Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, May 7, 1847, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated May 7, 1847 Page 1
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- .- """,'!""" i iiiiiiiiiiini nii.il in.. I, if.t id. !., si ' ". Vol. XX. Xo. 17. Whole IVo. 1G Burlington Free Press. Published nt l'liiliiiitnn, Vl., II y l. W. U. C I. A IMC H, Jilor unit Viofrihtor, Tcrmst Yo Vill-igc subscribers who receive the paper by (lie carrier $3,00 I i" i till in niliiinci' i!,5ll Mnil suh-criler ntict those vim take it at tlic Oilier, invnr.nlilv S,0 Attvi:nTM:.Mi.NTs inserted on tin. customary terms. Noil IT. Tin' braining liaht ol'ptntry nialit Mukes ;l.iil these cvenim; hours, Ami l'lm-ure's hand our merry baud Is wooiuit to its bowels ; Whil.' Katliereil ncnrotir nlcir here, With ties no time eim seer, We'll know no strife oi trnuhlcil life, Anil pleiljjc jjur hearts forcv er. Come let 11 sing in ninuie. ring, ( l IIiih! mill Tnilli Mini llenti'y, Ne'er Irmilileil nuejit hy feuror thought UfioIIfc toil initl iltitv. Ami as one star which ule.nns a Bir, Sheds 1;!. illness on nuotlier. So fin li with toiiaue or thiitt;hls ini-ung Will fondly bless Ins brother. 'T hrcrnnd olil wars of oilier il-iys, When lunching was n pleasure, Iliivc lauuht us how to oi. it now, As life's nio-t joyous treasure. AmUhoiiali ioils('iniewiih morning sun, We'll li-el nopnng olVoirow, Willi hearts nil light we'll laugh this night, And think ol toils lo-iuorruw. Oiir lingle's rye is watching nich, 'i'o guard our s:icieil nitar J Tlio liootiimowl in il.iikncss prowl, No heart Mi ill fe.11 or I. liter. Then honker" sing ill nimir ring, Ol'lfnpi'iiiul 'I'rulli ami Meanly, Willi heaiis all lulit we'll mi;,' this ni:;ht, 'J'o-iuoriow ilimkul duly. Ski .ma I'm. iTavm. THOUGHTS UPOX THIS N ATP I IK OF ruoi) AM) Tin: ri)(;Rii.s.s of nouii.isiimi:.t. The subject nf proper food, nr diet anil tlio 'prngies of digestion an I nourishment, is one nf gre.il iinpijrt.mcc to tl.o fanner, ntt only ii" t. im ilter intimitely connected with his own per-1 snnal welfare, hut ivith his bii-inc?" in rearing, . feeding ami fitting e.ittle. This subject has en gaged the attention of 1'bilosophers ami Physi ologists for many centuries, but as it is carried on within the system, where tho liaiiil cannot reach, 'tier the eve see, we can only judge of the action of ceitain siib-tances by the results. Thi"judg meiit is not always correct, becuu-o we catmnt ill ways know how many extra ciiises, arising lrom accidents, ill bei'.llh, imprudence and diet or exercise, may vary the results. Uese.irctios of some of the later chemists have thrown some light upon this matter, but allowance must be in ido even for them, accurate as they are in the an ilysis of food, and of the different products of the body, boo.iit-o of the variations above men tinued and the lack r.s yet of a p -rfect knowledge lf I'll 'the laws of assimilation uf food to the c cril puts of tlu Inly. It is now received as a truth that " vco arc composed of the same stibst moos which serve as rr iinuri-hir.ent." J'occat k, h pliysiolngi.-t, ivlio lloitri-heil about one hundred years ago, brought forward the following proposition in rc gatd to the properties of food, which U undoitb 'teilly correct, viz; ' 'I'll it the mtisrnUr part oftlioammal frame is derived from the alhnmhimi constituent of food." At that time he demoii-trateil that wheat Hour, one of the mo-t nutiilious of CL'etuhlo sub-t niccs, was coinposetl, thai Is, in tile up, ot ing.-edicnts wholly unlike each other one is ; March, the other gluten. If you take a handful of line Hour and hold it under a little stream of I water, working it by the hand, the March will I be worked out, and a tough stringy glutinous Hib-tauce be loft behind. Thii is the ulu'm'' of wlie.it, or llie albuminous part. Xow if you 1 take both of these hiibstam es moi.-len them j und expo-e them to a moderate beat, you will . find that different action will commence hi e.ich. Tlio slaich will at lirst Icrment and iebl an ' acid or sour substance. The gluten" will at 1 once shown tendency to putteficliou more like an animal sulistauce. This lat substance, he concluded, foriued the tr.u-j'le of animals, ami j the former tliu other sub-tanros. More recently l.iebig has divided, or classified itbo-e sub.-tuuecs. into the uulrii ill" stud tlio "Imil iirhirinr." The gluten being nutrivity and the other heat producing. Thompson, hi his work on the food of animals, ob-ervcs that, i according to llii.s iew, ' all food is ilUtincd for i repairing the waste of the body and for the pro iliiction iifauimal belt. Tbe'heat may be pro-1 iluced by the union of the calbon and hydrogen nl the food with oxygen, (the bitter gaining ail-lui-sion to Ihosy-tcin by the lungs, stoni ichaud Miin,) or it in ly be produced by the condeii-a-, lion of oxygon during iu snb',titutioii for hy- ilrogen and lorm ition of oxygen products!. Al-1 lliougli the nutritive pail of food requires a mix litre ol'lieat-prodiicing nutter, cttho sy-tein of uniin ils may be supported ontlie albiiimuous, or M'rlup it liny butler ! called Hhriitoits matter alone. Wo know that basts of prey will live on animal or llbriuoiis tn ittur iiltogethor. Wo are told that tlio cows on tlio coasfof Lapland, hiu iii.uiii.iniL-ii ji.u i ui inv u;ir on urieil 1111 ; and i Calliu, in his work on the American Indians, bays that thoro are not less lii.m U&i),oo0 Indians who live aliuoi-t exclusively on ilrini bullalo irueat. When they dry this, they cut tlio fresh meat into slices, fay lialfan inch thick across tlio 4,'rain, M us to have fat and lean in layers, and ifis then bung tip to the miu. This, w lion t() l,0 vaten, is iunded and somettuiirs mixed with Marrow. TliN not only nimiishi-s them, Mip filying the muscular matter for their bodies, but il in keep.s iii the beat of their bodies, since they oxt mi M'getables whatever. llenco it must bo inferred that fibrinous wai ter, such as ineitt and the gluten, is capable nlouo of producing animal heat to a certain do yree. It mutt bo observed, however, that this .dried meat has portions of ful with it, and that they also often iniiiglo marrow with it which .materials (fat and marrow; contain iieat-pro-Ulucing principles, as hyd rogon, carbon, tVr. Wo will not now give tlio theory Aoiclhe.-e t hmigi'fiaris brought about in tlio procesi of di geslion, 1it uicrJly rejiual our leniatk made in liw U';;inniiig, tluta proper know leilgo of these tilings vuui(; be vastly benelicialin feeding ani mals. Wo ought to Lnow the exact aiuountof each material we feed oat to our stock, and also bow tit apHirtion it (o ike same animal when lie is al jiiily word, or ijuietly rejKi-ing in the stall, lie ciniso wo nil know tiiat exercise and rest have it great iiilluenco on the inatter of feeding and fat tening animals. Wo will give below a table of the proportions of fibrinous or nulritivo matter in a hundred, of ceitain vegetable matters used for food. Thoiup miii observes that the several kinds of Hour u.-ed as human food, aro principally albuminous (fibri nous) siib-tauces lieat producing matter, and water and wits, Ac, ifyoit obtain the nutritive iiorlioii (which has been called gluten, albumen and fibrin) hi 'f'nl sH.'ciiuens, the remainder may bo coiisiiUm! as ieut-piudacin.'. The following arc tlio results of Thompson's experiments : Albuminous or nutritive matter per loo lbs I'.eutt meal, fling, bean,) U,.nti hundredths. unseen meal, !:i.fJ2 Scotch oatmeal, J3.H1 .Semolina, 1J.S1 Canadian (wheat) Hour, 11. (13 llatley, 1 1.1)1 Maize, (Indian com,) 11UK1 Hay, i).7l Malt, 8.71 Uico, (liast Indies,) 8.. '17 Sago, :i.:i:l Kouth Sea arrow root, 3.1:1 Potatoes, a.ii.l Starch, (wheat,) 2.18 Swedish turnips, (II. liigi.) We obsoiTcd nbovo that ilrini specimen's be ing useii, wlial was not mi'nun' miller might bo eonideroil halt jmuhicin(. In .specimens as commonly fed out, such as potatoes for instance, allowance must bo niado for the water they contain. Now' lor the practical uo of the above re maiks and table. A mar, who does not labor or exeii'io much, -houlil but on that Kind of food which is more hail riliichn; than mtitvlo wuh fig bread and vegetable subst ntces rather than, much meat. One who works hard will require a somewhat oppo-ite course of diet. In the feediiiL' of animals many observing farmers have adopted the right principles without knowing i the great reasons. Sumo will tell you that In" diancornis better for a horse in winter, and o ils in summer. This accords with Thompson's tables. Von will tlu'ie see lb it the beat nrodii-1 ring povvets of corn aro nearly 8!l out of a liun-j (Ireil, while those of oats are" but about 81 inaj hundred. M-inv farmers will tell von tint ilmv , do not irive corn to their hore-, Vcauso is! Ion hulling, more so than oats, which is true. lliev will al-o tell vou that corn will fit a hor-e. 1...I ..oi..-iii .....i'.. I.:. r..:. i .. on.: . :.. . mi. ........ 1. 1 in .in- ii i in ni'imji i-fiy. i ins is i rue, mere iuiore niinuous or hihwc milking matter in oats than in corn. .1f. J'uniur, IVoi tritK fioon iSrt.n. Spire no pains in ob t ii ui ii ir the best seed. It is belter to nav twice the usual price for an extra article, th m to plant or-nw tint winch is bid. If your coin or wheal is obviou-ly degenerating, or from any atmos. jiberic.al contingency, operating upon the crop, is but imperfectly developed, or infected with I tlio di-'case, ill) iirt think of r.'ing it as seed. 1 Such a coutso would bo to imuro movilulde , periilexitv and nlliiu ite loss. Whenever your wheat or grain or any kind becomes unfeeuml on soils which should ensure a good yield, the only course is to exehango it, or substitute a belter. This is to bo accom-pli-lied by purch i-u generally, and when facili ties atlbrd, of seed raised at a di-tance. AiHHinmiHts? IlOUTlCI'IiTltJlAIi. W'OKK IN TUG HARDEN. As the lime his arrived when everyone, who may feel a desire to provide his family with a plentiful supply of vegetables ilurinir the ensuin" season, sliouhl begin to put bis girilen in order, wo shall endeavor to direct atlentioii to such things as may be necessary to bj ilono to bring about tins de-irable result. Jlesides tlio health-1 ful luxuries which are tecr.red to the l.iblc through the products ()f a veil arranged and c.ul-! livp.ted Tlldrn, tb.o laoit vhlc pit.lo of tin- Cvm lies 1 of one's family is gratified ;and especially is this the cao where, in addition In edibles liiuri mlly ' grovvingllicrein, llielady of the homestead may 1 point to the (lowers of her gir.l'n, as so many evidences of the kindly regard entertained to-j wards herand heroflVpring by him, iu whom herl and their love is bound up. There may be, for, aught wo know, lalnrs more highly intellectual th in those of horticulture, but of this we are cer tain, th it there aro mmo more .-piritu il iu their relation to the (heat Authorof our Being. Its toils an I its fatigues serve, if properly appro- dated, to remind us tint the lirM occupation .is- sii'iied to man, was that of buidin c. irndcn that it was iu tint chci-cn spoth- was taught tlicleon, tint tlio sweelest bread is that which is eirne.1 by labor nor are there any in ire pure, or hotter ciilculateil turn iko man contented with his conditions ; for tlio very abumliuco with winch Ins table may bo supplied, fills bis mind with emotions of g'rititurto for tin bestowal of such rich and refro-hing worldly comforts, and he rise.s from each succeeding rep.i-t with thanks ill his heait tint his lot had been so jileasantand wi favored. With Ibis brief introbflioi, we would be permitted to point out such work as should bj iiiiuiediately set about. Smring Si nls. I'repiro a bonier with a southern exposure, by in inuring liberally with iinfenneuteil stable manure, dig this in a spit deep, rake the ground thoroughly, then put on a eoveihiL' of well rotted tu inuie, an inch or two deep, rake this in well, then lay off your border in suitable divisions, to receive the dill'eienti kinds of seed that you intend to sow. Your luil j belli1' thus immured, sow early and Into cabbiL'e! ieeil, us the K nly Smyrna, li irly York, lluttcr, sea and Sugar l.oaf the large Flat Duclh, the Drum Head and Savoy. Tiiii, embracing early and lalo varieties, will i-ecure a continuous sup ply of cabbages for tlio table or m nl.et, ns the early kinds may bo about being iwd up, the late kinds will coiuli into play. Having sown your cabbage seeds, ofdilU'ront sorls, sow ashes (here on with a light Irii'.d, then ral.'tbo soed iu, so as lo coyer them lightly, when you inu-t pat the ground ilovvii w ith the Ikick ol your spule. It may lio well here to luniark that plant beds should not bo shaded, but wall eini-e.l lo sun n...l ..!- HM I ' I . . . 1 .1 niu .nr. i ueu iiiu in.iiirs co, no uji, il tney si mild bu attacked by lice, bugs orotberinsects, mix up ciiul quantities of oot, uhe.sand flour or sulphur, and give them a very slight diistini' with the mixture, two or three days in siiece-" fcion. Hiiving town jour cubbige setvl, in the other divisions of your niep in d bed, sow Tom i-toe--, ligg Plant, Laiililiower, Jiroccoli, Celery, and l.cttuci! seeds. I'ais, Select a loauiv bed. and inaiinvi. il lil. well rotted m inuiu, dig that in, rake your bed audlayitotl into drills I feet apait, sow your peas therein thickly and cover with the boo, p it ting down the ground as you proceed. 'I'o se cure a continuous supply Vou can either sow the early varieties at luterv.ils of 10 days apart, or sow tlio oarlyand late kindsattbo sametimo. lUrlij I'lilulm-s. These may bo planted a soon as ever (bo fro-t is out of the urouud. Sound poladies musl bo selected, ns it is u.-cless to plant those infected with rot ; and, indeed, as a procnulinnary means, we would adviseth.it (for tlio garden culture) the seed potatoes should bo imuier.-cd in brine before being cut into sets, and when cut, that tln-v should bo dried iu ashes, hmo ornla-lcr. In planting thu sets, after ma uiiring tlio drills, wo would sprinkle a mixture of charcoal tin?!, Hmo aim asiies over liiem prior lo covering them up. When the potato plants aro about an inch high, wo would ilut overthoinii inixturo of equal parts of lime, plaster and salt, iu such a quantity ns to give the young plants a gentle dusting. Wo do not say ibis treatment will protect the potato from lliu lot, but it ui vj do so, mid is worth a trial. I'.'irhj Turnip Towards tlio latter end ol April or lilb of Ma v a good time to pieparoa bed fur early turnips. Fortius ciopa comport undo of li nails of cow ilung, 1 uf lime, and 1 of a-bes, will Ikj found lo be tho bosl. Mix Ibo whulo thoroughly togtlher by frequently turning over tho mass, then spread ono-hilf of Iho compost on the bed, mid dig it In Ihoileptliof ihospido, rake tho bed well, thou spread the other halfiiiid dig it iu half a spado deep, Mid rake the bed thoroughly, when il will be ready to lecoive tho seed. Previously, however, lo sowing the seed which should bo tho early Dutch il should be soaked in fish oil for 11! hours, then taken nut, drained und dried in ashes or lime, sowed thinly, raked in ami (ho ground compressed, by being pilled with Iho back of thosptde. Assoonas the plants como up, a mixture of equal parts of plaster and allies should lie sown (hereon, so as to dust the vvlatils well. This operation should be repealed daily, each morning, until tho plants get Into the rough leaf. When tho plants begin to belly, they niu-lbe thinned out so as to stand about 8 inches apart, mi l tho weeds kept down until tho leaves sh ido the ground. Thus treat ed, a bed of early turnips in ty Iu secured for table and mirket and of n', tlii)-o who live near a market, may be assured, that they will lind ready sale and good prices, as but few per sons rai-o turnips thus early for market. Cilili'mf I'taiilx.-Those who hive not bern 'o provident f.s to rai: o eat bugo plains in a hot bed, should seif.O the occasion ofpieparing a bed to set Ihem out in, so soon as tho fro-t is out of Iho ground. Cabbiges avo gross feeders, there fore, require a good deal uf strong manure. To nrcinro plants raised ill hotbeds for Iran-planta tion, it is necessaiy to raise tip the lights for several days, to enure them to the weather be fore setting them out. To protect them prepaie, a p iste-like mixture, of soot and Hour of sulphur, inoi-tened and brought to the proper con-i-tence, hy pouring in small qininlitics of boiling water an a time. When the mixture is thus brought to tho consistence of paste, and suffered to cool as you aro about to set the plants out, dip the roots and stem of cachjilant into il up to the leave, when it nut-t h in-erted iu tin' groun I. This mixture will not only protect Iho plants from the attack of tho cut-worm, but serve as an active manure to give them an early Mail in their growth, a thing of great importance as all gardeners well know. Emhj lints, I'lirsiiijii ami Carrnls. Woad-vi-e that a bed in each garden should bo appro priated to secure an early supply of these excel lent table roots. As the same soil snits each, one bed would serve for a simply. J'ho manure to be used should be thoroughly rotted : the bed be dug deeply and well raked and laid off into drills '2 1-1! feet apnrt, which should be sown as thinly as possible, and covered up about two in ches deep. The plants up, the beets should bo thinned out to stand about 8 inches npait, the parsnips il inches apart and the carrots -I inches upait. The weeds must be cleaned out and the earth loosened two ur three times before the crop is laid by. Ihtins, Tho Lisbon, Mazaganand Windsor lie ins may by planted as soon as the frost is out ol tho ground, lleans delight best in a clayey, or clayey mould soil, which should bo moderate ly mutinied, dug with caro and thoroughly rak ed. Niinrch. This excellent vegetable should be sown as early as the ground can bo got in good order, and iu order to force its growth, plentiful manuring, as nUo thorough pulverisation is ne cessary. llmlMift mi I Ii"llucr. As soon as tho frost is out of the ground, radishes and lettuce s-eed may i-otvo in iho open ground ; lo scenic continuous supplies it is best lo sow the seed at intervals of ton or twelvo days. When tho lettuce plants arc of siillicient si.e tliey should bo taken up and set out to bead and forui into loaf. orse Ilrnlish. if you havo not a bed of this most healthful and palatable root, prepare a bed on some moist border and plant one. Itiscei tiinlyonoof ibebe.st condiment used on the dinner table and is besides one of tho very best substances to make a syrup of for colda and coughs. i 1 1 ii in. " (leuerul Tnylin's itetuili'il rojritt oftheltot tlo of llscii.i Vi-iu. Uiaou'vainns, Ahmv of i )i 1 1 cvtiov, Auc.v Ni tv.v, .Maali ti, IS7. J Sir. : I have the honor to submit a detailed rcpoTt of the opeiations of the foice.s under my command, which resulted iu tlio engagement of lliiena Vita, the rcpul-e of tho Mexican tinny, and tho re-occupation of this po-ilion. The information which reached me of the ad vance and concentration of a heavy .Mexican force in my front, liR.it assumed such a probable form, as to induce a special examination far be- yond tlio reach of our picket-, to ascertain its correctness. A small party of Texan spies, un der Major McCulioch, despatched In the llaci cndi of Hucurnaeiun, III) miles from (his, nu tho mute to San l.uis 1'otosi, had repotted a cavalry force of unknown strength at tint place. ( )u the "JOIll of February, a strong reeonuois.iiice under Lieut. Col. May, was dr.-p itched to tho I lai'.iend.t of 1 leelionda ; while Mnot .McCul ioch in ido another examination o iincani'icion. The results of these expeditious lell no doubt that tho enemy was in I irgo force at lincarni cion. under the orders of doners! S.mta Anni. and that he meditated a forward movement and ' attack upon our position. As Ibocaiup of Agn.i N'ueva could bo turned, on eilli-r Hank, and as the enemy's force was greatly superior to our own, pi'riiciilarlv in tho arm of cavalry, 1 di'leriuineil, utter iiiucli consideration, to take up a position about eleven miles in rear, and their await tho attack. Tho army bnd.o up its camp, and marched at noon on llie 2l't, encamping al the new po-iliou, u it t lo in front i f the Hacienda of liiien i Vista. With a -m ill force I proceeded to Saltillo, lo make .-oino necessary arrangement' for the de fence of tho town, leaving Jlrig.nlier lleneral Wool in the immediate command of the rroops. Deforo tluis-o arrangements were completed, on the morning of tho ili'nd, I was advised that' tho enemy wore in sight advancine;. Upon reaching the ground, it was found that his cav alry advance waa in front, hiving unrobed lrom l.iin.iniiicion, as wo n ivo silicon icaruco, at 11 o'clock on tlio day previous, an I driving in a mounted force loll at Agua Nnova to cover: the romovalof public stores. Our troops were in po-ition. occupying a lino of lemarkablo r-trougth. The ro.ulut this Kiint becomes a nar row defile, the valley on Its right being render ed quite iinnracticabln for artillery, bva system nf deep and impissablo gulleys while on the left a succession of rugged ridges and precipi tous rivinos extends farback towards the moun tain which bounds the valley. The features of tho ground were such as nearly to paialyzo the aitillery and cavalry of (be enemy, while his infantry could not derive all tlio advantage that of its numerical Mipcriority. In this position woprcpircd to receive him. Capt. Washing ington's biltery ( lib artillery) was potted ?o command thu road, while the 1st uiul lind llli. nois regiment', under Colonels Harden and llis sell, each eight companies, (to tho latter ol which was aK.iched Capt. Conner's company of Texas volunteers,) and tho Und Kentucky. under Colonel McKec, occupied the crests of thu ridges on the Ic It mm In rear, l no arKan sas and Kentucky regiments of cavalry, coin iiiiiiuled by Colonels Veil and II. Marshall, oc cupied Iho extreme lelt, near tho baso of tho mountain, while tlio Indiana brigade, under lirigulierCcneral J.iue, compo-eil of tho l!nd and .lid logimenls, iimli i Colonels Howies ami Lane, tlio Musi-ippi rilluu.ti, inula cm. ua- vis, tho squadrons of the lstand -!nd dragootn, under Capt. Stcen and Lieut. Col. May, und light batteries of Captains Shcrtn.ui and "llr.igg, aril artillery, were held iu reserve. At 11 o' clock, 1 recetveit ironi ucncr.il Mania Anna a , ( - summons to snrrniiler at discretion, which, with a copy ol my ri 'ply, , I liavo already trans - tnifled. The enemy still rorbore bis nttaek.cvi- dentlywaUingfortho arrival of bis rear' col - iimns. which could bo ibstnu'tly soen by our look-outs as they approached Iho Held. 'A de monstration in-ido on his loft cuucd me to de tach tho i!nd Kentucky regiment and a rcctiou of artillery to our right, in which position they bivouacked Tor the ni -lit. Iu the meantime, the Mexican liglit troop had engaged ours on the etxremo lcll. composed of parts of the Kenlncky and Arkan-as cavulrv ilisinoiiiited, and a rillo battalion from the Indiana brigade, mulct Maj. ( ionium, the whole eoinniiudeil by Col. Mar shall, and kept up a sharp lire, climbing the mountain side, mid apparently endeavoring to gain our Hank. T brco pieces or (.'ant Washing ton's battery had hi". I'll ached to the loft, Mid were supported bytlt' '.' id Indiana iigimcut. An occiiMonal slrell was thrown by tho enemy into this part of our line, but without ell'ecl. Tho skirmishing of our liglit troops was kept up with trilling loss on our part, until dark, when I became convinced tint no serious attack would bo ni'iilo befoio the morning, and returned with the Mississippi regiment & squadron of lind dra goons to Saltillo. Tho troops bivouacked without fires, and laid upon their arms. A body nf cav alry, some 1 0(IU strong, bad been visible all day inrearortho town, hiving entered Iho valley through a narrow pass east of the city. This cavalry, coiniiviuded by (lencral Minon, had evidently been thrown iu our rear to break up mid harass our retreat, and perhaps make some attempt against tho town, il' practicable. The city was occupied by four excellent companies of Illinois volunteers, under M ijor Warren, of Iho lirst regiment. A li'ddworl; which com manded most of the approaches,, was garrisoned by Captain Web-tor's company, 1st artillery, and timed with two 111 pound howitzers, while tho train and headquarter cam) was guarded by two companies of Mis-i-sippi rilleiuen, tinder Capt. lingers, and a Hell; piece commanded by Capt. Shuvcr, 3rd artillery. Having made these dispositions for tho protection of the reir, I proceeded, on Iho morning ol the L'.ld, to llu ena Vi-ta, ordering forvvf.nl all the other valua ble troops, 'J'he action htid commenced before my arriv al on the Held. During the evening and night of Iho 22d, tho enemy had thrown a body of liglit troops on the mountain side, with the purpo-o of outtl inking our left; and it was hero that the action of the ', 123d commenced at aueaily hour. Our ril!emeti under Colonel Mar-h ill, who Ind been reinfnr-, fed by three companies under .Major Trail, 2nd Illinois volunteers, miintained their ground . handsomely, against a greatly superior fnrie, holding themselves undercover, and using their weapons with deadly ellect. About 8 o'clock, ii strong demonstration w.n made again-t the centto ofistr iosition, a heavy column moving nu ui" uiu loiiu. i ins niii;u whs miuii ins il-i sou by i few riqiid and vvell-diiecledshots from Capt vv iisinngton uattery. initio mean tinio mo enemy was concentrating a largo force of in- fmtry & cavalry under cover of the ridges, with the obvious int-'iition of I'urc'iiig our iett, which w a" n.-teil on an I'Xlensivo plateau. The 2nd lliihnin pud 2ui! Illinois i---;.... u... pirtofimr tine, the former covering three pie ce" oHight artillery, miller the orders u( C.iit. O'llrien lbiiradiorCeneral Lane being in the immediate iMinmanl. In order lo bring Ins .... . . it t ..I.... , men williin clleclivo range, uen. iauo oruereu piain. tho artillery and 2nd Indiana regiment forward. In tho meantime llie firing hid patti illy ceased Theaitilleiy advanced within niuskel raugo of upon tin-principal Held. Tlio enemy seemed a heavy body of Mexican infantry, and was to confine his ellbrts to the protection of his ar srrved ugaiu'tit wilh grout cfiect, but without tillery, and I had lel't the plateau lor a moment,

being alile to check its advance. Tho infantry when I was recalled thilber by a very heavy ordered lo it i support bud fallen back In disorder, ' musketry lire. On regaining that pn-ition I di" being exnosed, as well as the biltery, not only i covered that our infantrv flilinois and 2d Ken- to a severe tiro of .-mall arms from tho front, bill also lo a iiiurilerous cross tire ot graie aii.i can- ino enemy eviilenlly lus reserves anil that i-tcr from a .Mexican lntteiy on the lell. C'pt. they h id been ovei vv helmed by numbers. Tho O'llrien found il inipi's-ililo to I -tain his pnsi- moment was mo-t critical. Cii. O'llriee. wilh tion without support; but was only able to with- two pieces, had sustained this heavy charge to draw two of his pieces, all the bor-es and can- tho last, and was lin illy obliged to leave his noneoM of the thiol piece liaug killed er disa- guns on the tield bis infantry support b.'iug en bled. The 2nd Indiana regiment, which had i lirely muted. Captain JSiagg, vv ho had ju-t ar fallen b.u k as stated, could isit l rallied, und 1 riv od froin the lell, was ordered at once iiito bat took no further action, except a b indfiil ol men j tery. Witi.uut any infantry to sujipoit hiin,and who, under its gallant Col. Howie", joined the Alis-issippi regiment, and uul goon service, ami those fugilivrs who, ut a later period in tho day assb led m deleiuling the train and depot at line ns. Vi-ta. Thi" iortion of our line having giv en way, an I the enemy apc.iring iu overwhelm ing force aguin-t our lell Hank, the light troops which bad remit red such good seivico on the mountain, wete compelled to withdraw, which they did for the ino-t iut in good order. Many . , '.-I .1 ... 1.1. however, were not rallied until they reaclu-d tla: depot at I! i ui i Vist i, to the ilel'jncj of which j lliev atlerw nrds ct ntribtlted. Colonel lli-si ll's regiment, 2nd Illinois, which had been joined by a section of Captain Sherman's lattery, had become completely out flanked, and was'coniH.lled to fall luck, being entirely unsuppoitcd. 'J'ho enemy was now pouring miscs of infantry ami cavalry along the ba.-e of tho mountain on oar lelt, and was gaining our rear in gieat foico. Alibis nio- met.t, I arrived iini the l.el'l. i no .viiism pi regiment bad been directed to the left boloro teaching the pisjtinu, and iiinnediately c uno into action ugiin-ttho Mei''iu Infantry which h id turned our Haul;, 1 l.e gn I ;eniui'uy reg- ini"iitanda section of artillery nmle llrugg, had previously been ordeied Cirtnin troni tlio laTo reinforce our left, and arrived at a mo-t x imnoriiine moment. That n gii.ieiit and a por tion of tin 1st Illinois, under Col. ll.udin, g.il- l inllv i bovo the enemv and ncuvereil a portion of the ground we bad lo-t. The hitlcrlo- of C;i taini Sherman and Uragg were in position 1 mi tlio plateau, and did much execution, not only iu front, but particularly iiiii the nvi-ses j ill I .1 ;.. . 1 ..... ........ 1 1. ...... ....... il. liio enemv were tiressing heailv uiron the Ali.-- . . . 3 . ., . .I.I..I 1...1:..'.. ; I1ICJ1 llilll gilllllll Will ls.ll. 1.I.-111ISIUI- liuu Ms"tppl regnncm, ino inou uioiiiuii ri-nui-ui, en in ni.ii in'iii uiu IMIII..JII 111 1, 11 nu ii i en i inn. e iimler Colline, was despatched to tlrengtheii ' uient uf Kentucky cavalry and lour heavy gun", that pail ofour I'm", which funned a crotchet under Captain l'rentiss, 1st artillery, was near perpendicular In tho first lino nf Kittle. At ut hand, when it was ilWcovered Ihit the enemy Iho ftiuno timo Lieut. Kilburn, wilh apiece of had abindoued his position during the night. Cu pi. llrai'"'s battery's was directed to siippoit Our scouts soon acciUlucd lhat ho hid fallen Iho infantry there eng igeil. 1 he action was tor a long inn ummi) mi-m-n vnu thoeiieiny making several ellt. its bah with infantry and cavalry against our un '.and K ui" always repnlsod with heavy loss, I I,-,, pl.u-ed all llie rcular cavalry and Captain 1'iko's squad-1 run of Arkansas horse umieriliounlers ol lire- vet Lieut. Col. May. with directions to hold in check Ibo enemy's coliiuiu, still advancing to tho rear along tho base of tlio mountain, which wasdono iu conjunction with tho Kentucky and Ailiiiusas cavalry, under Cols. Marshall" and Veil. In tlio mean time uitr left, which was still slrongly threatened by a superior fuVce.vvas riirtliersliiinirthened by il llet.lchtnent of ('.int. llrai'i'V. iiniTiiiiorlioii of Cant. Sherman's Int. lories, to lh-.it quarter. The concentration of I On the 27th, our troops losunied their former leudead reports, speak in general terms ol" the artillery lire upon the inasM's ofaho enemy along camp at Agua N'ueva, the enemy's rear guard good conduct of their ollicers and men, h ive tho b iso of tlio mountain, und the dctci mined re- evacuating Iho place as wo approached, leaving sk'cilUil many names, but the limits of this re-ti-lanco otllreil by thotvvi) regiiiK'iitM)ppocil to a considiViblo uiinilier of wuunded. It wasury port forbid a reca itiilatiou of Ihem here, I tlieiu, bad created coufuaiou iu Iheir ranks, some ' nurooso to beat un bis qiiaitels al llnoaruacion may, hovvovor ineiitiou Litmlen nils llucker and of the corntitteuiitcil to ellect a ielro.il upon Ibo main lino of bittlo. Tho squadron of the lot lino of dragoons, under Lioul. Itiickor, was oruereu up ino noon lavino which Ihei-o retieal coru vvt'ic etido.ivuiiug lo crod, in older to chargrj and diper.o them. Tho cqnadron proceeded to the point Indicated, but could not accomplish Iho object, being exposed lo a hea- vy firolronia battery eMuhlishcil to cover the retreat of Ihosn corns. Wlill.i itm s ,,t..,.. .- . .. i 'ii.iiiiiiii was detached on tins service, a large body of , the enemy was ob--erved lo concentrate on our extreme left, apnalrnllv with the view or 1 making a dec'ent'.lpon life hacienda ol iu'oul , in. u horo our 1 rant unit linmrnn-., tt ms. itcd. Lieutenant Col. i ' i i. ... . . i m ' " "l''i" - ii .1) "'''.oritereii ii) support or that point, with two pieces or Cunt Sherman's battery under Lieut. Keynolds. In tho mean time the scattered forces "near the hacienda, composed in partofMajors 'frail mid Oorman'n commands, had been Id some, extent organised under tho udvico of .Major Monroe, chief of artillery, with the assistance of Major Morrison, volunteer stall', and were posted to defend the position, lieforo our cavalry had reached the h iciend i, lhat of tho enemy bad made Us attack, having Iven handsomely met by thu Kentucky mid Arkansas cavalry under Col... M irsball ind Yell. The M 'vican col umn iiniiii'.ii..loly diviiiul, one poiium sweeping by the depot, where il received a destructive lite from the lorco which bad collected there, and then gaining the mountain oppo-ile, under a lire from Lieut. IteynoM's section, tho remain ing portion regaining tho base of the mountain on nuv left. In the charge at lluen i Vi-ta, Col. Veil fell gallantly, al the bead of bis regiment. Wo nlsoto-t Adjutant Vaiighan, of the Ken tucky cavalry, a young otlicerof much promise i. lout. tol. .vay, vvlio liH.it neon leioineil ov m squadron of tho 1st dragoons, and by nor- .! . i.i . . i il l- . . . i nous oi mi! iviKiin-as ami iiiuian i iron h, tinner I.:,. nt rvi Hn.,.,,. fl tis cr, , m . ian i troop, under approached the base of the mountain, holding in checli tlio right Hank ol tlio enemy, upon vv lioso in isjo i crowned in tlio narrow gorges 1 nnd ravines, our artillery was doing fearful ex- eciuion. Tho position oftli.it portion of tho Mexican ar my which h td g lined our rear was now veiy critical, and it seemed doubtful whether il could regain the in lin body. At tint moment I receiv ed from Cell. Sinti Anna a message by a stall' ollicer, desiring to know whit 1 wanted ; I im mediate by despatched llrig. (ion. Wool to the Mexican general-in-chief, and sent orders to Cea-o Hrcing. Upon reaching the Mexican lines (Ion. Wool could not cause the enemy to cea-e their Hie, and accordingly returned without hav ing an interview. The extreme right of the en emy continued its retreat along the bico or the mountain, and finally, in "pile of all our ellbrts ellectod a junction with tho remainder ul (ho army. Duringlbe day Iho cavalry of Gen. Minon upon by dipt Web-ter from (bu redoubt occu pied by Iris cuinpi'nv, nnd then moved oil' to wards the eastern side of tho valley, and obli- piely towaids lluen.i i-ta. Al this time, Capt Sliover moved rapidly lorward with bis iiecc, i su i ioi leu ov ii uusceiiiiueou.s con l ill inn oi moiill ted volunteers, and Hieil several shots at the cavalry Willi great ellect. j tiey were ilriven into thu ravines vv Inch lead to tho lower valley, closely puistied by Cant. Sliover, w bo was fur- thor supported by a piece ol' Capt. Webster's battery, under Lieut. Doiiald-on, which had ad- a '"- is.iuui.i, . . j , . . i i.y (,'..ri Wheelers company Illinois volunteers. Tho enemy made one or two i.lll.rls to charge the ar tillery, but was finally driven back ilia conl'iis- ed ina-s, and did not I l..f. atu appear upon Iho i lucky) had eug iged a greatly superior force of ai ino iiiimineiit nsk ni losing lus gun-', this ol licer cum rapidly into action, tho .Mexican line being but a fevvvards from the muzzle of hi pieces. The lir.-t discharge of canister cau-ed tho enemy to hesitate, tho second and thiol drove him back in disorder, and saved thu day. Tin gd Kentucky legimcnt, which bad iulvanecd ueyomi supnoiting distance ui this all.ur, wa- driven back and closely pn cavalry. Taking a ravin I'- . ... ... ... " ..r ires.-eil Iiy the enemy s iv me. w uc u ted 111 the direction of Capt. Washington's battery, their iuirMier.4 became e.viuvd lo his Hie, which soon checked and drove them back with loss. In tl.c meantime, the lost of our iiilillery hid tiken position on the plate iu, covered by the Missis sippi and lid Indiana regiments, t'ie former of which hud reached the irroiind iu time lo pour a lire into tho light lhnk of the enemy, and thus 'contribute to bis repuho. In this, last couliicl wo bad tho misfurtuno lo m-Liin a very heavy j lossv l.'oloni'l Hardin, 1st Illinois, aud'Cnlnuel McU'ee, anil Lieutenant Colonel Clay. 21 Ken- tucky legimenls, fell at this time while gillaut- ly heading their cominnnds. .No fuither at'auiipt was limb by Ibo enemy lo lorco our iosiion, aim me nppnueii oi mgiit gave an oppoitunitv to pay printer attention to me woiiiuieil, ami also to relresli tlio snlilier. wltDjliad been exb ill-ted by incessant watchful- iv-i ami comiiat. lliougli Hie night vv as so - voicly cold, liie troops were coni e led tur the ino.-t pait to bivou ick without lire., expecting that niorniug would renew-the conllict. During tho night Iho wounded were removed to Saltillo, and every prepiration made to receive the enemy, should bo again attack our po.-ition. Seven fresh iti.Mi.iii.i.w -.ii-.i ilr-iii-n IV..n, lt..i I. ....I 11-; s...,.r.,.,.s i ni.. v ................ ii.u .....ii, .,i., mi gniier (ieuer.il Marshall, who had made a for- I 1. IV,.... il... P!..n....n.l III. .!..r.-. .. bn k upon Agu.i iviiova. t he great ili"nnty ""'i .... ... ...u ,i....-, rendered it inexpedient and htzaidoiis to attempt pursuit. A stall" ollicer was do.-piili bed to (ion- er.il Santa Aunt, to negotiate un exehango of prisoners, which was e.iiial'u-torily completed on tlio loitowing nay. wur own ue.iu were coin led ami buried, and the .Mexican wounded :l- Ol Iia.l iijceiHeil the elevated plain aliovo tialtillo. 'LIL-'". ."""S1""" lu ' Y,"""", I -', vvcro highly useliil. .Ma or Mf.T.sli mid occupiedthoroad from the oily to tho field c"r." im'l o.hcei-s, vviioso sum, coolness, an-i , jeMnllli tn,,i,aier., and Cant. Linn. of battle, wherethey intercepted several of onr ( ff.tH.ii.tr- in trying situation", anil miner a con- iiel!Ui 1W und Frankhn. topographical men. Annroachintr the town, tbev were lir.-.l i minctl and heavy tiro, seem to merit pariicuiai ..... .-..i,,.,,! i,i-,,r ,,, surin.. which a large number li'id been lelt iiiou the led. Col. lli-sell, tho only surviving Colonel of Hold, were removed to Sallillo, ami rendered as! these regiments, merits notice for his coolness comfortable as circumstances would permit. and bi.iverv on this occa-inn. Allor tho fall of On Iho evening of the 20'lb, a clo-o iccon-, the tield olftcers of ihe 1st Illinois and 2d Ken uois iico was made of Iho enemy's position,' lucky regiments, Iho coinin ind of the former de which was found to bo occupied only by a small I vol veil upon Lieutenant Colonel Weatherford ; body of cavalry, the infantry ami mtillci v b iv- I.... I I,, ,l,...lir,...i,.ii .,1 S! , .1. l..,,,. intr relroaled ill the direction uf San Luis I'lito.-i. eirlytho next morning, out iihhi exa lunation, ibo weak condition of the cavalry borsos lem-'cr- ed it uuidvisablo to allempt so long a march vvitliom water. . comiuauii was nu mv nca- palclied to lineal nacioii on iho 11 uf Maitb, i under Col. 11-linp. Homo two hundred wound nl, mid about sixty Mexican poldiers, Were found then), llm armv having pissed on iu the direction of Matehiula, with greatly reduced , I.,,-.. ...t ..ir..:n,. r. i - ou.,. iiiiiiiii-i,iiiiiiciini;iiiii:iiiiii.iiiiiiiiiiiiiii'i-. llli- dead and dviii" were strewed nnon the road, and icruwdnl the bnildiims ur Iho hacienda, . ( r " i . .i , I n, vulStJllZti . 'J I. J ..' riMiorl, to liave heeii .!.!! ollicers. and 4 li!.) men. ,o..v,.,,si..,, .,r,.,, sln..i ..,,, ,i ir, in.,,, .,. Saltillo. Of this number, two stnndrons nf cav airy, and tbrco batteries or light artillery, mik ing not mole than 153 men, cotunosed tlio only force of regular troops. 'J'ho strength ir the Mexican army is slaieil by Cen. Santa Anna, in his summons, to be 2n,(uin ; r.nd that estimate conliimed by all the information sinco obtained. Our loss is !(!7 killed, ISO wounded, and 23 missing, or tho numerous wounded, tnutiy did not inquire removal to Iho hospital, iimi it is hoped that a compatiilivelv small number will be permuienlly ilis.ibloil. The Mexican loss in .iMed Mid vveiirnti I ir-ty b' faiily climated at K)U(), mid will probably reach aeoO. At Insist 5 W of their killed wore lel't tipon the Held nf hit lie. Wo have no moans ol ai-cortnimug the number of deserters and di'per.-ed men from their ranks, but it is Known lo bo very groat. Our bus has been especially severe iu officers, twenty-eight hiving been killed upon the tield. Vo h.ivo to lauiPiil llie de ith of Capt. loorgo Lincoln, assistant adjutant general, serving in tlio stall' of (Jen. Wool- a voting olficer of big i '"'b' ''"' api'-Weil gallantry, who lell early i 111 I in ti I'll. il i V.i L... Ii j ,.,.ii... .iviimIi. li i ii ii i , " " the army 111 Iho he'd than th s .. ' . "c " , "y . " ! Mi-K-e, and Lieut. Col. CI ty. in in ii il-iii iri.auio oegreo ino coiiii'ieuio oi L'o ino coini'ieuio in their coiuni inds . , , , . , . ., mil Ibo last two having c unveil il. . .. I - e i .- ill ino .iiii.iiii.i'j ti ii iiiiiiiaiy cum .iii'io, i o n '.i ol;ec. prr:iculf,rly to thorn lor support in case we met Iho enemy. 1 need not say th it their zeal In engaging "the enemy, and liio cool and steadfast courage with which they luiinlaincd Iheir positions during tho d ty, fully realized my hopes, and csn'isJ mo to fed yet ir.oro scr.-ibly their untimely loss. I perform a grateful dn'ty iu bringing to tlio notice of the (iovcruuicn't Ibo general good con duct of the troops. Imposed for successive night", without lires, to tho severity of the weather, they were ever prompt r.nd cls'cr'ful in tho discharge ur every duty, and finally displayed cousniounus steadiness und L'Mlantrv in reiuil-- i-.ig. at feat oi'.d--, a ili-ciplined foe. While tho brilliant micccss achieved by their arms releases mi from (ho painful necessity of specifying ma '')'"? liy'T '. ,'L ny cases ol bail conduct heloiollio enemy IlollCO, To liiig.nlier dencial Wool my obligations :rri iisonsi'itlt .ln.i 'I'lm tiliiti stain nfdisi'itnine , ...... . and instruction of several of tho volunteer regi - ments was attained under his command, ami .to ii. iiSii,i iw.ui iiiuiiun.1 m.iwi. ..i..u j l"antry ami activity im llie liei.l. i i-i'i ,sii,ii in tnit nui'j-s ui-ij ju iii .-v ..i.- triliutcd. During most of the engagement ho was in immediate command of the troops thrown back on our left Hank. I beg leave to jecom inenil biiiito tlio favorable notice of the (iovern mcni. ling, lleneral 1 ino t.siij.1,,1, ,,.,,uio.') was active and zealous throughout thu day, and displayed gre?.t coolness mid gallantry before the enemy. 'file se'rv ices of the light artillery, always con spicuous, were moro than usu illy distinguished. Moving rapidly over the roughe-i ground, it wa . c, , t. l J.I always in uclion at the ng'ht place and the right lime, and its well directed tiro dealt destruction in Iho masses ol the enemy. hue I recotn- mend to particular favor the gallant conduct and valuable .serv ices of Major Muuroe, chief oT ar tillery, und Captains Washington, 1th aitillery, and Sherman ami llr.igg, lid artillery, conmnn I iug b.itteii'", I ileeiu it no more than just to inenlion r.ll t'.ie subakern oiiiters. They were nearly Ml detached at d.iVerent time--, and in every situation exhibited conspicuous skill mid gallantry. Capt. O'llrien, Lieut", lirent, Win ling mid Couch, Ith nilillery, and liryan, topo graphical engineer", fslig.itly wouniled.) were iltachcd to Capt. Washington's b ittcry. Lieut--. Thomas, Heyuold", and l'rcnch, 3d artillery, (sevenillv v.oiin lei!,) to tint of (.'apt. Sherman ; ind Captain Shover and Lieut. Kilburn. .3d ar tillery, to that of Captain l'rngg. Capt. Shover, iu conjunction with l.ieul. Donaldson, l.-t anil lery, rendered gillant and importiini scrvico iu repul.-iug tho c ivaliy of Ceneral Minon. The regular cavalry, under Lieut. Col. -May, with which w is a-si'ici-atcd Capt. I'iko's squadron of rkan-as hor-e, rendered useful service in hold ing the enemy in check, mil in covering the biTteries at several points. Ciplain Steen, l.-t diagoons, was severely wounded early in the I iv, while gallantly endeavoring, wilh my au thority, to tally Iho troops which were falling lo tho' rear. The .Missi-ippi rilleurn, under Col. D.ni", were highly conspicuous fur their gillantry and ste.iiliness.'an.l sustained throughout the engage ment the reputation of veteran troop-, drought into action agiliisl an iinuieniely superior force, they, maintained themselves for a long time mi-' siipPorled.aiid with heavy los', mid held an im poitaut lurtof the tield until reinforced. Colo nel Dtvis, though -nverely wounded, remained iu tlio sad lie until tlio close ot llie action. His distinguished coolness and gallantry at the head of his icgitncnt on this day entitle him to the particular notice of llie guii-i innout. The lid Indiana regiment, under Colonel Line, and a , lr.tg.ncnt ol the 2d, umur v olouel How los, were , a-sociatod vv ith Ibo Mississippi regiment during ! tho greater Kirlio!iof the day, and acquitted themselves cieihtalily nv repulsing tno nttempts ol theeuemv to break that iio lion of onr line. J'be Koiituckv cavalry, under Col. .Mar.-hill, rendered good sen ice dismounted, acting as liglit troops on our left, and afterwards with a portion of (bo Arkansas regiment, in meeting and di !...- il.. I, ...... ..1 t- . , In. nf lliinn-i "isl ing tho column of Cavalry ut lluena Y-U, Tiiu 1st and 2d llliuoi", and the 2d Kentucky leg'unent", solved immediately under my eye, and I liear a willing testiui.uiy lo their excellent conduct throughout the day, Tho spirit ami gallantry with which the 1st Illinois mid 2d Kentucky en 'aged tlio enemv ill Iho morning, re stored coiilidenco tot hat p.ittof tlu) Held, whilst .v -. .s......... ......... . f the list ol casualties will sho V liowiniicli theso t'iriM regiiuenti siitl'er.sl iu siis'ainingtbe heavy elnro ol the enemy in tho afternoon. Capt lin Conner's eump my of Tovn volunteers, attached to the 2d Illinois legiuU'iit, fought bravely, its I Oil 11.1111 ocm-; ivoiin.ieu, aim in n sou met us lin dial ol llie taller iiii)il .Major 1 ry !,,i ,., ., in.l .rs .I...I .1 liegiiueiital coiuinaiiders ttud others who have l ampuoll, ol Iho dragoons, am! Captain riKe, Askaiisin cavalry, cumin uidiiig squadrons ; Lieutenant Colonel 1'ield, Kentucky cavalry ; l.'euienaiil v ntuii.-l i.iuue, .Mi.-in-as cavanv, tioii whom ibociiiiiuundd.volved alter tlio tail of Colonel Yell ; Major Bradford, Captain Sharp-' (severely wounded,; and Adiutnht irill;th,,Mls sissippj regiment ; Lieutenant Co'lutiM I'hiddcii 2d Indiana regiment, and Lieutenant l!obiu-oi' A. I). C. to (!eii"rul Lane , Lieutenant Colon''' We'ithorford, 1st Illinois regiment: Lieub'tnnt Colonel Morrison Major Trail, and Adjulani Whiteside, (siivi-rely woundi'tl.) 2d Illinois n giment ; add Afojor Fry, 2d Kentucky regiment is being favorably noticed for gallantry and go' 1 conduct. M ijor McCnlloi'h, qiiarterinastor i' the volunteer berv ice, rendered impoitanl rei vices before theen.igeihi'iit, iu the command ol i spy company, anil during the all.ur, was a-- ' c'"10'' wnutho regulir cavalry. Jo Alaj t vvarren, 1st Illinois volunteers, I leel much in- Icbtcd for bis firm an I judicious course whil,- exercising command iu tho city or Saltillo. Tho medical stall', under tlio able direction l A' i-tant Surgeon Jiilchcock, were as-idiiou.-iu iillentinn to tho wounded upon the field, an I in their careful removal lo the rear. Ilotb il' these r0sK'cts. und iu the subsequent org.iniz i lion and serviie" of llu. JipiUlUvli"1 ni!l"'lli- inilionof this (lejcrlif.eirt was cver)(hiiig thai could bo wished. Jirigadier Cieneral Wool ieak)i in high Icrn, 6f the ollxers of his stall', and I lake pleasure il if.Cnlionilig their, here, hav iiig witiic-ed theii activity and zeal iiiou the field. Lieuten.ini and A. 1). C. .McDowell, Col. Churchill, in-ie tor general, Captain Chapman, as-istmit quail crmisler, Lieuteninl Sitgref.vcs, toK-giipliica engineers, and (Captains Unwind und I l.ivis, vo lunteer service", hre conspicuously iiotics'd by the tiuiter.il lor thcirgtillaulry and good cdmiuct 1 Mo', Ma.vh, Addirks, vkii,, I larri.-on, Cur gos, mid l)u.-e . ritlncbod iu various rapici , . . . . ... ' ,. . ,i.,.:M ., .it... .... ai .,,,, IIIUII1IVII1.I 111. LHVI1 lllll'llllil'lll. HIIILIIL1 11. villi' ,. . . . vevnig inner.s to iio pin' oi ino reie. hi conclusion, I beg le.ivo to sf eak of ihv ow f- stall", lo whose cxei'ious in rallying troops an? eouiinunicaling onl.irs I feel greatly indebted Major llli"., a -.s(,int adintaul general, Capt. .1.11. liatoil, and I iout. It. S. (iurhett, aids-decamp, served near my person, and were proinit and zealous in thu" discharge oT every duly. Major Mini roc, besides rendering valftablo ser vice as chief of artillery, vvfcs active and iustru ir.outal, as v.ero also Cols. Churchill and ltd knap, ir.s-peclors general", in rallying troop", and iK-posiug their, for the defence of the traih aii'I biggige. Col. biting, quartermaster gene' rail, and Cap'l. I'i.iton, chief of the snbsi-lcnco department, were engaged with tho duties iff Iheir department, and also solved in my imme diate stall" on tho Held. Cant. Siblev, a-si-tant 1 ttiarlerin?.ler, was necessarily left with the I heailquailer cninp. near town, w'lico Ids services Id ami laeut. ird anr. engi- tbo en- rr'iiriiiiintit !o inal.-iiiip ri.enimiits.i ni-.i'S. and Oil tllO n,r, . .. rjv ., i,r,!,.w inl'onnatioh '.. . J. , 7 ''l.-. .... .,(,, conveying niv oruers 10 uisiiiui p'ons. 1 UullU Kin.uurv , addition to his proper dirties .H pnn!lll(.0 0lV,ceri Cnj.t. Chilton, assistant qmirtenn-i-ter, ami Majs. Dixaml Uoltee, server! also as extra ants ilc-canip, aiitl were actively employed in the tran-mi-sion of orders. Mr. Tliuuus L. Crittenden, tr'' Kentucky, though not in service, volunteered in my uiJ-iI. - :inip on Ibis occasion, mid served with credit iu that .inieity Major Craig, chief of ordnance, anil Surgeon Craig, raeitical director, had been de tached on duty from head purlers, and did not resell tho ground until the if.orning of Ibo 21th ton I tie to participate in tho action, but in time to render useful services iu their respective departments of the stall". 1 re.-pectfullv enclose returns of the troops en- 1 H'-putlilin uiu. Ili'V I L ill 1 II- I'L , .,.,.,1, ami uTt'aeii.illres Incident t. I ' am sir re?peclfully, y ,.... 1 1 1 into me name. our obedient servant, TAYLOlt, Major (icneVul U.S. A.Couiiii'g. Tho Aiui-TAxr Ccxlkal of iiiu Ai:.nv, Vasli. ington, I). C. Route lioni Veni fin lo .lleiico. .linXICAX Mil.VNs of UCFE.NCE. The city of Vera Cruz and the Castle cf San Juan do U Ho i having been captured, and Gen. Scott having taken up his march for llie inte rior, cu rnnlr for the city of Mexico, it becomes ol interest to ascertain the ilillici'.oies with which he will hive to meet, and to read a description ol the places, through wlvic.i he will, probably, pass with his armv. Our readers will lind all this in Iho following account, for which we aro indebted to I'.irnluin, Mayer, and wvoial others : hl!. cm. Tho city nf Vera Cruz is walh'd round, with a fort ut each extremity of the vyiter front; tho walls on thu land sMo me limp-LoVd for mus ketry. Parapet guils have lic-cn recently mount ed on tho wallr. The city w tIK aro very thick, of coral rock ; the walls of the lum-es are usu ally 2 1-2 toot thick, and the roofs are Hat. K.icli boii.-e hss a cistern or ci-lerns of rain water.- Tho city Is well p-ivcd. So much has Iveil "aid about the health of the place that WO think the following will Is' intere-ting. Accor ding to Mayor, llie lupti-nis and burials iu Vera Cnii in tlio year 1511 were as follows : M')f'. rtni'ilm. Ttitiil, r.iptisin-, 211 210 -151 Deaths, . . . (JUO 117 11)17 Or move than fifty per rent, iu the number of deaths over the iiiunlior ot bi tlsnis. The ages at winch by fir the greater part of this nuinlier of 11)17 died, are us follows: l',oi Mr.hu. remitter. Tutnl: 1(1 to 2.') yearr, - liH K') 27 2(1 to .VI " - 2 111 IIU 31 SI to 75 " - 35 23 5S 712 Or a little more thru two-ttiirds Mvvoen Iho ages of lti and "5 years, and about ono-tbird be tween the ages ol'2ii and .W vears atone. The deaths between 7li and litOU'.ir.s wen) only 2 males mid females, leaving the reinaiiuler lo. bo niado up IVoin hmsoiis under lli vearsof age. The diseases which ciu.-o the.-o deaths an) various, but tho leading firms aro thus stated : Mult. 1'imnlrt. Total. 01111)0, Sin ill l'ox, - I'lbithis and Diartb'i.i, 1 'overs, ... Dysentery, 120 H5 153 (il 78 Hi 1.')! (11 213 !H U 1 111 7 22 21) l IM 1 ..il.ni. .if ll..t linn, In, r nf llirt .siii- ... ,.r i ..... (;rll, i.i 1S1i ,',xed al (1.6(10 soul". im. I i li! j -liiiu-s lh-it imi'-sivlh of the rhtiro mn. iiktion died in the year. Of lhisv)iie--sixtli,al)out an equal proportion perished front Wunitu. Tlio diseases, diarrhilM and dysentery, are Iho most fatal in Iho catalogue. '.Mftvor,' In iroceeiling with tho consideration of this suhjcit, remarks : ' lu 16 12, I am told thai near a lliou-.Urd died of voiuito at Vera Cruz. This, Iron ever, was ow ing to ibo nuinlier of raw troops writ there front Ibo iiiteiioi lo lie embtrlied lor nCUin." It is to la1 Inn no in mind thai our troops are not til garrison Vera Cru. in any force. S in Juan do Ulloa is bo garrisoned, luit till the lroop.s eitbet in iho city er castle are to bo acclimated men. tl;.Y CKt;. TO .MEXICO. About leu mile from Vein Cru. is a stream 200 varolii wide, cro-n-d al a ferry in cowb, ot by swimming lioise-. over. The next tlrc.itil,

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