will of courso be suggested. They may bo offered at any time, and tho Secretary should keep a list of them, which may bo read before tho associa tion whenever called for. It is the practice In Kngland, and wo think it might bo well adopted here, to pass a resolu tion at the closo of each discussion, expressive of tho views of tho subject which has been un der consideration. This giv s tho discussions a weight and character which entitles them to notice. For in-tance, suppose the question to have been" Wh it Is the best mode of rearing and fattening swine ?" the following might Lo adopted : IteitnUeJ, That in this district tho most profit nblo mode of rearing swine and making pork, is to feed th pigs freely from tho first with dairy i.ops, (that is, skimmed milk or whey,) if it can be had on tlio farm, giving them a run on clo ver or grass through tho summer, and in the fall fatten them in clean warm pens, with a mix-1 e.l food of potatoes, apples, or pumkins, with i .,! ,,ri...i:' i. ' i.. '... ...i . molcf the pics to ho slatVhtered when from eight to ten months old. The discussions and decisions of associations fnrmml nn tl,! .i.i r,r, lUn ,nst lmr. uiuug uuiucr ior pcnouicuis , aim , we shall be pleased to receive reports of clubs for Insertion in our columns. Confident of the utility of such organizations, wo tru-t no time ! will bo lost in getting them tin, in all parts of csting matter for periodicals , and, the country. Mow is the time while out-door operations are principally suspended, to prepare foraction for that action which shall bo most effective. Improve the present seaon in the acquirement of Knowledge ; and under all tlio lights and advanlagcs which that confers, bo ready to commence business in the right time and in the right way. Froni the Cultivator Jtlnnngcniriil nCI'oilltr)-. KaEinr.x-T imnirlr urn in i,!o bv farmnrs. ns to the cht.-npet and best mode of managing poultry, and the question is not satisfactorily answered. The most perfect mode is to have a line, airy, well-lighted poiiltry-hoiic, con-1 nected with an ample, well fenced vard. liens may bo also kept confined three-quarters , of the day in the poultry-house only, it it is fully lighted and cleaned 'daily, without the ml- ditioiiof the yard, with a run of an hour or two in the adjacent grouniN, before going to rool. The third and more common way, is to let Ihcm run at large at all times, picking up whit they i can litul lora siili'istPiicc. J-acliol tlicce ihouls has its advantages and objections. 1. The advantages of a house anil large yard are, the liens are pertecliy provided with lood, and room for exercise, and rill the oilier cum forts s ime fellcr cnmiii' up tlio road like all posse-s- J notes &."promKestopay 'in'.o every mart and into of life, without interfering with other parts of cd, his ho-ses under a full run, whilo lie was every market in the world begging for a pit the prcmi-cs. The disadvantages are, the cost , sawin' the bit and hollcrin wn.'im! with all tanco from every hand to help to swell the amount of the hou-e, the co-l of a high, pickctted, vard i his might and main, lie in in igcd to stop em' now neces-arv to extricate u from a war in- fence. and the land occupied where the yard i it must be, to answer properly the in tended purpose; be-ideslhe expense and care of providing a constant -upply of fond and water. '-'. The advantages of a house without a yard are, the expense of a large yard is avoided ;and the intrusion- of the hen- elsewhere are entirely prevented, as during the short interval of their liberation each day, they pass ha-tily through garden or other grounds,"picking up only in.-ects, and avoiding scratching, and returning of their own accord to their re-ling places for the night. The objections are, the indispensable necc.-.-ity of a well aired, well lighted, perfectly cleaii house, requiring large windows, care in ventila tion, daily sweeping, and frequent white-washing internally. A conlant supply of food and water inii-t be given. This mode is also apt to caii-e the hens to eat the fresh eggs, as well as to render them le-s prolific. 3. .Suffering hens to rim at large release5 tho owner from all care in feeding them. Thev pick titi refuse mailer from the kitchen and i!-e- vvliere, devour injects, and devour the seeds of various woods growing in wastcgroiind-anil iin fropicnted 1 1 u c. Rut there ob options to this mode cf management, or rather, iib-cnce of management. Reing compelled to pick up their own living, they often pick in tho wrong place, and pilfered grain and uprooted garden -ecds are tho result. They often choose wrong places for running, as the baeksof carriae-c seats. over saddle0, and on farm tjais. to the so ions annoyance of the owner. Sometimes, loo, a large nestof eggs is spoiled, in con-eqiience of Doing located in some unknown hiding place. J.ich ol these three luedes having its merits and disadvantage,!! becomes necessary to choose between them. This choice mu-t bo made ac cording to circum-tanres. Those who wish to raise poultry and eggs in large quantities for market, and those vv ho do not rpp-ird thn cost of a house and yard, and who can procure letity of ieeii,siioiuu cnooso tho nrsl mode. The second may be adopted in villages, cr where little land can beaffbrded, and where at tho same time there is some person in tlio family to give nearly con stant attention to their wants, lo sec thev are well supplied with food and water, that strict cleanlinc-s is uniformly preserved, and that the eggs are secured before' they are devoured by the hens themselves. The third is more applicable to hrgo farms, where the him is remote fiom thogirden, and where tho carriage house, gra nary, tool house, &c., may he entirely excluded from their visits, and consequent defilement.--There is so much refuse matter around barn which they may pick up as food, that farmers may usually have a dozen or two of lions witli scarcely any co-t whatever. It will, however, bo found a very great convenience, which we wish lure strongly to recommend ti have a small apartment for their accommodation at nights, built as a lean-to, on the south side of the barn, and properly lighted with window. If this open to tho inner part of the h irn, and also to tho barn yard, they may nt any time pa-s out to either place unrestrained ; and as soon as they becoint accustomed to their lodgings, thev will at once resort there, without any trouble, 'or without any danger of annoying tho farmer by depositing their slime elsewhere. Where a hen-house without a yard has been built, it is often difficult to induce tho hens in winter to frequent it; a difficulty which would vanish ifthcy could pass to it freely and immediately from the bam they frequent during tho day. Hens may often be easily confined to the barn and b a row of short pickets set on the high tight fence which surrounds the cattle yaru. T( Yeust, . ".,, T, 1 . ; '"; ' in'.' preem a-peci oi piiunc tll.urs, should enter is well known. It con-i-tsofr. variety of coiii.;t,i such .-ingul irly m-ito views, Tho pro- poneuts; and among others of acetic and in ilic found and couteinpl ttivu mind of the Suitor acids, alcohol, potash, lime, fee, but its es-en-i from Sol t i Carolina (Mr. Calhoun) i 0 .kid" tial and peculiar qu ably depends entirely mi the abroad at Iho prc-ent condition of the R ...t i,-" oresenco ofa portion of gluten or vegetable al.lcnM see nothing ill around him bat darkness! biimen, in a tl He, n. incipient decompo,ition. ad doubt, and distrust, and fearful apprehen' ira pure solution or sugar in water ho e.xclu-1 sion, and iinpenelrable gloom ; while to the mind ded from the air , remains perfectly unchanged . of tho Senator from Michigan (Mr Cass) all was for any length of lm... R,,t if , or!,.ulic ,,- Itt ., c ,, !m j ,lXiW a , ' stance mast Hoof slow decomposition, us for perous breezes, and a smooth sea. Now Mr instance yeast, bo introduced, the partick of- Pr.-ident, if this diver-ityof opinion is found to gtralso beoomo afiyctcd, and participate in tho prevail in mind, hibitua.ed and ace won "d ... change, and carbonic acid and alcohol are the think earnestly and sincerely upon public all'iir- 1 ho linnnrtancn or vpril in 1n,nn.,tA result. After the yeast his converted a certain portion him who is In determine between these two con of the sugar compired Willi its own bulk, into Dieting opinions all tho attention which it is pos alcoho I tho yeast it-elf entirely disappears, and , sible lor tliuh.uu.iu mind to give the Mibiecl mi an additional quantity must bo added to renew , der tho awful responsibility which rests upon tho fermentation. Rut when added to a mixture every unuiu determining upon a oue-lion af of Hour with water, which contains gluten as (acting mi deeply tho happiness and interests or well ns sugar, anew portion nrycast is produced . so many millions of human beiiP's. by tho decomposition of the gluten of the Hour. Now, I wish it were in my power to entertain I hits yeast reproduces it-elf, by inducing the' thoso placid convictions which nppoir to have vinous fomentation in siib-tances containing! nettled on tho mind of tho Senator from Mich!, gluten and sugar. Thus, in a brewery, tho! can, rather than havo my mind disturbed, as i quantity of yeast continually increases. ins h-eii in common with tho .Senator from Suuth Iho presence of water is necessary for rnis-J Carnlini, by visions and prospects of evil by raining tho properties of yeast ; hence in a dried fearful apprehensions that every step wo are now state it uny be kept sometimes for months. Its taking m ly bo Iho last one which we shall he action isiiUo arrested by a temperature equal to permitted to take in our career and in our hislo. that of boiling water, or greater ; henco the (or-! ry as a freo people; mid 1 am tho less inclined mentation of dough is nt onco arrested hy ba- toli-ten lo this siren song the Senator from kin?. Hence, also, in drying solid jeast fori .Michigan sings to his own soul in the present preservation, toogreata heat will at once des- f.-arful aspect of publicall 'ilrs.bec.uise, Mr. Pros troy it. (ident, I have heard it before now. Kvery ono It making bread, yeast operates in rendering must recollect tho condition of this country two itmorojight and porous, by thocaibonic acid orthreo years ago, when that other que-tiou, gas which is liberated, forming innumerable ca- which was but tho prelude and precursor to the vities of air in all parts of tho loaf, A similar one which we are now obliged to discuss, was effect is produced in n more rapid degree, hy the mixture of soda nml tartaric acid or creittn of ...I., .! .nni,.tn it.. , .1,., cip i il, dough. Carbonic acid is abundantly liberated by tlio tinioii of the acid and soda, and the bread or cake rendered very light ; and a similar result is finely nmd.ired In tnuklmr hnrkwheat culcns. by using buttermilk uy u"iu hmul-hiiilu iiim nih.'i.uii'', uie lih m tlio milk freeing the carbonic acid gas from the salcrattis. . - jlob Wnililnm's Horse Trade. ' You know Rjb Waddam, I reckon' said Un cle Mike. 'Xot that I recollect, I replied. Well Rob was an arnazin hand at tradin' horses, and generally came out a bead too, I never know him really girdled and the under brush cut but once.' 'How was that Uncle Mike ?' 1 Vliy you see Hob had jest been gettin' a grey boss in some of his was jest about as nice a boss to look at ns over nut his nose throuiih the rack sticks. Ho was a human lookm' horse and imtlnn shorter. Ho was al-! , ways forming tor star, aim carried ins tail like ithe Xationil Ilag on the fomt'i of July. Rut ho wouldn't work ho was above it. He'd alitu st 1 stop when ho seo his si a low follow. in' him for fi'ar he might In driwin'it. N'ow tlion, says Rob, some individual is bound to be picked tip. I Ko inahin' an excuse that Gray's shoes wanted lixin,' lie 'out him to the Lla-ksmilhV, ami liar-1 nosved lipid- other hose-, hitched on ton wag- on io.ui ot .-tone, an I drove down to nam new- ett s tavern, Hnre h" ' i '!'" tin- (jur uniiariii. jtu ii.iu up in ins place, isou wont in land took a drink, and wailed around until Mime ' man should come along who wanted to specu-1 m:. ne uaun i uccn waiiin longwticn lie see aucr no got a lime ny llewett s and turnin 'em round, become up a slappiu' his hands and cussiti' 'that sorrel boss.' lie's never ready to s'.op, says ho, that boss ain't; tho' he's the he-t ho-s I ever owned, yet blast my eves if I don't get shut of him.' 'Well, just then out comes Hob and mounted his wagon jest as If ho was goin' to drive off', when says he 'Hallo, stranger, perhaps you'd like to deal with me for a steady ono ?' 'Why, yc.s.'say.s "tho stranger,' I would like something a little more quiet than that goahead sn ip- Ir.igon rascal of mine. 'So Rob he looks at the sorrel, and found him a lino tqttare built animal, his eye full of fire, and every mu-cle in play.' 'Well' says Rob, a few words does for me. Titer's my gray hers your sorrel. What's your reposition !' 'Now you are talking said tho stranger, ex amining the griv, as he stood hitched to the load ofstone. 'I'll give you sorrel, and the best forty dollar clock in my wagon for your gray.' 'Done, said I! b, 'ju-t unhitch.' Neither of them hid asked 'tother any nues- tioiH, ciuse neither one of them wintcd'to an swer any. 1 he hoses were oxch ingod. Rob nail got his clock, and the stranger irot into his wagon; took up his line-, and biddiii" 'cm mod imv, was auoui ui-iari, when gray put a stop to n, ami wouiuu i uiiuge a hair. Ill lain did the stranirer whip antl cna.x not an inch i-uul.l I, get. There said Hob, laughing in bis sleeve, almost ready to hurst, toseeliovy the stranger was trying to start and couldn't. .Not a word did the stranger say, however ; but after he had got tired, and had given up trying any more, hu came and sat down on the hor.-e block. 'Rub thought he might as well bo going; o picking up his ribbons, 'go along' says he. Tho sorrel turned his head anil looked back at him, as much as to say, ' don't you wish I would 1" l ilt didn't stir a hoof. In vain Rob citxed anl patteJ. Sorrel was thar, and he wasn't nnyvv here else. ' Well, I reckon it's my turn to laugh now,' sai I the stranger ; 'I suppo-e you'll call again when you come in town.?' ' never mind,' says Rob, ' Sorrel will go or els0 you couldn't got here with him.' 'Oil, ye-,' says the stranger; ' you can start him if you'll only hriing some shaving, and kindle a fircunder'him, as I did. And then he liughed again, and when I camo away, they wero playing a gaino of OA .S'foyc, to see who unuiu uko mem uolli. Cincinnati Sundaii .V.'icj.' Speech ol" .llr. tL'oriviti, In the 1'nilcd .States Senu'e nn Ihr lWi inst.,on the "TIIRKi: MILLION HILL." Trom the New York Tribune. Mr. Conwix- rose and said : .Mr. President I do not pretend to attempt tho perform ince'of a t ik so futile and fooli-h as to go over the whole field of discus. ion which this subiect embraces. It has aheady licen occupied by more vigilant and stronger bauds than mine. All that 1 miv!lread in tho Constitution of this Government hope will be to gather, here and there, a sheaf o'r j two, before the harvest bo fully githered. I ri-eJ Mr. Pre-ident, and havo solicited tho attention of tho Senate only for tho purpose ol perforiuiti" mo iiiiu.o.o ia-u oi presenting to mo body and through it, if possible, to tho constitu ents which 1 represent, some reasons that havo unpolled me to occupy, what every one mu.-t know, in times like these, is, to say tho least of it, a po-ilion not de-irable. It inu-t, however, have struck every one, sir, as a very curious fact tint the two Sen- 1 .. .... tl.rt ,.,l,n. . : l ..r .1... it-ii i , ... . ! .i . . i- . .. - before the (senate of the I. nitod States, n ti tl nn.x iottsly attracted the attention or tlio whole pro ' nt,. of thn United States tlicfiucstion of t he an- noxation ofthe Republic, of lo.xas, but rccet.tly a portion of this very Mexicovyith whom wo are now at war. e were told then, Mr, that J ex- as. heing an independent iiopublic, had a right , i - . whatever end and purpose she pleased, and the parent Republic of .Mexico, having no cause to ' complain, would utter no complaint at ho dipo-, Von .wJ,,:n ab." Vi VVa- "( Uc"f,t. ! Wp u-pfp t.,1,1 lli!it u'nr V itll Mpvipn U'm.lil nnt I could not ensue, if that step should be taken j by the United Stales. c were told then, ns we arc told now, bv the Senator from Michigan. , that all was calm all was tranquil; that, as lie 1 said yesterday, the sentinel might sleep securely , on his lower that till would ho peace, and that j that sleep could in no sene disturb the friendly j relations existing between tlio Republic nf Mexi- co and the Republic of the United States. Wo J wore asked not to anticipite the evil which was to come, iust as the S-n it r lroin Micbl'Mn beo- I ired us to anticipate not c.rls which inioht bo in prospect before us. "Suflicient unto the day is j i'ie evil itiereot, was then the song winch the t advocates of that measure sought to lull into tranquility, or into apathy, the excited feeling of. the public, mind in this country. And, Mr. Pre.-ident, the day has come, as was then predicted, and the evil predicted has come with it. We are here, sir. now, not as then at peace with all the world not now as then with laws that brought into your treasury cverv thing adequate lo its wants not now ns then Iree from debt and the apprehen-ion of debt and taxa- nun, its nece.-sary consequence, lint wo arc here Willi a treasury that is beggared that lifts up its imploring hands to the monopolists and , capitalists ot tlio country that sends out its ovnauio as it now seems it was Irom that very 1 act which was adopted under such flittering 1 promises two years auo. Mr. Pre-ident. it is no purpose of mine to arraign the conduct of the United States upon that occa-ion. It is no pur-po-o of initio to treat the young and newly adop ted si-ler the State of Toxar as an alien or stranger in this family of Republics. I allude to this only to show how little reliance is to be placed upon tho.-e favorable anticipation- in which gentlemen indulge with regard tn conse quences which may How from measures to which they are strongly wedded, cither by feeling or party attachment. And is there nothing else, Mr. President in the history of the last yenr.ln justify the Senator from , South Curnlinri in tli-il upnArt'i ,l ,1ppt-, n It..,, ' which ho made tho oilier day, tint in the whole history of his life compri-iug the mo-t eventful periods in tho history of this Republic there

had never been a time when so much danger was threatened to the interest', happiness and liber ties of the people of the United States as now. Why, sir, if any one would sit down, free from tho excitement, free from the ba-os consequent upon a con-lant intermingling with those busied in public all'iir-, and in those calm and seques tered solitudes where thoughtful men indulge themselves in reflections upon pas-lug event i - tnil look over the lus'ory even of the la-t vear. men juuging irom an tne examines ot lor mcr tunes according to tint wi-dnm whirlil t .t, '....... ,i ui,,.. uf ory a tone can teach of what must lie the iiifXijalilo and utnvoida blo result of what has ha pencil, it appear.- lo me that ho would say that this Republic, boa-ting that itsliborties are secured and tho various func tions of its Government bound up in the chains ofa written Con-iitution,has torn that Constitu tion to tatter?, scattered it lo tlio breeze and re solved it-elf into that old and much abu-ed Constitution of Kngland, u mere omnipotence of Parliament ! No! Ho would rit'ier fin I in tho events of tho last Ion months of the list year, tint that power of this government which was evidently intend ed to he tho controlling power if there may be said to be any controlling power belonging to a Constitution which so divided out and parcelled out its powers with reference to tho supremacy of each in its own sphere h id given it-elf up a voluntary slave to that alone, which, by the fra mcrs of the Constitution, was intended to bathe mere U.xccntorand Ministerial officer to the will ol the other. I."t any one con-ider the history i 'f 'ho Senate of the United States from the time it convened last year to tins Hour, say vvncuier ho cm ri'cn'Tiiip in lluit l,(K :i rnmnoiipiit nart ofthu Con"ress of the United State-. Would not any mi it on bei ig informed that there e.xi-t-a war with a neighboring Republic a war which has taxed all the fiscal energies and pa triotism of the carry forward for the la-t ten months, without making tlio natural in quiry, whero in the jnuriuls uf Congress shall I liul tho caus?s of this war to whit record of Ibis body shall I go to ascertain what it is that has driven this peaceful, this h ippy people from the gicat pursuits of civil life to ru-li into all tho mi-cries of war 1 Irt mo -eothee causes, for that Cougrc-s compo-ed of tho Sen lie and Houso ol Representatives alone, Congress : alone, and no other power under heaven can ever ! bring upon this country tint direst, worst and fi- 1 tah-t curse ol humanity Will ! It is uy their! will alone, that that curse can bo inflicted. 1 shall find, then, somewhere on tho journals ol Congrc-s a statement of the causes and reasons of the war." If such an inquirer, Mr. President, should look into the archives of this Senate or into the archives of thn Hons,, nf would bo obliged lo go away ami tell the story to it.., , I : .....I.,.- ...let..!.-,. ?l.. ,t there could lr mi -neb I 'oiniitiition as that. for in lUimm il ni i.oiihpe 1 1 insp iviiild ho lin.I nn act of tin Lci-laturo vv Inch avowed tho reasons ! on c ither sido of this chamber that I wish to , seion, wa.- subject to Texan buy and not Mex if llm ,v ir m.utipl, rpnhlt urn snlpinnk' il.-Iuteil l direct tho attention of tho American Senate, ican law ( Why, what did he write homo Do and solemnly decided, assigning to tho world - . ... . . . . . to tho tribunal of Christendom tho reasons which impelled mtoinvoko weapon of an injured people for tho redress of its wrongs. He will find it nowhere. And although thi- has been the condition of the country for about I ten months, it is a fact undeniable, and history mu-t so record it, that up to about livo d lys ago ,1. ...... I.n.. !... nlV.l.,.t 1 1 . l..i ?-!.,it.,..r,l... United States ono hour's discussion of tho rea- sons ol this war. so lb it tho Senator from South Carolina was ohli"eJ to sav that up to this hour i cent emigrants to th it country. I hey went , ol tho .Mexicans ami mo more inur.ierous on ba was roinnnlled to "iies's and im i-'ino those there for tiie very purpose of teizing on that, slauglits of the neighlioring savages reasons ! I low v has this war como upon us? L-e hav o o disappointed tho hopes I : . :, i...i ..... I,.,, i,,p;tn.l i!,p 1,,,.,. of those great and good men th it prescribed to u, tho path ol our duty in liiis,uuuot tlio ino-t lm portatit nets, which our Government can bo cal led upon to perform ? When they camo tons, cert tilt and liv. the limits nnd boundaries of the various functions of the Government which they iiiicim.'u suouiii u? eieruai .tun imiiioriai, 111 wn tingilowninthatin-trnineiit.tliitCongressalono should have the oower to dec hro war. thev but onsnlle.l in that instance, as in every other, the gathered wi-dom oil no past. Whether they looked to the level despotisms of the ancient Asiatic world whether they look o I to thoso feudal institutions which followed upon the destruction of tho Roman Kmpire, whero this power to m iko war was parceled out in a variely of hands or whether they looked to the stern tyrannies of modern Europe, in any n"nd every ono of thoie instances they vvould havo found that tlio war-making power, botnjr in the hands ofono man the war-making power, being in the nanus oi uic monarch, tlio despot, Hie leu nltl lord, and the limited tnonarch had been found in hostility to the. riglihyind i octroying; the hies , of millions ofthcir subiigated people, in till the ages ill the worm, i uey determined, therefore, r be ve't ----- , - - - - - - ed in the hands of any one man. 1 hey dcrl ed that it should bo with the sovereign Sta and their Representatives a one to say vv ictl 1 10 ,mt'" 'J t hisjast !lpK,, tor the dcrlar- Statcs bother re-1 ilrpss nf III1V ItliliripS of which iLlniirht ha VP. rp-ls-' on to complain. Thcv provided, bowevcr.tbat I the l'rcsiucntof the United States, for the time being, should be the commander-in-chief of the armies of the United Staled. They took very good care that that army should bo exceedingly small, and they who had the most fearful apprehensions of inventing in ono man even the power to command this army, always inculcated upon the minds of everyone the necessity of keeping that army within limits jui ns small as tiie necessity ol the external re 1 latinos of the country would nniblv admit. It ! Ins happened. Mr. President, that when a little insiuruancc on your Indian Irontier look place, Congress was invoked for an increase of your military force. Gentlemen came here who'lrid some partial icrv ice in the armies of the United I States. They tell you that the militia of tlio J country is not to ha relied upon that it is only i in the regular army of the United Stales that you are to find the men competent to light tlio lnttles of the country, and from tiniu to titno when that necessity has seemed to ari-e. fomeltitiL' this old doctrine, that a large standing army in lime of en mine own arm by uniting to tin- body ol the countries, Kngland and America, he had como peace was always dangerous to human liberty, United States tint which has been severed from forward to settle, the truth of history in respect tn we hive increased that army from six thousand yours by citizens of this country, I will take Tex- the territorial boundary of Tex is which our Pre up to about sixteen thousand men; and the other as into tho Union ! I will throw the political -ident -aid was the Rio bravo the "Riodel ihy, .Mr. Pre-ident the other day wo have shield of my institution- around her liberties, and Norte," ns it is sometimes call d. I express given ten regiments more; nnd for not giving it the sword of my power around her riuhts. and thi-wish for no purto-e of taunting the Senator within the quick time demanded by our master, there it shall sta'nd as, that which guarded Kdcn, j from Mi-souri, or leading him to believe that I thoconnn indiT-iii-cliief, some minion I know , turning every w ay." would draw hi- n une inliUheili-cus-ion for any not who, for I have not looked into thi- matter' That's tlio way you threatened Mexico. Her other than tho mo-t sacred purposes which can until this morning lecding upon tho fly-blown mini-ter, in spile of his remon-lrance, failing. unimito the human lusoui that of having truth remnants that fill in the Kxeculive shambles and leaves this countr; . He leaves!, idling you that established, fur I really b.dieve that that is truo no puiritving mere, lias uenoiiiiciil us as .vie.xi- in-, ami called the American Republic to take notice that there was in the Senaie of the United Slates a body of men chargeable with iucivism Mexicans" in heart traitors to the United States. I trust, Mr. Pre-ident, that our master will ti3 appeased by tlio l.tcility with which, mime- diately alter that rebuke ol his minion, the Se- 1 exas mid the Lnited Mates. .Now, .Mr. t're.-i-nate acted upon the bill and gave him the army dent, what did it become the great people of the which he required. United St ites to do when that proffer was nude It mu-t have occurred to every body, how nt- by this weak, degraib-d, contemptible and con terly impotent the Congress of tlio United States tctnncd .Mexico Why, your Mini-ter goes now is fur any nurno-o whatever but lint of there. A Minister of the first grade Justus yielding to tho President every deuund which 1 though all your relalioi.s.vith. Mexico wero ot Hie , union ollcred by .Mr. Ilenton, pending the lie no makes for men and money, utiles-they a-- mo.-t picitic character ! A in in, then trembling, solution for tluiAnnexation of T.ixus.J sunn that only position which is left that j on the tottering throne of tome faction which he t .Now what did that mean .' Did the Senator which in the history of other countries, in times repreujnled, says to your mini-ter, "In God's 1 from Mi ouri kdieve that he was right when ha fivor.iblo to human liberty, lias been so often ti.imu delay this mis-Ion! Don't a-k to bore- undo that statement .' Did he believe that it was resoiled to as a check upon arbitrary pnver coived ! If wo receive a Mini-ter Irnui tlu Uni- true that the right bank of tho Rio del Norte did withholding that money, refu-al to grant the te.l States totreit with us on this tiling, we belong t. Mexico, and tint so it would he an act -ervices of those men when dernan bd for pur- should be dethroned, lose our power, and ou of in-nlt ? The mere treaty, ho savs, would pose- which the Senate of the United States do will entirely fail in jourobject." , be an act of direct aggre-ioti upon Mexico, for not ileetn to be proper. ' Wh it doe your Mini-lord j They tell him all th.s consequences of which we would bo I w ill a-k any Senator hero to furui-h mo1 at the same time, "Come in the eh ira'cter of a held re-pon-ilile. Mr. President, we hive at with any nicatis'of escaping from the prosecu- Commiionertu treat about thcqne-tion of bouii- tempted tn incorporate into this Republic a ter tion of ibis war for an hundred years to como, j oary and uu may be received." I speak, Mr. ritory on the lelt bank of the Rio ibd Norte, and if it so please the President of tho United States President, In general terms of tho correspondence the consequence- have conic upon us. It w as to occupy tin-while. I In for that time ! 1'ur- between Mr. Slidell and tho Mexican official at an act of aggression, as the Senator from Mis nih on" with anv possibility of "ettin" away j that time, whoever ho was. What does vour soiiri denounced it in that Resolution. We havo irom tins ,, V:. 7is vou """ident do t Oh ! his heart panting for peace attempted to do it. Now is it for an hnmblo the power to command your army whenever he , lesiring above all thing.- to treat these despis- man like me, who stand- here like the poor pub-please-, and in the manner that he please-, and ed .Mexicans in such a way that not a shadow lican of old, and does not protend to be one of tho then granting to the Adinini-lr.ition, as you call ' of complaint can re-t on their minds he sav.-. knaw all things, and are better it the Prc-idcnt every dollar in money, and if you sh ill receive m j as Mini-ter. I will not thin all men that smites hi, bo-em and savs, need bo every able-bodied man capable of bear-, come in the capacity of Commissioner. You ' Ciod, Ik- merciful to me, a poor Whig !" is it ing arms in tho United States to pnxecute tint sh ill receive mons if there was nncaiiso ol quar- forme, ufien th"se appointed I ligh Prie-ts of war tell me, you who say that being in a war, rel between you and tlu United States, or wo the Templo of D.'mo-racv bold two different and conceding, as the Constitution h is conced-' wont treat at all. Now, h is it come to this, that stoiie- to judge betv.een tlieiu ? ed to the President, the power to command your the North American Republic has it como to i It . ,1,, ,i,..,,i n : i . c .i armies in the field, to send them as he p!ea-cs tl.i-l a-k of the peace loving people of the ,,. . ' , T 1 ' . . i ?r, .1 I . f, '. toMonterov, to Mexico, to Yucatan, to' Pant- United State of the phiTo-ophic and rU.'l"'L ' , '' " .'" ''""j l1'31 l,h3 ma, to China, if you plea-e-under the pen illy, Hating men of the United States-I a-k of the f L Z u r V" . too, of de ith, denounced upon the officers that mothers of this Republic if they are willing thaH t,! TZ L I, . , ? , ''I L shall di-ob-v, that command-give him lint their ons should pour oat tiieir' life blooj on the ' y,'' ' ,", f' iVnf i.t i -. i ,, t mJ power and then concede it to be the duty of Con- p irehed sands of Mexico, and heap up the graves ct Jv .'x 1 ' ,,! 'I 0 V' t iT. ? th gross-being thus engaged without your con- oftwo thousand nun along this river dying with f at"rr , ,"p .'.n . ' l;:l;leVU,red, ,ll.'t sent at firs'; wi,ho,,aj,pealing to you to give disease, simply because vour President would ?. " ft?.. "7, him that power to leave to him the whole con- duct of the war, and as many men and as much i ,i .i .!., iV.ilrt nr UlllU l" II Nil it liu l III 11 till (III lbll in mi,' mw of the United State-, but ono of the blankost, levele-t, most odious and mo.-t hateful de.nnlis, ,s that i l.:.s nvern! d a merciful God to allow a nation to be afflicted with on the I " . ' ... face of the earth f 1 h ive looked nt this subject with a painfulen- leaver to como to the conclusion, if possible, that it was my duty, as a Senator of the United St ites, finding the country in war, to 'Might it out," as we say in the common and popular phrase of tho litn;s, to a just and honorable peace ! I could very eaily concede that to In my duty if I found my country engaged in a just war ina war neces-ary even to protect that fincied honor of which' you tall; so much. I should hive some apology in the judgment of my country men, in the determination of my co'tiscicnce, and in an appeal which vou, and I, .... ii . i ." I... I.. and ail oi ii-mu-t soon oe requireu io in iki oc- lore a tribunal where this vaunted honor of thn uepuuur, i icir me, win "am but utile credit as a defence to any act wo may he guilty of hero i in mo oen ue ot me united mutes. jiui vvueii I am asKC'i lo say mil i win pro- inaiu. r iu twieiiuru ii-r revolutionary uutii secuto a war, I cannot answer that question, mnt and I er revolutionary dominion not one yea or nay, until I have determined whether inch beyond the extent lo winch she had carried "bat was a necessary war; and I cannot deter- mine whether it was nece-s.iry until I know how it w.i that my country was involved in it. ! Ami it is In that noint. .Mr. Pre-ident without reading documents, but referring lo a few facts which I understand not to be denied I . , , ., . . e f .,. I ,., . and so as may ue, uiai 01 auv oi ine iiumoie and honestcoiistituents whom I represent here. We toujour people to Texas. They went nfter liberty they say ! a laugh. They could not have it at homo ! I remember it well. They went to Texas to I light for their rights. They lit fur their rights. They could not light for them in their own country. Well, they I Inr ri,rbls Tliei' rniin MPrPil tllPlll ! foii"ht They con piered a peace. laughter. They wero 1 vour citizens not .Mexicans. They were re-' country, and unking it a froo and independent! It-public, with tha view, ns some of them said, Itpi,t,ii,v will, thn view. of bringing it into tho American Confederacy in duo limo. Is this poor veuic urouieroi yours nim m u iumiii i"ui',iiuiira in Mexico is the Mexican man sunk so low an American army ga.'s lo protect Am -ric in ci lint he cannot hear what fills the mouth an 1 ear tizens on American territory, they lleo from it a of rumor all over this country .' He knows that If from tlio mo-t birb irons enemy J Yetuch this is the settled purpose of souio of your people, is tho ridiculous assumption of thoso who pro He knows that vour avarice has fixed his eagle tend on tho east bank of the Rio Grande, glanco on these rich acres in .Mexico aim um your proud iwcr counted tno niunuer uni lonu j bo brought ugiinst you, and that your avarice and your power together marched on to the tub- jitgalion ol tlio third or fourth part of tho Re- public of .Mexico, and took it from her. 1'hey I i.iimi,i,r ti .via I nil., Knew in.-. ...nt "i . - . . been tho feeling and sentiment in tho mind el tho President of tho United Slates, when lie tells you that with such a people with a peoplo at least in their own opinion so deeply injured by us, a wero these Mc.xicains-he entertained that divine benevolent sentiment a desire tr prcsorvc peaceful relations with the Republic ol .Mexico ! This Republic of Texan comes under the Government of the United Stales, and it hap pens that the Minister resident at your Court and it Is a pretty respectable Court, .Mr. Presl d nt wo havo something of a king not for life it is true, but a quadrennial sort of a monarch, i who does very much as he pleases the Minister resident at that Court of yours stated at tlio lime that this revolted Province of Texas was claim- l I liv Mpvipn nful flint if vnn rpp,,!,-.l t n a ...... of the sovereign Stales oi' this Union, right or wrong it was impossible to reason witli thi pjoplo about it they would consider it as an act of hostility. Did'you consult the national feeling of Mexico then .' Not tit all. You spurned it away a a weak , and trivial tiling, wIiom; ruuipl.iints you would not even hear ; and when she murmured in humble Mipplicancy and begged of you not to do this, which must disturb" the m-a'ceful rela tions of tl.u two countries, while she was at the I tho other side of the Ir.ilse,'.) reH-ct to theter saino titno acknovyleilging her debts ti your 1 ritory of Oregon, which then threatened to dis cilizens.and agreeing to the award of your Com- turn the peace of this Republic with the King- iiiis-sinuers. who nan given m lueiu two aril a half millions of money, to In paid out of her Tre isiiry, and which could lie got only by forced loans from her own citizens. S le begged of you,! whilu doing all thi-, not to enter on this new plan, but to let this Republic of Texas alone if independent to let her enjoy her independence if free, lo let her enjoy unmixed freedom calmly and securely, as -lie slid sh; could, in defiance of Mexico. Rut you slid "No! I will siren nth- uecause vou "an iiroiighi yourseive- into tins lio-tile relation to hi country, it was impossible for him to rem ain at your Court as accredited Knvoy Kxtnordinary." Well, what did j on do Alter some time, vo.t were told that it is likely the Republic of Mexieo will receive from vou, " you will condescend lo send linn, an Ambi - sa - nor to ireat ot tin- quc-tion ol boundary neiweeii not niinn Mr. John Slidell''Coinmi-sioiier, mi st call him ''Mini-tor Plenipotentiary an 'Mmv.,1? f i:;M.r r.v.Mtiomon ,t.s , "uivrnw i.i. i.iuii.i vir u ui ill i u uif iiiiiiui that way in the We-t, Mr. Pre-ident! We don't light because somebody don't choose to admit us into his society thorn fa l.itnrh I ; ,mr .!., rl.ri.iin,, ....... . ' 7 men. Mr. President light for tint rea-on. I U e come now to the year ISIS. Mr. Slidell writes home that if some military demonstration should he made, perhips he would 1)0 received as John Slidell, " .Minister Plenipotentiary and Knvoy Extraordinary." Mr. Slidell invokes the military power of the United Slates and -ays, " .Make a warlike ilemon-'ration on llie-e men, and perhaps I slnll be accredited and leceived." Tho President and Secretary accordingly send vour army to the confines of .Mexico. There lie-the little piece of territory out of which, Mr. Pre-ident. all this war basin i-eu ! Now 1 should, but I would not state any disputable fact. It is known to every man who has looked into this -..I.:..-. .I....... 1...: - biiojcli, oi u .i icvuiuuoii iry goveriiiiu'iii can claim no juri-diction anywhere when it his not denned aim exerci-eu it- power w ith the sword. It was utterly uidm-rent to .Mexico and the ; worm, wim legi-auvu en icimi n s n-xa- the power ol Jexaa in opposition to the power o: . .Mexico. ! It is therefore a inero qite.-tiou of fact and how will it bj prjton Jed tha'. that con itry, lying between the Nueces and the Del i rto, to winch yo ir army was ordered and of which it tool; pos vou near oi iriai uy jury on un.'i.isi mim m w Rio Grande of Anglo-Saxois making ccttou there with their negroes? No! You hear of Mexicans re-iding peicefally there ; but lloeing from their cotton fields at tho approach of your army no slaves there, for it had been a dccrei 1. r .'. I : .1. I....1. ..C.I... ol the .Mexican (lovernment, years ago, mat no tl ives should exi-t there. II mere were n lex. ' as population on the east InuU ol mo llio ti'anUe. 'why did not Gen. Taylor hear something rt those lexans hailing tho advent .of the American army coining to protect llieiu irom tlio ravages Do you hear nnj thing of that ? No! Onthe contrary the population tied from their houi"s at the approach of your Army, In (iod's name, 1 wueru jour arm. iojk, po.-ession, mere were i u .i i r.i ..... iu ., i.a.iii cr, jf.xaiiiavv anl American I'nileJ States power and law ! No, Mr. Pre.-ident when I i co that stated in , an I.xecu .va d.vcumo it vvr tt.-ii by t' e linger ofa Pro'ident ot Iho lulled Statet mil wh n' vim r.';.ii ill tiiiisi, it iriinir iiis. iv nii, j . : . - ......... moso uocumrnis, w.tli which your tables groan, tin vuraciom account ol that noble old I aylor, ofhis uveption in that country, and those man, lo u-o the Jan- guago of ono of his officers, Ilecing befjro their, invaders ; when you compare these two docu- m?nts together, is it not a biting sarcasm upon til? sincerity of public men a b.t'er satire upon" 1 10 gravitv'of all public nlHccrri I Groat God ! .Mr. President, is it possible that the American people civ'c countenance to this atrocious fa'sohood that von were about to inter- p date into the history ol this, country and writo it down as a fact, when the whole world, anil everybody, and you yourselves, acting, as it ma be. on that xcry'f.ilsehood, knew that what is sta ted there is not true ? -Mr. President, there Is absent today a Senator from the other side of the IIo s ! wbo-e presenco would iill'iifd me, as it always docs hut parti cularly on this occasion a tnot -ingular gra tilicilion. I allude lo the .Senator from Missou ri who sits farthest from me (Mr. lleuton.) I re member, Mr. Pre-ident. he arose in this hodv and 1 performed a great act of justice to himself and ins country ol justice to mankind, lor nil men arc Interested in tlio truths of history when ho it to le his purpose, for the sake of thn ruth ot history, to set nl.t s imo gentlemen, on tl nil ot ureal lirilaiu. I wi-lieil it had pleased him to hive performed the same good tlliccs on this occa-ion. I vvi-h it had been so if he could have found it consonant with his duty to his country, that now while engaged with ail enemy whom we havo no rea-on to fear as being ovvr ablu to check our progress or disturb our internal peace, for tha -ake of in-tiee us he then did fur tho saknnf iiistice and the interest ami nrnri- rf those twn , wh.cli the nenator Irom Michigan stated yes- terd.iy that the worst said in the Senate is, that much' might bo said nn both sides ! (A laugh.) I cannot view it in that way. Much may bo slid, much talk may he had on both sides on'any uueslion : hu'. that this is a disputable matter 1 about which a man could apply his mind for an hour and still be m doubt, is to mean inscruta e mystery. 1 vvi-h to invoke the authority of the Senator from .Missouri. When about to receive Texas into the United States, lie offered a resolution to this, effect : Here the Honorable Senator read the Rcso- into the political n.-tnry of Congress for what it is worth, has dc- V-xP,'ilv,J:ivv's')an.ItlKitthcro'br.ll-?) I , ., I .,, ,. ; . i i n . I f',? ' xvi?,. , ? FJ1. a'"' (j'N'l''1 'becne- " '.,,,,; ,,'' w , '? ?sp'1 K . k' V"""1 "'OUl-hou-e upon the left hank of the nvcr, at . Ill Is'n ,P . flllil I Pl ,:n Vmnrifiiti nmrti' ,i.l I how was your American army ' received ? Why, the population fled; and here, it is said t'at lor ten vear-, ever since 1S30, before the Republic of Texas, opto 1SI3, and a whole year after her annex ition. there was a scoundrel of a Mexican in tint eii-toin honso levying du ties upon evervbudv that traded there. (A laugh.) Thi.- Republic of Texas mu-t have been strangely negligent of her State rights. I should think men m violent in lighting for their rights, might have fought a little about that. U was Mexicans who were there. What is the fact, then ? Gen. Taylor marches there with his army to protect the p.)s-e.--ion- of tho Unite il State-', and the people of that territory set lire to tlio town of l-abol and run away irom it. What a harmonious Republic vou had ! When von came bristling in arm -your banner waving in the wind your eagle spending its wing- forthe protection oi" all your citizens your Anglo Sax on Republican 'is so alirme.fat the sight of this illustrious hinn-r, tint he sets lire to his dwelling and runs away from vou as from a ra vage ! (A laugh.) This isso utterly and apparently contradictory to public documents, I do not wonder it has not been investigated ; nor would 1 probe this miserable mass of tilth and feculence and filse hood if it were not that 1 Imvo been arraigned hero, and by my own brethren too by those of my ow n household, for endeavoring to'aot upon the hvKithe-is th it this left hink of the Rio Grande be not Texas or United States property. It all turn- upon that. No' a man in North America who h is a regard for the right of na tions, 1 -.ay more, no man who regards truth and honor, does believe that the mirohiii" of your army was into a neighlioring Republic lut w.u agree mere is only ono eour-e left. You mu-t call your army back ! You mu-t ; unless you are willing to hj thought n robber sn inva ded of your neigbors-von must recall that nrmv! It; trace vour step- and if your President asks of me men and money to "prosecute tho war, with Cod's a"fitaiiceand my own poor facul ties, ho shall huv e neither men nor money to pro secutoany such purxj-e. A word on the proposition before vou. Thrcn m'llions of money are to lo appropriated ; and hero wo labor under a difficulty. Tho Chair- min ol tho ( ouimitteo of Foreign Relations tells ti-that he has every reason to believe that peace can oeou uneU it wej; ratll tills nnnrnnr,,,. tion. What reason linvp .mi Mr I'i, M'ir lint m ininn J " I'mpi. Vi.v'i. t' ..l.' close to vou correspondence vv Inch it would bj improper lo namo here f ids which I know but w lich vou are nat permilt-d loknovv have sa. lished Iho Coinmitlee that peace may by nur ii....... I ,n I-........:.. .. .. . . ,,,,, si-iui n it- u ii npnpp nvi.' in p cha-ed if you will hut r-rantt hcso tlireo mill ,, of dollars,-' NYvv, Mr. President I with to know if I am required to' act uik of tho Chairman of the Commi pon euch opinions iWaticns, fcr.ncd upon facts which he rcfuiet i, i s