Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, July 9, 1847, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated July 9, 1847 Page 1
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7 -J BUKTiIiTOIV, FRIDAY MOIlIVIiVCi, JULY 9, 1S17. Vol. XXI.---Whole No. 1015 jVcw Scricst, Vol. 2 yQt . Burlington Free Press, Published at Burlington, Vt.,1 Br y'. C. CLARKE, Editov and Proprietor. Tor mn Tu Village subscribers wlio receive the paper by the carrier, $2,50 If paid in advance 3,00 Mail lubscribcrs and those who take it at the Office, inviuiably, 2,00 If paid in advance, . 1,50 Adtsrtisemests Inserted on the customary terms. (For the Tree Press.) The Death or Sappho. Twos twilight's dusky hour that witching time, When rosy Day imprints her parting kiss, And ling'rins whiles, to Night resigns her sway. The dome above now wore that placid look That ftcaleth forth fiom starry lids ttatte ope'd. For I'litcbus' sist.T mild, Willi pity mov'd. To other lands less fair, fir toward the Nurlh, (That chilly clime, unblcss'd by Nature's love,) The grateful favor of her smile vouchsaf'd. Soft Evening's breath with perfume was as sweet As are the groves of ibat bright Lesbian isle, Tint glitters gem-like on the ocean's brenst, Near Cycladcs- broad wicalh of sea -lav 'd pearl. Nature seem'd lull'd in calm forgeltulncss, Vocal no moie with melody nor mirth, Nor tumult wild, of restless, plodding man. The airy bit J her joyous note had lni'li'd, And e'en the insect's hum monotonous, Scarce ihr'd the spell toreak, that bound the hour In magic's thrall mysterious and dread. 'Hie noisy, babbling brook was timid too, And spoke with accent whispcr'd and subdu'd, To those bright beings of ctherial mould Flora's own babes, so innocent and pure, That 'round her lorm their tiny arms cnclasp'd, And in her beaming face gai'd lovingly. " Great Ocean, strongest of Creation's sons," " Uncoiii'i'-raMc, unrepos'd, unlir'd," Ureal Ocean e'en, then felt a holy calm, And from his rugged blow cast ofi'his frown. Such was the hour, thus mild and beautiful, That sole created seem'd, lor love ami prayer, I'r d'ep and contemplative ret eric, Fur oil the sweet emotions of the soul, With sinless joy to hold companionship, AnJ nettle free, within her fond embrace. Ah ! sec 1 a light and sylph-like form glides past. In truth, it was as if a vision blight, From out the skies, to this our world were sent, The master-stroke the picture fair to give, And make it tlms the portraiture ol Ilcav'n. Her snowy robe in graceful fold floats down, And o'er her beauty cists a m.iiitliiig shade, As fleecy cloud atlinatt the sun's red disk, His noon-tide radiance for a season veils. Upon Iit arched neck's umivall'd white, And 'round her classic brow, the ebon curls, Tho' all unconseiuu" of their bli's, repose, And from, her c c so dark, gleam ihslnng fires. As bounding antelope Iter step is fleet, And toward tVucadia's height its path-way bends I.eucadia's stormy height, so fiercely grand, That o'er the broad blue sea in terror lowers. Whit secret meaning wraps this being strange 1 Is she sjiue wanderer from the scat The awful mount where gods eternal dwell I Arid would she leave its courts Earth' joys to taste 1 Her thirst to quench where sinful mortals stoop I It may not be, tho' such belief were bliss. Noy, then, perchance some child of song she is, With inspiration deep her soul entraue'd. Cut list! wlnt sound is that intruding thu That grates so Inrsh, and thrills thro' cv'ry nerve, hike note discordant 'mid the lyre's soft tone I And where, oh ! where, the lovely phantom now. That scarce a moment past proud homage tlaim'd 1 What s; cck is that upon the deep afar, That 'neatli the foam-crest wave e'en now recedes I Tisshc! 'tis she! Yes, gloiious Sappho, Adopted child of fair Mnemoyne And high imperial Jove ; the Mues' pride; The youngest one of that fani'd sisterhood To Neptune's briny realm thou waudcrcst, In pitying sea nymph's car thy griefs to pour Thy story sad of unrequited love, That thro' thy heart the scorching iron tranfi.'d, And press'd its life blood out. Adieu ! unhappy one, for e'er adieu ! And at thy fate may kindly tears be shed ! (..-.... K R- From the peculiar sweetness ol her verse, Sappho baa been called tne lenin muse. From the Cleveland (0.) Herald. Take It Coolly. Life's woesare blessings in diiguis, Al least, to think thcniso, is wise j What fate, for you, may )ct devise, The darkest hour that can arise, Still take it coolly ! When disappointments gather fast, And, like the leaves on aulunm's blat, Your dearest, fondest hopes ure cast, Remember, nothing, lipri,cau last, So take it coolly! Sailor, wilh h'arl that's nobly brave, When tempests rise, and billow s rave, And evuy effort fails to save Thcainking ship from ocean's grave, Still take it coolly ! Soldiers, when on the battle field, Confronting foes that will not yield, If pierced, you fall upon the shield, And lance, you can no longer wield, Slill lake it coolly ! Victim to Beauty's witching sinil, Stay.Fuieidc's not worlh your while ; This world is not the Klysiau Isle 'Tib full of mischief nnd of guile j So take it coolly ! If linked wilh one whose heart is cold, An untamed shrew who wastes your gold, Prcttyond young, while you arc old, And fears arise, beet never told, Still take it coolly ! Happy the man, when life mut close, Who still, with In-art that kindly glows, Can bless his friends, forgive his foes, And, o his parting spirit goes, Still take il coolly! May, 1817. R. A New Sitcixatioi. Tho English discovered a new ohiect for imnnriai inn . have Tho natives of Australia havo magnificent teeth which ney are wn ing to part with for mero trifles knives, or other thinna nflibn v.lni a i' glish merchant in Australia has entered largely into this speculation, having sent several boxes nf human teeth to London, where they havo been Irrnrtv hnxnlit n u.. .v.- J !. B"V -"!,'. 'Y Uj me ueuiiQiB. jTnvm. From the Horticulturist for July. Dcscrlptioiiii of two fine new Amcricmi Apples. Tho number of native apples of good quality anil local reputation, is increasing so rapidly, from tho very great adaptation of onr climate and soil to this fruit, and from the great num ber of seedling trees' that have been planted in orchards in all parts, that the result is one al most perplexing to the collector. With tho largo variety of apples of high ex cellence, already In e.nliii atiun. it is the duly of nomologists to exercise a more thm usually severe scrutiny, nnd judge from a high criterion, in admitting into general circulation more now sorts. However valuable certain varieties may be esteemed by those not familiar with the best, it is evident, tlmt at the present moment, wo want no more new apples of second quality. All candidates for tho critical f nor of the notnnl- ogist, and the general acceptance of the cultiva tor, ought to possess the aggregate of qualities r,at belongs to iriius ol uiu first class onlv. Among the great No. of new sorts that have come under ournotice.vvitliin the lat two vcar we have found very few indeed.-o fully entitled lo high praise as the two varieties wo tiro now ibout to describe. I. Till: MCCLEI.LAJI ATI'LE. M'trl'm Apple, "f some. A beautiful and most excellent desert apple, a native of Woodstock, Connecticut. It is re markable for its beautiful and regular form, its fair and smooth skin, tho delicacy and excel lence of its flavor. Compared with many of the finest desert apples, it will be found superior to most of them, and worthy of a place, therefore, in every small collection j while its regular and great productiveness also renders it highly valu able as an orchard appic. Fruit of medium size, unusually regular and round in shane. Skin very smooth, neaily cov ered with stripes andnvirhiings of lively red, on a bright straw-colored ground, mini; snort aim rather .slender, not cry deeply planted in .i ve ry smooth, round cavity. Calyx shoit, nearly closed, set in a basin of moderate depth, and ve ry slightly plaited. Seeds small. Flesh white, linc-irrui licit, very lender and juicv, with an ex ceedingly sprightly, mild and agreeable flavor si.ui.iM Miiranu, .jL.a-uu "uu ...... u. , This fine native fruit was first presented to our notice, a couple of ve.irs ago, by the Ilev. II. S. Kainsilell, of Thompson, Ct., an enthu siastic cultivator of fruit. We aKo received specimens agiin last autumn, which we kept till .March. Mr. ltamdcll informs us that the original free, now dead, stood upon a firm in Woodstock, Cl in the midst of a " cider or chard." all seedling trees. This orchard was pi inted about 70 years ago, but it is now unccr- t lin by whom, as the property changed owners several times. One of tho owners, Mr. John .Martin, about 30 years mice, presented grafts of tlieapple in question to his neighbor, Major J. With these graft-, the latter im mediately produced a young tree which Ins b"en in constant bearing for twenty ve irs, and is the oldest tree ofthe kind now in I'xis.ence. Very oon after .Mr. Martin presented the variety, as something worthy of cultivation, to Major Mc Clellan, lie sold tho farm on which the original tree stood, and it was cut down by the pur chaser. Major McClcllan," as Mr. Itamsdcll in .1 1' w . ;; , ():,,?,,.; ;. - -' j Hiifset. Indeed in Ins son " it lias uorne good i crops in seasons when these varieties have fail-Vd upon to decide between a 'retreat and iU ed. I have also carefullv walehcd itfor the lat ',:, .i,t,; ,t, ..,tto ,,r M,,i.n,. r vv cars, and find tint it gives crops of fine fruit when tho usual apple crop is exceedingly small, major A cut Ian Iras a number ot amal , trees, par i ol vvhirli liore from onn-li.i I a low hr-r to a bushel last year, which proves tint it al-' , .... so comes early into a productive state. The fruit is now known and much sought after here, as the ' Mcl.lcllnn Apple, and taking into ac- .1,,. c'i:n il .l (.,...:.. V ' i.r... "i:. ' . ' ; 1 "I . . A l , in', i.iio.. s i.,a. . ,H un.,Ls li, uic aine season. Tho trees in the nursery aro of, Tho trees in the moderate growth." II. TUB IIAUT.EV t remarkably fine autumn apple, a native of Columbia county, X. Y large, handsome, productive, and among tho finest flavored au tumn varieties tint wo have yet lasted. It per haps more nearly resembles in llivor that line old apple, the genuine " Kail Pippin," than any other, though quite distinct in appearance, anil more productive in the orchard. l ruit large, roundish, and varying In out line in different specimen, from a slightly flat tened form tonne conical. Its Biir- l.ico is smooth, anil siigntiy oily; the corn is argo and hollow, in which the seeds rattle. The skin is pale yellowish-green at first, becom ing pale golden yellow at maturity, and siirink led with a few scattered brown dots. Stalk- slender, from lliiee-fourlhsto an inch edina deep and wide cavity, (from which oft en extends a faint m irk or line each way, halv ing the lruit.) Calyx rather small, partly clos. cd, set in a slightly plaited bisin of moderate depth, llcsli yellowih-ivhiln, line-grained, tender, with a rich sub-acid nr. Season, October and November. The tree is of moder ate growth in tho nursery, hut in the orchard forms a well shaped, Spreading head, and bears good crops annually. Gen. E. W. Leaven worth, of Syracuse. N. V., hid tho kindness last autumn, to mako us acquainted with this valuable fruit, which is now rapidly becoming a favorite, in this State. In a letter from him, now beforo us, ho gives ihe following authentic account ot its origin; " The hhlory of this tree is substantially as follows : "Matthew Hawley removed from Old Milfnrd in Connecticut, lo New-Canaan, in Columbia counfy.N. V.' nearly a century ago. As usual time with emigrating settlers, ho took with him apple seeih, from which ho raised and orchard ol seedling tiees on his larm, m Canaan Among them was tho treo 111 question. The farm allcrwards parsed to his son Daniel, nnd is now owned by Thomas Hawley, tho son of Daniel Hawley. 1 ho lruit early attracted tho at tention of amateurs, and for forty years past, it has been moro or less propagated, both there and elsewhere. It is now cultivated near Canaan FourCor ners, liy.vicssrs. i nomas iiawiey, iviwin j. Williams. Jas. Hamilton, nnd various others, as well as by several orchardists in Onondaga una Cayuga counties, i no original treo nas been dead some ten or twelve years " I am informed that tho trees grow largo nnd strong, and bear abundant crops every year. " A nernn named Douse, lived on a farm near Mr. Ilawley's, some forty years since.and had ono or more of these trees on'his farm, taken r ii . tt i . -i i - irom uiu jiawiey ireo. nonco ma nmno oi DrtllRO rvr hniii'a nnJn nl.Inl. 1 1 places. " ' Your ob't sorvant, E. W, Leave;.vortu." General Taylor's Good Things If General Taylor did not say tlio good things that are ascribed to him, wo must give tho gen tlemen who have put them in his mouth credit for an admirable perception of what is becoming in the mouth of a great commander. A collec tion of all Ids reputed sayings in times of emer gency would bo as lino an " ana" as there is in print any where. His abrupt close of tho con ference with Amnudia. for insfancc, when treat ing for the surrender of Monterey, is ns much to tho purpose nnd as full of moaning as any thing in Wellington's despatches" Sir, I hold you, nnd your town, and your army, in tho hollow of my band, and vou k'now it. Tho conference is closed in thirty minutes you shall hear from mi' batteries." Of course General Taylor would not liavc said this to a rrallant and rcsnectcd enemy. Ho would have spoken in a very uinereni vein wi u brave and gallant general, who had maintained I his iiositiim as Ioiil' as it could ho maintained, i and now, having satisfied Ihe demands of honor and dufv to their full extent, was ready with the Iranliticss of a soldier and a gentleman, to accept tho neccity of his position, lint to Ainpudia, neither brave nor gallant, and whiffling over a capitulation which ho knew to bo inevita ble, the response was as lilting us it was well timed and efi'ectivo. There wa, on the other hand, a delicious touch of humor in tho old general's acknowl edgment to flio "boys" who laughed at him for dodging. In the thick of the tight at llnena Vista, when the balls were living ' considerable.' (ieneral Taylor saw soma of his men dnckin" These consequently for' c their impressions upon ,1..:. i i - .. t !, i.i ii... i .P'l.; ... .1 -r '. .1... ! '. viicir neaus a- Die missiles wiiiszeil oy, auu call-i "is iiiiiki, iu inu UACiusiuu ui iiiiiuii iliac is ,ti- cd out, " No dodging, gentlemen ; soldiers never parcntly insignificant, but which would prove dodge." Hut in a few moments a twenty-four more interesting to folks at home, than de.-crip-poundcr came humming so near the old gentle-1 tion of things, with which they are probably fa man's nose that he involuntarily ducked his own miliar. As for residents they become aftera head whereat some of tho " boys" " snickered , short time, accustomed to these things; oh- right out. - uodgo tne balls, gentlemen," ex- j v.,....,.,.., "' K,,v, .1 niusiuru pui , " tlodgo the balls, gentlemen, but don t run." In tho same stylo was his quiet remark at Hosaca de la l'altna. where the balls made livclv music too. One of them cut oil' a piece of his , coat-tail; whereupon ho drily rematked to one Who was near nun, l liose balls are getting , excited." Hut the hst thing ho is said to have said was also at llucna Vista. It wa not only quaint i but grand ; there was a sort of heroic largeness I about it, in conception and expression, than j which wo know of nothing that more fills the i mind's eve. It was when the last, desperate, aimott nvcrwlielmitig charge was made upon Cant. Dragg's battery. Tho Captain saw tho mighty cohort coming, with an anxious gaze, for there was no infantry at hand to sustain him. l'lacinghis pieces in position, ho hurried to the (Jetieral, who was not fir oil', to represent that his little band would be ridden over and to beg for a reinforcement. "I have no roinforcinent to give you," answered the general, " but Maj. Bliss and I will support you." .Major Jlliss and I accoidingly put spurs tn their horses and took post beside tin We all know what the result was. N cannon V. Cour. An UsrunusiiKD Letter, or GENr.ttAi. Tav l.on. The following is a portion of n letter fiom a gentleman in l'etisacola to the New Or- leans Itiilletin. The writer, It nppe.ns, l...o iQJn a letter from Taylor of ju.-t about tho same date as tho old hero's famous letter to the j Secretary of War which the nation is so anxious to ee : I Knnerb as tho hattlo of liuena Vista was in "I all its details; skilful as was tho selection of I tho ground ; devoted as was those w ho laid down their lives en jace to tne enemy; tusiingin-iieii ?. w.iis cvp.ry.m!". r? "oru an."8 "W. 5 ;ct i ini.en ii nr r4 i.inn irnmn r . will, nnim. ,..:.,.,,;..,, r ,i,n, ,,u ..i ., i ,-.,- ,imi ,i, ,",,1,i,,- i, -i.i u ri r :nlo ,,c cc, ,,e roasocl, ,,. ,iere ar0 c ooo mc ldUo . .. .. ... .. . i, nnn n r oris in is lie j r:i i . ,,' . , ' , , 'r ',',,.,, V ",,." . ciimstances justify a retreat. There aro prece- i..... c.x. ' ,i.r ifr. ..i irl uiiiiu mi ii, .lira in. uiuci ui iieiiei.u uiini, il the army retreats the consequences arc certain. ' r will hr safe in .Montnrnv until rniiilnrei'iiinnts " .. " .. ,1. . i.'.i r ',i,7.' .."' can reach it, but beforo these reinforcements , can arrive tho numerous enemy, lalling by our i 11 inks, will occupy the Hio (iraiide from Cam-1 argo to tho llrazos, destroying the garrisons and magazines, and cutting oil' the communications. This result will bo mot disastrous. It is inevit able. If the army remains in its present posi tion, there is a chance of success, and suppos. ing it happily realized, every thing is saved. Hut the chances are in favor of the triumph of J0.00J men, led on by tho hope that our small forces of undisciplined troops must give way in the attack', and by tho expectation of great booty. In the second case, tho consequences of de feat would bo no less disastrous than in Ihe first case; but In tbo latter must also bo added, the immolation of our army. Hut still it aftords a chance of success. Wo will tako that chance So deciilin.' General Taylor quietly cave his .. -i I l X'; r rT.7-.Jt...En i' own on the ni-ht of the iilt of February iut lownon tlio nigiii oi too -isioi 1 1 , , v' J ' seven Honrs betoro no was attached uy rs-uita ,nni, and wrote to his relative and friend, des - cribing his situation, and speaking plainly, but with dignity, of tho treatment bo had received from his superiors also of his arrangement lo meet tho approaching crisis ; of his confidence in his little army ; of Ids hopes, hut not of his fears. One sheet and the page of another, as n record, weru thus devoted. Tho remaining niges were given to Ins private affairs, directing the management of his estate, and expressing aficction for Ins lamlly. The writer of this communication has been honored with a perusal of that letter. lie marked tho bold character in which it was written ; the even lines and the unblotted pages, giving evidenco that it was written as calmly as if the writer had been seated by the fireside of his own hippy home. It was written in simple but ea-y style, without effort, as ono wishes to write to relatives and friends. Hut still it biro evi dence, as all his writings do, of a clear judgment and pure thought. I'ensacol.i, Juno 4, 1317. CEl'HALUS. A Cuiiiositv. Mr. Lrastus Chao, of this town, while cutting up a largo pino tree which had been blown down, struck his axe upon tho blado of a knifo imbedded in the tree, and broke it. On taking it out, it was round to be, to ap ncarancc, an old Indian scalping knife, which had been struck horizontally into the treo when a saplin, and tho wood had grown entirely over it. Tho blado is about six inches long, with a huckhorn handle. On the blado and handle aro one huiulreJ and furtu distinct rings shovvin the number of years ofthe tree's growth sincu the knifo was left thero ono hundred und forty years ago, and iwcniy-scvcn years ueiore white mlii settled in this valley. Tho tir-t settlement of the town was in 1731 ; but Iho seniors were driven on, and no perun nnni soiilement was made until 'fi3. Tlio Ash 1 culot Valloy was a favorite resort and homo of i - .1 :i!.. it i i0 jnattins, aim it was wuu giuai uui.uuuj, .um i i I.! it... tlmo unm lit I n t.t Hril'im frnm I t Many interesiing relics of tbo aborigines u.... i...,.,rn..l nr. frnm (in so before th s d lIUVU VVr,, iui.i.u - - - covory. Kw, . Stntmtl. CANTON. While on this subject,! cannot withhold my mo- , 7, ,ti .. dicum of praiso from tho general commenda- From the Boston Daily Advertiser. ,; uestowrj upon that beautiful emanation of Tho following interesting letter is from a. cor- Architectural genius tho KnglMi Church. I respondent who lias resided several years in I am sorry for your sake that I am not sufficiently Canton, nnd who is well qualified to give a good conversant with the technicalities of the art to view of appearances and affairs in that city ; give you a description of it, though I think it iri. io.t , should bo seen in order to ha appreciated. Tru canton, March , 1847. 1 1 i.-t!tt.... i n, -,-.'' i i.i i i DcauG ;nu Fay truly that there are a thousand every day occurrences arid sights in a foreign I md, which, if described m a fa- miliar manner, wouiu give you ai noinc, a more correct idea of ono's manner of living and tho customs of the place, than you could possibly glean referring to China from any works up on tho subject. The long and dry dissertations we so often meet with In books or travels, fend ing to elucidate some abstruse point perhaps in flio civil or religious history of the country de scribed, or endeavoring to unravel the hidden meaning ol cmblcrnal cal characters, are very i tiresome to me, and I think must bo so to any but the histoiian or antiquary. I frequently i hlid myscil exclaiming over sucn dry-locr-cls "what in the name o sense i tho man driving it mi. I or ii'lint I f rr.-fcf .,. I, l.nfnn... "' ... , .......... ui-iuim, nolo iL-oini'ii, iiiio so union-lie nuiu v u u no nai or the general reader, tho settlement, even ir ' can Hongs, then? are six bmldiii"s,whieli extend satisfactory of tho point in question." tlnotigli to tho Chinese street in tho rear. Each Generally speaking in this country, the nit- H,mg for the sake of light and convenience, is Ihormakcs a flying visit. Ho finds everything divided intn nv,.r:,l l, ii,n,u .i,ui, ,,,. mot with before, that his senses are in a whirl or three, four, etc., the buildino-is divided into excitement. He is confused with wonder, and , sleeping rooms, and here it is that we poor tin can only describe such things, as are most fortunate scribes luxuriate and scribble, nnd prominent Iroin their size and strangeness jects ioe their strangeness, and I suppose, il in, ..I iiioui hi. .Li,, liicj unin. i.n. ii.ii. is so common totheniselves.vMll provo the same i to distant friends, or cKe is not worthy ol i!cm- j scription. These, I take to bo some of the rca- sons why innotjees of foreign places, there are so little of the insignificant nothings, which so ' aim 10 uie iniercst 01 a ikjok, and vviiicu would r . . , .... form such an agreeable set-oil to the important s Miiuiiiiug-, wii.i w nic i people now-a-uays mull. I. llVU ill , IU III! LI IU 111 111 UlUtl IU I V l. them character. There have been hut few modern works of onuL-.i. ..o.i.s oi merit written concerning which have appeare iiin.i. .-viuuui inusu within the last few . . , r . , r . i have been I do not hesitate to say impositions jears j upon a credulous public. Their chief and a most only excellence, consists of interesting ex tracts anil quotations from the work of the Je suits, and in latter days, from such as " Staun ton's Knibassy" and "Ilivis's China." Even this excellence is in many cases undeserv ed, as no acknowledgement's are made of the sources from whence such inlorination is deriv ed. I recollect one instance wheru the writer liuidlcil together ins first ideas and impressions, nivnuiii. M.iiiiny m .i-i-oi inn luvu cuiruci- lic-s, committed them to paper. Several of the VOIlllg getltl V Ol UalltOll, tailing advantage of Ills ' ciedulity, favored him with considerable iufor- j some object, which, like an ignis fatuus, np mation, and as you may fancy, impo-ed upon pe-irs conliuually in sight, vet ever remains be hitn tno-t egregiou.-ly. A knowledge ol many Vond the reach to tantalize and excite de-ire. in his book would couvinco its an- ''o a quiet and deliberate in m like mo it is start- 1 mm 111 uivir iuis.ij.iiii..ii.jii, mu L.U111U i.u ""..ling. Vjroal Clianges ll.ivo tullcn ol.ica in llic i;now ine riuicuie cu wiiicn uioy nave ex iosc-ii him, would cause him no inconsiderable amount 01 siiaine. I hope you do not think that I contemplate - " , ,i . assure you 1 never enieriai neci mo most nisiani idea of such a thing ; though Ii to ray truth, if I (iito niy own abil - were not so modest a,.d nm it v, I shoufd like nothing better, tor I am con vinccd that I could say nothing sufficiently pre posterous for" Krother Jonathan" to disbelieve, especially if 1 had had the honor to be attached to an Embassy, or clothed my remaiks in the wild extravagance ot fanaticism. How hollow insincere and unjust is mo world w hen butloous .. .. , . i and nypocnies oniatn crenei ce, aim are tOllOW- ed, and patronized by crowds, to the neglect or, real merit. .... ... i sai.iowii wiui uie inn iiuou 01 giving you ,.,, ,, ,,nt on nf invrv i nv niinmnin l.n , . ll.,i i,,,,, ,, ,i: ..: , .,' i . . . .....l... nas neen iirawn lonn, paruy on account ol some questions aim re.nirKi in yuur leuers, so I shall aiie no excuse ior us lengin. 1011 wisti mo to tell you ot the Ilong, I will try to enlighten you on' this subject, though I doubt if I succeed to your satisfcation. who looks upon Chi- ose pictures of tlio l longs and adjacent cnclo- sures, cannot obtain a very correct idea of them owing to the absence oi perspective. 1 ho build ings are situated in tlio suburbs, a short distance ina westerly direction from tho city walls. Wh it ure generally called the American Hongs, nave a small tioniage ol some uiree or lour nunureu lect, aim lace tne river irom which i (.'union, interfering with the business and en they aro distant perhaps two hundred yards. joymcnts of its residents, creating fashion and They occupy, with the "square,' an oblong cru-hing independence 1 shaped area bounded on tho sides and rear by Every ono knows that Canton is entirely a Chinese streets, while tho river Hows along its mercantile place, and that its merchants always front, and bears upon its rapid waters such an , cJ itt and always should give their whole lime to " , ,cu'vilu' """" ?r ,'" c" "ml 'i cuuy lo"Mng from our windows, wcaro not able to' ?L" a"-V , r ," " i i ' , however, where tho view is moro extended, wo ,, ,ir.,.,K;nli ,(r11.,.J rl, , " ' 7 L. ., " : ,,, .it- , ( c EJ " t U.uesV vvorl ,,uV I i , ..., , - r. , , I -.iVt ,J .1 . ' " .3 . ,'. ! L .... ....j ....u, . ..... aim at statistical correctness. .On ono side is "old Chihi street," and on Ik-wther' Hog Lane' Directly before tho I-. ictorwl J'a narrow ave- nua which extends along their whole front, and communicates with the above named streets by a gate at either end. Excepting a gate or two in tho rear of the buildings, these aro the only means by winch foreigners oltain acce-s to tho Chinese streets. I allude to communication by land. This avenue also serves as a thorough- fare to tho Chiuamen.being a short ctit,& though keepers aro stationed at each cud fur the pur - po-o ol relu-ing admittance to idle cnaractcrs, t into its sand like tho poor Camel, hoping thcre tbero is generally a sufficient number congrega- by toescapo tho ellocts of its ui.ilignanfbrcath. tedbefore tho houses WIKcliTng the movements . Canton is no lonoer the nl irn it inic. una ii of the i'm-iuiVs tonfford a very satisfactory iiiusirauoii oi uieir prying oisjinsmuns unci uir- ty habits. heparatcd Irom tins passage uy a uncK wall, is tho " Square," tho entrances to which aio several gites, mostly opposite the entrances to tho 1'actorics. Iho-nqiiare is enclosed by vvlio had from some domestic infelicity been so high brick walls extending from parated for many years from his wile, hearing the buildings to tlio water, at which place thero , accidentally that she Ihrcatencd him with a yisif, are ono or iwn landings lor uoais. wn me iasi and separated from the American Hongs by nog iine, uru mo imsii-u atuiucs, uicni- ivas over, in a nigh siaio ol delighi at the sue ding tho Cousulato. This is tho ground former. cess of his experiment. Now, what do you ly tenanted by tho Hon. II, I, Company, and think wcro that man's feelings on seeing women Ihe now buildings which now cover it aro tho walk in and nut hero without opposition, liko finest foreign residences over erected in Can-1 rabbits in a hutch. Can any one say where that ton, and I may say in Chiu-i, J J except a few . man is likely tn fly, should his adhesivo partner erections in Hong Kong. Among tho most no ted of tho latter is tho magnificent and princely residenco of II. I). Sir John Davis, Iho Gover nor ol Hong Kong. There he presides ina style nf Gubcrn itorial munificence and profusion, which, while it marks and dignifies his exalted station, partakes somewhat of the character and peculiarities ot tho wealthy proprietor. In In I entertainments porliaps tho animal is mado too s. r u"--o ivmio mo iiuciiriiiiai iu niu uiu veiier- al taste, but Chneun a son gnut. 0r such beautiful exemplification of Church and State. Hut I have forgotten all about Canton, Un let ns go back to tho Factories. In fiont of tho English Factories or Ilougs, there is also a space, bordering tho Water, for recreation nnd exercise, though it is much inferior in size to the " Square." llcvond " old China street, " on the Wcst.aro tho I rench and Danish Factories. Within tho last two years, there have been built in this di rection at tho lower end of the above named sirent frnnil,, .t .,...:, ,i,,, r ,i. " Square," and alW tho river many new houses which are nernnied he r,m.i,ninr. ulilmnt distinction of nation. Now inv dear G vou have about as good an idcaof the situation of the Factories as I can give you. In tho block gen- ,l. .1 I . J . ... . . 15 i-nuiy, motion not properlv, ca ed the Amer norni train tmnt t nu ,.r.,l. ...... take a philosophical view of ihe world from the loopholes of our retreat. Tho is very prettily "Square "laid out, tin der tho superintendence of an American gen tleman, and though custom may havo made its grass-plats and chenatiuncd walks appear tiro some and formal to most of us, all new comers speau ot it with much praise, and I think it is deserving of it It contains quite a number of trees, soma ot win ch have attai nod a con-idera- hie sizo. These with tines flovvcritu' bhrubs b-nnbnu hedges, and green' "rass give to tho T,b,rn a i-nrB,,r!.n.f i. 7;. 'ri... place is so exposed to the sun Unit vvalk'ni" there js very uncomfortable duriin' tho dav and it is only in the cool of the moriiiim-s and e SWWl WI ll.U IIIVI llllll-l ,,111.1 i; Ullllll' s that one can go there with any pleasure. After dumpr, tovvaids five or six o'clock, when the sun Inshi-this power, we sally forth, and it is then and in in the evening that tho greatest number ioi people are assembled. Sumo aie gathered in iit ruuns la amr over t u groups talking over the business and scandal of the day ; for alas ! scandal, even here, h v , iui .lino . piiiiiiiui , i.,Lii ncic, uas u willing votaries, others on tho new ground at the lower cud of of the "S mare, " are exer eisiug w ith quoits, while the rem linder are dis persed, promenading around the ground, or parsing through on their way to the liver. You would laugh to seo the persevering and thorough manner which the re-idents display in tearing around tho "Square." Tho current generally sets one way, and if you can picture r i to vourself some fifty or a hundred persons mov s!; t i.:..i. :.. .1.:. !!..... jm, ahmgnt a late, which, in this climate, entirely destructive to personal comloit. vou will see the turn-out in the " Square" at Can- Inn. dim w,ibl think Ihov worn in rln. nf paljils and apiiearance ot the s n in nnnearu nee ot llio loreiirner.s sito-r. i mV residence here. I i oars ago. anc even unti a vcar or two nasi, comfort ruled in dress ; gentlemen walked about ,k r J'1- 'Wis u uiL-eis, ILMI less ui ITUI-I ci-sm, and the smoke of their cigars whirled nllv ' anj without hindrance into the'upper air, while 1 quiet enjoynient beamed upon the faces of its generators. Where is now that negligent and tniufortfiil diihabtlle in winch Canton was wont to indulge to its manifest delect ilion? I fear it has forever deputed. Modern Canton, I grieve to say, Ins introduced novelty upon nov elty, until now nothing that savors of age is tol- crated. Ucquered pumps mav bo secn inincin ! uliinrr ibn ..-..ll. .til,, l.l.:." cravats, black hats, sliuwy vests, dress coats" and discomfort in many forms have been intni- , need, wi osmi.k nrr i, ;1 .,,,!,.l,l ,!.. ' i ' ' " demeanor. I am happy to say, that there remain a few staunch old conservatives, who slill continue in the oven tenor of (heir way, despite of oppo- silioil. loti probably ask, what has cau-ed these unparalleled inuavations ( What, but that meddling, prying, inquisitive tattling crea- lure woman, u: saui a ir end. t lev are soinn I of the lieuefits of tho march of improvement i ...i.:i. t . , . .1. . i .. .... which is so vvoiiiieriiu in uie,. nays. t he march of the improvements indeed ? If our benefits and improvements are to inarch in up on us in this questionable shape, may Heav en nave mercy upon us when we are oveit iKen by calamity. What right, I ask, his she in business. Charity would lead one to nfer that husbands generally, do not neglect their wives, -"mv ca" an' m:l" mvn,i to ""'''less in such ' a nlacn as this, without .,l, ,1.,,. I,; .;c. . . . , , .." ", " ' "t rv""- """' 1 ' " ' , - . .,""'. " aKC- ' '" S " f!!!? - . " -m""v. u" 'nougi, women were not allowed to go n, vuiiion , is iiieir jircscuco connived al uy the 'Mandarins, or were ibev snimrl,.,l i Imm l U f" Connived nt by the Mandarins : sunn-- glod in ! bless your heart, sir! they came in with tin amazoiiiaii boldness, and I truly believo they would make their way in a liko m inner to . the most inacce.-siblo snot on iho broad earth. All impaitial judges say that there was never hero before, a tithe of the scandal which now circulates and whirls from one busy body tn another, and which cnvelones liko the slnmnn ,,f the desert, all nersons in its track. Sniiu. vi'Illi , what success I know not, thrust their mouths has o.-t that exclu-iveness which has always ueen its cinet Characteristic, lor 1 think you will allow, that any place which is accessible to women, is no longer oxc usive. In by mmo days when they were prohibited froui coming fo Ca'nton, a gentleman long resident in ChTna, paclied tin his wardrobe, and started immediate y for Canton, where ho remained till tho danger make n second descent upon him. I know of no placo on earth where they do not go, except ing perhaps Japan. He must either keep doilg Ing her, go to the devil, or ehovv tight. What a dilemma, Thus far, this month has brought mo nothing from you, and were I not mado awaro that my poor favor gavo you some pleasures I might as well address my letters to dwellers iu the silent land, I do not expect Mis from you very often, howovet much I nny wish for them, yet 1 need not toll yvt how welcome and prized arc thoso that roach mo. I bog you will not refrain from writing mo as 1 loar you will lor tho supposi tiotl fhut vnur 1r.flr.ra ,'tlt tint tnlnrncl 'l'l. . thrown it, like tho house of tho silly man in tiio goon HOOK. Willi regard to our situation hero, I think, judging from the general manifestations of ill will on tho put of the Chinese, and incidental conduct which goes far towards supporting my opinion that it never has been more precarious. Some unseen agency seems to be at work upon the minds of tho lower order of Chinese, inciting them to a frequent and unexpected expression of their hatred for foreigners. Give them cour ageous and energetic leaders, and that combina tion the lack of which has been so apparent in all their riots, and we should soon be unearthed and driven from our f.ictories. Our situation, though not one of fear, is undoubtedly 0110 of great uncertainty. If you were to talk in this strain to many persons here, they would laugh at you, and say that such ideas were perfectly absurd, nnd that your conclusion could not be supported by facts. When, however, any of these persons take an impartial and candid summary of our inter course with tho Chinese, and mark from what slight provocations ; what trivial and contingent events, have arisen most of their outbreaks; when they recollect that theso outbreaks have been quite as frequent of late years as they were 1 II.. I. if. 1 1 , 1-, -T Chinese c ev will to of t a same opmion. I fancy that t .0 foreigners will he al-, ,yn?, J.r! fur '"'tbreuk, though Ley c:xn-) , in L preven the 1110b from firing t ,0 , factor OS n the rear, w hern hnv- aro weak v in. mi nit! iv, j uiiiih, 11 uiev nave any i.nowicuge 01 , fended and very accessible, being separated from the back .street only by a brick wall. They defend their lives, but not their property, which, the buildings once fired, can scarcely fail tn fall into the hands of the plundering rabble. This, at best, uncertain stat00f life, is in itelf sufficient reason for ladies not being allowed to make a residence of Canton. .110.-1 iiiiini;i, USH.I.I.IIIV 111 wiiriu wuiiLiior, wo aro in the habit of going upon the river, where wo rem lin till daik, and do our best to keep , cool and comfottable. Mo-t of the houses here have each a largo pleasure boat called a" Hong. Iloit," which is more comfortable than nnS thing of the boat kind I have ever seen els vvheio. The cabin takes up the whole boU ox- . ' "- , I . "'" a s'i" iog. some, going down tin is a siipnositum based on tho sands of iticy, and .river, swept by tho rapid current; others an I trust that tho storm of my protestations to the chorod and waiting for the flood. Fish boats, contrary, has long since undermined and over-1 tradn limit it,.,, "1,. :abin takes up the whole boU ox- ar0,V'0 P",r ' b"r;-'r dead, to cast them up. e in front for the man to row, and I01! 'C water, so there is no proof that infants in Ihe slern, where the cooking,11" V- , "e.'' SOm" llo?t".,? ?bo,Ut' cam0r-t'' jw is done. The cabins are gen' t,";,r, ,cml '"tentionally. I think that so unfa.- .. . . . . . Vfll'ollln n rnnrll1lnl, Inllct i,ci Lnn l.tmnr..! n, ccpliug a space 1 a small room &.c. for the crew orally large, aie lilted up with green blinds, cushions and bamboo pillars, and have couch seats around three sides. Here the occupants lie or sit, according to tho sufficiency of room and inclination, and pass away the time in smoking a deal, talking a deal, and reading a little; while not a few give themselves up to the influence of the drowsy God, and find food ' for dreams und muschetocs. I After wo hive reached tho junction of tho ' Macao passage and Canton river, I think 'lis 1 moio pleasant tn go upon the flat roof of the , cabin, and if 1 want a nap, to spread out my mat, and take it there. If 1 do not, there I am witli the great river stretched out belore me, and every passing object within my ken. I say. t! , what a cringing hot diy it is altogctfi - er too much so to enjoy in an active manner . .1 - -....Ml I.- siiijiosu wo e,u upon mo river twin uu a siraugo and interesting sight tor vou. At anv i rate let's go down to the point and see what is going on. Do jou see tlm-e large boats to the ttiff cn,.,n .vi'int.l o.t.l ..;t.l...l n.,.l cn.nn tt,.., i""""-" a ", ...... ought to bo J they are the ' Hong Units," and the gents are just going on lm nil rather early ; to-day. Hut come, I'm not going in the Hong j boat, for I sC.,3 two of my 7';ns are on board,! and wo might be l Imp without an invitation besides we cm do more as we like when alone together. How am I going? Oh, there is plenty of conveyances, and I want you first to look about here'a bit. This is the landing place, and those little egg-shell craft are the Tankco boats you have hoard so much of. The b"gging boat girls have caught sight of us. Did you ever hear such a clamor ? "My boat-a, my boal-a, what for you no come my boat-a ,'" "my chop-chop w'alk-y have got number one good bo it." Look at 'this girl, she has tho "dim, be-eeehing eye," and a Manta liui would say "a denind fascinating ankle" , slio is talking to you, ' Gentleman, gentleman. how you do ; .My chin-chin vou come mv uoat-a : lean my no Irivo seen your handsome face y, what side ynu walk-y ?" '' My gooil Mrs. 'A-nioon,' your fawning tongue lia's betrayed you into a gros, urror this is un friend G. a student from Harvard, and who ha' never before excepting in thought et foot within your so mi---called Celestial dominions." Tlio residents aie gathering fa-t. This group, as you cannot fail to observe, consists of Ameri cans. There is an air of n ition.ility about them all, as they stand, chattering in monotonous tones, especially in th it one yonder in the brown coal conversational, rational and independent, anil rather touchy withal. Tho person on' his right seems to cnpvhim in dress; wears tho same kind of hit, vvliich he cocks after tho same fashion, and has the same devil-miy-care look, but he too carries his in. tionality about, and any ono can sec that he is a German. There aro aUo many l'.ng lishinen about, ome of them very lino gentle- miu-nxe teliows, who represent their country with honor. Then there is a little biillet-headi-d, ji.'rt in in, st Hiding iu a pair of obstinate looking boots, lie seems to belong to the snub, a el iss j soiuewh it largely represented here who remind me nf big-men 'anu runners from Manchester and Ilirmingham ; persons who exist in a little world of conceit and prejudice; who apply great energy to unimportant ull.urs, and by whom or dinary objects are represented as ' fearful, in credible and astoundiii!r." Well! wo may as well bo off. Be careful how you cross iheie plink", for at low tide thcro 'is any thing hut a bed of ro-es beneath j you. This shod hero on tho right, built upon j piles driven into tho mud, and tilled with lazy , Chinamen, cats and yellow dogs, is the head nii.irtnr? nf"'.l!il II...11I " ,,..rnil ill bis way nf soma substance and importance. Ho owns a number nf Imif4 liieli be lets tn fnrei'rners : besides which be takes care of their own boats,' they aro capable of supporting one who finds boatmen, runs on errands, and is in short ' in a great measure helple-s; and that it gives, i useful character and quite a fivoritc. I think consequently, character and respectability to we hid better tako a " Dollir boat." " Dollar such a family. Some persons suppo-e that tho boits" aro built something like ' Hong boits," custom was introduced iu order to place a re but aro much smillor. Tlio sheds which you straint upon the gadding propensities so peculiar seo about nre mostly bo it houses. Hern 'are to females; hut lb it could scarcely be the caso, some of tlio boits pulling an 1 sailing but most for females in respectable life are so closely of ihem seem to havo gone out. Ah! here's guarded, and allowed so littlo liberty, that such 'Old Head." " IKid ! waut-chco Dollar boat," a re-traint would be quito unnecessary. " Very well, sir." This is rather a nice sail I ' Whch ! Captain, c in put-to anchor !" It's b,nt, G , though tho rigging is not quite mt p0 on deck, is not this a beautiful sight ? Tho fait, " Head ! what for you no fix-ec that bo it continence of tbo rivers forms a beautiful hav, proper?" "Well! I don't know, tint no girdled In by low and fertile lands, whilo tlio blong my," "Marskeo! suppo0 you ask-ee view below,' at the turn of lu Macao passage, misser , ho givo you money makeo all-o is terminated by a picturi-sqiie-looking fort proper. " Mis,er ! you no cavez be ? ho , planted on a littlo green island in tho centre of allsimo to, ' says he, clinching his hand con. the river. Tho declining rays of the setting vulsively, and holding it up for your inspection,' sun aro Hinging their burnishing light over tho "Hio-yah! no can." How comprehensive and , low land, upon tho glassy waters; upon its expressive was that bit of pantomime. He's a myriad boats, and creating'li.rhts and shades of dirty looking rascal to bo suro, but a good na- mellowness and magical cfioct. How calm and tured fellow, and quito forcible and pungent in quiet is the enjoyment of such a sccno ; even his remarks, as you perceive. the jar of tho discordant gong, and tho shouts of Hore wo are, launched upon tho Canton river, the populace, fall upon the ear, soffned by dit- amid thousands of boats, from the immense and unwioldlv junks nnd clion boats. ,ln.n i n. small " dug out," ns wo at homo call tho boats, boils, and rafts, all ill a ronfilan.t mi,i will. RUmnrina their occupants making the best use of their lungs and longue, and indulging in tho cheap luxury of slang and abuse of tho most complica ted nature. What a babel of sounds ! wlmt confusion ! Hero 13 a long street of flower boals, moored broadside to the current. What a fine mass they form, so compact, uniform and secure. Good humor nnd mirth seem to reign every where, nnd their inhabitants seem nover tired of sitting on their hams, smoking and screaming, and enjoying themselves in tho most enviable manner, with, nnd at tho expenso of tin over varying throng. Thero aro a number of naked children on tin platforms, of all sizes and ages, including littiu ones that can just tottlo about. There's a wco one, and sitting on the vify edge of the platform, but thero is no danger: thev aro born and brought up to theso boats, and there, for aught I know, they die. One frequently sees children scarcely able to turn about, standing up with their mothers at the oar, getting their hands in, and making believo to row. To see them, at the age of live or six, tugging manfully at their little oars, is quite common. Should they chance to fall into tho water, thero is not much a'i ."' il' ranger, tor thev havo each a rrourd slun ., m,,n, , ...i.:..i 1.1 :. .1.. , thcy" .Id be saved S w U not belong in J, crmvdoj ,,co. Tleir S btJ v fom, of ,1C and art! cPontinllliny ,,nolJ. , lhom , to luok ,lt , p ies g ,h .. ." .1 . , .' . ' piss, not unlreqiiently prompted to such move ments, 111 the hope of receiving tho coveted cumfht. Tho crime of infanticide with which the Chi. nose are so frequently charged, is, I brieve, a calumny. I have seen many corpses floating about in the rivers during mv residence here; hut never those of infants. Nor should I havo been snrpri-ed if I had, for where there is such , . , a .'."'j'" on, V"i WI,,c'r3 a0,,t C;"lt0"i-; wll!c'' Ue-,lmalf' 1 'y some to be two hundred a"d "7 "'ouand,-it would not be strange if ".''"!? , , "' - "'!,"' c,llldre.n 5 'L1,J meet '1 by drovynn.g. I hen, agun, if I am not "1. "' ,'S T'" ll,?rrT;ent, fur Persons who aro.V Pr t0 bury their dead, to cast them up. vorable a conclusion must have been jumped at, without reason, by some quick-witted traveller, who thought himself safe in making positivo assertions upon a subject, of which nothing de cisivo could be learned. Here comes a log boat, with .1 single inmate, who is dressed like Joseph, in a coat of many colors, and who propels his solitary and isolated borne, with a small p iddle. Mark "those tangled masses of dark hair: as they lift in wild disor to the pa ing breeze, they discover a brow and face, whoo clnlky whiteness fornu a strange contrast to tho simbrowned features ot uis countrymen. His fantastic head-gear, his long beard -treainiug down over his breast, and b'1" outlined form are in admirable picturesque- 1 "ess and keeping. He is a perfect picture, and ' a tight of him would send a thrill of pleasure to I ft... I.nnv, ..1 .l.n !... 1 . .. , i".' . 01 uiu painier: impressive ana nobl9. '"ougn ciouieu in ragj am niiserv. Hut, away, "Uoom for the leper," for ho Is one of that unfortunate class, upon whom niti- I.. . .n..l.:n.l I....I. ;. . 1 .... 1 w" 111.1111,11m ii-.iiu set ns marK. t here s-ems to mo the melancholy of despair in his glanco, and he looks like one, as Willis says, " whoso heart is with an iron nerve put down." Ha drags nut his exi-tenco in solitude, and is doom- :i 10 a living ikmiu, tor t hit boat s i s home. and will bo his coffin. Thev subsist nnnn char. ity, which seems to bo given them willingly. Many of these unfortunate outcasts are seen upon the rivers. One charitable person gives them a little food ; another a few cash, and so they spend their days in the miiNt of their fel low creatures who avoid all contact with tlicm ; and in ihe midst of bustle and excitement, from which they are denied all participation. I see several flower boats in advance of us, which are dropping down with the tide ; we will go near them, so that if there are any women there, we m iv catch a glance of them. Ixk in at the window as we pass. There is a party on Imrd, and mn, women and children am moving about with considerable bustle, whilo ever and anon Ihe sharp impatient squeaking of i fiddle is heard, accompanied by a few sn itches of songs, preparatory symptoms iif coming enjoy ment. Tables and seats, upon which are vases nf flowers, are ranged alujut the cabins ; over head, and hung from the ceiling are foreign lamps inter-p'T-ed with Chinese lanterns, while a foreign clock adorn- a ido table. In tho after-cabin of ibis immense craft, are several of the frail daughter of Kve, and votaries of pleas ure. Some of them are exceedingly pretty. I came up the river tho other day in a sail, boit, and as we cuno alongside ono of tlies,, boils we let down pirtof the sail, as ifacciden tilly, nnd so we were obliged to hold on to th.i craft until we could nuke sail, to prevent beiii" carried down stream by tho current ; we got very good view, not only ofthe boat, h it also of its inmites. Soni" of the women were piintod wry lightly, and had their hair dros,c-d with white flower-', and all seemed to hi clothed in their gill Thev ireuemlK- ,vnn...l straight nois, line arched brows, and consider able regularity of features, while ono or two of them were so attractive that they would be call ed beautiful any where. As far us I am able to judge, our siandird of iK-auty and that of tho Chinese hero seem to bo pretty much the same. A China worn m tint we would call handsome, is Inndsonm to them ; and a Chinaman said to me, of a beautiful lady who once lived here, my truly thank-ee Chee'na no have got so hand some.' 1 do not know that a small foot is ronili.r.l as a beauty, though it is generally supposed to 1 be. It is, however, an honor, tip J is generally desired. It Is the ambition of ever.- ' tn I 'rave one of its members with small' feet ; why , it is so, 1 know not, unless it bo to make it an.

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