Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, March 12, 1847, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated March 12, 1847 Page 1
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'It I .,'S i ,1. ' -ti 4 Vol. XX. Xo. 39 -AVliolc io. I OSS. IILUMrVUTOrV, FRIDAY MORNItf, MARCH 1, 1847. iyew series,...:vo. 37 BURLINGTON FREE PRESS Published nt Burlington, Vt By I. W. C utiARKE, Editor and Proprietor. Termsi To Villas subscribers who receive the paper by the carrier 83,00 If paid m advance, 2,01) Mail subscribers and those who take it at the Office, invariably, 2,00 Advertisements mertcd on the customary terms. The Death. Iled. We watch'd her brcnthinif thro' the night, Ilerbreathiut snfiandlow, As in her breast tlie wave of life Kept heaving to and fro. So silently we seem'd to speak, So slowly mov'd about, A' we hid lent her half our powers To eke her living out. Oar very hopes belied our fenr, Our fears our hopes belied Vi'r thought her dying when she slept, And sleeping when she died. For when the morn cam! dim and sad, And chill with early showers, Her quiet eyelids clo d she had Anothermom than oyft, , Thomas Hnon. iSrt. . HCyr.- t f vi-llC ...-SS J-'IUIU. From the Culiivator. Emigration to Virginia I'nlriVuCo. Br a.n JJMiar.AST. Lands It was at the close of a bleak, windv. and gloomy October day the temiieraturc below the freezing point and tho elements giving legible tokens of the approach of the dreary ami almost intcnninablo northern winter, that with my family and a goodly assortment of carpet bags, which we li 1 1 contrived to substitute for those most troublesome and vexatious of ail ap pendiges, travelling trunks, I took passage in the noble sle.imer "Knickerbocker," from the Albiny whirves, for the great metropolis from whence it wis my intention to proceed by the Camden and Amboy railroad, Philadelphia, Biltimore, and Washington, to some point south of " Mason and Dixon's Line," in pursuit ol health, an I to escape the rigors of the coming season. Ton years constant confinement with" in the pout up walls of tho city, and an iinin tcrmitted devotion to sedentary occupations and literary pursuits, had served effectually to un derniinine a constitution n iturally not the strom'- rsr. anrl In Ihiiyi.I nfn li,,. t r.. .1... r..- ,. ' breezes and pure air of the country ; while the nece-sity of m .king some p-rman Int piovision j f,,r i ,r. rt.,. ..... tr... i ... . ., : ' -.ii.ii,nii- uiiibi iijr mo irrsn i a provision not depindi lit upon the"cnnricious ! Dnniii'ii ' I-...., ' .... ' . . . iluctuations cither of trade or politic pointed I to the purchase n( a snug little firm, in the vi- cimij 01 a good market, where all tlie advanta ges ofa thorough agricultural education might be Com lino, will, tlii f l. ..t.. the ine.vhaii.,!!!,!.. ri..,,nn.J'..r .. 1 I Governed by these motives and inducements, I 1 '-'f 'I1-'011 ciluacr ol liiriuiied,-hu.o joined to an early imbibed and lonr cherished I lH""tw,i ",' 'l10. fsMiovation of health and love for "rural sights and sound"" availed 1 tlrc"!;lll'll'e -'1:lFl''ty ,lf ePlrll!!' and the com myself of the f icililies afforded bv the einWra- i ''"V'Kor.ition of tho entire physical system, tion, a few ve; rs previous, of an Vtecmed "rid-1 jf'' s constantly increasing class 7H " , wmscll a practica and expo- rienced farmer, fiom one of the ftow hngiaudi SttlteS, tO Fail f.lX COIIIltV ill Vninla I,, T. ,rn. into flffcct the views and projects thus Indule.l, and in less than three davs from my depirture, found myself comfortably established at his ho, nitable mansion, seven mile from the citv of Washington, within the confines of the"'0'.d Dominion," mi l under what, compared to lint I had so recently loft, might fairly In termed a tropical sky Within one mouth thereal'thr, 1 succeeded in purchasing, on very advantipntis terms a farm of seventy acre, eligibly situated, and winch lam now engaged in impro'iiii". n..1.,l ..11. e.. " ' . I . familiar wi h the topography , this part of Virginia Ihe the j'.iiimiess mi in your readers nro more or es mull, ui II s associations ol . L triri,,!-, lli ,t.n.... ..r est annals ' "b i.i'j iih-.iuu in um rilli-l, a people the nursery of our greatest st.atou,e.i and nitriots-lho home and - Cotmiiy. Hero on i!. v.,r,l,,,t l,,lr r .l,n 1 Pot .mac-wrapt, ns is most fitting and emblem-' alic of the fame of its rreat founder, in norennl. ! al shrubbery in Mount IVrnon. nnd here. , , a little distance from the noble mansion, is the I tomb of ilnAingun the consecrated slirino watered by tho tears of n irnitofnl rmmt resorted to l- ..m,,.,!. .,r .T i: n't " ... ... i, 3 u, siii.i.l-i.-ijiiii; ininiiiiis I from oeerc n:,r, r .1 :. :i:...i ..ii' " , Stands the venerable though dilapidated wooden walls, whereat the periodical serious of tho county courts, during ll,oe "times which tried men's souls." inn,.,lii,i,.u. ,en,ii outoreak with tho mother country, the former heroes and statesmiu of tho itepublic the AVAsmviToNs, tho i.Ets, thoHuMiv, and the IUNDOl.ni.s, weru wont to assemblo and to dis cuss the portentous aspects of the political ho- .... t i--r . , uuti um eiuiu s ui war nan , t their Cnrv ..0,.. ...... ir. 1.1 ng Into ofcccin Its hi'h d Jsti, les received the 1 ,tig ilpress n, u luxmi,.r-s i u nere niter tho storms of war liai1 tponi hprun, i,.,.i .. ...... iiLi-i. iuoiiiin? iinnro counselsanilguidance, the soldier stnlrsm-tn re tired to find iii t!,a tmiv of private life that re- iuse ami fcciiisioi, that ho had so nulily earned, ll ml en Inm. n .. I I ., . ' all and each matters .f notoriety hot ,', '..,.. .. ..,;; U urucnuy coveted. , i, i. , ., . , "J " M"V UU A IU1I lit II I Ilini I11F !. .... I this little country, fo richly franirht with the proud associations of the brightctneriod of our r.nnntrv'i l.lt,..,. !. 1 .i. r ry general and ixtensivo cmb'ration from the northern and eastern states ; That the original proprietors of its hnitid acres am! vai-t Inn-sts and noble streams, have, in numerous instan ce, either iilnndoned their patrimonial estates, and taken up their line ofmarch for the bound less prairies and virgin fields of the west, or contracted their dnm tins within practicable lim its for agricultural improvement : and that tho lauds thus ahindoiied, exhau-ted as a lirgo proportion of them have been by heavy and iin intennitted croppings, without any correspond ing return in the shape of fertilizing m mures, have been purchased at a low price compared with their intrinsic v.alno far farming purpo ses, by northern and eastern men, who havo brought wild them to their new abodes tint in domiublo industry and practical skill beforo which every obstfcle to the attainment of an independent competence for ihcmselvcsnnd their children speedily disappears, and (lie tangled wilderness of a luxuriant but neglected soil is rapidly inado to " bud and blossom as the rose." Not less than two hundred nf tiiis enterprising class of our fellow citizens havo within tho past five years, issued from the gie.it " northern iiivo" and quietly effected the most ileirab!e set tlements in this attractive and genial clime, and within tho hound iries of this singla county ; ami upwards of two hundred thousand dollars have already been invested in the purchase of iinproy. ed and unimproved real e tato within its limits most of it at prices ranging from two to five and ten dollars an aero, according to its produc tiveness and tho extent of its improvements. This land consists chiefly of cstutes, the greater Cart of which has at a period not very reunite, een under vigorous cultivation, and subjected to a succession of exhausting crops, when, In stead ol being placed under ti judicious treatment, withaviow to tho restoration of its fertility, it lias been exchanged for other portions, destined in their turn to share tho same fate. Tims aban- doncd, a rank ami luxuriant growth of pine, ami other evergreens, and shrubs of various descrip tions, lias usurped the place of tillage. In the mean time, a similar process has been slowly but constantly going on with tlie adjacent lands, until tlicir proprietors have found no other alter tvitivo than emigration or a return totheir worn out lands. The latter presctils n formidable en terprise, to the nlanter who lias hitherto only found it necessary to follow tlie established routine of putting in his crops nt tho accustomed season, to realize at the end of the agricultural year, nn abunli int, even though a regularly diminishing harvest, and wlio.wliciulie results oi tins species of culture, carried on bvllie aocncvof slave la bor, rendered it no longer practicable to rciy upon one set of fields, had only to resort to others adjacent, and to continue, the same process, re r.irdless of ulterior consequences. The former, accordingly, is nnhcsitatinirlv adopted ; and vat nuanlitics of land are thrown into market nt tin. inin.il prices, winch, in the nanus ol noruicrii fanners.acciif tomcd to relv upon their own labor, and to make the mo-t of every acre, by husband ing its resources, and by systematic and judi cious modes of culture, in n'fuiv years resumes its origin il fertility, and ample compensates the rxpcillllinri. 113 WUH ui I rtjni u ti.- wi i.n.vn, uv- stowed upon it. The vicinity of the Washington market at all seasons one of the best and most constant to be louml in tnc united states ami ... . ........... . accessible by the lr?t of roads the mildness of i in r mo i no nn or n ivoi inc lemneraiurc. tlie carlv period at which the labor of tho bus ihandman may commence, and the length of tho season which is before him, and which is never contracted, as at the north, by unexpected frosts mil early winters tho wonderful luxuriance , which attends tho growth ofevery species of ve- ,0 min(, a9 boJ Ani, , cannot Wt (1 tl0 getable, grain, and gra the consequent fro-! . , ...,,,.. , quencvand abundance of crops these adv.in- lJca of RcUl"S '!om by listening to lectures, t.igcs," together with the general hoalthfnlncss as a sort of evasion of the primeval curse an at nl the surrounding country and the adaptation , tempt to avoid tho labor of study, which after all of Ihe soil to mo-t of th" purposes required in an enlightened system of farm hiili.iiulry present strong inducements to all in a less tuvoreu cli mate, whoso circumstances or inclination point to a chaiiiro of domicil, rather to avail themselves of the certain blessings attendant upon the ad vanced and settled state of cililization, such as is unquestionably to ho found here, than to bravo the perils and n'flijr tho privations and JcprU rations ot an incipient stato of tocial udvaiico- mnnt 111 the l.ir we-t. To those whose physical constitutions have been nil fnrininod In tin rndo niitl inenssniit nttjirks iifu har.-hclim.ile, and bv the rapid alternation ot I 1 heat and cold which is so commoujii the north-1 em ami ei-tcrn section of the Uiiion.und which 1 ., . .. ... .. . .M .11.. -i i.. . TV ' , , , ",.? B "l're c '". ' '",t,e ,l''"h IC pcrjuiiiicnt ndvan- taws which a tr.insf,'r to tho mi Id. callable, and at "l0 !, "n- 'l"'i'r;ltinS hreezjs of tho " sunnv simlli ' sni'llrns ! and which. I am con- l"'01! sunny south"' secures ; and which, lam con- neither a continual northern" exposure nor the much vaunted " sea breezes" of that la- titiidecan so 1 ffl-ctu illy nuuinind. My own I experience, and that of "others, similarly situa- hi this respect, can ubiind mllv vouch the a ........... .,... . ' . ;.: r ruin.-, i iii-il, ill ii iviv MlUfL xi'.r.: m iiniiL (. the gre.iler portion of them uiit-t bo houelesslv s'r.uiik'd in the voriex of that ruinous competition ' are therefore valuable, cs ecially where, as the fact that there were persons who were train which must necessarily enue from tlie vat di--1 in SOme of the sciences, illustrations and expcii-' Cl' '"this business, and who travelled ivith won- parity between the demand for their s -rvices b illtro,,llct,j. , ilm for lmUms but dorliil Kpeed. and the supply unless than to tho struggling The flow of numbers and the jingle of rhvtne victims to this disastrous and injudicious choice '' J h.i o hearers understand they lnvc some-1 wcro car,v illlro(lllccll to nill 10J nromnry. T10 the cultivation of the soil opens a ino-t nutting thing to do beside listen, or what they hear will fL,w simplo laws necessary In the infancy of so and profitable field of honorable enterprise and run through their heads like water through a cicty, seem, pirticul.irly in Greece, to have thi field than are presented by the inducements held out to emigrants and purchasers of land in cistern or tide walurseclions of Virginia. This ..... . ".ore un v .una geous i nL'sinicu' s ill ,..;,,,... Ij ,... sivir.k. si.tt'ml -lis illl-lslnn. ... ' , : ' ' . , ' .,, ; ci. I. .In l...t ....t., !...! iii-ii.iu ill we-iii" niLicii nut ny iiiu"lj. .iiiii """" ' "v """"""s. , "rc " ? -n.0 ""'(,.v 'P" 'rom each other : and such is the tendency to segre K'ltl"- "'it von nriv, in some instances, travel 11,0 l'";t 3". I'lglHwy for H enty, thirty ,(!rl' l"'10"' "',lll0"t coiuiiig aware, except "cca-ion-illy, ol the proximity ot a single dwcl "r'" i -i ,r""T,tl"r "v thrown back for ncnrlva tuilc, and approached i! ; r .1 by circ.uitous and wooded lanes. J his state of o'-'tl' c '"rcatcxtcnt oHbcTrVo insequent 'adiantage ofa cc; thing grows out . , .i . m inis, nnd the con-equent ,T "."".'f"1-'1'00 10 ,l? Vil '" ,s Prt 1 rom five hundred ton thousand and two thou, '"1 aore-are regarded as but an ordinary f.irui 1 ho period has now arrived, when, for the leu rnns to which I have above adverted, large por- lions of these lands are thrown upon the market; ! "ac wm """ ",or0 ""nous facts mid interest and from the sales which 1 have seen effected Ing speculations in relation to it, than ho antici duiing myhhort residence here, and tho vat 1 piled at the commencement, and that Iho result .;.! . . r r ...I . .. I I .!. I ' ' quaiiiuies.il leiiiienmi pruuticiivo lauu every i d iv ollered at prices which i are much below the 1 ... . i , . .1 .1 c 1 1 r.t 1 prevailing standard at the north for lands of tho T'''. 1 ' " Mi "P" I 'hore.s with but limited mean, might, to say theleist,"go farther nnd faro worse." I have only to add, 'hat so far 11s my personal ob-ervatio,.and..,e.i,.sori,.fo,,n,..io,i"exte.id,.l,o! sociclu iii tin, as well as in every portion of this ..ancient coiniiionweallli, is of the highest order. i nd all the varied in-titu- i"'" w',',c'1 '",u'cll, "" advanced civiliza ;'l,0"!1,l. I",l:c.ry Slavery, it is 1 " and lilt V Us lis true." exi-t" -. but I havi advanced civilization, true, e yet, '.. 10 dl(iC"ver noun of Ihoso more lligrant I e"Hr""tlC3 with which the fertilo iinagination of some of our northern friends has invested itsal- ready sufficiently repulsive features. The slaves, in this vicinity, -are, without u solitary exeep- .....tl .n..,n.l 1 f..ll.. I.I I e. ii. ui, hvii iiu.iiiu .um tan-Hilly piiiviocii ior. 1 successors, sucu lacis as are deemed worthy ol Tlio entire gallery of tho church is set nside for, perpetuity. Deprived of the unspeakable advau their use on Sundays ; and they uniformly nt- tages of letters, and depending in linly upon tra tend.and, I doubt not, profit by the lessons tliev dition.tho cultivation of tho memory lineitinns mi receive. But I havo already trespned too far ' object nfthe first importance. Aimmguitr Amer upon your valuable piper ;aud will defer what I ican Indians the cultivation of this faculty was navoios.iy iiiruierionnoiiier number, ri.rj.lt. , carried to its greatest perfection. Anion" us Lake Morgue l'lacr, l'rospnt Hill, Ya. probably no faculty, us you were told a feiveve L i niug mice, is so greatly neglected. Col. Stono .niX'ii.vMcs' istitutj: 6th Lecture, BV S. l'LCTt-iinn. On a simple mechanic's taking tho speaker's stand, in a course of public lectuies, bv scienti - fic and professional men, it is but an act of ins - ,:,, ., ,. , ' . '' tice to tho audience, that ho should do-what greater men than himself have done define his position. a ...! . ... . ..,,,m,,.r U1 ,olnsmlU0l , ,vo often cx.ractofaspeechorcondolenccby Seneca Geor-o pressed my opinion of what ire ought to do. .My in 1701. " theory may be stated in a few words proenro books, nnd creato or increase our taslc. and cor- red our habits of readi.,-, by some sort of caw-! rise. i ,..i t.i I . y iii T cises, in w hicli each member shall, from time to tune, have given subjects to think and read about and to writo or speak upon. To Induco ono lo read, or do miy t ilnir ,.Ui. Bees.rii,. .1 .... ,, , ,. . ' --- )o inustlio a delinilo object before tho mind. Till, of cultivating 11,3 mind tell mo to read for the 1 plc-asuroorthothlng-togotkiiovvledL'ebecauso'.i know edgo Is good, and, of course I nod sont b b "i auu, ot coureo, 1 nod asent, and perhaps may take up a hook and say to my- self'go to, I mil bo wise." But with such preaching, and with such a stale of mind, I am neither satisfied to take books myself nor to put them into tho hands of others. A bettor defined object Is necessary. And hero 1 apprehend is the truo cause of failure with us. Wo read with out a ptirposo hunt without knowing what we seek, and think strange wo don't find It. Now were we to go to work to collect a history, or to explain tie principles of our respective trades or even to describe any of their simplest opera tions, would not the faculties of tho mind be cal led into healthful exercise, and, for the time be ing, should we not have an object for thought reading, and observation ? Require of tho ap prentice about to read history, a verlitl or written statement of the condition of liborcrs if men who worked nt his trade in other times and countries their privileges rights means of improvement, and will liejint read with un inter est, and rcmcmlrcr with a tenacity, very unlike what we often witness in those who are urged to the task by such arguments as "History is the storehouse of Wisdom ?" It is, therefore, with no disrespect to gentlemen who have consented to lecture before us, that 1 say I anticipate much less permanent advantage from their kind efforts than do many members of the Institute. The decree, that in the sweat of thy face shalt thou cat bread, extends as well to is tho lowest cash price at which knowledge can be bought. Tlie state of the mere listener is too passive for tho mind to receive that impression which facts, and a courso of reasoning, must make to bo remembered. What mechanic would take a hoy into his shop, scathini in an easy chair, and expect to mako a good workman of him by ever so many lectures and ever so much illustration ? You would call the man a fool. We all know better. Wc give him tools and set him atwoik, lie lias an object, too, he is iroins to make some. thin.' himself. And I nnnlvtbn sainn reasoning' to mental apprentices. We have, in our library, D 11 pi , the stock, in our heads, the tools. Never mind, though at tir.-t, the joints bo not perfect, or we Till nimnnrtii-lnnnr n u...l.l:.... !..... l..i ii, wiivv hi .1, ,1. v- in u iiiiii; tin. 1, 11.1 11', m- dividiially, attempt to mike something of our own. This is my theory my h ')'. y and I have so ofli'ti ri:u 1, ii.ciii'. I it t 1 v 11. ; i.it v. !.cn your coiiiinitteo itf ked mo to practice as well as theo rize, I did not like to refuse. I do not wMi to be underwood to diapprovoj of public lectures, only as they are regarded as, a .substitute for study a sort of loyal road to to place, and worn sulistitiLics lor botn hooKs ,. , , iii- , , . i i , and newp.apors. Theif inAasagcs were com knowledge. 1 liehoie tuey in'.y.Hnd do, stir im , ... , ,'', , ,, L,.nl, nl- ,,. 1110 rima curiosity, ana excue inquiry, But facts that one hunts up, strings together, "or- Jll"s a.s"" 7 riiynu an measure, , , , ., ,, . ' . " , , , the-o crmrs, pin-rf, orbnrdi, informed the pen- and takes considerable pains to put in a readable l!o ,y ,, ,1WS or c0111nn,U ot- ,'lelr shape, will be retained by the memory. On this 1 chief or leader, nfthe result of Initios, and oth principle, and inainly for my own gratification,1 er important intelligence, and impressed upon I commenced reading and collecting facts rela- ,,i,,n!"J "f l"tcrity tho deeds an I sentiment ,. . ,. . .. . J of their forefathers. it 1 1 a rude people, poetry t.io to the history of pi,nt,ng-an art of brief , ,,avi, inl,nnco n t!ie Vu-l,Il, cxi-teiico cimiparc.l with most others. The civilized nations can scarcely conceive. Sonic question soon arose ill my muni, i nat did pco- I !edo, how did tliev get along before hooks were lirintcd? This question I thought, nt first to answer m a brief introduction. I went to work, r1"11'"0 "Wrchtcd '" tlie s"''cct' a1"1 '"' illtro- j ''"stiou, instead of two or three page, is now long enough, were I to read it all, to tire the pa ticuce of tw o or threo audiences. And I am confident that whoever shall trace tho history of his own trade from the earliest ,r t.l .,l.r.j i.-;il 1. l . i.. i.,. i... , . lonf's 10 no mean r.ruiessii I'lun-.i1 hU ra"in" U re:,,l'''"U -and that ho will feel bet lungs in nu mean proiessiou, mil inti. alter all. ancient and honorable cl better satisfied both with hiiiiseir.and his bu-iness, from such effort. ,,, ,... r 1 . 11 '. the conven ence ofasbort name, I have '"-".-" "j cuujeti oiiwnuun jur prmu-u As such stibititutes.Mcmory or Tradition, Pic ture writing or Heroglyphics, und Written Books, will be severally nnd very briefly discuss, ed. 1. Memory rr I'raditinn Among savages, in dividuals are set apart for the purpo-e, und spe- ' chilly instructed in the history of tho tribe, whoso business it is to remember and repeat t their , .. i i- . . 1 . in Ins biography ol Ked Jacket, says the provi sions of their treaties wcro preserved with great accuracy, and for generations, by means of bells, with strings of wampum each string bein" ' uillerent, was in fact the record of some parlicu- ar article or provision of a treaty. Tlie-e belts , wcru ""'posited ' 'heir council lodges with great ' c:lri''T1"J tliu "ISniljcatinn of each string was 'earelully repeated from father to son or from , Chief to Chief in tho succession, until thorough. ly fixed in the memory. These belts and strings wcro used in all their councils, treaties and Slovenes, in illustrate incir Use. 1 mako nn ex. I "Heathers We are sorry from the bottom of ,".r, ,n h',r,1"0 ', . "I1 ,' '""' " 0,"e" UMre"' h ,l,ls ,w 11,1 ,'lair bines, together, bury them in one grave and cov- I er them up. (Hero ho delivered a bl.u k belt, of 'eight rows streaked with white.) 1 ' brothers Wo snpn.nu tint in th? late tronb- 1 :V ' ' V ' ry'P'e, eiiu er uv hch or- l,v thi er uy nci:nes or war since we were I i-tlngelh- g. tlien lure, we wipe away the t.,'u , bIor f""." ,-u"lr 0(i;!'s' MVCCI' '''".and tender lay, and celebrated tho deeds of '.,,,C 11 c,,am,,er a" 1 hrovv the dirt out of doors, chiv.ilric ward and fiithful lovers Z.. Jn, VL T. . 1 t i ,M0 present conferencs." At the close of this sen-1 tencn a strinir was delivered bv the Sneaker. Prom what lean learn of the process, those bolts and strings were kept by tho head man or scribe of those to whom tho speech was made, until he could so arrange Ins own belts and strings ns to enable him to rememhor what was said. When the reply was made, the first speaker's belts and , strings woro returned. in the inograpny oi urant, me proccc.uugs ui ( several Indian Councils arc detailed with con siderable minuteness. Bolts of various con struction, single strings, and bunches of strings of different colors were used to aid the memory and enforce the meaning of tho speakers'. After ono sentence of an Indian orator's speech, for instance the editor remarks. "A belt of white wampum was hero presented, made in a circular form, representing their place of meeting as In the centre ; and crossed by four stripes, nf black wampum, representing all their confederates, 13ast, West, North and South, Again, ho says: ' The Wyandots spoke with a very large belt of wampum with thrce.pictures upon it, one in tho middle, and one ttr-rsjriid; representing tho Americans ntono ciuf.lhirsix nations in the mid dle, and themselves nt the other end." Speaking nf a report ofa delegation of Indians, on their return from a council, in which the hells, strings, ifcc, were used as substitutes for books, Mr. Stone says "By this process, though tedi ous, tho proceedings were probably reported with as much accuracy as though they had been writ ten out in form." In McKonney's Indian Biography is nn ancc doto that illustrates the correctness of Indian memory. "In a council that was held with the Senccas by Gov. Tompkins of Now York, a con test arose between that gentleman and the cele brated Hod Jacket, as to a fact connected with a treaty of in iny years standing. Tho American Agent stated otic thing and the Indian Chief cor rected him insisting tint tho reverso of his as sertion was true, lint, it was rejoined, "Vm have forgotten. We have it written down on paper." "The paper then tells a lie," was. the confident answer. I have it written down here," ho added, placing his hand with great dignity upon his brow. "You Yankees are born with a feather between your fingers, hut your paper docs not speak the truth. Tho Indian keeps his knowledge here this is tho book the great Spirit gave them it docs not lie." A reference to the treaty in question, to tho astonishment of ail pres ent, mid the triumph of the unlettered statesman, confirmed every word ho had uttered. That an Indian never forgets a favor or an in sult, is a fact as well known, as the many sto nes oi our grandl.itliers, and recorded facts can m ike it. I need not quote examples. Wo hard , .1,. f ,1... t i; i.i ..ii-. , .... ly think of the Indian, without calling to mind some deed of his vindictive vengeance, for wrong that had perhap hecn rankling in breast", until it was vaiulv hoped lie had forgotten .. it. We do not, however, suppose that the memory of the Indian is naturally more retcntiie than our. Tho difference is our different liabits. Their memory wa their substitute forlmok. Books are our substitutes for memory. Tho In dians attained their remarkable memory by cul tivating this faculty, exorcising, depending up on it from infancy' to old age. In the early liistorvol .snine nations we find public cryers alluded to. win traveled from place conquest of .Mexico, I recollect an allu-ion to been iiromulg.ited and remembered ill this man- ono lias said, allow mo to write me songs ol a I'00!''0, '' I care not who m ike their laws. It issuil that one ol the distinguishing tenets of the ancient Wij was the do-trineof tho im. mortality of the soiil,aud lb it on the introduction of(;i.risti inity, and advance of civilizition they were gradually .Iriven back among the more barb irious tribes of tho north. Of the bards of Scotland, Ireland and Wales, we find many no tices in history. In battle they raised the war cry, while in peace they sang ftho evploils of their hemes, tho attributes o 'their Gods, and chronicled Ihe history of the nation. In Wale about ID!) ye irs before tho invention of tho art of printing, the order attained a high reputation. Their persons wcro sacred. Tho'r degrees nf

rank, duties, and, compensation wvre regulated by law. So much was ascribed to tlicir influence among their countrymen in preserving their na tionality, and attachment to their ancient bri lish manners and superstitions, that F.dwar.l I. who conquered the Welshes slid to have collec ted all their bards -and caused them to ho hang ed. So ovcrfiil is the influence of song with a rude people, that Humo calls this cruel massa cre a barbarous, but no' impolitic measure Tho Troubadors and Minstrels of tho timo of tho C'nis.idjs and Chivalry, were an important element in the gay and imiginative scenes of irironi.il splendor, r,l superstitious Heroism, and of knightly gillintry. The songs of ilu Trunin dors which resounded in the castles of tho no bility, in tho streets of cities, and in tho shops and fields, nnd at the firosiib of the peasantry, were as eiiecttiai in arousing mat wild spirit "Of batlaille and of Chivalry," in which all ilnrnpo ru-licd to tho holy scpul- enre, as was the preaciuiig oi reicr tlio iierinn. "livery pigo of early Kuropean history," says Mills, attest the sacred consideration of the iiiiusirei, "in days of yore how fortunately fared The minstrel ! Wandering on from hall to hall, Baronial court or royal j cheered with gifta .Munificent, and love, and ladies' praise ; Now meeting on ihe road an armed knight, Now resting willi n pilgini by die side Ofa clear brook i beneath an nbby's roof One evening sumptuously lodged ; the next Humbly in a religious hospital ; Or willi some merry outlaws of the wood j Orhaply shrouded in n hermit's cell. Him, sleeping or awake, tlie robber spared-, lie walked protected from the sword ol vvar Ily virtue of thai sacred instrument His harp, suspended by the traveller's side j His dear coinpitiion wheresoe'er he went, Opening from land lo laud ail easy way By melody, and by charm of verse," Wordsworth. Kvery baronial knight had his giy troops of instrels. Kings and queens had tlicir trains nun of songsters. hucli persons as recited tales w,.m r..lln,l in.t,.rs A iniinindV 1.. ...11.. accompanied the wine and spices which con " k"' lli,n dow". And lock his hnrp of merry soun," and was oflcn rewarded with rich presents, and sometimes with tho smiles for which a doughty knight had periled himself In the battle field. In Scotland this order seems to have been styled l'ipers. Tlicir offico was hereditary. One was attached to each border town nf nolo. They made tours through a particular section twice-nvcar atspringtimo and after harvest. moy were grcctcii Willi pleasure ny tlie Inliabi tants, and wore not only welcome guests, but usually received some trilling present as a re ward for tlicir music and song. Tliev wore al so paid a regular salary by the community to which th"y belonged, ami in some instances had a small alotincnt of land called a pijier's craft. 1 have been able to find but few facts in rela tion to this mode of transmitting knowledge. Of tho duties or character of these oracles of wi-ilom these substitutes lor books little is known. Their race has long ago passed away. In an old book in our library the IjcIio is a vere which possibly gives a due to their gen eral character, ns jt ridicules an improvidence which, at this d iv, is characteristic of many who depend for a livelihood on their musical and other lino accomplishments. The verse is "There was a ;jrrhad a cow He hiil no hay to give her lie took his pipe, and Van to play, "Consider cuic, consider." If curious in this matter, you will find the subject of this dignified verse, illustrated by a finely executed plate, on reference to the 'Echo.1 Tne mass of rhyme that has been stored in tho minds of somo individuals, appears almost in .n.ui.in s!: siiit nn.. ..;,: m,,. instances of a tenacious memory savs, that atjf". the Supreme Court (17 t. Ken. GoS) one period of his own life ho knew as many ''d;'. tint not only was tho breaking or tho out Mmgs as could he repeated in two days. crtloor, but al-o (in consequence ol such Iprci- But it is not necessary to go beyond our own ' !' 0 entry) the subsequent arrest of the plaitiM! experience ami observation, to illustrate the su- i nn. that he was ,t,!icd in rc-i-tmp the '. . - .... .i nUlrwi, 'IMin rillncl im, ,, Una if!Sl U'HS. U'lintll- poriontyot poetry to prose tor nxing on mo ; memory aknowlcdgo of facts. How manv of us, notwithstanding all our modern books and systems of mnemonics, depend upon I'liirlv days bath September April, June, and November, to decide the number of days in the month. The universality of moral adages in rhyme, or such as contain some similarity of sound or play on letters, as be .Aist, before you are G'cn ero'ns Pei nv wise and round foolish Uarly to hed and early tor rise, will make one healthy wcalthy and wi-c, and the nur.-ory songs that have been repeated for ages and which am still as good as now, may illu-trato the influence ol uicasnre and rhvine on the memory. Were books and letters to bo annihilated tomorrow, would not such songs as 'Jack and Gill,"and Lit tle Jacky Horner," and many others of mother tioosu s melodies, to say noiinng oi more sen. I"1'" rhyme, be handed down from mother to 1 .1 ntrl.tix. tlimnirli ulteeea.i ii, irnnnril tlilll s From the Middlebury Galaxy. Cases nrsucil nnd decided nt Addison Coun ty Supreme Court, Jnn. Term IS 17. Royal Flint vs. Adrs. of Aanan Smith. This was an act lor breach of official duty ns Sheriff of Addison County, by said Adnah Smith lllll. f Tho nlaintlfron thctfi of January 1812, do- livered to said Smith two writs of "attachment in his own favor, returnable to the June Term IS 1U of Addison County Court, willi directions to attach property of the debtor therein named, unless beloro tlio expiration oi me nine, uy unv for the service or writs returnable to said June Term, said debtor should take up or arrange a certain note. 1 he debtor did net take up or arrango said note, and said Smith had notice thereof and went to the reM.lence of said debt- or for the purpoe , of w"'"!! ' ". b diate notice to ri.o pl.iintilj'. It al-o appeared that tho plaintiff might havo secured his claim by attaching property, at any time until May 1813, when the debtor failed, but that since then he could not have.lono so. Tlio case was annied bv ltarber & Phelps for tho plaintiff, und by Starr" & 11 Seymour for the I .I'.n I mis !!, ' , , ,i . , i 1 1 .i . '1 he Court, per ltoycc C. J. held that too SlH'rlll'li'iimi received said writ, with the ac- comtiinvin ' directions, was bound, without anil v.,.L; ,",.;w,ii;,i,r tn snrvo llinin .iprnnliiKr tn spccial undnlaktU!:, to serve the n ,i. cording to such directions j that s, at the last reasonable momeill ueioro mo cxpiraiion in uio inno mm- ted for serviii" the same ; and even if after the ili.liinre nf llj. writs inliitn and before the ex- dell erv of the w nts tolntn an I ueiorc iiil ex piratiou of said tune, the debtor s property had gone out of Ins possession, and no longer re- uiained subject to nttaclimenl ny creditors, mat ho would still have been bound to make al least i nominal attachment : In such cases howev er, for neglect to m ike any service, ho would only ba liable to pay such nominal damages, is would cover the actual loss of the pl iinlill1. And the Court were of opinion, that tlie facts in the ca-e did not show such a willful neglect, egen, a than as to eiitill.) the plaintiff to recover more nominal damages. Ildwiu Darker Augustus Graves The question in this case was whether a per son, under the Statute, can ba undo tru-tai for money receiied by him as usury or interest ab.ivo li per cent. Thoca-o was nrgued by llriggs &. Prout fur tho plaiulill'atid llarbcr &"l'helps for the Tuts tee. Tlio Court, per rtcdfield J. held that under tho llh Section of Iho Triutee Act, the trustee process only extends to cases where there is an ovnross. or nn imtdied contract between tho trus - I ..t.,,l .l.d.lnr uriwio.r in lhu nsn il iirinciii course of business, ami creating a Judiciary re lation between them ; and that it does not ex tend to thoo ca-es where the law permits a per- son to waivo the tort and sue in form ex - coll - , C... ... ,.,..,. r,.l rt nf n.mll.nr ..r in ir somo wrong u act 0 another, or 111 , of goods or money obtained by. fraud . nor to cases where the law mves a .1 r 1 .,,.. .d.i..!.....l I... f.,,,1 1110 I .isu UI liuiiiis .'i tnwiivj uuMiiiui u , 1 .. nu or forco , nor to cases where the law gives a person a remedy in form ex-contractit to recover siiion nnd dominion ! V.-s, sir, il'ihe spiiit ih.it nni or another, money which the kilter has obtained mated this declaration, could mil have control kd the oMiti, in UoMtioi, ofsotne .Kisitive e.atute aslj-;. incite of money lost nt play, or usury, ixor ijunnths brings with it a change i.fopinious to suit Ihe does tho statute of 1815, relative to the con-1 changing purposes nf patty nnd ol men. We were slriiction ol said Un ecllon, cxiemi 1110 trustee aw . 0 such" cases For before that .tatuto It ii oht hive been held that it person could be in ide trustee for such claims only, as were re- coverable til laic; and tho manifest object of that statute iinoii a fair and sensiblo construction, 1Z the trustee process to such cl ilins . ,.. ..1.1.. ' , 1,., r as are merely eqimauiu v.. w ,,,w,vw ly in equity. Gustavus Perkins 1 Henry V. 'alker ) . . This was an action ol slander, in charging the plaintiff, with having stolen a roil of cloth belonging to tho dafeiidaut. ii ,,n.r,r..,l 1b.1t the defendant had sued tho plaintiff!!! Trover for taking a roll of cloth, and "l that in that suit there had been a verdict and,,,,. judo-mont fur said Perkins, ino ueienua 11 111 justification, the truth of tho On tho trial in Ihe County C.j niirt the nklntill" Ito rebut testimony introduced by tho defendant in support of his ustification,oirercd in evidence tho record of said trover suit, accompanied with parol testimony, to show that tho roll of cloth In controversy in that suit, was the same and only roll of cloth alluded to by tho defend ant in the words spoken by him. The question was as to the effect of said evi dence. Alter arguments by"I.inlcy Barber for the plaintiff,- snd llriggi'it Point for the defendant, tho Court, per Bennett J. held that the record nf the inner suit, nccomti-iiii.'d bv narol oii- deuce to identify the roll of cloth alluded to by tho defendant, in the words spoken by him, was cnnclusiie upon said defendant aa to tho matter set up by him in justification. William P. Hooker ) Beniimin II. Brown . ah. Tliis was an action of trespass for breaking into the pl.iintifi'W'jxIlinir house, seizing him, and carrying li'mi'Jihv, ftll confining him in tlie common jail r-fddleUm-y. A In.tli t'uiith was originally ro nf ihcdofeiidatits in thi case, but Ins "died since the c.imineiice!nnt of the suit. It appeared that said Adnnli Suiith, having in his hands nil execution against the Iwdy of the plaintiffrailed upon the defend.int In assist him in serving said process ; tint they accordingly went with said Sheriff to the dwell ing house of said Hooker, found the outer door fastened, nnd for the purpose of serving said execution, withoutthe consent of the plaintitl', broke open said door, and alter some re-it.inro liysaid Hooker, arrested him and took him away to jail. For tho resistance above alluded to, the said Hooker was indicted, and in that ... ..... ....,...- , crthe piosent defendants, who acted as ass,st ants of Ihe fdicriff, were justified by his com nnud. After an argument by I.in-loy it Bar ber for tho plaintiff and by Briggs & Phelps for the defend nits, the Court per Hall J. held that the origiiulV-t of the Sheriff beii.g illegal his commands did . ,l... .Iniv.n.l mi . not justily the dclemlaiils, and that they were liabl tr. ii.rt iiiiiiiTiii' fi in i tl.at this case va dillerent from the case where ii. ii.v ('in....... , ...... j the originrl act of the Sheriff is legal, but fis some abuse of his authority ho becomes it tre- paser ah initio. In such a cae, and some others as where the Sheriff at his discretion cills out the inililia the Slierifi's assistants might bo justified though he would not. From the Boston Courier. Ml'. AtshlllUIl'rs r-sju'ecSj, On the TiiRCF.-Mtt.LioN.DoLt.ARs Bill, Though not so long as some others, is more com prehensive. The argument is condensed, but lemark nbly elenr and altogether unanswerable. He confined himself to the consideration of three propositions, viz. " 1. That the war in which we nre engaged is a direct consequence of die nniiexation of Tcxn, and the na tural an I anticipated fruit of that iniquity : 2. That the war is waged for the conquest of foreign territory, asitsgreat purpose and end, as has been openly an- I ""' "..-" : ,1 i confidential Iricndsof the uouiieed by those w ho prof.-KM to be tU faithful and e lAccutive, ill both Lrancl-cs ofCongrcss: a. Thai nrter the conquest and ilis- menibermentof the Mexican republic, it is designed , the crowning crime nf this course of iniquity, to ex - I tend slavery over ihe acquired territory 1 thereto cxi-t clement ot political power, a,Vc re-ret that wc are prevented hy other engage- m(,ms frum . lle n hoh uf lhu tJwccU ,0 our rea. dt,ra ,,ulwi. rivc ,!,,., cllpious eMrac, i,y which wi KVV,ilU hat boUIncsa Mr. Ashmun attacks lhc'insli Hr3 aa n,,0ogi-ts of the war, and with w,,.tflrim.sshe announusbis d. ierniina.i..,, .ogive it nosu,,,,ortby voting for s,,p,,l,es..f men or inoney to carry Hon. About it, ortgin.nfier alluding to the np- prehensions expressed m various quarters that the an- nevliou of Texas would result in war, he says I The.' apprehensions were attempted to be q ii"ted bv a. urane. s from biph quarters thai war would not follow. O.ie of the ni.bt re.inrkable voii.-ii-rs w as given on linslloor by Ihe person whowas then, n he is now, chairman nl the Committee of Foreign Affair, (yr L- j n;ersoll) It was by him lint ihe original r.wi.lminns fur die annexation nf Tevas were illtro lil- ced in tin House j and upon that occasion be made a siieech, ill w Inch, among olher llliliu', hi-labored to i n1 f ()- nj 1V HV w f'ai j . i,!,,,,,, t1P p.pjiu- Correpondeuee between the two .Minn .Mnerican republics ins iijcom-angry, I am happy to be authorized to numr ibis House, that those besl acquainted with the true stair of thing , , iuc or'.n.dauger of war. Thenniu smew '..... ... K nl,. iireacli. and eu I ih.-cou- iroversynniieiibly. Itatlbid no- great sali-inclion to be-i-if i iru- i ante, tint li jtilui..-s ar.'iioi prouuuie . with Mexico," 1 he speech f I'enton m the Fetnte, coneeri ing the boundary of Tevas, is next referred to, and M, Ashiuuu llien proceeds Nothing, surely, could be more clear an 1 emphatic. unless, perhaps, the statement of tlie same po-ition by , ne oo-itionliy the rli i mill of Foreign Alfaii. tu ibis llo.i.-. Oil thr j,!., ichruary.isij.lie.nlro.luce, l.isies..,it,.u and spoke in explainiun of thine ; and, on the sublet ol the t.oiimlar) , said : "The stniK'Udous deserts between lit Nueces nil 1 I .1 1, .1. . ... . 1 1 I ihe Bravo nvvis nre the iniural boundui-s between tile Anglo Siwi and ihe Maurifmiaii race. There 1 imte to n sisl the requium u. II it te ixt so, there ii riidsthrviilley of ih Wc-i. Then" Ibvim begins noncccssllv lor our voting nt nil iq mi the sah.cct. Vr Theuee, beyond ihe Ilmvo begins the Mouri-h people, are only 10 keep ihe treasuiv lull, tn.d tet ihe President an I their I'ldi.m associates, to whom Mexico properly ! put in hislnnd, and help houo ll whuiever he Sirs lit belong; who should not cross that vnsl desert il they nml hold bun 10 h: irspomihihty ! Thr moment could, 11 we, on our side, too, oin;lit lo stop there, be- j tint Ihe right of voting upon ihcqurtiicn nt all is con cause interminable undid must tuikur or going redid, then tlie right ofju Iging, und of refu-ing, upon s t it'i.or tlicir coniiui uortliof lint gigantic boundary, proper leason. i admitted lo the fu'lesi extent. It is White peace ii rhetit'tcd. that b.iundary will kc3cr upon this ground that 1 have nctid ihus far, nnd shall re.. iW till the spirit of coxrnsT ifie.,will Hie people 011 cither side molest or mix with tai.li oilier ; and whenever tiu-y do, one or itieotiuT races must 00 co.tq'iered, if not extinguish 'd." Here, Mr Clniiuian, we see an offi-ial declaration of this boun lary made to quirt nil fear that our rela. 1 imn- wnh ' lh Uio t trim le ! And we s- nlsn. ihe s ilit of oro 1111 .HCXICO wouui lie lu-iuroro o) ri lining m paecy procilllllllllg, 111 lii irsui si.iriiiu iwiuiiu, ill 1 while peace isclieris'ied, thdes-rtwillbe held s'icicd as the boundary ! tint not till the spiiil of conquest 1 with each other ! Sir, it ii because peace is no longer rages will III1' .ri(iie uri riinri piui.-i. n iii.ursi ,.i iui Cien led . that tllC bullllil I 'V I "Ot Held SacrCd. Ill cnnr-ne. ,m... . u.-..., ...... ............... . I;. rros tint desert 10 "ratify th' burning lutof Brnui , ,1,,..,.. .. 1,,, .. ,..: news tliat desert to gratify th' burning liitofnrqu caueu upon.aiew ui).n ti"i .i.i.s !?..,, .', , .i,.,:,!,.,,!,,,,, ,,i ihr montre. Inn. ,.. Vo:eio punt, il a elevated to n degree of 1 disiinction which alone cniiili s it to ntiemiou jnnd 1 accordingly have run through its voluminous pages. , A"; 1 vva no, surprised o :-,Pr;i; upon . us . . " iiwuiiu.ii j , . .... 1. ' j .1 ' .. .t . . ' . .1 iliin,r ri,noiini..l in t he above extract, that 11 is wurlhe of being colluled an J conliasted, III 011 the Mill puge,und is as lollops ; "J'lesidentl'olk had no constitutional 1 ight to stop short of the Itinvo ; nud, in truth, ihe province of Texas extended 10 lhat river by territonal configuration, which nature ilselfhas lendercdtlie limitary demaicn- 11011 01 mai region.- If nny explanalion is demanded of the palpable in- tl.lisisirill. j ikiiiitii iiiese IIVU 1I1IICII.1 CAIOSIllOHS oy the same person, of the natural and legal boundary,! n omy bay, mat one was made belore tlie uniieva W ol Texas, to induce us to Is-lieve there w ould he 1 war : and ihe oilier is mode nllf r war has nctuallv come, for the purpose ul justifying it. llis one of tho many proois 01 tlie lacile cinnge 01 paruzau positions, Tex. M l'll!111 . "h her, and ihe attempt to Mltle It by the calaud geographical view of tho boundary question,' I havt notims nowto eenrider it. Much trgument unuiu, mai involved usiu mis war. asto uie lusiou and evidence Ins lcen expended upon it l.yolhers, nil I particularly by the genlleinan Irntu Mni!.e,(Mr, Severance,) wliobas prfimleil me this mori.lns. It will nil bo read nnd umb rslood by the peopl. My o'yect Ins bern, more particularly, to show that nu nvatfon hroujtlit war 111 spite ol tlie deceptive nnd hollow statementsniid n.-sarance9. which Demociet d lender held out to pave the way for the admission nf Texas. Is there n man, in the nation vhobelirves we should now be in war; that thousands of our countrymen would now he dead nnd tiling in n for eiccn land ; thnt our Treasury would be bankrupt, and all the pursuits of peaceful life be disturbed, if, in a falal hour, the opposition to that measure, had not been deflated 1 , The chairman of Foreign AflYirsin the Hennle, (M. Sevier,) declaird yesterday, in a speech in jiis place, that" no line tkmtghl of getting lets than Neic Jfx ico and California .'" And the chairman of Foreign Affairs in tldsHuej (Mr. Ingcrsoll,) has also given us hi j views nt to .111-f.-ient tunes on this tioint. In Ihe renurt of August i Inst, to which I have alluded, nnd which was mode lore it was Oecniciitobe expedient to admit totji world that conquest was the obVct, he labored M dis pel all l-r that U f"-v7-C Or- rage 51 , lie s.V The armies nml .r, " Uui'e.1 Statei will ni donlil he dlreeledhuir Otcposed lo nge wnVr.li th ' iwi'l humane ntl for'iearing princlplsofcivilirJ bos tilitic tuinal.c war, ? ai ihfincansaf anMtirn or fia' tit A.Aeof rofjH hut a, when all pacitic t-li'deavors have been CAl.m'ttcdiUiid not till then, tho only way to peace, A, in lb" order of overruling Providence, war lias been torced upon this country, il will make the most of it lo ihr.nhu3e ihe world ot the unfounded nnd unme rited charges against rcpuMieun government, of inca pacity lor wars nnd br-t of dominion. Hut, as I rciuatkcd before, a 1. ipse of time having made a change of pns:tiimon the iiarlof the adminis tration neees.ary, a chang" of tone on the p-irt of it representatives on this ll.ior easily fallows; and, ac cordingly, wc Iieai d him say a few days since Hvenbody Knew yes, everybody knew that this was id bea war ofiiivasion a w-n of tuiitortat ron 9ie$,aihoui;Ii il was no.v snok.;n o't'iu terms of con demnation in that repect. l'ut it could not be other wise than a war of c.inq'i.t. That wes the nnlvuso that could he made of all tin' power granted by Con gress and by Congress commanded lo be employed. I rend from the report of hisspeechin the Union, and nk the attention of Ihe Ilou., not souiuchto the g'ariiii ineoiisi-tency which is developed for ihni U ofhltle coniequence as to the full disclosure ol'tl.o purposes of the warns lliey are uowoRicially declared in this House ! Sir, it unv, perhap, bo true, that evervhodv knew tlmt this was to be n war ol inva sion a war of territorial conquest." I certainly uioiuiu so :as Atiir'isi, nun saio so ; uui ;u ih;ii uhi W(.ini, ,,,.. f t, p-imrt on the Mexican .. :ir..i .-. ur, niai ii w as ji ji iu ue wnneu i uu nihi-ui uiiii- quest, or the lust ot dominion. II any more prool ii di-sired l!ntc.viqu?st is t'ie parpo-, look at the au thority given to Commodore Stockton nnd Gen. Kear ney, lo establish civil governments in New Mexico and California, .and the manner in which ll ley havo evented their older. I.oi.k also at the signinennt feet that, day niter day, during tin- present M'ssioii.ths U.'inucmtic memb us o.i lids floor have been w ranglina and qu-ureliiugasto ihe fundamental laws which shnll b- esiabhs! e 1 m the conquered provinces. The mono which our War Secrctaiy established for partian pur poses, is now to be applied to our foreign relations. " To the victors belong the spoils,' now, even lWore we can safely say that there nrc nny spoils to divide, the party which sustains ihe administration nre in al most a stale ofiniitiny ns to the terms of distribution ! Sir, this war may result in the conquest oflhe-epro-viuccs, although present iipppnriinces give no hope of a speedy termination of it. It may terminate in the di-iinem!riii:iit of our sister rep iblic, and a partition ol her territory. Hut what good to u,if it does 1 Wc 6hall neither gain national wealth, national strength, nor national honor. We shall gain the seedsof a thousand evils internal jealousy and bickerings nnd we shnll gaii the condemnation and shame of the world. Hisioiy Ins no blacker pnge than tint winch teeords ihe par tilion t l'liliMio uinoug the stronger power around her. The plea that ihe safety of llieir ' institutions," , the iuuitiition of iiion'.rchy which made slavcsof j Iheir subject, does net snu- tlieio. That great crime has nn u.iilwti": f'titie. Hut. sir. if this. i.lan otthc dis- 1 memberinent ol toe vvesk republic upon our southern rhei.lea tliatour dolm'- tic " ni-t. unions demand ir will liud no favor, wh n theju.bt ru-ntut all civilized nnd lluisian marKind p:et. t.i i und future, i.wv,' end lorever, coin, s tu lie uiniie up : It is for such a war, leading to such consequences, lint we are now, in ourcliaracterof licprtseutatives, called upon to vote supplies. Treasure, and human lite ioillii.il-of dollais.ind tliomaudsot inen arede nnnded of u.,to betim!ed to accoinphsh sachaie suit. And weme t..d that, without scruple, without coinplimt, it is our duty to grant this dcinund. We nre told that now, nhei the war has been Lcgun, the Iixctutive i chniged willi full power over it conduct and end, and that our duly, as good patriot, is Ij vield to hi request, nnd keep silence as to his u-urpations. tfir, I hold lo no saeii. -lavish docirit.e. Sir, if that doctrine be true, then, indeed, we are but little better olf than the sen of 1,'us-ia, nnd the slaves ofihe Sultan ! and really, and in truth, the l'lesldent's fienerals in .Mexico are, what the cuulcninu Ironi South-Carolina (Mr. Illicit) denominated them, his VTC.vrs. Iful I iitteily deny, mat mcp ril oi our i Constitution jii'tifie any su. h alariniug pretension on the pail nf ihe liucutive. Congrcs-. indeed, by de- , d.n; ulr ,.oimili,SIO thc. rsider.t's hands il.e duty .ifcu'iTiiuaing it ; but he mu-t conduct it with ilia means wii.c.u congress, m view oi nu me circuiiisian. ce, choo-es to give bi n. In judging of ihe amount and i.-nure of ibose menus. Congress has the richl.and u ,is duly, to look nl th ind which ought lobe ac- i coinnli-bed : to see what ihe interests, lights and lion- ; r ot thecou'itry requite should be done. If enough has oc.'uuone to protect our rigni imu m.i.iicuic our uouor, and il th" President de-ire still further lo prolong tin? war lor personal aggrandizement, or for nny oilier n o live.'uustCo'irirc.ss -till vole all winch he deiraa.'s! It U said, tint if lie doe- exercise his power wroafiilly,he tinybeiaiiK.acIi.'d ; m ihe i lie phrase of the day! we 1 , i ,. : i , .,, nny "Hold linn rcspun-iiiii. : uiu we on Know nisi ' "T1 V " " '" ' , ' "i ' " V ' "I .. I ' , ihrdciotie 'povvcrcl Mahmoud over , ' ' il Inrdly llavr many terrors for him. No . flf . L ,1 U1 ,1C lnJ. ,1K.riimil ,iul). , K-nitiiiiza every demand lor men and money ; and. if it appeals ! .1 . . 1 ... 11 u 1.1 .. .n 1 1 .I..II ..ml... 1 1I1 .1 dire nre ued fur uniiistiliablr ends. 1 shnll not hos . routiiiue in tut, I see the f.veeutive using, for pur- powrr which hasbrrn g.vrn him, and 1 refu-e to aid him in carrying out ihose pirpiws. If the war was one of defence ; i! no mattci liow it begun, however stupendous might be the lolly or ihe crime that brought It ujstii u il hostile llrets were nivagitig our coast, nud 1111 enemy's nnny invading our town, I should not heseate to give all, every llung, that might be cal led lor. in tucli n ttate of tilings, cveiy dollar that my. constituents could rai-e would be freely olleied, aii.i rvrry man oil our lulls nnd in our vallejs would sprin,; toanay him-ell for the conflict, late and trci.siira wo dd be all teady for sacrifice nt the country's need. Hut such is not ihe case : and 1 am dclennined 10 stand by the declaration lliat 1 will give MILl-lOXS TOR DEFENCE, Et T XoT A CENT TOR COXQVEST ! Mr. Chairman, the desire to gratify this lust of do minion, which, first indulged in the nrquisitii.il of Tex. as, well mgh led us niton war for n pan of Oircon, now beckons on, with an inflamed iqpelite, toother regions upon ihe Pacific, nnd threatens not in cirly to consume ihe true piiui ipies and prt'iier objects of nrc. niililicaiiijov eminent, but to mnke us denf nnd inscn- n.i.s.sut rtmoiieil.sucu t,s navr iirrn ritown. me war- siblr 10 those humane considerations which Mpiig to nnd advance a nation w hose puisuits arc those ofpeare. Warbiingsin its train not merely loss of tiraiure, public debt, nnd drlruciioiiolhiitnanlii"e,biit il seem lo turn the benttsof those whoatr engaged in It, and urging 11 011,10 stone. A signal illustration of ibis is to be loundln the f vccb of ihe Chairman of l'oicipn Allans, made iheoll.er day in drlrnce of the war. Us authots, mid lis punHisis. 1 have rrlertcd to the same sjieech bcfoie, and my on! apology for doing it agnin is, that its author stands here in peculiar r. laiirns lo the ndnuiustrntiou, and ns the fupised exponent ot its plan and opinions. He spoke of this warns a foitnn ule occurrence, which was 10 settle ditlicultics with which they did not know bow to dcnl before, and adds ll'ir lrou?fl then at once to a state of things mhich he tegaided at rettj ftitunate; and though they had heard a great deal uUiut the misfurtvnes und cutamitiei of iear,which it teas reiy easy to talk about to the delifhtof all old xeonien, yet he would like any one to tell him ichat these calamities were, for he had not yet head of them. Fir, when this expression was uttered, but fewmem. tars vvnc listening ; but I saw llien, o I see now, smnieuienl und horror depicted iqwn ll cir roun en.au. .,a Vn.l I nfcl. ii'iliere Le n man who has a bean with. iii him, who can suppress an involuntary ihudderai i' terttiiicn uow 1 Ucrn w bit timet fc-v BL,, (