Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, April 30, 1847, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated April 30, 1847 Page 1
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Vol. XX. IVo. 40. Whole Burlington Free Press, Published nt Burlington, Vl., By I. W. C. Cl.AIlKE, Editor and Proprietor. Termn Tn Villi, if subscribers who receive the tinner bv the carrier 2'9S If paid In advance 2r"0 Mail subscribers nnd those who take it at the Offlce, Invariably 2,00 Advertisements inserieu on tne customary icrms. From Douglas Jerrold's Magazine. A V1CTOUV. BV R. E. B. MCCLELAK. The joy-bells peal n merry tone AIj.u lne evening air i The crakhng bonfires turn the sky, All crimson with their glare i Bold music fills the startled streets With mirth inspiring sound ; The gaping cannon's rvdilenlngbreath Wakes thunder shouts around ; Ami thousand joylul voices cry, " IIuki ! Iiuna ! a victory !" A little girl stooJ at the door, And with her kitten played, Le.'swild and frolicsome than the, That roy prattling maid. Suddenly her cneek turns ghostly white. Her eye with fear is filled, And rushing in of doors, she screams " My brother Willie's killed !" And thousand joj iul voices cry " lluzza I huzza ! a Victory !" A mother satin thoughtful case, A knitting by the lire, Flying the needle's thrifty task With hands that never tire. She tore her few grey hairs, and shrieked, My joy on earth is done I Oil ! who will lay me in my grave t Oh, God ! my son ! my ton !" And thousand joj ful voices cry, lluzza I liuzza! a Victory !' A youthful wife the threshold crossed With matron's treasure blessed ; A smiling infunt nestling lay In slainber at her brcnt. She spoke no word, the heaved no tigh, The widow's tale to tell ; But like n corpse, all white and stiff, Upon the earth floor fell, And thousand jo) lul xoiees cry, "Huzza ! huzza 1 a Victory I" An old, weak man, with head of Enow, And jears three-score and ten, Look'd in upon his cabin home, And anguish seized him then ; Hehclp'd not wife, nor helpless babe. Matron, nor little maid, One scalding tear, one choking sub He knelt him down and prayed. And thousand joyful voices cry, " lluzza ! huzza ! a Victory!'' 1)C iTavm. For the Free Press. Orchards mill Apples. The first work of a farmer in the spring is to attend to his Orchard. While the ground is thawin. remove all the turf from near t.'iu bod ies of the tices and, if crass land, sec that the whole surl'.ic.; is dug over as far m the limbs extend. A nnn can do more in one day nnw, than in ten next summer, beides having thu benefit of it this season. Kvcry boy w ho wish es to fill his pockets with apples next winter, should bj at it. A-, soon as this is done, put on a good droing of rotted manure, swamp muck, or what f inners call long manure, which con sists mainly of ttraw, refuse corn stalk, &c. &c.,v.hich what their yards are generally tilled, litis should be applied" libcrally.whicli will keep tho toil loose, and produce a healthy action in the roots; bo necessary if you wWi vour trees lihv. Iii Orchards used lor mead ows no grass should ever be taken from under the trees, but all suffered to decay on tho ground. No tree can produce fruit without exhausting the soil, whieh mnt be highly manured and cultiviit-d or the trees soon become scrubby and worthless. It is not an uncommon crop for a tin gle tree to produce from live to ten barrels of ap ples. Now a little reflection must satisfy any one that even in a rich soil, this must soon ex haust it, and, unless something is added to it, trees must soon become worthle-s. It is a com mon remark to hear a man say " my orchard has not been trimmnl." Now should he say his orchard had not been manured mcultitated, he would tell the origin of the evil of which he complains, and pruning would he unnecessary had this been properly done. I havo no hesita tion in saving that pruning orchards in Ver mont, has been an injury rather than a benefit, and that every year thou-an.ls of trees are ruin cd by improper pruning. But as the evil has been done the b.'st course, now, is to begin right, and before the season for pruning arrives (June and July,) perlnps snmo directions may b.-given lor pruning trees whose tops look like the heads of long haired boys without combing. After m muring scrape the bodies and largo limbs of their rough hir!;, am! wash them with ashes and water implied with a common white st' ih brush. Strong lve is iniurinin and will I kill young trees whenever applied, but when . applied as directed rains will carry olf the ashes, ' so as not to penetrate to the inner bark, and the eggs of thousands of insects arc de-troyed by it. A larcre portion of the Apple trees in the State, have not been grafted, and tholruit is of little use. Now as it is clear that nothing pays a farmer as well as apples, provided he has the right sort, is it not for his interest to bo parlic- ufar and know what lie is cii.tivatintr. and not trust to any one to procure scions lor mm. i 1 1- "it t 1 inanotfoumneaiiii snoi.m em uoy ri man 10 engraft nt a , but if compelled to do il, hire voSr man bvll.e day and ..ever by the job. Of onidp. for Lvnorinlinn the two best aiinles for apples for exportation, the two nest apples for this climate which have been the IIaldwiv and JJoston or Hoxnuitv IIusset. , . , 1 t.i ... .1 ) ...s.i 1 Ul UIC lornier Iiono navu wen raieu 111 havo been raised in tho ( ounty for sale, and but levv oi mo iat or; these . . ... ... ... . alwavs readily bringSl. a bushel in JiurliiiL'toii w hen brought in May or June. tm .. . . . . '..-.-I .. .1 ' 1 lie liaiUWIIl ..11ICS onglimieu 111 llieiOlin- IV ol.Middlesex,.Ma.ss.,anllooK tu namo rom a family who introduced it to notice. .Major Ja- Ones, nn ominpnt A irrietllf nrlst. lebn nnn. nii'ita nues, an eminent Agriculturist, who now owns I the land where tho original treo ttoo.1, has ecteda monument on tile .pot to l-tuate Tl.., follow-in" is a descrintinn nf il l.v ltn.,1 ' V Pronel, if.. rn . ' , V ... J V. t rCnCll r.SO.. Of llraintmn. nnn nf tlin Vii-o 1 ol llraintrce, ono of the Vicel i j Presidents cf tho Massachusetts IlnrtirnUnml Society. ' The tree vyitn us, for thriftincss, for hardi ness, for fino form, and vigorous strength, for its. abundant bearing and the beauty and Ion" l... nir nf its fruit !s ..I I .' "'"r. --- ....... - ,,s-,i iu uie nead ofn other New hngland w inter apples. The fruit is always fair, above medium size, of a fine rich red and yellow color. The flesh nearly tender In color yellowish, rich, juicy and Hue ll.vored! excellent for the tablo or cooking, anj is j,, ' from Nnvemlier till May, IhavepUcntliellaldwina thorongli trial in mv own orchard. This year ia the lieartn....... with me, anil I havo taken ninety barreh of Uaiuwins irom trees piuiueu iwenty-eiglit years agoin grass land, and kept in that state, ever cilice. You mav iudgo how superior lo the Newtown pippin, this apple is for New England orchard culture, when I inform you, that from four No. 1035 yellow Newtown pippin trees, In tho same or chard, planted nt tho same time with the Bald wins, I gathered only one and a half barrels of apples i while from two Baldwins adjoining, in the same row, I took seven barrels. Tho Baldwin Is in Boston preferred to any other variety for shipping. I hac been credibly informed, that one person, engaged in shipping fruit from this port, has thi autumn purchased twelve hundred barrels of Baldwins for this pur pose." The Boston or Roxbury Ilusset is also a na tive of Massachusetts. The lollowing is Mr. Kcnrick's description of it in his American Orchardist. "This fine old variety is a native of Massachu setts. A large fruit, of a globular or flattened lorni f of a brownMi yellow russet color, with an occasional blush next the sun; the skin rough ; tho flesh white, juicy, rich, subacid, and excellent. An old and famous variety, a great and constant bearer ; it seldom fails. Great quantities of this fruit are raised In the nighborhood of Boston, for the market and for exportation, and although tho Baldwin, the IIubbariMon Nonsuch, and perhaps some other winter fruits, far exceed this ariety in beauty and excellence of flavor, nnd at least equal it in productiveness, the Roxbury Russet surpas ses them in its property of long keeping. 1 hey are lit for use in winter, and keep till Juno or July." This has nlso been claimed as a native of Ohio, and called the " I'utnam Russet". The following is a description of it under this name, furnWiod by J. II. Russell, Ksq., of Cin cinnati, formerly publisher of the New England Farmer, and published by Mr. Kenrick, in his American Orchardist. " Larirc in size, and of uncommon excellence both for good quality and productiveness. Alost extensively cuiuvuu'u iu snip i it .HusKiugiiain county, Ohio, where it is esteemed as above all others, of their numerous line varieties, culti vated in that region." This fruit is also described under the same name by Prof. Kirtland, of Cleavcland, and published by Mr. Downing in his Fruits and Fruit trees of America. Prof. K. says that it is a native of Marietta Ohio ; but on comparing it with the Roxbury Russet it proves to bo tho same, and on investigation it appears that sci ons of the Roxbury Russet were carried, to Ma rietta, and there took tho name of the man who propagated it. There are a great variety of native Russets,any one disposed to cultivate it should be careful and get the true Ruxbury Russet and not a counterfeit; Chawlaw. All amusing scene in the X. Y. Legislature. Tho Subterranean, Miko Walsh's paper.gives the following account of an amusing interlude to the grave duties of Legislation, which occur- edinthe N. Y. Assembly a few days ago. It illustrates the absurdity of a red-headed man's doing violence- to nature by wearing a black wig. It is said that Miko Walsh, (who by the way appears to be a useful as well as an orna mental member,) is an uncommonly grave jok er, .llr. Watson, w.ioso window we are tola, lets in but a small light, apjicars to have fallen through without an elfort to save himself. Per haps lie got a glyinpe of himself in a mirror and was led to regard his identity as realiy, a thin" to bo proved. Miko certainly "served him right ;" why had'nt the ninny sense enough to buy a sorrel wig ! Albany. March 7. 1917. fly far the richest and most graphic scene which has ever taken place in any leeisative body, was that in which .Mi he Walsh and tioti XX atson ngureu as prm ciiial actors. Boh Watson, who is a lawyer, represents the city of Albany in the Legislature. He is somewhat vain ot his abilities and personal appearance, though withal a pretty clever sort of a fellow. His hair being as he ui leges, rather thin, he concluded some two weeks since to get his head shaved, ami enscone himself in a wig until a new and more vigorous crop of the natural developed itself. That this was his sole and only ob ject, however, has been rendered somewhat doubt ful, notwithstanding his professions In the contrary, bv the form and color of the artificial coveriuu which he has selected as u temporary shield to preserve hi bald Kou Irom trie inclemency oi uie weatner, ami the ruder gaze ol llie thoughtless, vulgar and quizzi cal rabble. His own hair was hglil nnJy, and per lecily straight, and the wig which Mows m a luxuriant nrolusioii ol siossv rinelets is ns blink as llie illume oi a raven. Uy this you can easily ju 1,'-' how great was the alteration produced in his persoual appearance. ii wits verr cviuciii irom inu umi iiiaiinei in niiii-u Mike yuaged him on his entrance, that there was some tun in embryo, an I accordingly llie whole House were on ihe qui rice. The Uoue having resolved itself into " Committee of the Whole," Mr. Itlmlirfil nl'l !im.-ssfp in llie (Ihiir. the BiKii.nv in ' which all the members had sat during llie whole morn ing was suddenly broken by Hobs ruing ill his seat, which 1 some distance irom thai ol .Mike, and bawl ing out at the top of his voice," Mr. Chairman, I rise sir Willi the vi-i-iew of making n few remarks upon ibis " Here he was brought to a dead stanJ ttill by Mike, who jumping up exi-himed with the nnwi imperturbable gravity, " .Mr. Chairman, I rise to a question of order." C.iairman (.Scarcely able tosuppress his laughter) Scntleiuaii li 9cruih,z7d from" h The gentleman Irom New Yolk. g over at uoo, wnom lie wii.uy amazement, and considerable indignation) I would like to know , sir, by what right individuals who are head to toot with great seeming not ineuibersol tins House can be uermitted to take nirt in its debates: where, mr. nre we to Mod. if the itoorot this Hous, with oil the richt4 of membership, is to be thus thrown open to the punue at large f At tins the whole House, calleries-. members, olfi cert, reoorters. Chairman, and iiifabort all but .Mike anJ we.rt! aluolutely convulsed with laughter; nmnv inuoiumf uuiui ie leara roi en ouwn ineircneeKS. .N'ot-,he ndow of a smile, however was to be seen I on the countenance ol either of the two actors in this most admirable farce. .. Mike's eye, a, he leaned over, resied s.eadily on "OD, anu tne latter gentleman seemed per.ectly piiral- jie(, , ,he ullel.,.cleJ nj l0 him, iueiolicable course mailers uau laKen. iieseeineu rueieu in uie spot and remained perlecily speechless. .!... i.i. 1. ..... At length the Chairiiinii became sutlicienily composed 10 drawl ,111, ,,, n i-.r. in. i.linpl ,n.r Ih.l 1,0 una ' m.l.... im.lincJ u me lhe ; was .... .Mite Not having before had the pleasure of see- 1 1 .7- I 1.1- '.I .1... .-1.-!- lllgll.e ge...ir.nu.., m., . wuuiu rmiuur ui .or v,nuir- " " Xi'c .u V Z 1,,: i r ..rt-sc-m I . . I.. a .muul roar oflaiizliterjfmuUe more boisierous than lhe first, succeeded this enquiry, ami Hob, who ''l ' " lie WievrJ "! """"a., was Iron, '.many. , , ll.-i. .'....I. !.....,...! nnrnris 41, mi 7 I ll,.,,,rrl,t Mr. Walsou renresi-nted Albany. " III 1 Ullf riV lllllK(ir.wic tu ui r c i mini luni i f.llimed- ioHiee it to sav ihat Hob sat down, . . ri, : l... r .Mike tollowed, and the whole House roared until they almost lell Helpless uiiuer uieir uesiis, irom uie exuaus I lion produced by excessive mirth. 3IEX1C0. AORICULTURAI. PBODt'CTIOiS OF COAML'tLA. From the lettcrof an intelligent correspondent of the St. Iiuis Republican, d.lcd " Camp San Jiunde Ilueiia Vista, near Sallillo, .Mexico, Feb. 1 (lib. In" uin mnlin llm f,,llmiii,-r i.. tracts tho tirt of the agricultural productions in v.iauiiiia : T he chief agricultural productions from tho l'residio to Monclova, he says aro corn, r.igar und cotton tof the latlpr. there aro no nim m futnii,,. m,l l,i linl.. .1... mand for it. It grows finely, the btalk being never killed by ihe cold of winter. It might be profitably cultivated If there was a demand for It. Sugar grows finely, and only needs n little care and adequate machinery to enable the In habitants to produce large quantities of it. It is not grained as with us, but when in syrup Is run Into moulds resembling small loaves of loaf sugar, called pllonces, weighing about a pound. Corn grows well and yields abundantly. Two crops of it are. mule in a year, If Iho occupant of .1.' II . . I . .- ...... I I. C.,1 uiu uruuuu is nut loo lazy io ivuu u. iiii-m?. Is planted In March, and gathered in Juno and July. Tho second Is planted tn July or 1st August, and gathered In November and De cember. When wo arrived at Monclova, the lstol November, roasting cars and green rodder were abundant lor ourselves and horses front the second crop. This is the principal crop of the year, as it is less liable to Injury from tho vicis situdes of the weather than the first crop. 1 ho yield of the corn Is about fifty bushels to tho acre in a tilled field. With good culture tho quantity would be increased very considerably. The stalks rrrnwto an enormous holeht. I have seen them often around Monclova so tall, that when pitting on my horse, which is full sixteen hands high, I could not reach the cars of corn. In Iho vicinity of Monclova wheat is grown. The country begins to be elevated, and beyond it sugar cannot bo profitably raised. A well known physiological fact is continual ly presented to notice: that is, that latitude alono does not govern the production. Wh"at cannot bo raised, profitably or ol goon quality, in Louisiana. Yet. here, in latitude S!5 3 and 20 0 , several hundred miles further South than loui Mana. it is rrrown to nerfection. So arc apples and peaches, This is owingto mo elevation oi the country abovd the level of the sea. At Ciencgas, a village fifty miles west ol Mon clova, large quantities ot excellent xvneai are raised. There are two flouring miles auion clova, propelled by the stream which passes through tho town. The best Mexican flour is not equal in appearance to the American article. It is generally sold without being bolted at all. Wo used largo quantities of this unbolted flour in the army. It makes a very sweet, palatable, and healthy brown bread. It is, howeve ver h ud 1 disliked I uiuihi.il to bo fed totaKotlown,andtlic soldiers generally u to use it.nst hov said they did nut like on so much bran to so little Hour. The Mexicans keep small sieves in their houses, to separate the bran from the flour. It then makes a light bread; and I must say I have never eaten sweeter or better light broad than is made by tho bikers in Monclova and Parras. Oats and rye arc not grown in Mexico. Corn is not generally fed to horses, When they aro fed with grain at all, it is usually with barley, which grows finely ; but little of it is raised, how over. Nearly all descriptions of vegetables grow fine ly. With most kinds, a person may select his own time for pi mting. Fresh peas, lettuce, beans, &c, may be had the year round, by plan ting them repeatedly. I saw peas six inches in length growing at Parras on Iho lGth December, which were planted for a winter crop. As the climate is so propitious, and all plants have to be reared by irrigation, a planter or gardener mav select liis own lime for planting. It mlirhtnnt ho nrofituble to plant com in tile fall ; but there is a wide range from February to Aiitrii.-tt.iput it into the ground, and still have a j-vn... uui. ' Uranges grow ueautuuliy and magnilicentiy ; i but to our irreat disappointment, thevareall of th" snr kin,. .Sweet oranges aro cultivated I farther .South, and in lower plains and valleys, near the sea coat. An execution to be levied on Irish potatoes, if sent into Mexico, would be returned, " not found it tho bailiwick." They cannot bo profitably rai.-ed. lly tho aid of a search warrant arid a imgnifying glass, I did find a fovv in Saltillo. They were Ihe i-ize of marbles and pigeons' eggs and wereoflittlo account to cat. Pumpkins, and a variety of sqahc, grow abundantly, and are much tied. As a general thing, very few vegetables arc used by tho Mex icans, except red pepper. FAItMISr. UTENSILS OFTIIE MEXICANS. Tho fannini utensils nf tho Mexicans are of the rudest possible description. It has been well said, that they seem to ho opposed to change of every kind, except in their governors and got eminent. Tho samo utensil which were ii'ed by Cortcz,at the conquest, in Ihe sixteenth e.entiirv, are used nt thi day in .Mexico. Riding, on the 10th of December, tip the val- 'ey in which l'asas is bitiiiitod. I came to a ield where they were o,., ,..1... ,t M'lm - .1 . . i .inu'rut iiniii(, iiiu v"" 'V tinnioiini?ii unimm int-inj-miiu followed c.icli oilier, on the Mime land, iiluuj;! ini tlin wheat in. A c A coiilruanco lor 11 harrow, Im-ellcd the urotind nfler the plouolis. Kucli ploui'li was dr.iwn by two oxen. The plmifil were nl the snmo two thousand y the fork of a sm swereil for the beam. tn fasten llio oxen oil about four nml nnd a sinol and projectint; back, made the Handle Tins was the whole plough-lock, stock am barrel. When a forked tree cannot he found, llie short lick is morticed into the lone one. The short I. .1 I? .1 1 prong was me cuhult ... 7 " Tins was lasiencu oy a rawniuu .uoi.g . uie ox-yoke, which, in turn, was fastened in front of and to the horns of the oxen, by another r.iw-liido II10112. me iiauuie was neiu ny a paon, who wan armed in the other hand with a Ion" note, with a sharp goad iu llie end of it, which he unsparingly plunged into tho oxen to rniielfpii llmir sneed. or to chaune their direction ' Some or tho better ploughs have the coulter , ? ', ' r 'ir, " rosonililinff n bull i"hod Willi a piece of in, rise . iblinij a bull- mnrrue, eijim iiicmo i:,ms . 1 thenco to two inches at the ralnt. This is the LIrpsCsi imnrov greaiest Improtcmcnt made uion the plough. .., . 1 : . ,1.... 1. 1.. 1....1, . . K , r c... r.... ' . I .11111 IS. I II 1 1 V PL illlll l lit.,' 1 ., a .. ., ii.vi,, A K,rlirt9 ,avo been made to introduce bet- ter ploughs, and some have been brought from tho United Status. Hut the Mexicans did not ... them. They were soon broken or ll,m., aside as useless, hecauso no ono would plough with them. " tu i...., ..... ,im.is. .i,;n.. ns ,, ,.,,(r, .n,i rlm4Utpil nf a simrlii tipk nf places with a raw-ludo ropo to keep It M,,.aro to I 10 irom, aim uraw 11 uy u vukl- ui u.eu 10 icvui .. I J 4 I . '' . ' i no mrmtr. ur bhuiv uui mmiihi, ueuu iur iri;i'.i" , ... . . i . ' l ring tortillas, is the samo articlo that was used , by the Indians at the first coiKiiest of Mexico. Their hoes arc clumsy, round iii.ichi.ies, de cidedly worse than the meanest hoo in Old Vir L'inia and that is about as had a character as 1 kno.v how to uio them Their axes are long and clumsy, with blades about llireo inches wide, and resemble tho upper part of a pick-axe or grulibing-hoe. It looks remarkable that they should ever bo able to peek a Irco down with one. The great superiority of the American axo is so evident, that some few venturesome persons have cominenccdlhe use oi mem. A .Mexican cart is tho most iininneol all llieir invention. Il has not a piece ol iron in it or iIsini Ii. It ii cnin-triicted enlirelv of wikkI and ru i!J. Tim axletrcn is a rotiL'li-hewed log, rounded at the ends. The wheels aro made of knotty live-oak, two feet and hall through the pai.ern ueu oj- uie ivuinaii i head ol this arncle, is nnoenvoot S' pages, resperta- - - " :;." ' V ,., ; V ' " I l"s iews, nml endeavors iu make it npnear ears since, lliey were mad'.' ol wy goi up, ana diuile. inio seien ciiapi-rs, preceueu ,3,,., . i.isrnn. an.T 1 ,,J,,i , n'J i, I ?"0r ,-,Mrt" " "loilern astronomy is huilt n ill ireo, one nron.r 01 which an-, r ihe case ailud.-d 10, ihe corresoondimi side of tit re. " r. i"'. .... , : ! ""r " "us ,M I"'."' 1 , and was cut Ion- enouoli V ;. ' . .... ' '.', '. 1 The lAvlt uljr r.rcui.w.rilx-d polygon SI sides is found to.be qmd,tu)t , la, "iii lo ; the other pron- was cut of force ,,d Moiiou ; IV. The lorni of ihe Orbits of VV',,.wi , L ,1,1. !'!. 1 1 en',l however, briefly test Ins law by one of is own feet I.H12, and sharpened nt the the I'laneis: . '1 he lheory ol Ihe b)l.ir f-stem j , ,' ,,," ;i ', ' """'I'les. lie says hat.il Iw.iplaneisrevolvciirouiid lo st ek f istened into the fork 1- heliues; 11. 1 lie Ahernuion 01 i.igu . ., ... ' .. ,,,:,::"'.'',". t "fr..:., J. s.iuie cenue, , at llie ihstauee l,aiul C at iho di BURTilftOTOft, FRIDAY IttORUriNtt, hub, and trimmed down to seven Inches In the tread. Two slabs of the same width aro pinned on to tho centre piece, to give rotundity to the wheel. A heavy tongue morticed into the axle, and has a wooden pin inserted though the nnnor end. bv winch to fasten it lo tho Voke. Tho body Is make of wooden poles, inserted Into i-.it t..i.t r... i.... 'pt.i. t- i rotinu saplings inn is usyu for hauling wood, &c. When they wish to haul corn, corn-stalks aro placed across tho wooden poles, and lashed tightly to them with strips of raw hide. When wheat or shelled corn is to be carried, they lino the inide of tho stalk bed with matting made of llie pnlmillrt, which resem bles tho material of which gunny-bags aro made. The ox yoke Is a piece of timber fivo inches wide and three inches thick, slightly indented near each end. This is tied in front of nnd across tho horns, with a piece of tough raw hide. Another piece fastens the yoke tightly to the tongue of the cart. A second yokoof cattlo is usually fastened to the cart. A strong rope of raw hide, of sufficient length, fastens their yoke to the tongue of tho cart. The driver moves along by the side r.f the cart, sometimes on foot and sometimes ridinir an ugly, ill-natured looking mustang, with a long ox-g-oad in his hand. He uses this very frcclv, P . . ..... i!i l.r. 1, . i. ' aim vvnen lie wishes to mo ion, ne pops ins goad into tho off ox, who screws his tail and runs around his fellows, and changes the direc tion of tho cart. They move more briskly than American oxen. This is no wonder, for they aro all taught to " walk Spanish." Tl I.n..1 ........ ln.. t.....la It, tUnen nr.,1 travel ns f.it as horse teams usually do'on a ' journey. A .Mexican ircqucntiy carries ins wife and children in those cans, lie then puts . . ., e - i. a raw hide on tho bottom, to keep the children from lulling though, and puts another over the r. r..... T, k.. ; U il.n u.,nin f.. ton for a cover, when in craviN the whole fa- milv. As soon as " all's set, ho hisses at his oxen, as a bear hunter would to when close on bruin, and nil starts the whole contrivance, with ' Sn,n l-nlli.s in Iho Unil'ed States seem to be ' I..11 I......I r mil. n , fond of travelling in stages and railroad cars - squalling children, to Ihe great annoyance of their fellow-passengers. 1 wuuld advise' such, I o MPVir. r.lrt fnrhnw. bv all means, to trj a .vle.MCll cart, lor now- Ainr tnueh n emts.frrnmefl lmt ma V sero.im ever much a cross-grained lr.it may scream ana Dawi, it wouiii not in too least uituro ins neic ihor.s. or lnterlere with he liars I di.-cord . produced by the outlanuisli sctctivuHyol a .Mex ican cart. m. YOUNG'S UNITY OF PURPOSE. Uxitv or Prnrosn, on Katiuxai Analysis: If in? a Tientise designed to disclose physical truths, and to detect and ejcjiose jmpular ertors. JVy AlucsTls Yocxn. JJoston: 1'iinted It 4. X, Dickinson bf Co. 18 10. It vv ill doubtless be recollected tw most of our read ers that, some four years ago, the iulhor of llie work, whose tide stands at the head of (lis article, he being then a Itepresentative in Congress from the Stale ol Vermont, announced to the world, through the Na tional Intelligencer and the Globe, newspapers pub lished at Washington, ihat he had made discoveries, which would, when promulgated, completely over throw the prevailing systems of Natural Philosophy. and demonstrate that itlie superstructure erected by Newton. Lanlace. and others, tmon the d seovcriis of orecedltli; matlieinaticians and astronomers. nnd which has been supplied to be permanent, is neither more H I ion ncdiieii i .iniiiiuir us ii utn nxiiii u nieniotr oi von- gn,, produced some little seii-aiion.nn.l curio-iiy was extensively awakened to kc ihe work thus shadowed tortii, that n uiigiiiapi-ar ny wtiat proiessa inaii, oth erw ise rational, had hi lar ftultdicd himself, as lo make nm)"tMt bejiee in the verity 01 111a aimounccmeiit, ana that the world would at knowledge him ns one ol the greatest benefactors of wiei.ee os soon as prejudice flioidd have time (0 8ubV.de. Hut ai the work was not immediately published, and the Congressman had re tired to private life among llie mountains of lus own state, curi'ity soon began to !,ij-, and, in the course of two ears, the matter bad ahno-t parsed from mem ory. Our author, hoeer, continuint' true to his unity of purpose, wn ui the mean time plodding 011 in hU tittinrial antihjvn,uui adding one niter nnother to iiis tnjuniij oj jn uuj ,ui ."iippoti in imtfi'ii tuns. I earn turmoil, man place. science, pectus 111 Wil tents. which woi 1,.. 1 to the author.. . .

ii icii"iut 111 iii'- 1 hut ii r 1 vi nn- great work was n-hered into the world, At len-Mh, 111 the htter part ol the year Itfib, the MacuiH nb iuleuro seculoruin "n' 'il.ur.rJo- uftfer hiding From its presence the inliabiianHoflhe tlwellera 111 the nonl at l ie de.'seent ol k awn away ill aiouisliiiieni. j)tii,iieei)iu immii uitrir muiii nl ice- au 1 n.Teeiwn:! :io Inrm, tliey are IjsC recovernv rom tiu-ir nunc, nil I iff Have leu summoned cour- age to come forth nnd .earl-sslv inn lire whether this , new nuiuoriiy, wmeu is auei mu e, , o i u , . over us, is legitimate or itsuried We will, therefore. proeeeil lo llie work Use ,' oreiasle 7 hai suldiu. plnlils!;;' to ' hid, ,,.., ore ablliu lo k. ,.miuKl, and to upprUe then, of ifie contempt will, which the author spurns .he ini.nine s impose, upon the scien. c won. oy I WlVfltll whum ,e tearj ,iat ,iic w,,rj will put in compeiiiioii fears that the world will nut ill competition ' hiiuselfr.tr the highest honors ol philosophy.Thal , ie is determined to lake no middle llight, but to soar among and almve the highest, he assures us at the "" ... . " i ,.n . ... In mv ti.irsuit after truth. I shall no more be sat Should ..,ii!r,.- for,.,t that there as ilien a x.' . ,", "IS M ieriineter. The periphery of rii.r,i,nl j,,i ... ,,. .... ..... ,., . , as the 111 11, 111 comparison with whom .Newton, l.a- -j.icnoi-J , ing houies has the same amount of force impressed . . ' " . . . .. ; l ie r re e. t leretiir.. iir..i , :i nn, . ..j t .n.. . .......... huc in.u ruLii ui l ie lan- , ami our own iiciwiiiu ii, were mere prunes 111 , . . . . . . . ,.nn ,,. , , upon 11, wnue p.lslll' tlirollah the 10 leel. al l ie i s. !, in .ttarcii, iu, our nuuior issued, ns a pros- , ? -. , -- ,' . ,.: tances alioie meuiioned, it should aun-ar. eillier tint 1 1 olhislorthcoi nwork.apniiphletof 10 pages, j rj i" . Ti. iS. i-Vi I'"'!"" the whole ellecl is, in Imih cas, confined to the lrt 0 "' nnl iu;i lie "ii r ni inn; in iu . u iu 11 uu c ui lii ia . i , .... ... -.- .- ifi'i. ur uui. ni iiih piui nr in,i u. i,..t i.n. e-m.n nu and selforih. somewliat in detail, the matters "n"8 1 mo fT ': V"S i Al.9'l Ii "re -he same amount ,,l tl. i,,H V.f . ." amount oi , were to be more fully investigated in .he larger " "".'AV.' SirSiT'ir ArV. :2-,J,Siy. f." prcswl. lint when, alter mm 0,r eViiia sons. u.r ' i..l!"S 'V!.f;"" .8il9U. The perimeter of incrild wlviion of .'"'I'r" ,!'!? 1 V"v'" 'l" rn"" "0""" h. ffiTnt,, i lie w-orR. i e i. w nose in one nie- iiuum m . . . i ... . .1 .... r , . . in" iiiouous m iul i eiven e lusiis i..r n .....iii..n isfied with laking a middle flight, than .Milton was Thus have we shown by a process, which a child iu lhe sublimation of lieiion; and as this must often I cnn unJeMund, and which our author acknowledges bring me iu contact wuh ihofs.- who lune iiiieuipled , be legitimate, that the p-riiuetcr of a regular poly, llie must daring flights iu lhe scientific, world, (ei-pe- gn ofSI i.les.circuinscribinga circle whose iliaineter cially in lhe department ot inaihematicsand asirou- i, 1, j,3 15X.Ti"s. Hut our author asserts that Ihe cir ouiy,) I shall speak ol ll.ein and their doings with a , cuiiilerence of a circle, whose diamaler is 1, is freedom and boldness which I suppose to bo justly 3 ITISIMD.or greater than llie ierimeier of llie poly, due to lhe subject, and to mankind ; nor will I, in cn, which includes il by .ulSliUJ: u reductio adab ibis respect, ask Irom lhe world other mercy than .,Urdum, which is sullieiently palpible. sueh as I shuw to olhers." The pwess which we have described may be car- We heartily lhaiik our aulhor lor ibis paragraph, ried on by increasing the number of ihe sides of the and we here apprise our readers, lhal we shall claim .......:,... .....I... ,1... It .n..s .,1 ii sl.i.nl.l ii-.. Inn ,iuii n.'ii un.i.1 ins v.-..-. , uii fircie miuii eniiieiuc 111 uuj usiiiuoie elt'lu, out, occasion lo sieak with Ireedoin and boldness ol llie neco.mt of the great labor required in the iiprra. work lielore us, tioii , malhemalieiaiis have contrived various methods Iu llie Inlrodiiclion, and throughout the whole ul abridging it. They all, however, lo the ex.cnl to woik, our aulhor's peculiar spile seems Iu be con. ' which lliey carry lhe oieratioii, agree iu lhe result, cenlra.eil upon t-ir haac Newton, lor which we can wttli lhe exception of our author, and his result hav aeeouut un no other principle than that he desires i 1 1 j I .--1 1 proved I. be erroneous, it does not seem to to undeify Newton that he may lhe more easily deity ,. u.jry to siy any ihuig more respecling il hiuiK-lf: lor while he represents lhe thoughts ot New. J u J,--tI. an exposition ol the course he his puisued Ion lo be " fxtreinely crude and uiianalyzed; " be wuuld require lar moie room than it i north. 1 lav would make it appear that the world is disposed to be-' xv, Mjuglu out a new track, invented, in pint, a new How upon him divine honors. Now if a crude jar- j nutation, and then, ul.er boldly proclaiming lha. .here gon of truism and absurdities, trammeled together i 10 legmniaie geometry, exi-epting upon lines, he by an unintelligible coiinneniary, enlille a person in ecvt 0 ihrongli 50 ur morn p-.g.-s of rigmarole re adoration, we think our aulhor will have no com. sp,-ciing ilie approximating Kries ol polygonal periin peiitors lor such distuietioii, wliiini be need lear. , tfrs, till he leaches a point where he imagines thai We will, however, no longer detain our readers ul ,u. perimeters become merged in Ihe iwriphery of the lhe vestibule, but introduce lliem inio the Unly ot circle, eslablishing bis ratio, which we have already '.he work j and . . ' refuted, and in supoit ol which we conless ihat we 1st. Of the Quadrature of the Circle, 1 lus is our jute not the neuteuess to discover lint lie has advan aullior's great leading article. The chapter devoted v a need even one plausible arguinent, Not content, to it is divided inio six sections, and lilts. 71 piges. u,wevcr, lo conline hiinself in lhe subject he i dis He commeuci's with some general observation re. pU5Smg, but true to UU unity ofpurmse of abusing Sir specling Ihe melliu.l employed iu mvestigaiiiig the i,MC N'ewlou.he anticipjles largely, iu this chapter, iiuddrature, miles whnt he conceives to be the etror of w ,i,j,.cis nl lhe succeeding ones, ihus forming u geometers iu giving lhe 'riphery ol lhe circle a jmnhle ol heterogeneous materials, and I. ringing all greater cajsicily than it possesses, and then, after iy- w)rl3 0f iliinjjs inio unity, but such unity as exists only ing a .l. serve.l coiiipiiineiii .on-ii.u prois...ou in I.iieiiu ana luuy ackuowieuguiii uiiiuor..y, lie Iimivrs, tin Mni us, ins- iu,,"" ..'h ... ... . " .My puipose is, to pruve to lhe satisljclion of the world, that the circumference ol lhe circle, whose di - aiueler ici is unity ui , io ... , ... .... ....... v, vu,. of 'il, and hence that the area, or one-fourth of lircuinference, is .'J37liUj, or lhe culie root of .5, ruot lln circu lieu ol l ie noimlar series. .7H&l'.HI"JstJ. .Vc. &.c. thus making lira cube or third power of the diameter of lhe circle, twice ihe lliirdiKiw-erofoue.lourlhiifihe I'ireuinlf rente ; and, consequently, that the ralio of lhe ' the third powers and roots of definite numbers." uiameler lo lhe circuniierence is luuiiueiisiiri.oie m APRIL 30, ,84T" ' Here we have a full and explicit Aatcmcnt of what may be regarded as the result of o.ir author's labors embraced in this chapter.and, with 'all, n much clearer one than we. should have been likely to have obtained from a perusal of tin- chapter. I Our readers will doubtless understand that by the quadrature of the circle Is meant the ifatio of lis diam eter to its circumference, and to find the quadrature Is, simply, to find how many times and jiarts of a time Ihe length of the diameter is contained in that of the circumference. Now our author asserts, (and lie seems to challenge proof to the contrary1,) that lliis ra tio oi me unmeier to tne circumlrrcrjcc is as 1 to 3.1713020. The ralio acknowledged and used by the rest of the world is that of 1 to 3,U15W0. Sic. Hi re then, Is a difference between our author rotio and that adopted by all other geometers, of .0330'JI,a difference, which it would not require very nice ob servations to detect by a measurement of the circle, for in a wheel, with a diameter ol 101) inches, the two ratios would give a diflerence hi the length of the cir cumference ol 3 1-3 inches. Now is it possible that our author is right, and that the whole world has been laboring under so grois .an error, from the days of Archimedes until his npjicar once among us I This surely is a grave question, and we will, there fore, spend a few moments In testing the truth of his result ; and, lest we should Irightcn him with the cut eulue andfluxiont.ot which he manifests an almost iiisiinclive dread, we will employ no other geoinelry than such as he acknowledges lo be legitimate, and no other notation than our simple Arabic, in whose be half he so earnestly pleads. To begin, then, we will so far conform to our author's unity of purpose, as to take for our example a circle whose diameter is unity, or I, and, if we arc not greatlv mistaken, we shnll show. Iiv n few simtile arithmetical calculations, which n common school boy minute, it will till IG.3oUO1.2i3 of a foot in the first wo"ld gun no lessthau'J3 minutes m a day in Decern can understand, that his ratio is absolutely false : or, second, and (1-1G of l-2Ji) 1-3G00 oi a foot in the I '"'r' n"J "rta, a clock regulated for December in other words, that it is impossible for a circle, whose first sh.; r.f a second. nj hence, since ill- fall in wou'd lose llie same nniount daily in July, a con-ide. J1713"20' number pur author confidently at- .1. . " lu " "r " circuiiiiereuce so great ns ""ns i" cpre&3 nic leiigiu oi uic cireuniierence oi , 6Uch circle. Now it is a fact, so obvious that none will denv it.1 that, if a circle have n regular polygon inscribed and ."T ' tmu""cni '"c v reuiiiirieiii;c ' tlieoircle, lying between the two, wi l be longer lhnn ,K-riiutter of the inscribed, and shorter than ... ...t imiiiiu. i vt .mca n. mi. -i , ma !ffc,.! I'V"'1"8 polyit'ms towards the ii.-iipiii.-iv in nic c rtie u lu.coi ns'i ueiu v. oniirus r.ieii other, with the increase of the number of sides of the polycons, lias been the basis upon which ihe quadra-! l?n 'alxxn sought ever since the davs ol Arilume- 'lfS ! ".'' our. "ulll0r huilds upon this foundation, w ndoot l ie same, and lor the benefit o our ..1... .. I..: i.: . . .. r readers, who may not possess his strong powers of 1 imagination, we will illustrate our process, in part, uy uugram. . . . of a circle i i.. . r... I... - --- - - - w, iiiac iimnioirr m 1, nml whc centre is C. mil "'".p v' ' n'ee ii r r cons-queniij- .j chord of 1.6 of il, circumference Tf the elioni III) he ,i i ,rn. Dt, ...mi 1 . . , , , drawn renal to CI1 : Ilf) will V mm .i M .J n r eul ni .f.-uu,r s.nnd liDbe. ?terol them- lu-eniM-u iiesaon, or wIyj;on ol six fides, ni inirpqiiiil to CI1 .5, the uhole nerimeter ra F 1(1 nl u . ' i "2 - L,.in Ul through A t l.A':V:J:r,.rn11 i u tOwiU.be one nde of j V. itrn:!? . . . , ' '.V;;: uVC r:! iu' ! M WfflV '"l-''" rSff''HyP!" rf 1S "l J. 1 n. . ? 1 . ' v..., xli3 SI53VNWthe nerimeter ol such iMtlvLron. Aims wc uuu uii: penpuery oi me circle, iinj oe- pi :.. i .i.- i . c .i. - i ' r , i" 7tl " L m .A vf'i3!.. P '.V.?'"""., ' '"'T inn jn je ntfvt iinactm i .gain : tne arc ha. oemrj l-r.'t h ot t he eiremn er. ii..i .i. vii 'iu ki , iia nail, is iiiv Mile oi u reifuiur ).. .I.....I ,.r it . l.l.. i. : .1 :i....... i P-me.jr, of inscrik-d and cireumseribed ' 'f Vs , f,', i ,, ' 'e'"''u" " """l1' "T" fhl'I'li'Jir. j, anJ (he j . "I! f- - 1 ' ? C 5 g Imcribe.!. 'Hinooo .(WOOOOxC 3 IIJ0J000 Ciiciuii.rribcl, lll.Clllll.tl, Cirruinaenbed, Ituritssl, Circu.u.criU'd, .5-raMj .aw uui .207'JIJII .uitsvn ,s".i.vnii a miiou ,'i'ijsiimiio3.H).'s si ,!WT1IJHI'JJ '.'l.sl-9,3 .i:w.vj,iu-ji:i i:tjij(ii .ui.iijjijia ljuiTGs ' ? 51 polygon, till the two perimeters and the periphery of, !i. ' .i t. 1 1 . : t i ' ' . j thao. .j-W ss'coiul cnnpier, occupying iw pages oi ,ir. i j OUIlg S WOIK, 19 uciu.ru iu u swiisiusiu iiwii v. ii.- of gravity. 1 luw uf graeily, says he, " in this division of luesuojeil, icirn lu," will simply vvlucli lhe fii on-lieriiiieier oi tne circumcriueu poij gon : anu uic anil ne pruresses to draw his conclusions from the "" n' "lcre vvouiu lie nn nciuni gain oi inure man differences between the periphery ol the circle and the premises above f Inted. , three pounds on every hundred, perimeters of the polygon will diminish with the in-1 We deem it needless, as we acknowledne it would Perhaps the most Ingenious and original portion ol ! , one ndt of the firpntiisritiP(l lnnniii mill 7TTl!V rriug lo bis division inio lArory andsueh table and example, clearly expressed, would have f consis. Ill tne rale, intensity or rill- : n,i..n unmititie uf matter lorce oi gravity exerts, ueiween iwu iu proMiriion to uie uis- unce between them at which il thill operate, and 1CiK-e, lo determine the numerical law ol gravity, is siinijy to determine the rate oi intensity in proportion in i'iumuiuuii II iving thus defined what he means by the Uw of U Jwutiice.' GREEN & CRAMER, ' 13I and 23U ltiicr;Strttt, Troy Vpnsilc tho Troy House, w ".r In Hardware, Cutlery, Sad Spikes, Anvil", Vice, Chains, Ir5....i piirnrnl. fVimter. icalrt. Illanchard's i "iir.MOVKD TIIEIH !ms hixinefl to No. 'J. ,Hlk n,e attention ol hVwisW to realize the lit. and Cash Blices will at Cuh iict: nnn h itntDSAt.L. gravity, he then proceeds i 7. 1.1117 tion. Rejecting the iaw. tablished bv Newton, ntnl dny as the true law, iiamiE, Wlrolesalc Dealers in raripM inrernrtu n thr ltrvfinrnU endeavors to prove th N e 0 Willijm St. to N 9 8 the dittancts Irom the -. Drodn-ay) W.rere they res lie limy not appear to ijri vl Merchants Vnitiug the Ncw toa and the world c-jjck of Stn le ir. Fancy Dry truth of the received lawjti ' lowest market prices uieir example, nut ucdv result. If - -12 Our outlier admits tl the earth's Sc: selni-diotneter nnd the tioon CO seini.iliittiifinr earth Irom ihe earth's tfntre that n heavy body at in- caurtte vi nic conn wii inn io icei in llie nrst sec ond and at the distance e(thc nlooii lfl feet in the first minute of its fall J and.irTeover, that lallini! Iiodies at all distances observe rw same laws, viz. that the spaces passed over in successive equal portions of time, reckoned from the beginuhg ot the (all. will lie as the odd numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, Ac. that the whole spaces passed over Irom the beginijng of the full nt the end ot the successive equal portions of time will be as the squares of tho times ns Hl, S' l, 33'J, 410 &c and tint the even nuif.hi:" 2, 4. fi, 8, &c, wil' denote the spaces, which would lie passed over in the successive portions of time, by llie velocity acquired in falling to the cotiiinmcement of these spaces, suppo-iiiS- llie motion to be uniform fiom those points, or, in oilier words, they represent that p irt of ihe motion, which is not accelerated, but is the cflect ol the force previously impressed. ow.'' " '""'J' nl l,le s"f'ace of the earth fall 1G feet in the fust second, it will, in nreordnnce with these laws, fall (Kl.G0) 3G0O limes 10 feet ill the first luiu- b nlv nl th.. .li.Mni.. nf .1... rnll ie. r..n. it. .i. I ule, or 1 foot the first quarter of a second ; and if a me same tune is jouu times as irreat at the earth s sur-1 face ns nt the dimnce of the moon, and the distance , oi uie moon is botunesilic d stance ol the earth's sur-' face from its centre, and since 3iW0 is ihe souaie of GO, Newton nnd others hare inr..rr..,l n! (v,.. r gravity, which is the cause of ihe full of bodies, is in. 1 ionS n i loungsays, quarts of th the eqmtiei of the dittanccs. Hut Mr. 1 not so : ihe form is not inversnl,. n.il. the distances, but inversely as Ihe distances n uiiin. uu, iu VJiinw I ie CO irsp fit our n iitlmr s rpnsnn. in, ,n this chapter, it being so like the track of a crab 111 uie sand ! out sniee nitr mm Lr. u- .in..i.i pect us to say soinethiti" of the nrnivH W liil. i.,. draws Irom ihe suae laets and phenonieno conchisii which nie directly opposite to those ibiained by u 1 crs, we will endeavor to do it in tew words, , On naee 157 . fin,l ii,, sin . ...i.:.i. oth- we I . i.u ..' . i . " , .u miaii c Mi:in inn n lien : " If one body commence falling nt the distance 1, at uie same nine niai a oouy loinmelices tailing at Ihe disiance GO, the velocity of ihe Lody at the di-tauce I will be 3G00 times as great ns that at the distance GO nt any given instant ol time durin" their continued" foil." He then lays it dow n n an established principle that a fjlling body, in pacing over any giumFpnce Irom the beginning of the tall, has exactly the same gravitating force iinpicssed upon it, without regard to tin- time ij falling, or its distance from the centre towards which it falls, tint is, the same force or gravity is impressed upon a body, while falling through 10 feet ot the earih's snrla'ce, ns is impressed upon it while lalliti" through IG feet nt the distance of the moon, and since it requires CO seconds at the distance of ihe moon and only one second at the surface of the earth for a body to fall 1G feet, th-rerore the lorce or gravity at the earth's surface is GO times as great ns at the distance of the moon, nnd the distance of llie surface Irom llie earth s centre being only 1-GOth the distance of the llioon. tlw lorce of irravitV isi inrrrxetil a Ihe tl'tslnnrf The above we belk'e to b n lair i-tatem'iU ol" our aulhor's nrcument. ilivetp.f uf it. I repetiiioin and abu?ic t'pithets, and to a nerson not tuiniliar with the subject there may be mmuu nnnear ance of iUmiluhty, but by a moiiifiilN relWutm it 1 will appear that a very important matter is entirely overlooked, lie savs that It requires the same lorce ... t..n..... .1.. 1. r ....... ' 0f ,, ,, , Ilt ,ile sur(a,.c f t.nrlh nnJ js S?P."?W'V ,lie 'S" '"" '" cv ii'iusini 111 iMfiii" u.rr me io inei, tbeluw.uhieliheliimlllnysdown.atthetndorihe fat & fat of the fill, (suii,iiU crautv then to Cea-e,) the body at the distance of the mooii 'will hme 11... 1 . ... the mte of .5:13, or bm little more t! an half a foot ner s,COIIj. whlie lha, ai theM.ri;.PP J f. ll .'nl . n VJ .1 without any further hiiluence from L'ravitv hm Ci) liimu an Tut nu il.A.it I " 34 that each his had the s:,nieamnmuV.f oreV mnd umuutl 'Ihe truth is, Mr. Voun-'s own exann.le. When rei ueed to oroVr. ntl.ir.u .l.-r n m t;,.0. oV.he XeSun, 1, , Sr tc 'rf ,V ear .'ol h Z' "I but himself, can as he acktinw-l. the surface of ihe earlh ft) limes as great as al the moon, the velocities acquired lit the end of llie 1G fvt ....... ....iit.iK- ii i..iie oo nines as greal ul .lie earlh s surlace as at Ihe moon, and Cll.COW0ii, which is the nimirvi ill'- instance. Alicr the elaborate discussion nfihe hw of "raiiy, which we hiivu U'i ii considering, our author refers to ihat liniill .1 ol gravity, he vel.viiyul the planet A will be twice llmt of L; but that lfaiioih-r planet I) be iiiiide to re volveatihedislanee I, with twice the velocity of C, it would require I tunes the force to retain il iu the orbil lint is exerted i n L, The ,,onrt 0 t., moving twice a ; last a O, w-ould Inve lhe siine x'locily as A at the di-tance 1. 'I hi no one will dispute. Now, suppose 1), retaining Iwiee the vciocity of 0, and, therelore, having lhe requisite velocity lo move in the orbiwX, lie removed Irom lhe distance I totlie distance 1. Tin; question then arises, Doe it not req iire more force to reiam a plinei in an orbit ol the distnnre 1 linn at lhe d.-t.iee I, both havi.ig lhe same velocity 1 If .Mr. Voting's law of gravity Is- the true law.it does not require uny more, but exactly lhe same at both distances. Now we are entirely willing to submit the decision of tins question in any .ers.ii who will undertake to run round a po-t at Ihe rale of 10 feet per second, run inn', alternately, on two circles, one at the distance ol 5 feet and lhe oilier at the distance of SO feel from lhe post II such person, after lhe trial, shall honestly say Ihat it requires nu more cllbrt to keep uu the inner Ihau on lhe outer circle, at lhe uuilorm speed above meuiioned, we promise lliul we will not argue the matter with him. The truth i, any one, but .Mr. Young, can s-e it in the loregoing example, linl doubling the vel.icilyof l repines 4 limes ihe forte, and quadrupling lhe de ll lion by bringing 1) into an orbit al one-fourth lhe distance, also requires 4 lime lhe force, and 1x1 1(1, lhe square ol the distmee 0, exactly ventviug the New imii in law, w Inch nukes lhe lorce of gnu lly in ceise'.yas the siwuesof the dist nice. ll'ivmg dip(ised of inir Htiiht.r's two fundamental principles, namely, hi measure uf the circle and his lair oj Qiarity, we shall not dwell upon his applica tion ol litem, in hi. third and lourih chip.ers, to the eternal lunmli ol lhe heavenly bodies and In llie form of lhe planetary otbits, since he sas expressly ihat " u is not so much his intention to establish the particular form of lhe urbils as In promiilgite the irue law ol gravity." We would, however, here remark thai lie is continually throw ing out insinuations that the labors ol astronomers consist almost eniirely ol eflons in ad just oiiHiile errors by ihe u-e ,, equations, and ihai the adoption olliisqiiadra.iireand law. if gravity would relieve them Irom all this dm Igery. It would appear Irom what he siys.ilnt, iijn Ins principles, hi con. siders no equation, excepting, erh ,ps, that fur eccen tricity, IoIkj needlul iu deducing llie true place of the planet iu its orbit from its iiieuu motion. What a pity that iie lias not furnished us his table of the moon's nioiioii, nun wiuwii us uy an example, iwtc the moon' irue iiuigiiuue may ue uius easily caiculatcil ! . 1... oeeuuiar more sausiaciory test ul lhe truili i, Ins as- sumptions ihau all his array ul roots and powers of numbers. TIlllS it Would nnne.'ir thnl 1, fins r.lil. i.. ,1.. supposed miilinl ouraclion of lhe planets ukjii each ",'wi , I'luinu ing sua. uru vuiieu uie ieriuroailoil ul the solar. stem. Inn Is-lievi'sllml lh..a.. ..ii.ts,... ularilicsj arc only a consequence of the adoption ul cr- ' mni. v. 1, u'iu in nili it iiiiiltMl ill llii'lr orintu lit t Ii.. 1. NliwCO.UB Sc. UWRREtf, Wholesale Druggists) 3oA lr Street Troy, New York. I GENERAL assoiument of West I.v I dia and South American Dni2,conntly on bin i ol llieir own impoilation. . , CHUMICALS.Irom tlrt most eckbtofed F.uropeim ivinncures, receive direct. l'aints.Oili, Dye S.utl, Cllas, Soaps, Perfumery, Druh(s, IV.cnt Medicims, Naval Stores, &e'A, Importers of Panatela, Wandering Jew nod L. 1 J triaCiiiani Atr'.its cf New Eng'.and and rhllndeh.hia f.bi-s Co.'s, tor sol or Draggins and Chcmist'sGkiyi Vi' HEARTT & CO. u'crrrwRs to J. C. Ilenrtt, Uro. Ac Co., 181 Jitifr .Sr. 'trrf. IMPORTERS cf English ash (JratMi.s Hardware, and dealers in all kinds of Domestic Agents lor the sale of I'cru and Troy Nulls, Hpik.t, Horse Shoes, and Iron, at Factory Vices.- Hum'-, Simmons', and White & Ohtisirnd'a Axcs.nKi.cvwj variety of the St. MwrenccCwlnty Hay and ,Mnui Foiksnnd Ilocs.nt .Mtinufactnnrs pricej. The attention of KAIL HOAD CONTIIACTORt Uparliculaiiy called to a verysupeiiorCastteel Shov el iiindeexpiessly for Rail Itoad purposes, the quoin of which, Mid the terms w ill be rennd uneiceptionab c. Him. system io.iu B . ftiio central "tiermnnent magnet and UieT.J: attractions ol the planets and satellites only effects his matrnelic influence. This influence he "supposes tu be exerted through the ogency of a magnetic atmos phere, which varies in density inversely ns llie distances Irom the sun ; and the attractions of the planets, hem . induced through this agency, "is (also) urtersely us their respective distances from the sun and their mag nitudes conjointlj'." Now we arc not so much disposed to find fault with this theory generally ns we are to object lo Ihe Intro duction into it of his law nftriremr ratio of ttittiince. W ere that law to prevail, since the magnitude of tli enrih does not vary, th' force of gravity at any pirticu lar place on the earlh will vary in the inverse ratio cf the earth's distance from the'stm. nnd smee that ills-. tance is constantly varjiug the length nf a prndidutrti which vibrates seconds, will, also, be constantly vary nig throughout the year ; and aince, in consequence of this variation, the catth is 3,1 KX) ,1)00 miles nearer the that n clock, sn reTiilnteil ns tn kppti tm.. tlm in Ink sun m lA'ceniher than in July, it is easy tocnlcnlatj '"'o "o f i iiuiioruiuce in nios'j vnu-e nsiron- ""'V' '"l1 nl1 locked up in the roots owl powers of "ul,llM'I, out wn are wiiiingioucpenu soinewuai op . observaiionas well us theoiy. Were .Mr. Y.nuy theory to prevail, astronomers might as well thn n.'iJ' their astronomical clocks as useless lumber. And ,ho" who buy and sell to get gam, by weiglunc with a spring instead ol a balance, might make a handsome I,rom ,rom '"erease of weight from July to IK-ceiif 'Wlicnti,,n. Instead ol placing the magnetic poles uie em in iiiniii u sur ace. ns i uosi oinera nuvc uonc. hesuinwes tliem to be placed in contact nt the centre. . . ( ue -nppo's-s on inieii'-e neni in oe prnuuceu, sionnlly npheaving, breakingiliroitgh and disturbing ju-iiiu uie unit" iineniiii iniisui lie- I'lirio. uuu uixii" niisti mit. in nniii u'- m i.-uiiii-s iui in.- 11111.-1 inn . . , , ;,.... i r.. oflllc earth, whence origimtes eartliq takes and "Y. 1 i'n."i r."'- earth's .urtnee, which have so long puzzled geoloji'ts. ae. !'i'i,h chapter vve have our aulhor's attempted demolition of the prevailing theory of the tide , on I the substitution of his own; and smce Ins own is u 8 ,new ,.,al inSc"io"3 cnrrS '"8 "V,1 of l'is magnetic the. ory ol the solar-j stem, we will endeavot to furnish our readers a briel ahsinict. He supposes, ns nlremly staled, tint the earth and n'U nre magnetised by the un and thereby acquire their power ol attraction and twlarity. lie supnos-M "iat '" aspect to the sun, the earlh has tvvo fixed, but no moveable poles, and the moon two moveable and "" '"V1 lwlc" .n,K "l"1' ",' respect to the carlh the lms I!!le ''J"' H . on,y! al"1 '". Tefcl '", !tleM1"- 1 lus lived pole ol the moon is the causj of h-rpr''sfnti"galwujsthesaiiie side to thn earth. Ihe veaule poles ol the moon m respect to the sun, nr.: "'"'ajsat the points, where a line Irom the sun, thro "'wl " " "oire, iiieeis iiersuriace. The production of the tides he oscribes whollv ti the fixed pole ofthc moon, which induces polarity- ot the two opposite poims on the earth's surhce, which ore in th' line extending from the fixed pole ol the moon through the centre of the earth, 'i liese poles, created by the moon, wilt attract matter toward" tlieiiwlves and tend lo accumulate u at l ie points where lliey are.bnt.ou account of their rapid motion, lltltlMtllU U I") I It" 1 tl III 9 i IJlu 11U11 1 ill." UillJlY.- His UI not net uiMiii the wntt-r ilirt-ctly, but, by magnet.!. ..: the continent and i-lunds, they cauw thin to attract uie wau'rs tuwarusincirstiorf-, ami mat inc jifjni li" tide njwn the Mion- will be nearly mnrojH.r; tiu-nri-n ol the i-oiittnent, or island. 1 hid at- fon"ll,"lftIiM-yi,-tndot uecouium lr the ?un- !!! ,n ,ar' lcea,V tlm,! on t,lt; hhoK of --onllent The Fprin- tid-s he eurnH to he occasioned bv of the inoun, m moeable sites, and (fie di tance Irom t frit inn nC (hp I',e"r' 01 progressive motion of liht eontaiued in liuwt-ifitl ninl l-iit liiiii.F it. I ,..s ..Illk.! ... K.:..i case will admit. He commence? by giunjr no less than JifUcn rea ii iiit ii jist i" i'i j 11 jii ip r s saieiuieyare not to u upon lor cnicuiaum; the nrores-ive motion one ol winch is incoiiM.-tent with the fart revive inoiioiK and the whniH iotpi br?r itv to thn. that on account of tw weknea.4 ilit rellccted by the satellite?, the variable reiracuon una iignt in our atmosphere, Ce til the felVht nf nfistrvina mi,) tho 11 no. ,( i'nl mnrnifjiua novtr of ti'Ie.-ops't, and, jierhani small di-screjiaiic'e? between the nbst?rved and calcula ted lim- ot the ocliiies. Uut nil obwrvations i-how conclusively, that il all the eclipses lw calculated for tlie iucau (Ii.-tancc of Jupiter Irom the earth, tho-- which occur, when Jumter is nearer the earth than llie llieail distanrp. will linnnen e.-irlier ihnn th . calculated time, and those, which occur when Jupi ter is more remote than lhe ni mu distance, will hap. pen later than lhe calculated lime; and since when Jupiter is iu tlieextreuie deviation from the mean dis t inee, llie ob-erved limes uniformly vary oIm ul t i minutes from the limes calculated lor the mean dis- tact, we regird it as very strong presumptive proof si'iuir.i ,vi "ii'ii I overn sn lee .,nn in tli.s, ,,1 il... .(, n.i,.i.r ..l il... ..nnlt's orb'. Cilice, however, it was not so much our Auikor's prol. ssed object to prove thai liulit l.a not a progres sue in., lion in lime, as to prove ih.it Dr.llradley, who has been supposed to have confirmed the doctrine of such progrcs-ive motion bv hi observn lions upon lhe ii.xed stars, was entirely mistaken in all his conclu sion, we will calllhe utteiitiou of our readers for a lew mom-nt to lhe subject of llie aberration of light, and, ifweareuot jrreatly mistaken, we shall inaku it appear lb it Mr. Young neither well understood llie subject ol aberration, nor Dr. Ilradley's observations and rcoHotiiug. Alter quoluig, at considerable length Hradlcy's ac count ot hi observations upon Y l)racouis, con tiincd hi lus letter lo Dr. Ililley. he then goes on to conceive a diagram, when by he is to convict the l).ctor ol attsurdity, and ignorance, lie Mipiosei lhe star tulH-s.tuned in tlw plane ot the eclip'ic and say truly, that Irom such star, the earlh, could in motion Ik-seen, would appear to vibrate backwards and forward in a straight line Iving in that plane; and il would seem lo lie perfectly clear that a nar no situated could have no aberration excepting in Hie di rection ol ih plane of l.'ie ecliptic, or very nearly east and W'cst. Vii our Author goes on to say that, w hen ing in ref'eience lo the star in the plane ot lhe ecliptic) lhe star will be "JU" south ofn tangent tu the nihil nml wheiiiniheoiwsite part of the orbit it will be So" north oi a tangent. Nuw ii will appear (mm .he foregoing ptalenem,tbal the aulhor is sotauornnt oi ihe subject as noi to know Ihat a sly situated in the plane of ihe ecliptic, cannot possibly be thrown out of that plane by aberroiiou, eiiher in lhe south or north ; nnd had Dr Ilradley's obseitaiiorislHTii nn.le uiuiia star so situated, he would probibly h ive discovered no alienation at all, lor, although such star would hnvea lar"eea.iern and western nlierrati.i.i, ii would have v el) Tiitle nonbeni orsouihern, and hi observations were calculated lo detect only the latter Slurs Mtihiml in lhe plane of ihe ecliptic, ns already remarked, can have aberration only iu lhe direc.iou ol tint plane, or nearly eal and wesi. These stars may apiieiir iu llieir true places twice during eaih annual revoluiion ol lhe earth ; but nil stars tuiiand out ol lhe plane ul iheechptic, nre, during lhe cunh's annual revululiun, thrown out ol'ihrir Irue places by aberration in ell direction and none ofihcni ever ap' penrt'xaclly in lh"ir true places. The) all opiear M descrilk' small ellipses around their true ploc-s, nn, lltesj dhpsi's become lesa eccentric and upproucii nearer to circles m proK)rtiou a lhe stars arc nearer lo lhe k1cs of llie cchplic. Were liiere n siar exactly m the Kile of the ecliptic, it would appear lo descntie nuuuilly an exact circle nlmut 111' in diameter around lhe hile, in Ihe course of w Inch it w ould exhibit to an observer on the earth an nlierration ol 'W south 'W east, 'id ' lion Ii mid 'JU ' west. Now lhe star V Draeones, which was observed by Dr. Ilradlev, instead of being iu the plane of lhe ec liplie, ni .Mr, Y. suiuucsh's, is very near lhe nonh iole ol the ecliptic. Ilence llie ellhises which it npna. irmly describes in cnnseiuence of aberration, .hirers hul lillle Irom a cinle; il will, therefore, luno an eistern and western, and uoithem and souihem ah erwtion, all of which are nearly equal. From Dr. uie rariiiisin one pin oi its orait, (ana he isspeak- This characler is iivd for the w ant of the Circik, letter S'lHH'i'i. ' uihiiy ciiii.iiii.-i.-ii iii inn liinwii n ii- ih-ijh'ii..ii f