Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, April 16, 1847, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated April 16, 1847 Page 1
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Vol. xx. No. 11. whole ivo. ioaa. IHIItLIXiTOA, FRIDAY MORNING, APRIL 10, 1817. NKW SERlES,.IVo. l! Burlington Free Press. Published at riurliiizton. Vt., 11 y 1. W. C. Cl.VItKU, Editor and Proprietor. Tcrmsi To Village subscriber who receive the paper by the carrier 4 s-j.OO If paid in advance, ........ 2.-0 Mail subscribers and those who lake it at the Office, invariably 2. Advertisements inserted on the customary terms. For the Burlington Free Press. To Julia. Ah t tempt me not with wreathed rosy smiles And checks that shame the ruddy morning's bloom, And soft voluptuous eyes whose glance beguiles, The trusting heart it beams but to consume. 'Tis true, thy beauties like the summer's splendor Make my oica love's look pole a winters snow Jhil oh ! her dear dark eyes, so deep nnd lender With love true love, that soul of beauty low. It. Then ccsse to tempt ; could'st even bring to blind me, MM... . !...... . V.SM. niii-in... lnl.liu Young Venus wore thine art could never find me Another loving heart to give away. .My own true hearted one has all the duty Which thou so ainly seekest to control, For love despies mere corporeal beauty To seek the glorious beauties of the soul. III. Her's is that noble love which mocks at time. And smiles a proud defiance to decay ; Like the imr.iiltNfT sun it towers sublime. Though clouds and darkness gather round its way. Glanders loul erlialalions mimy nover, With fortunes blackest clouds it beams to hide ; Hut lo ! the splendor bursts the dismal cover, And warms the heart in its full glorious tide. IV. In Her, surpassing benutie9 I can find, With which thy .urest charms can never vie. From her sweet face beams forth immortal mind " (Irsce is in all her steps, heaven in iier eye." That true and tender heart, that soul of feeling Fair as the moonlight on the peaceful sea, Which every glance is silently revealing A'ucA are the beauties which enrapture me ! S. 1'rom the Spanish. Think you, my hue, if ever fate fc-iiniild ca-t a shadow o'er our bliss, That you or I could e'r forget In darkest hours, our good-nipht kiss I Ah, no! though hcp-'S should ineltin tears, And fade forever days like this, Sad memory through the longest years Would hoicr round our good-night kis ! .farm. Vrom (lie Cultieutor. Indian Com nt the .North. As I uniformly obtain from (55 to SO bushels of corn peracre,"without haling it "cost us much as it come? to," permit me to offer a few hints on its cultivation. Wheeler would be highly succcsful in grow ing Indian corn in a climate like that of New York or Xew-EngUnd, must giie it such foil, situation, and treatment, at will induce a vigo rous, nnd rapid growth from the time of planting until the grain is perfected. Young plants, like young anitn il, in order to grow rapidly, should not only have an abundant fcUpply of food, but food suited to'their age; lionce the practice of applying a poition of well rotted manure or coiusjsi directly to the hill at the time of planting, having previously plowed under a quantity of long or unfermented manure spread broadcast. The amount of manure need ed for un acre depends in a great measure upon thestite of tho soil, but it isalwavs desirablo to have the land in such a state as not to renuire more than 25 oxcart loads to the acre, exclusive selfas an individual member of "hat commuui ofthat applied to the hill. The quantity of tine lie comes to value Inm-elf upon it. manure or compost applied to the hili, should The Northern people arc not only moral as vary according to tho materials ued and wants a community, but consider it as tho hi'diest of the soil, from half a shovel full to a single I praise to be called a moral community. Thc liaudlul. I Southern people are not only well bred a'nd chiv- As among tho best materials known for tin I alrous, but thev deem-it a I1M1 encomium to be purpose may bo named well rotted manure from I so regarded. the barn-yard or hog-pen, together with night- Now that any considerable change is to bo foil, domestic guano, ashes, and planter ; the suddenly wrought in these two communities, is proportion of each will depend in a great mea- not to bo piesumedor thought of " H ith a na sure upon the nature of the soil cultivated ; it is tion changed its Gods !" Wo must deal witli impossible to give any arbitrary rule that will communities as we find them, suit every location, but it may be observed how-1 Sir, there is no trait in the best articles which evcr.that lho more powerful and highly concen- I have seen from the North, on slavery, written trated tho mixture, tho more care necessary in ! with the best intentions, that is so remarkable applying it, and a less quantity should be used. to mv mind, or which is so distinctive or the Much judgment is requisite in preparing the j peculiarities of New-England character, which land for planting, home of the poorest as well , I hive pointed out, as that by which it is uncon assomeol the best crop-that have ever hen .sciouslv assumed that tho question of slave grown on green sward plowed but once. While ry in tho United State-, is rightfully up for dis- ouciarmer selects a brittle, Irublc sod. ivluchho - - "jui.u uirrows, 1101 100 ueep, at tlio fame time using a subsoil plow if necessary, ar.d has a first rate crop, another (who, by the way, docs not read thn Chill a damp, tenacious soil, and although ho applies a liberal quantity of manure, buries it 7 or 8 inches deep under a llat dead furrow, and the result proves him to bo about as successful as was tho crow in tlio fable, which attempted to imitate the eagle by carrying nil' a lamb. The com derives little or no benefit from the manure under such circumstances. The kind of corn I cultivate, is a yellow, eight-rowed variety, of medium size, with kmnll ftalks, and although such a variety would no doubt produce more by being planted in drills, yet it is found best, on the whole, to plant in hills, not to exceed two feet apart ; unking rows only one way : tho rows three feet apart ; and at this distance and with this variety, three stalks may be allowed to remain in each lull. Tho seed is prepared for planting by being soaked about twelve Hours, and then rolled 111 plaster. Tho steep for soaking tho com is made wholly with reference to forwarding its growth, ana nut lor Keeping ott crows; tlio hoys are al lowed the pleasure ol doing that. Tho rolling tho seed in tar, and the like substances, often proves an injury to it, and although the crows may not eat tho com thus treated,! hey frequently pull it up and leave it on tho surface which is pme provouing. As soon ns the corn is up fo that tho rows may bo plainly discerned : let a well construct ed harrow, with fino Bharp teeth, be passed through .taking care to rectify any hills that may be disturbed; after this useeuch'implements as the nature of the soil may seem to 'demand, the object being to keep the earth loose and free from weeds, tnuy also be necessary to give ho lul s a thxht earthing with tho hand-hoe, twico during tho season. ' The next tiling claiming attention, is tho so lecting of seed lor the following year, which should bo . one by an experienced hand, as soon as heearhest ears havo ripened ;and as like produces like, select such tars as you would wish tho whole crop to resemble, and in a few years it will in a great measure do so. Hy pursuing this course, (if vou have a va riety suited to tho location,) there will I danger of its " running out" or " degenerating;" and I am warranted in saying thi. from the f ict, that tho samo corn has been continued on the farm I cultivate for forty-live years. Little Far-ier. Otsego Co., t )'., 1817. The English Horse Dean, is an important articlo with tho Ilritish Farmer. It yields on an average, 30 bushels per acre, hut sometimes pives IM) or even 70 bushels. Ono quart of ovans is considered equal to no quarts of oats tor norses. The Cheapest Houses. Houses made of day brick, nnburnt, liave been tried in Geneva, N. Y. and Chicago, III., with perfect success. They cost but half as much as brick houses, and are warmer, less damp, tind safer from fire. The foundation is prepared as for brick houses, and if the partitions are to ho of clay, there must bo a solid founda tion of stone ; and the side walls must begin at least two feet above the ground. TI10 inside plaster is applied upon the brick without lathing, and must bo done quickly, as the wall rapidly absorbs tho moisture ; and after the whole is thoroughly dried, tho outside is plastered with a cement which will resist water. Tho bricks arc made of good clay, with which a small portion ol sand must ho mixed, the quantity of which will vary ii ith tho purity of the clay. Straw or coarse grass is then chopped with an nxo about six inches long, and worked in u ith tho clay. A yoke of oxen will work a bed of clay in about four hours, sufticleni to giic employment to two active men in making the brick for a day. The size of the brick is usually quite large, or six in ches thick, ono foot wide, nnd lilteen Inches long. At Chicago they are usually made eigh teen inches long, with few a foot long, to break joints, &.c. There are two modes of loosening the bricks fiom the mould. Ono is, to have a sliding bottom ; the jther, and perhaps the best, is to have a slit or opening at each end of the bottom, which admitsair, so that when inverted tho brick readily falls out, from its own weight. The side pieces should project beyond tnccnux, to receive cross-rods for handles. 1 wo men will make three hundred in a day. They soon become dry enough lo set on edge, then on end, and lastly in piles una above another, the asperi ties' of the surface admitting freely tho circula tion of tlio air between them. In a few weeks, if in summer, they will bo hard, tough, and dry enough lo lav 111 the wall. 1 lie mortar is made of the same material as the brick, and cements the wall firmly together. Tho building may bo very expeditiously performed. Some of the noasantrv in Enrnno have cbtv cottages with thatched rools, extending far over the walls so as to keep them dry ; and these have lasted for centuries. The. North itutl .Sotith--o. HI. To the Hos. Gi;or.i. P. Marsh: Sir, It were worse th in useless, it were wan- ton mischief, to apply the dessecting knife to society as in my two preceJiug letters, were it not that the diversity pointed out, has an im portant connection with tho cxnlariation of the ditliculties which exist between these two sec tions ol our country, the .North and the youth. We ale beinirs oV limited faculties, nnd when tho minds of individuals, or of communities of men are shown to bo occupied with one treat object of paramount pursuit, it accounts for their overlooking or entirely neglecting other consid erations. Where manners or morals have been held in predominant estimation through successive gen- rations, example and precept make the iudi idual an unconscious subiect in earlv child- hood. He crows " under a conviction that hathesocs is riirht. and nerceives not tb.it there is anything distinguishing in tho habits which lie is acquiring. Ho naturally expects that as tilings are in tlic-vuuniunity of which he is 11 member, suare they Infill civilized commu nities. He is not aware that there i an undue stress laid upon one nciu'iMtion to the neglect of others. His affections are early enlisted, he obeys the ruling law unconsciously and from love. When he comes to know that the object of the co.nmui.itv to iihich ho bo!on"s. nod nf him eminent pursuit, is distinguishing excellence of cussion, and that the Northern peoplo rcallv havo something to do with it. Here lies the principal issue. And I do assure you , sir, that 1 should be inclined to regard this whole discus sion as a solemn farce, il I had not somo ac quaintance with tho history of .evv-England So- cieiv. What if tho whole exterior civilized world.and nineteen-twenticths of the inhabitants: of tho ti nned States aro oppocd to slavery? Still the political question is all settled, delmed, and fix ed, so far as the United States are concered. This question was settled once, when Great Britain acknowledged our independence. It war settled again, when our present constitu tion was formed, and the sovereign States re tained their sovereignty over this subject. And if any doubt liasarisen as to the true location nf the power of control over slavery, from tho di versity of understanding which the constitution has received, this is all settled by experience had, Sovereignty is in its nature such that it can not long lio dormant. Where it is, there it will show itself to bo. It plainly shows itself to re side with tho States, anything in, or supposed to ho ill tho constitution to the contrary notwith standing. Every individual State in tho Union has done, and will continue twiln (vhatit pleas es, on the subject of slavery and tho negro. Abolitionism has its rise, progress, and pres ent existence, in considerations felt or feigned. It has never had a throb of existence, nor will it havo one, but what is enforced by moral consid erations. As a natural ennscquen t to the diversity in character and condition which cxi-ts between Northern and Southern society, the South have incorrect impressions of tho relation s which ab olitionism bears to Northern society. To them it remains an inexplicable mystery why Aboli tionism is not put down at tho North, cither by statutory enactment, or in some other way. They sincerely believe that if a faction exis ted in the South, having as direct a tendency to produco insurrection in tho North, as they know Abolitionism has to produce disaster at the South they would quell it without ceremony. Kcas oning from themselves to others, according to natural principles, they cannot conceive how oriiierii toleration ol Abolitionism can be ac counted for, except upon tho supposition tint tho Northern people aro all, or at least a ma jority of them, Abolitionists. They hear, and thoy believe, that the North ern rcople are an educated people. Education u connected in the'r minds with lofty chivalry, and patriotism. The Southorner has seen men of veiy limited education, who were unexcept ionable in their bearing and deportment, but having never seen it otherwise, ho connects ed ucation in his mind with certain cnnobliii" vir tues Ycculur tohisconwinitv. It la therefore unaccountable to Mm, how Northern educated gentlemen should allow men toinstruct them in mittors of which tho teach ers know nothing, as in tho caso of Abolition lecturers. . Tho better part of society does not attend these lectures. The Southerner tails to perceive and do the North justice in this particular. They do not perceivo that you connect this forbear ance towards abolitionists with vnnr Idea, nfin.. erty, that cherished spirit of your community from tho first, that native product of your clime. on hold that error will work its own dowfall. Confident In tho strength of tho principles which you have adopted, and having exhibited your at tachment to them at Bunker Hill, and at olher places, and at all times and places where you perceive such manifestation to bo renuired. vmi hold the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, and a jealous watclilulncss over the elec tive franchise, as objects of your most cherished devotion. You feel yourselves therefore as much compelled to let abolitionism live, in il lustration of your principles, as a Southerner does to revenge an Intended personal Insult. llesidea abolitionism has not risen up among you nnonimously, but philosophically, and in perfect harmony with tho spirit of the age, and the spirit of the people among whom it exists. New-Kiiglatid toleration of abolitionism is no more to bo wondered at, or imputed to it as a crime, than its toleration of every thin" else which chooses to come along. Do thev not tol. crate tho thousand and ono sects, religions and iiiuuiuu-, wuioiinsu up among mem f flu 'peer human heinn- liiv.i,if n nf .. - ---f. '"" nun ui iL-iiuiuii eo absurd as that it would not gain adherents in New-llngland ? Is not Mormonism, Millerism, Comeoutisin, and every other " ism " accepta ble there? As well might tho mass of tho people ha regar ded as all Millorites, because they allowed those wretched fanatics to act out their senti ments amongthem, and bring the world to an end in there own way, as to supposo them not disgusted with abolitionism because they toler ate it. To put down abolitionism is impossible, in a community that puts down nothing else but tyranny and opnession. v The whole North hold anrf-slavory principle0, but then they hold them in such a way, that at what time an army of ten thousand fanatics could be raised to go down to the South, to lib erate the slaves, an army of fifty thous-and free men, their keepers would start witli them.to tee that thoy did no mischief. Let the moral question about slavery become settled, and abolitionism is dead. You cannot drum up adherents in New-England, for abol ishing anything but that which you rnako ap pear lo be morally evil. The daughters of New England, and the worthy dupeable gentlemen, are not so far gone, that a proposition to abolish the Union will take with them, unless it can be m ide to appear that tho glory of GoJ requires it. Disconnect the clergy of New-England from the subject of abolitionism, and it dies. Uribe them to stop their mouths, buy them ofT, or, as a Western man would tuy choke them off, or get them oil' in any way you please, and aboli tionism is at an end. It is your inferior clergy, ifsuc.h a term can1 be said to have any meaning, in such a com- nullity, that are teaching to tho upturning of this Union, if it gets upturned, that slavery is contrary to the word of God. Your real divines hold their peace; and that not because thev tind notions to say on tho sub ject of slavery from tho Bible, but because they Know mat 11 tiiey spear, as iney iiiiiik on 1111s 0 a pair of shears, as tor either ot ineso men subject, their churches, founded on Indcpcnden- successfully to address tho citizens of tlio op cy, will explode like bomb-shells, and they, I posito community, upon a subject that so decp- themselvos will be blown, not exactly sky-high, lor men iney would lane a nappy exit, irom mis world of trouble. They, however partake of that sectional ab-! horenco of slavery, which is, at least, in put. 1 a product of tho climate, ami as plainly as they read slavery from the beginning to tho end of the Iliblo, yet they think it desirablo that all should be free. Sir, if the opinions of eminent divines were respected in New-England, as in days of yore, and such were invited to expound tho teaching of the biblo on this subject, you would havo no occasion for Southern politicians to quell " the madness of tho people. Tho system according to which the laity make and unmake tho clergy, is in a stage of progressive developement, but the end is not yet. If I am right in supposing that the only aspect 111 which iiiesiiujeci 01 slavery cauai present oe discussed to any good effect between tho North and the South, is that of its morality as taught by the Word of God, you will readily porceive that Southern politicians would feel that there was some incongruity in their explaining the Uiblo to Northern audiences, none of which would ho convened without comprising at least several gkrgym'.n. For Southerners habitually deferring to the clergy in the matter of explain ing the Ilible, under such circumstances, would fell altogether too sensibly that they had got out ot their latitude. It is religious phrensy that the country has reason to fear, and it is my solemn belief that if tho mass of moral mind is not correctly inform ed on tho subject of the African race, tho Union determines. You cannot abolish slavery, for GoJ is pledged to sustain it. 1 hat he has pledg ed himself to perpetuate this Union, I find no where written. There is ono specific subject which appears to mo worthy the attention of Northern states men the enfranchisement of tho colored popu lation, wliich is progressing at tho North. This matter, to my apprehension, wears an ominous aspect. A seeming paradox exists. Sinco tho intro duction of steam, intercommunication between tho North and the South has Increased, and n proportionably greater number of personal friend ships havo probably arisen between tho peoplo ol theso two great sections of our country, than before existed, Yet tho deep, silent, but fear ful sectional alienation is increasing. I will speak of tho past and intimate therefrom the probable future. It is now a matter of history, that free, ot runaway colored persons have lectured political ly at tho North. That in tho last presidential campaign, such persons wero listened to, hi gaping multitudes of the moral Northern peoplo That tho distinguished statesman, patriot am philanthropist, Henry Clay, was on this wisi vilified and aspersed. No harm done yet. All perfectly fair. Even thing is fair in politics. And tW tho mos'i virulent political opponent, whom this, our dis tinguished countryman, has in the South, wh at homo has tho immunities of the appellation a gtntleman, conceded to him would havi burnt with indignation at the desecration, liar ho witnessed it, yet thcro is no harm done yet no breakers ahead. In Vermont no distinction is, or ever ha been known, either in Constitution or Statute between colored and white citizens. In thi New-England States lying upon tho Atlantic which were originally slaveholding, not onli has slavery been by statuto abolished, but tha favorite objict of icform, Iho abolition of al laws which make a distinction between colored and white people, has been, in a greater or lost degree, consummated. No harm yet. Free black mariners, tutored In Boston undei the immediate au"picrt of Garritcn and hi press, have found it fn their way to enter Southern ports. They have, under the law, oeen arrostea, impnsunea, ana detained. No harm yet. The North are forbearing. Thoy have, with all due legislative deliberation, de termined on sending, and have sent, their choice civilians down to those Southern ports, to test these matters in a legal way. Their emissaries have, on arriving at their separate places of des i;,i;,. j 1 iu-jl j 1 uviuii, mm matting niiutvu men urrana, od served Indications which wore conclusive, in their minds, that tho only chanco for personal safely which remained to them, was to disap pear without pelay. Thoy have been discreet, and all is well. The North aro true to their climate, and to their principles. They never fight, until they sea what they deem a worthy causo for fighting, and we yet enjoy great repose. The South have, according to their estimation of action required, duly lynched, or committed to their nenitrtrlarft. all thn". fanatics which have appeared among them, whether clerical or lay, male or female. And through excess of zeal, some may have suffered who deserved a better fate. Yet all is tranquil. One step further in tlio march of advancement and that is not unlikely to occur ; the way has been duly paved for it ; and I have observed Southern society for twenty years, to little pur pose, if there is not trouble. Lot but ono Southern man bo convicted on Northern soil, on negro te-timonj, or bo tried by a jury with but one colored man on it, and not more certainly does the leafing of the fig tree indicate, that " summer is now nigh at hand ;" than does this event indicate, that tho end of this Union, with all its goodliness, and with all its blood-consecrated associations " is nigh, even at tho doors." Let but such an event happen, and tho match is applied to the train. ' The Declaration of Inde pendence," as now held and construed in the North, has worked out its inevitable effects. Tampering with social systems, here, as In France, has wrought to a definite end, And as Governor Hammond, in his letter to Clarkson, expresses it, " another cycle, of blood and do vastat on has dawned upon the world." Tho South vouchsafes no reply to anything which rests upon negro testimony, because they regard the hooding of it as beneath all contempt. Thoy are not aware that it lias any weight with any at the North, who regard themselves as of consequence enough tu bo worthy of being des pised. Southern pcoplp as" instinctively take it for granted that their Northern friends" know that a negro's testimony is not to bo relied upon, as tho Northern peoplo do tint the negro i a poor unfortunate oppressed being, tlit lias been un- j warrantably seized upon, anil degraded from the high estate of intellect and mental aspiration, to tho level of a slave, and that ho needs nothing 1 but to have the despotism of his master broken, in older to his rising buoyantly and at once, to a level with themselves. Sir, I agree with you, that it would havo an excellent effect, if South ern gentlemen could address assemblies of the Northern people, on the subject of slavery. I trust that from mv general remarks on Northern 1 and on Southern society, much of the cmbar rassment which lies in the way of the attain ment of so desirable an object, has presented itself to your mind, Tho difficulty may be ge nerally s'tated by saying of both the Southerner nnd tho NoithcrncrrnrtVTeircTftV'a man of hut ono climate and community, and that of a dif- icrent 0110 Irom tho other, as wen mignt a tail r attempt to rut broadcloth with but ono side iy involves their distinctive peculiarities, as that of slavery, Whatever rough discussion may come from a Southerner on the floor of Conaress. where he ;lcts in his renicsentative capacity, I think you will agree with me in saying that ho is tillable, courteous, and conciliating, wherever else you meet with him. If wo could be prevailed on to waive the strona position in which ho is now in trenched, namely that if slavery is not a proper subject for discussion, and that ho will delend it

to tho death on his own son, anu nowucro eiso ; if he could, from motives of patriotism, to which ho is ever feelimrlv alive, be induced to go to th' north and address tho people, ho would take all I his hahitml consciousnc.s of becoming deport ment along witli him, and that would lead bun to defer to tho Northern people, while ho was their guest. He would bo forbidden by the law tnwliieh hn rnmforms. and loves, and prides him self on, to say any thing uncomplimentary to the neonle in a niiblic address. Ho could therefore say nothing 011 slavery. For as ho naturally judges others bv himself, and other communi ties In- his own. )in rannot ronceivo of the idea ill tt hn mfit hrmvhmit tho Northern people on their own soil and that they will love and respect him tho moro for it. He knows mat sucnuea lintr would not hn kindlv taken in his own com miinitv. nnd therefore hn will not do as llO Would not bo'dono by ? Would to God, ho could per- reivn that forbearance in the Northern people I a virtuo.and not an evidence of doughfaccdness ! Would to God. that tho patriotic pledge which you uttered, could hivefellcn with all its telling influence on tho South ; and that thoso who read it. could have understood how much it meant, nnd that tho South could appreciate that trait in tho Representation and 111 1110 ionsti tucnev oflhe North, that renders it certain that your pledge would bo literally fulfilled, and that not only is tho blood of the New-England dele gation nledoed for the delenco of Southern free men and gentlemen, on New-England soil, but that all tho blood of New-England is so pledged 'For what pnrpose,' would tho yeomanry of New-En jhnd sav to a Southern gentleman, 'for what purpose, suppose you, did our fathers fight at ijexington anu winner 11111, ""i ui.nu new England a placo vvhero you may say just what you please, soyou don"t break any of tho laws ?" Tho peculiar way in which devotion to liberty shows itself in New-England, can never, I fear, bo comprehended in the South, except as a per fect idiosyncrasy. A Southerner could not honor New-England prido more, than by committing liimsolftu their keeping, unarmed and alone, while ho uttered the most hardmouthed rebukes, which his honost convictions of truth would dictate. Nothing would givo tho New-England peoplo greater pleasure, than an opportunity thus to exemplify their devout attachment to liberty. Sir, a smile must needs play upon your countenance, when you learn from Governor Hammond's letter to Clarkson, that, in South Carolina," small guards in our cities, and occasional patrols in tho coun try, enstiro us a repose and security known no woere else." Gould Governor Hammond any where sleep sweeter or safer than he might in Vermont, im mediately after ho had told tho assembled free min of that State, just what he thought of them, and in tho most undisguised manner the worst he thought of them ? One of the first arguments which an indivi dual Southerner would bo likely to use with an individual Northerner, as he views tho nutter of slavery, would be, that interference on the part of the North, is a breach of etiquette which the inhabitants of tho several States ought to obscrvo towards each otlur, and th.U it is fitted to produce alien ition of feeling, and disunion. The Northerner is unaffected by this argument. and it is worso than uselessly urged, because of that pcruhirity in Nertlurn jnird, by virtue of which, tho first aitestion to bo askodaboutevorv. thing is, that naked abstract one, whether it is right or wrong ? This abstraction he has ever, iiko an optical delusion, before his mind. Thi tnoracticablcmoral abstraction is a stumblinu block to the New-Knglander, whenever lie goes outof New-England. He Insists on having this question nrsi answered. And it tno answer is, as ho has long since settled It in his mind, that slavery is wrong, then ho replic, that it ought to bo immediately abandoned. And if any thing is said aliout the difficulty, danger, or disaster which would attend such a course, his reply is, we must do right, and leave consequence's to God. Whether honestly, fanatically, or hypo critically, ho uses this" argument, and relies upon it. Tho Southerner knows not how to appreciate him, or his argument, and is ready to say, "see how ho scekcth a quarrel against mo." Nothing is father from tho Northerner's wish, or inten tion, than a quarrel. Ho is a subject of puritan morality, which has a work to do every where, and with every body, decorum, etiquette, pro babilitvof success, and ovorv thimr else. out uf tho question. He knows not how to begin to conveivetho idoi, that, his notions of morals are all Greek to tlio Southerner, who knows no morals ag.ii list which tlio argument, that a mea sure will produce more harni than good, or that It will produce unmitigated evil, is not valid. Sir, I deem that enough has been said to show what I proposed ; namely, that Southern politi cians, cannot under existing circumstances, ad dross Northern audiences, on the subject of sla very. Here I might close. But witli your leave, I will, with a view to further Illustration, look a little closer at the controversy which ex ists between tho North and the South on the subject of slavery, by viewing it in its relations to the General, and to tho State Governments. 1 have the honor to be, Your friend and fellow patriot. A Northerm Man, with Southern Cmzixsuir. INCIDENTS OF THE WAR. Narrative of the Itnttle of Iluciui Vista. From the New Oileaus Delta, March 55 1 Wo had tho pleasure of an interview yester day with Major Coffee, of the army, who brought over General Taylor's despatches. This gal lant officer a son of the distinguished General who fought so bravely on the plains of Chalmolte, and in other battles, bv the side of theillus'rious Jackson acted as aid of General Taylor in the bloody fight of Ilucna Vista. We are grcatlv indeLted to him for many particular of this hard fought battle. General Taylor had fallen in love, at first sight, with tho position at which ho finally made his stand at Uuena Vista. His movement towards Agua Nueva was merely a rnsp to decoy the cue' my Into the field which he had selected for his battle-ground. As soon as McCulloch's men, who were invaluable as scouts, informed him of Santa Anna's approach to Agua Nueva, Genera! I laylor quietly broke up Ins camp, and lull lici t i,i -.:,. 1..;.., .ii... v:, 'Pi.i- .. .:!!.,. to his first love lluena Vista. This position was adiniraolv chosen. It was at tho loot of a mountain, or rather of two mountains, between which ran tlio road through a narrow valley. On his right was a deep ravine, which protected that flank more effectually than half 11 dozen regi ments could h.ivo done. The lelt of General Taylor's line rested on the baso of a mountain. Tho roid in the centre was entrenched and de fended by a strong battery. In fronttho ground was uneven broken into lulls and deep ravines well adapted to tho mode of lighting suited to our volunteers, and by its peculiarities supplying the disadvantage of a great inleriority of num bers. On tho 21st, the enemy wero descried, ap proaching over the di-tant hills. At their ap pearance the volunteers raised a great shout, and gave threo tremendous cheers. Tho engineers and officers were teen flying over tho field, and dragging their cannon about to get them into po sition ; but tho nature of the ground did not fa vor tho undertaking, as it was late in tho day be fore the big guns began to open. Tho enemy had with him 32 cannon, most ly of largo ciillibre. Their fire, though kept up very briskly, and apparently well manned, did so little execution in our ranks thnt it vva not con sidered necessary to return their fire. Our cannon wero therefore silent tho whole of tho IMst. Eight or ten killed and wounded were tho ex tent of tho cisualties su-taiiicd by our army on the 21st. During tlio day an officer approached our lines with a lhg of truce, and requested lo bo shown to General Taylor. The bravo old man was sitting quietly on his old white charger, witli his leg over tho pommel of tho saddle, watch ing the movements of the enemy, when the Mex ican officer was presented. In a very courteous ind graceful manner tho officer stated that 'die had been sent by his Excellency, Gen. Santa An na, to his Excellency, Gen. Taylor, to inquire, in the most respectful manner, what ho (Jen. Tavlorl was waiting for." From the silence of Gen. Taylor's batteries, and the quiet manner in which ho received Santa Anna's terrific cannon- adino-, the Mexican supposed lie was iiskin pertinent question, to which, however, old Rough and Heady gave tho very pertinent reply that l,he was only waiting for (Jen. Santa Anna to sur render." The Mexican returned hastily to his lines. This mesago proved to bo a ntsc, to as. certain where Gen. Taylor's position was, feral tor tlio return of the Mexican officer to hi own ranks the whole Mexican batteries seemed to open upon Gen. Taylor's position, and tho balls flew over and about h'un liko hail. Utterly in different to the perils of his situation, there sat tho old chief, on his conspicuous wliito horse. peering through ids spy glass at the long lino of .Mexican troops that could do seen at a great distance on the march. Tho persuasion of his aids could not induce him to abandon his favor ite point for observation, nor to give up his old whito horse. To the suggestion of his staff that old vvhitcy was rather too con-picuuus a charger for tho old commander, lia replied ''that the old fellow had mi-sod tho fun at Monterey, 011 ac count o( a soro foot, and he was determined lie should havo Ins share this time. At sunrise on the 2Jd of February, tho battle began in earnest. Tho Mexicans wero drawn out in immense numbers. Tho dark columns of infantry extended as far as tho eye could reach, and the' ravalrv seemed to cover the whole view with their interminable lines. At intervals be tween the infantry and cavalry, their big guns, strongly protected by a largo artillery force, kept up an incessant cannonade against our lines. Their forces wore soon in motion. Our artil lery was thrown forward to meet them, protcc ted by tho volunteer. Gen, Wool led the main 1 . .-j ,i,, oooy in jwrsou, aim wan oit-11 ,-,i.tj ,,. I vim? and encourai'inu the volunteers. The tvvi armies were soon engaged in hot conflict. The broken nature of the ground divided the forces, so that instead nf ono general engagement, tin regiments wero compellid in a great measure to tight on their own hook. Our officers were al ways in the advance, leading their troops hence tho great mortality among them. In this gener al meiee, ono of our small regiments of our hun dred men, would bo attacked by a wholo .Mexi can brigade of several thousand. Thus tho Ken tucky infantry was attacked at tho foot of a hill, In a deep ravine, uy an immense lorceot tno ene my. A large number ol t e ollicers wero killed here anion lg them was Col. McKce, who fell ded.and wit immediately dcrptch- 'badly wcuir rd by tho enemy, who pierced him with their bayonets as he lay on the ground. Lieut. Col. Clay was shot through tho thigh, and being un able to walk, was taken up andcarried somo dis ranco uy some 01 his men, nut owing tothe steep 11033 of the hill, tho men finding It very diflicul' to carry him, and the enemy in great' numbers pressing upon 'them, the gallant Lieut. Col. bog ged them to leave him and take care of them selves. Forced to leave him on tho field, the last that was seen of this noble young officer he was lying on his back, fighting with his sword tlio enemy who were stubbing him with their oayonets. The veteran tyiptaiu Win. S. Wil lis, of the same regiment, at the head of his com pany, with three stalwart sons who fought at his eid.J, was badly wounded, but still continued the fight, until ho was overcome with tho loss of blood. In tho meantime, tho Indiana btipade, who were drawn out and odo;od to charge the enemy were seized with a panir, and displaying some hesitation, Assistant Adjutant General Lincoln rushed to their front, and whMst upbraiding them for their cowardice, was shot, several balls pas sing through his body. In justice tothis brigade it should be stated, that they subsequently ral lied, and fully redeemed their reputation by the most gallant and effective hglillng. Col. Hardin led tho lllinoisians in very hand some style, and sturdy "suckers" fought like li ons. Their intrepid L'olonel fell wounded, and experienced the file of Cols. Mclvee and Clay, and was killed by the enemv not however be fore ho had killed 0110 of tho cowardly miscre ants with a pistol, which ho fired while lying on the ground. Col. Yell led, tho foremost man, a charge of his mounted volunteers against a large body of lancers, and was killed bv a lance, which enter ed his mouth and tore oft one side of his face. The Missi-sippians, tho neroes ol Monterey, after doing hard duty as skirmisher.', were or- dered into a lino to receive 11 charge of cavalry, which hey did with heir rifles, delivering at same lima a most destructive fire among tl.o crowded columns of cavalry. The enemy were comne'tely repulsed. The distinguished mander of this gallant regiment. Col. Jefferson Davis, was h niW vvounded, an escpe te ball luv- nig entered his footandpissedout of his leg. He was however, doing well when last heard from. Tho chivalrous Lieut. Col. McClitng was pre- vented from doing his share of tho bravo deeds of this brilliant fight, bv tho grevious wound re - ceivedat the battle of Monterey, vyliieli 1 sl.il con- fines him to his bod, and from which it is much fenretlliv fns he?t trionflshn wilt never recover. aredhvl.isbest lnends he will never recover, Col. HumpreyMar-hall s splendid regiment of Kentucky cavalry wero impatient for an oppor- tunity of show ng their mettle, and avenging the capture of their brethren, then in tho Hands ot tno nanus 01 .he enemy. 1 hey woio soon favored vvitn 1110 icsireu opportunity, uv mo approach oi u io.cl- 01 more man au m lancers anu nussars v, uo gai- antly charged them. I ho Kentuck.ans stood their ground witli immoveable steadiness, and receiving the enemy with a fire from their car- nines, charged in tho most gallant style inrougu the column on the right; and. wheeling, fell on thur left, dispersing and killing a great many of them. A like charge was made by Col. May, at the head ol a squadron of dragoons and one of Arkansas cavalry .against a arge body of the enemy s cavalry, with l.ko results. liur.ngtiio .,,pB(a.ti.l0n U,,,,Bi,i,Mmi..vn- ,. as . im u,,,, w!lll na, seeing that Gen. 'lay or s force was not we! , t,,.lt tho rtKimcnt ,lad fill,,cn Mn di30rJt,r, T1B protected on tho left think, sent a largo force of . .Mexicans were annoying them at the sa.nr, mo cavalry around tint pjint, an I imtllank.ng lay- lnPI1t by a fire, vvhicVhelpcd to confirm theopin lor, succeeded in throwing 2000 met. into his , i()n ofthe ra, ut j))C Kentucki;ul3 rear. HuU.cn. fav or immediately sent dipt. , ,lrmvM j,,,,, (llm!U. ,t .as ono f , j . Ilragg, with Ins artillery, against tin- fon-e, who bivo criiC, wi,ic,,-0,cur , c contoste( !elj succeeded 111 cutting them oil from the main bo-1 ..i,..,, ,1,,, u. r,r,i, ,i, ,i .,,, ru,i' dy. Lieut. Crittenden was desp itched, with a Hag ot truce, to demand 1110 immeui.ue surrei uer of this force. The Mexican olitcer pretending not to understand the char.ic er of Ins mis-1011 in- ,notions j KP,Un , ncro5S . aml' ; sisted that ho should bo blindfolded, according to ,, I0l.;sallj ()thpr ructions, into the be the rules of war, and thus had tho Lieutenant lief that thev were about to falter, turned to Mr carried into tho camp ol Santa Alma him-ell. 1 Crittenden, who is a Kontuckian, and with a This was a ruse to iret time to extricate Iho .Mexican cavalry from their dangerous position and, pending thi- trnro, tho were all drawn off by a different road from that by which they lud gained this position. Lieut. Crittenden was conducted blind-folded to the tent of the Mexican Gcneral-in-chief, which ho found a long distance from tho scene of ac tion, and which he thought the safest place he had been in during tho whole day. As he ap proached Santa Anna's tent he was greeted w ith .1 most tremendous flourish of trump.'ts, which might have been heard a mile oil', hut produced no very great terror in the tin ml of tho Kontuck ian. His blind was taken oil", and hu found him self in tho piesenceof the famous Mexican Chief, surrounded hy it brilliant stall 01 hocizcneu, ci:o ed and mustached officers. Santa Anna apolo gised to tho Lieutenant for the act of his officer, in having liiui blindfolded, saving, that so fir from having any de-iie to conceal his situation, he was desirious of exhibiting to Gen. Taylor the litter folly of resisting so powerful an army as he had under his comm md. To which tho Lieu tenant replied, that his simple me age was to demand Ins ( dor to Gen. '. s Oanta Ann 1 s) immediate surren-1 lu.. relaxed the bilteriie-s of its expression -11. Taylor. When thi- extraordinary I gfuw of pride -upjil-iiited tho ibep inortilica- -w trfinl-itpil In lt,e tete:IM. he r.-lis- i ,l...l t . j' ., demand was translated to the Mexican, he rais ed Ins hand- and eyebrows In utter astonishment at tiio temerity am! presumption of such a mes sage, and replied that ho would expect Gen. Tay lor to surrender in an hour, or he w ould destroy all his forces. Lieut. Crittenden's reply, which we havo already given ''Gen. Taylor never surrenders v terminated me interview, aim 1110 battle recommenced, and was continued until night. Sinta Anna took three small pieces of our ar tillery, which, under Lieut. O'llrien, had been pasted too far in advance to he covered by our in fantry. All the gunners were shot down, and wheii the guns were captured thero was not n soldier left to man them. One of these pieces was an old 6-pounder, which during the Texan Revolution, had done good execution among the -Mexican ranks. Astotho-tngs no boasts of having taken, they are very probably mere com Danv markers, which were dropped on the field and picked up by Iho valiant Mexicans. His Excellency of the War Department, to whom Sm'a Anna has sent theso trophies, will no doubt be sorely disappointed in the size, texture, and beauty of these standards. Mexican pride iseasilv satisfied when such feeble mt'inentoes of their prowess and valor if these console them tor so inglorious a deieat, All the officers on our side, in this hard-fought bittle, distinguished them-elves. Tho details of the hi ttlo were confded to Gen, Wcol, who nobly justified the conduct of his commander and brother-veteran, by the must active, zealous, ef ficient and gallant conduct. Throughout the wholo action lie was constantly engaged in tho disposition of our forces, and in rallying them to 1110 onset. 11 was a miracle Hint tie escaped the thick-living balls which thinned tlio ranks he was ma s'lalling. Thera was but one complaint made against him, and that was, that lie oxjkis cl himself too much. Brig. Gen, Lane al-o showed himself tJ bo a bravo and can.ible officer. although wounded early in tho action, he kept uisuorso until 11 cioseu, and nover lur a moment left his post. The old general-ln-chit'f remainol at his orig in il and much exposed position, superintending tho battle and narrowlvwatehlnrrits events An tsenpette bill pasted through his overcoat that samo old brown, to tamllur lo all tho officers and men who have ever been unlet his command and which (i.ts seen several campaigns in Flori da, In Texas, and In Mexico. On the night of the 23d, both armies drew off from the field ?f battle. Our men wcreenga caro'lfth imWrt '"' U' W0Unded caro of them the Mexican as well as their ow5 men. Thcro Wero, however, but few of our found on the field wounded. ' rVJ?'T m'n Santa Anna's significant words Inhl Ctch "all dead," the cowardly miscreants having kill led every man whom they overtook, vv-oundid aim ne.piess, 011 the field. With like turpitude and treachery, the left their own dead unbCed U ev feM W The ,d.,rm,d fr' on.tl10 wKw they fell. 1 he latter were carried to Saltillo. n our own wagons ; the former were buried Ly the alcalde, under the orders of Gen. Taylor A number of ofiisers were taken prisoner, and an exchange was effected, by which til out1 men who are now in their hands were released. Cassius AI. Clay s party are. .understood now to be in the ciiy of Mxico. Among the killed and wounded oftheMeii. cans, are three general officers and twenty cole i.els and commanders of tnttallions. General M111011, it appears, h is not as yet realized the brilliant career of which he considered I hi, cap tore of Major Ilorland an earnest. He was or dered by r, inia Anna to attack and carry Saltil lo during the engagement at Uuena Vista. With this object he made a demonstration n.-ainsttho town vith anon cavalry. U0ut. Show" with ixty men and two small pieces of artillery, wont out to meet the valiant general, and at one dis- , cnarge 01 nrr cannon, sent him and his large , force to the right about face in double quiSk 1 concl: ding our necessarily imperfect sketch of the lew details of the hnlli mt deeds ofAmeri can valor performed at lluena Vista, details gath ered fion hasty cohversation, we must be allow ed to expre- our satisfaction to find that the n- Luentlv ex-messed nf the k ' '1. "il ?aJ lm" ! Ofour voluhteers.h-tve b e Vo U an ea z J . Lt tho.e ,uve ,,erotcfure n,X0"f c i izen soldipr, 1C i;icil)c. of ls,r Hbaldrv and rlScJfe ej g-uiamrfand giorv-wh c , 1 av" co ted" in AmMlcan h!ht0. til0 blooJ dcc Vista. uena ixcipext at the battle. jrom ,le s; q plcayUn jinrc, 25 , At a ve , , , , f ., . . ' 23d wtj0n lt bjCame necessaty to sustain one of nn. r.,imc ,il!,i ' 601 1. 1 t . " " .'' charge made by the Mexicans i oveFwhelm mr , ,., n..,,.,i t.,i. j 1 TU. teilJen , orM (; , M j. i. od K-emuckV r ilnn, , br, , , " ' i, f.vit,e,fe,, r 1 ,1... .: . "j Mr, Crittenden found the regime,,,, mm. ,J i cer3) eager for the fray, delivered the order, and - iat 1 iruiit;ill, IIIUll UI1U Ol- cers, eager for the fray, delivered the order, and rode bick to the evnernl. hv rujc b,ck to the general, bv whose side it wr. ,lU ,,ut.. to ke.,n - , . . wan, ,Uni t , , d , K d . i,,i, r ,;!,, .1.,: 1 V..11 i 'r . ."." .'! the (lay. It so hapnened that beforo reac& a ,,.!,:,, (., ,, i,;;,', ,1 ,., .,. J ive ,iro ,,, . was 1)roke m , - Whilst crossing Ibis vallov, tho heads only of tllB lnen conl, w, fr,n 'u , t , . T lur ,, Jr Critlenil(.n occ'iedanil u, I were bobbinr? un and down and crosswise i j,, pon ie .l!antr:. of' a par,ici,ar corn. 1 (;. Tavlor. who. ni hof,m eni.l .,At 0 t)ie , -j f . . , ,. , , countLii nice indicating deep mortification, for tha General is 11 Kontuckian too, and an eye fierce with emotion, exclaimed, "Uy G d, Mr. Crittenden, this will not do this is not the way for Kentitckians to behave themselves when cal led upon to make good a battle it will not an swer, sir ." and with this he clenched his sword and knit hi- brow, and set his teeth hard togeth er. Mr. Ciittendrn, who was mistaken by the same indications that deceived the general, could scarcely m ike a reply from very chagrin and shame. In a few moment', however, the Ken-tucki.in- had rro-sed the uneven places and were seen ascending tle slope of the valley, shoulder to shoulder, and vv ith the linn and regular step of veterans of :i huiHred fields. On they moved until they roiched the cre-t of the hill, where they met'the enemy before the flush of a tempo rary advantage had sub-ided. Here they deliv ered their tire by companies, with such regulari ty and deadly aim, III it ths decimated phalanx of .Mexico L'avii w iy and retr.'aled percipitately As the Kcntiii-kians emerged from the valley, the countenance of the old general, who was re nding tliem with Iho inteusest interest. irad. lion which h.ved Its muscles, and enthusiasm qualified the tierce glances of his eye. Forward thoy moved under his riveted gaze,' whose feel ings became more and more wrought up as they approached the scene of carnage. When they opened their fire the old general could no longer restrain His admiration, but broke forth with loud buzz 1. 'Hurrah for old Kentnrk." (,i nii, claimed, talking 11s it wero to himself.and rising ill hi-saddle -Thars tho way to do it;" and the te.ir of exultation roiled down his cheeks as he sard it. Having got rid of this ebullition of State pride he went about looking alter other parts of the field. Somo of nnr rea Krs m iy regard this incident, which we derived from one nf the corned, as savoiing more of profanity than of genenlship; hut it must be borne in mind that under tho excitement nf such terrible scenes of havoc and bloodshed, those engaged in them use the namo of the God of Ihltles with some degree of familiarity. From the Washington Union, April 2. As every incident connected with thismemor able conflict, as remarkable (or its result as for the disparitv between the opposing forces, mutt he interesting to our readers, wo hare endeavor ed to group together somo of them, as caught from a lusty conversation with the interesting and gallant volunteer ai I of General Taylor, who was a witness of tho whole scene. The pass of Uuena Vista is about one and three-quarters of a mile wido, the roadbeinin the middle. Gen Taylor's right rosted upon'the road, and was so protected hy the broken nature of tho ground as to ha sccuro a-ninst any at tempt to tlank him on that side. From tho road to thu mountains on tlio lelt is 700 to S00 yards, tho iirat half of the distance hoinr a iml AJ cut up by short ravines, running to tho road Beyond the heads of these ravines the plain ex tends to the mountain, which is steep and almost inaccessible. On thi main the battle wa m-in. Iy fought. Most of Washington's, battery was planted on the rirht. to defend the m,,,! nZ, and Thorn is's batteries, and others, wore onth al un, and wcrj used with tremendous ed'ect up. on tho enemy, whose dense columns had at one tim anproached so near as to threaten, hy (heir merc weii'ht, the complete overthrow ef "onf