Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, July 23, 1847, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated July 23, 1847 Page 1
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IHJItLICJTO, FRIDAY MOIWINU, JULY 3, IS 17. Vol. XXI. Whole No. 1017 IVcw Scries, Vol. a...IVo. 4. Burlington Free Press, Published at Darlington, Vi., By D. W . C. CLARK K, Editor and Proprietor. Tormn To Village subscribers who receive the paper by the carrier If paid in advance 2,00 Mall subscribers and those who take it at the Office, invariably 2,00 II paid m advance, . 1JH) Advertisements inserted on the customary terms. On the Color of Country House. From the Horticulturist. Charles Dickens, in that unlucky visit to A mcriea in which he was treated like a spoiled child, and left in tho humor that often follows too lavish a bestowal of sugar plums on spoiled children, made now and then a remark in his characteristic vein of subtle perception. Speak ing of some of our wooden village the hous es as bright as the greenest blinds and the whit est weather boarding can make them, ho said it wasquito impossible to believe them real,stib stantial habitations. They looked ' as if they had been put upon Saturday night, and were to bo taken down on Monday morning !" There is no wonder that any tourist, aecus- tomed to the quiet and harmonious color or buildings in an English landscape, should bo shocked at the glare and rawness of many of our rounlrv divelliiiL'S. Brown, the celebrated Ene-l Iih landscape gardener, used to say of a new red brick house, that it would put a whole val ley in revcr. Some or our freshly painted vil lages, seen in a bright summer day, might give a. man witli weak eyes a tit or the op'.halinia. We have ventured a word or two against this national pas-ion for white paint, and itseemsto us a fitting moment to look the subject boldly in the face once more Our 11 r -.t objection to ic'uVe is, that it is too glaring and conspicuous. We scarcely know any thing more uncomfortable to the eye, than to approicli the sunny side of a house in onoorour brilliant midsummer davs, when it revels in the fashionable purity of its color. It is absolutely painful. Nature, roll or kindness to man, has covered most or the surface that meets his eye in the country, with a soft green hue at once tho mo-t refreshing and grateful to the eye. These habitations that we have re ferred to, appear to be colored on the very oppo site principle, and one needs in broad sunshine, to turn his eyes away to relieve them by a glimpse ol the soft and refreshing shades that every where pervade the trees, the grass, and surface of the earth. Our second objection to white is, that it docs not harmonize with the country, and thereby mars tho cirect of rural land-capes. Much oi the beauty ofl indscape den -nds on what painters call breadth of lime which is caused by broad masses or colors that harmonize and blend agree ably together. Nothing tends to destroy the breadth of tone so much as any object of consid erable size, and ofa brilliant white. It stands harshly apart from all the soft shades or the scene. Hence landscape painters always stu diously avoid tho introduction ot white in their buildings and givo them instead some neutral tint a tint a tint which unites or contrasts agreeably with the color of trees and gras, and which seems to blend into other parts of natural landscape, instead of being a discordant note in the general harmony. Then is always, perhaps, something not quite agreeable in objects or a dazzling whiteness', when brought into cnlrnt with ofur colors. Mr. Price, in his Essays on the Beautiful and Picturesque, conceived that very white te'th pave a sill v expression to the countenance and brings forward in illu-trition or it, the well known soubriquet, which Walpole bestowed on cue or his acquaintances the gentleman witli the fooli-h teeth. No one is successful in rural improvements, who does not study nature and take her for the basis of his practice. Now, in natural land scape, any thing like strong and bright colors ia seldom seen, except in very minute portions, and least of all pure ivhite chiefly appearingin sm ill objects like flowers. The practical rule which should bededuced from this, to avoid all these colors which nature avoids. In buildings, we should cony those that she offers chiefly to the eye sued as thne of the soil, rock, wood, and the bark of trees the materials of which houses are built. These materials offjr m the host and most natural study from which harmo. nious colors for the houses the nselvcs should be taken. Word-worth, in a little volume on the scene ry of the Lakes, remarks that the objections to white us a color, in large skhs or masses, in iHiui-capes, are insurmountable, lie says It i Destroys the gradations of distances, I eye, and di-turbstlie reno-c of nature. oine nine consolation to the overs of w h to ia .. n ...til . 1 1 .i ..i . Wh t he I: m tec which their favorite color may not only be tnler- aicu, out oiien nas a nappy ellect. We mean in tho case ofa country house or cottage, deei ly embowered in trees, Surrounded by such a mass of foliage as Spencer describes In whose tnchted trtuttvw .noc A lair pavilion icarcely to be teen. A white building often has a magical effect. Hut a landscape painter would quickly answer. if ho were asked the reason of this exception to mc rule, " it is necause tne minding does not appear white." In other words, in the shadow of tho foliage by which it is half concealed, it Jo.es tho harshness and offensivencss of a white house in au open site. Wo have, indeed, often felt, in looking at examples of the latter, set up on a bald hill, that the building itself woul J, if possible, cry out " Hide me fiom day's g-aneyc." Having entered our protest against the gen- l.in, ,1 ,.. . . , . . . . . n! "r? ',lout w,iat wo C0l's''f BHitablo u-u ut wiuie in country etlinces, we aro shades of color. We hayokaid that ono should look to Nature for hints in color. This gives us apparently, a v.de choice of Rl;vleR, but as wo ought proper ly to employ modified shades, taken from the colors of the materials of which howo. ZcZ structed the number ofobj(.cNilru brought with, in a moderate compass. iIottwI or grass or leaves, and tl;re ,,. therefore no much propriety ,n painting a dwelling Ten Larth, stone, brick, and wood, aro the ,l,si ces that enter mo-.ly i,lto tileZct TZ houses, and from these we wouM accor(j'in r tako suggestions for painting them Sir Joshua Reynolds, who was full or an ar tistical foeliug for the union or a house witli it surrounding scenery, once said, "Ifvnu u..ni.i fix upon tho host color for your house, turn up a Bioiio, or piiiuit up a iianuitii oi grass bv tho ...... uv ....... ... .... ..,. , lc 0 WI)()ro the house is to stand.and let that be your clmi This rulo was not probably intended to be exact- t ins ruio was noiprouaoiy intcntled to he exact- ly carried into general practice, but the leelin" ' that prompted it wis tho sam3 that we aro en- Keeling that the time had rnmcformo to show " In coming inrnngo n uiouniuin gorge cane, dtworing to illustrate the iieecsoity or a unity mv emrgv,l exclaimed wilb all my natural vlg- the Jnrnado, there was not ono dropof wati of'rnlor in the hon.eand country about it. or. silence, ladies I silence, fur a moral and lo he round within "seventy miles ! Ojr wcarie. Wethink in the beginning, that tho coloror an example I my usual mode or Hpccch when anlm lis particularly the oxen became ex nil buildincs In the country should be or those about to submit any natural object to a social, or hanstcd, and sank down, we supposed, to risen soft and ouiet shade", called neutral tints, such I should rather say, to a conjugal illustration, i more. Our situation was truly appalling, an.' as rawn, drab, gray, brown, &c, and that all positive colors, such as white, yellow, red, : blue, black, &c, should always bo avoided; .,,,.., i ,:, i,.t ,i,. jin from naturcand harmonizing best with her, and positive colors being most discordant when introduced into ru- upon me taoie. ow, young ladies,' 1 observ I ral scenery I e" ta"ln a Pen ' "ow f,,r moral and examnlc. In the second placo wo should adopt the shade You are hero to be finished for sensible, affec-r.-i. r. :i.i , ii, evnrrsxion. tionate. but above all, controlling wives. You stvle. or e nracter of the house itself. Thus a . ...... f. ir mi largo mansion may very properly receive a some what sober hue, expressive of dignity : while a country house ofmoderate size.dem inds a light- or nn.l'mnrn nh.nsulll. but still n'llict tOUC .' and a -mill cottage should, wethink, always have a cheerful and lively tint. Country houses I thickly surrounded by trees, should always bo throw your tyrants. Man, mirrymg us, puts a printed with a lighter shade than those standing gold ring upon our third finger and, in the urro exposed. And a now house, entirely unreliev-1 gance of his heart, mikes us, as he thinks, his ctl by foliage, as it is rcnlered conspicuous by , blushing captive. And shall not mm also wear the very nakedness or its position, should bo a ring our ring ? Yes, ho shall 1 Here that painted several shade dirker than the same Miss Fluke proposed three cheers, but, with n building if placed in a well wooded site. In look and brow of thunder, I stopt her. ' If.' said proportion as a house Is exposed to view, let its 1 1, 'wo must wear his ring upon our finger, hue be darker, and where it is much concealed , let him and not know it, poor wretch! fur by foliage, a very light shade or color is to bo nreferrpil Wordsworth remarks, in speaking or houses in the Like country, that miny persons who have heard the white condemned, have erred bv adontinir a cold jtfv color. The dulness and dimness or hue in some dark stones produces. an I , effect quite at variance wun mo ciiecnui ex I pros-ion which small hou-es should wear. The 11 iring yellow, ue anus -runs inio me onposite extreme, and is still more censurable. Upon the who c the safo-t color, for general use, is so. nothing between a cream and a dust color." This color which Wordsworth recommends for general use, is tho hue or English freestone, called Portland stone a quiet fawn color, to which wo are strongly partial, and which har monizes perhaps more completely with all situ ations in the country than any other that can bo named. Next to this we like a warm grey, that is, a drab mixed with a very little red and some yellow. Browns and dark greys are suitable for turns, stables and outbuildings, which it is de sirable to render inconspicuous but for dwell ings, unless very light shades of these latter col ors are used they arc apt to give a dull and heavy ellect in the country. A very slight admixture ni a darker color is sufficient to remove the objections to while paint by destroying the gl ire nf white, the only color ti'li.i Pdnxta nil Inn flllll M l- Wa ll'nnt.l ndvi-o the use of solt shitless, n it much remov ed from white, for sin ill cottages, which s'loitld not be painted in too dark a shade.as thai would givo them an aspect of gloom, in the place or glare. It is the more necessary to make this suggestion, as we have lately observed that some persons, newly awakened to the bad effect or white, have rushed tn the opposite extreme, and colored their country houses or such a som bre hue that they give a in-laucholy character to the whole neighborhood around them. A species or monotony is also produced by using some neutral tint for every part or the cx t"riorof a country house. Now there are fei tures, such as window facings, blinds, cornices, etc., which confer the satna kind of cxnres-ion on a house that tho eyes, eyebrows, lips, etc. or a race do upon tho human countenance. To paint the wholo house plain drab, gives it very much the same dull and insipid effect tint colorless feitures- (white hair, pale eye I brows, lips, Sic. &c.) do a face: A certain spnghtliness is tlioretnre always bestowetl on a dwelling in a neutral tint, by p'linting the bold er projecting features ol a difftrent shade. Tih simplest practical rule that wo can suggest for t'ff-ctingthi-, in the most sitisfictoryand agree able mmn"r, is t'ie following: Choose piint of some mutral tint tint is q iite satisfactory, and let the facings of tho windows, cornices, Sic. be painted several shades darker, ol the s mi" color. Toe blinds may citlirb3 a still darker shad' t'nnthe f icings, or else the dirke-t green. This variety or shades will give a building cheerful effect, when, if but one of the shad" w-.'re employed, there would be a dulness an heaviness in the appearance of its exterior. Anyone who will follow the principles that .iave stigge-ted cannot at least, fail to avoid tie gross blunders in tate which most commoi house printer and their employers have beei so long inthe h ibit of committing in the prac tice or printing country hou-es. Uvedale Price justly remarked that many pen plolnve a sort of callus over their organs of sight, as others over those of hearing ; and as the callous hearers feel nothing in music but kettledrums and trombones, so the callous seer can only be unved by strong opposition of black and white, or by fiery red. Tiiero are we miy add, miny house painters who appear to be equally henuintied to any de'icnte sen-ations in shade or color. They judga of tho beauty or colors on housos as they do in ithc raw pigment. and wo verilv believe would lie ni'irn trr:tifteil to 'ia"nt8 l'10 paint every thing chrome yellow, indigo blue, , 'e,'VBlpure white, vermilion red, and tho like, thin 1 flf ll'Illtf. l.n ...IT..! 1.1. 1! ! I! l 1..1.. int.-in i-i iititoij .ion u -oc tie iiiingiing oi sinuus : s i-.- Fortunately fa-hion, a in ro powerful teacher orthe multitude than tho press or tho schools, is now setting in the ng.it direction. A few men or taste and judgment," in cily and country, have set tho example by casting off all connection iih harsh colors. What a few leaders do at first, from a nice sense in tho harmoiw oi col- ors, the many will do afterwards, when they see the superior beauty or natural tints supported and enforced by the example or those who build and inhabit the most attractive and agreeable houses, and we trust at no very distant time.ono may have tho pleasure or travelling over our whole country without meeting with a single habitation of glaring and offensive color, but every whero see something of harmony and umuiy The Goicrument of Husbands. Punch has been writing some most sprightly I "-"-" """" -icuui nnue lor lining i,i- dies." an establishment in which Miss (Trillin euucaics a neicct nuiuuer ol young ladies in the mystic art or being wives. In one or the last numbers is contained this lady's receipt for governing husbands, or as she classically calls It, ' ring'ng their noses,' graphically illustra ted byan example. For the benefit of the wives that aro to bo in our circle of readers, hut who will havo no opportunity of receiving the person al instruction of Miss Griffin, we extract tho lesson at length : ' Don't tell me.' said Miss Griffln t kindness Is the true killer, I nOctl iltustrstp the atrree-.t. bleract; for in Cap-icum House no natural oh- ject is lot unon us. For instance Ijst Tm.s. uiy wiiiih mo amis punch class was on, an enormous wasp camo like a Lilliputian dragon "' tut-room, and new Irom girl to girl. Im- rnedi itely they began to scream I own it ; this is tho sad weakness that I havo to rrht "b 'tnsi, out, somehow, girls consider screams fluw t n ' ' O0,ni oi tne girls th-,i!i.i ia.s?..vltl1 their Handkerchiefs, and '""""'o rebel Miss Fluke seized a fire screen, nnu nil i-.iinipie, cnt'U lOU Kin.-, that Fluke they were still as 1. -! .1 .-!-! ' mice. ' Bring mc tho salad cruet, was my com- mind ; and, with a tliought.tho salad cruet stood ,m linrn in Inl.n imu lirtat in ei.li.l i,n . ....... ral enemies, that is, to govern the men who may become your hnsbinds. Yes ladies, or somehow (I can always tell) I felt the flow of words was coming and it was not for mo as a woman to stop it Yes, ladies, the Grl svslem will teach you how to control and Yes, ladies, tho GrilTinian over- tint s the true triumph let him wear our ring in ins nosn.- nere jiiss rniKe jumped upon a chair and huzzaed, ami well this time I did notatteinpttosiippressthonatur.il burst of de light so honorable to their reelings all the oth er girls joined in the shout. A ring in his nose.' I repeated, not the bit o r shining gold that declares our slavery; but an invisible, a lairy ring, that like a fish with a hook ho knows nothing about, only that he must follow wherever it leads him. Bless von, my dear, the e's such rings in the noses of thou sands of husbands, though, for all they shave every morning they never seo 'em. And. d?arest madam, asked .Miss Pebbles, a girl I have the greatest hopes or 'dearest mad un, how is the nose of our natural enemy to bo rung ?' ' Mten,' said I, ' listen and attend, and you shall have a moral and an example. When'tho wap now in the window entered the room, you fl-iviit it with all kinds or violence. I wonder it didn't sting every ono or you. Now,-in fu ture, let a wasp when it comes hive its little bout, and mike its little noise. Don't stir a muscle don't move a lip but bo quiet as a statue or Venus or Diana, or any body or the sort, until the wasp seems inclined as at this moment lo settle Then do as I do now.' Wherepon, dipping the feathered ocid of the pen in the cruet or silad oil, I approached the wisp and in tho softest and tentlere-t in inner possj. bie, just oiled it upon the bodv the black and yellow, like grooms waistcoats, when do ti n it fell, turned upon its back, and was dead in a minute. ' I here girls,' said I, ' see what kind ness, what a little oil does. Now here's im moral anil example. When a husband comes home in an ill humor, don't cry out and fly at him ; but try a little oil in fact, treat your husband like a wasp. The Indomitable Donfphnn. The famous Col. Doniphan, whose exploits in Mexico (says the Traveller) are without parel lelin the annals of warfare, has arrived at New Orleans, with seven companies of his hardy and indomitable volunteers G6G men in all. ' The men who have performed more service than the same number or any other portion or our in vading army are said to be in fine health Tho regiment Is scarcely diminished in numbers, not more than a dozen, we believe, having been left b'-hind, most of whom died by ilisea-e. The marvelously successful exploits or these troops, including the bittlo at Sacramento and the cul ture of Ciiihuiliua, were executed almo-t liter ally without blond-died on their own part. The m irch of these troops, in all its circumstances. Ins no precedent, we wore about to .iv, in the history of the world. The route w is from Fort L'-avenworth through Santa Fe. El Paso, Chi in ilim, Firras, Saltillo, Mnnteieyyin I all along the whole line of the Rio Grande tn M it ur.oras ill the way inth- midst of -nrniie ofall kind-, itexicans, guerrilla, robbers, and Indians; aU vavs a', a great di-tance from reinforcements in I supplies, and exposed every moment to utter xtermitation. The New Orleans National ivs : This column lias ronquored the States of New Mexico and Chiliuahui, and traversed Durango mil New Iicon, travelling six tlmu-and miles, mistiming a whole year, in which time nut a oird wis receiied from the G nrrnmti', nor any 'applies of any kind, or orders or piy. The army liiedon the country exclti-ively, and sup. ulled itself with amunition taken from th" enemy. Eleven pieces of brass cannon, trophies of Sa cramento, are now at the Brazos SantUgo on wieir wiiy .uis-uun. Too army in Chihuihiia has within the year, f hi 'it three consecutive h titles, viz : Br.izito, Sicramento, El I'a-o. That of tho Brazos was on Christmas day, and opened an entrance into E' Paso del Norte. The .Mexicans hatl twelve hundred and fifty men and one piece of artillery ; the Americans four hundred and twenty-live in fantry the piece ot cannon was captured and the Mexican army entirely destroyed. .Sacra mento was (ought on the 'Jatii ol r corn try. This bittle one or the most remarkable in tho war is familiar through the report- of Colonel Doniphan and other field officers. The battle of El Paso was fought about the 13th of May, by the advanced guard under Capt. Reid ; the Americans had twenty-fivo men and tho Cam anchese sixty-five. The Indians were routed, and left seventeen bodies on the ilcld ; lost three hundred and fifty head of cattle, twenty-live Mexican prisoners, and a great deal of Mexican plunder. The columns made forced marches from Chi huahua to Matamnras, and performed tho dis tance of nine hundred miles in forty-five days, bringing wilh it seventeen pieces of heavv ar tillery. A day was spent at Gen. Wool's camp at Ilucna Vi-ta, and another at Gen. Taylor's camp, at Sail Domingo grove, BithGenerils reviewed the column, and passed the highest cnco.niuim upon its uiscipl no and deeds of lalor. The St. liuis Republican of the 15th in-t. announces the arrival in that citv. nf l.t. Col. r:,i...i ,.ri.- i.i : . J . , ..mi.(iii, ui ii, u u Tt-;iiiieiH .iiisfouri volunteers, who served under Col. Doniphan as above. Ho and about 100 chosen men, were sent forward uy ui, uonipuan.as an advince guard, and ar rived at Saltillo on the 17th May. leaving there hiscommind to await the arrival of Col. Doniphan, ho proceeded to Monterey and thence to New Orleans and home. He -tates that Col. Doniphan, before leaving Chihuahua, effected a troatyor arrangement with tho authorities, by which thev stipulated, in substance, that, upon the United States traders paiing the customary duties upon their goods to the authorities of the city, they should tw protected in their lives and property, and permitted to trade in any part ol the State. Ill the firm ition or this treatv. Col. " f-'ave iiiein ui-iincuy in unuer-tanu, mat II ' I'.10 'or,n'' wer0 "t lriclly complied with, their c"y sutiuiu ue uesirnjeo, nnu an tne property ui 1,10 'Statu held resjionsible bv a force from Gen. Wool's army. Ulticers ot col. Uoniplian s command, relate iuiiuhwb niijjuiar uttuniocu, which nap- pened during their long nurchthiough all dim atcs and ull varieties of counfry : A moral and. -except a relief seemel bevoud the rango or possibility At this instant a clap or thunder was hoard, and streaks of light ling were seen to plav nlonv the mountain black clouds rolled rapidly up and rain came down In torrents the parched desert was soon drenched the animals anil inn refreshed, and the army moved, wondering anil rojoHng. No rain had fallen In this part ol Mexico for upwards or four inenths, and no one expected n drop until the beginning of the rainy season, which commences about tho 15th of June." Dates of the AcVtciem'nts of t'ie Regiment of tllissuur t I uiiiiiilc( Mustered into service at Ft. rt Leaven worth June 0,1810. Commenced its march for .Mexico, Juno 22, " Enteretl Santa Fo ' Aug. 12, " Treaty with Navajoa Indians com pleted at Ojo lloacr Nov. 22, " Bittle of lirazito Dec. 25, " Enteretl El Paso Dec. 27, " BitllcorSicramento Feb.23, 1817. Entered Chihuahua March I, " Battle or El Paso May 13, " Reported to Gen. Wool at Buena Visti May 22, " Reported to Gen. Taylor at Monte rey May 27, " The Liberty Tribune contains a letter from John T. Hughes, tlitcd at Saltillo. giving an account or Ins trip from Chihuahua to bear Do- niplian s despatches to Wool. Ho had wilh him fourteen men. They travelled only by night, and went through in thirteen days. Dur ing tho trip they went two days without water. Alter escaping many perils, they met with the following adventures : Becoming satisfied that every effort would be made to rob us or papers and send us as prison ers to Durango ; we halted near a gorge in the mountains anil examined and burnt all the let ters or our friends and every other paper and letter ot introduction, which we hail, except (Jol. Doniphan's official communication to Gen. Wool. and the-e we tewed up in the piil of our saddles. 1 his we did that nothing might be round in our pos-ession tint would h'tray us as express-men in the event we hid fillen into the h inds of tho enemy, which we h id great reason to apprehend. Wo pissed the city of Malpimi in Durango about midnight. On the 29th we beheld a cloud of du-t before us and aw various companies of animals, which looked very much like compa nies of cavalry. We at first supposed it was General Martinez, of Durango, returning to Malpimi after the battle or Saltillo. Or course we felt tho necessity of avoiding them, and ac cordingly directed our course toward the inoun tiins. At length we were able to discover lliat, instead or being cavalry, it was several large Attajos or picked mules on their way from Monterey to Chihuahua with peloncia (cake sugar) for -ale. About sundown we arrived at ban isebastian, on the Kio .Visas where we stopped to prepare a little coffee, Don Ignatius Jirmencz. a wealthy and inllueuti.il citizen of tie. nlace. collected iboul 100 men together, and notified us that he had orders from tho author! lies of Durango to stop us and make us priso ners. I Captain Collins sava: iwoll, what are you , going tn do about it?" Jirmenez replies, " I shall put the order into execution." Mr. Col-1 lins, " I am going and you can use your plea-1 oure about stopping us." Jirin"nez, " have you and your men pa-sports ?" .Mr. C. " Yes," wo hive Jirmenez, "let me ee t"cin." Mr. Col lins, holding his rifle in one hand, and revolver in the other, "these are our passports, sir and we think they are s illicient.'' Thus ended our parley. Wo buckled on pistols and bnvvie knives, and shouldered our rifles and b-ft " s-tns cereir.onic." Travelled all night and all next d ly until near sun down, and hiving arrived near the base of a high mountain, in the state of Coahuila, we stopped again to tako some re freshm"nt, and graze our animils a momnt. While taking our coffer this -.une Ign itius Jir menez, witli a bind of GO or 70 armed men sur rounded us, no doubt with the view oflir-t rob hiog antl then murdering tn. We quickly form'd aline of battle, heivilv charged our hols, ters, revolvers anil rilles, anil through our inter preter gave him tho Spartan reply : " Hero we are, ir you want us come and take us." After curveting and in imnuvering around us near an i hour, during Which tiin" we grilled the bise or the moiin'ain, he concluded we were a stubborn set to deal with, and accordingly look the pru dent plan or withdrawing his forces. There was bntone sentiment in our little band, and that was tn lig'tt until the I i-t in in ex lired, Wo were well armed, and could have kill -d fifty of them before thev could have overpowered u-. About midnight we arrivedat Rincho Poso, where we purchased a little corn fir our animals and took a little rest, as we h ul travelled night and day since we left Chiliuiuii.i. Without further difficulty, excrpt the failure of some of our animils, we arrivedat the largo and b'autl- ful hacienda of Doll Manuel Abare, near the city of Paris. Mainuel Abire was educated in Ueardstovvn, Kentucky, is a friend to the Amer : ... i !.,.' II.. 11 He cive us -ill leans, aou receiveo iis kiiiuiv. hi- l-ui- n- .in rt rr.,ii.. .t,,.ir..,l :,l.,,t tl. Amnrir.ui troops ami the natllc of Buena Vista anil Saltillo. Alter showing us Ins line nouses, gardens wun roses richly blooming, and premises generally, the gave us comfortable quirters during the night and a fresh supplyof mules an I a guide through In mountains in order to expedite our march to General Wool's ramp. Dm .Manuel Abire speaks good English, U.n full Atn.'ricin in feel ing, an I mrits our hig'iost appiubation for his disinterested kind treat mentor us. THE CHICAGO CONVENTION. The Grand I'roccssiou nnd Urgiimzntion, Cittc.ir.o, July 6th, 1817. The Convention assembled under an iminvnso tent in the public squire this morning. Previous to which the following was the pro gramma or arrangements and procession IIaudou A.n IIivek Convc.mioi Order of the Dai. Marshal or the Day; Hand; Cleve land Artillery; other Military ; Mir-hal; Bind; Mariners; Marshal; Bind; Firo Department; .Marshal ; Judiciary and Civil Officers ; Clergy ; Mayor nnd Common (.mined; Marshal: Gen eral" Committee; Committee iff Arrangements; Commiltci' of Reception; Societies and Orders iff Chicago; .Marshal; Hand; Illinois Delega tions. Tho procession or escort assembled and form ed as follows at half past nine o'clock, at the signal ofa gun ; Cleveland Artillery and other Military, sailors and mariners in Water street, right resting on Michigan avenue; Firo Depart ment in Like street ; judiciary and civil ollicers. Clergy, Mayor and Common Council, Ex-M.iy. ors and Committees, on Randolph street; socie ties and orders ol Uucago, on Washington st.; Illinois delegations on Madison street. The procession mnved tit 10 o'clock, at tho signal ofa gun, filing into lino on .Michigan av enuepassed through Monroe street to Wells, through Wells to Like btrcet, through Lake st. to Michigan avenue, resting at tho public squaro to tako in escort the foreign delegation then piocccd vvc-t upon .Maui-on sticct to Nate ft., lorth upon Stito to Like street, west unon l.ik o Clarke street, south upon Clarke to Public quarc. The foreign delegates assembled at tho Pub 'lc square on Michigin avenue, at 10 o'clo-.k. In the procc--sioti of escort, they were for uetl iv seniority or Slate. Tho ilelegtlions from the lifljrent States Wero designated by badges, as follows ! Milne, yellow; N. Hunpshire, white', Ver mont, green; M issichtis'-tts, red; Rhode I. mil, pu-pl"; Connecticut, scarlet; New York, I'rimson; New Jersey, pink; Miryland, lilac; Virginia, brown ; Pennsylvania, ilmb: O.iio, red and white; Indiana, brown and red; Michigin, Mini and while; Illinois, roil, white and blue; Wisconsin, vellow, white and green ; Iowa, blue, scarlet and drown ; .Missouri, while and scarlet; Ken'ucky, whito ami green; Tennessee, crim son nnd yellow; Georgia, orange and lilac; Florida, yellow, drab nnd pink ; Mississippi, purnle ami white ; Lotii-i tna, blue and yellow. Tho procession proceeded to the place of meeting, and tho vi-t asscinblige, then com prising about ten thousand people, was called to order bv Win. B. Ojilen, E-q., who nominated Jinvs L. Birton, or lluffiio, as Chrirmin, and A. B. Chambers, or St. Louis, and Hauscrocker or Wisconsin, as Secretaries. The blessings or Heaven were then invoked by the Rev. Mr. Allen, of Northampton, Mass. S. Lyle Smith, Esq., or Chicago, then pre sented several propositions to complete the uri- mary orginization of the committee, and the Convention then adtnurned to meet again at four 1 o clock, to hear the report or the committee to ,.,.. ,l... ...,. ,,i r ii. ,,,;n ,,,. i. r .i ' 1 -.i ' " aeicri a i-resiueui and oiuer ouicers. On re-assembling at 1 o'clock, the committee on officers were not prepared to report, and the Rev. Mr. Allen was called upon to aildres- the mecting, in which he claimed the prosperity of the West as emulating almost entirely from , . ., . , . " - , tits puntan nog mors. pnte n to the officers and resolutions to be pre sented to the Convention, loud cries were made for ""Corn-in," " Corwin,'' who finally took tho stand and addressed the assemblage in his happy style, and alluding, in sly wit and point, to the puritanical positions a-umed by the previous speaker. Some cries being made for Horace Greeley, he appeared on the stand, ami delivered a few rem irks appertaining to the objects of the Con vention. The committee fin illy returned and presented the mine of EnvVAim 1Iati;, of Missouri, as President, ami -ome dozen Vice I're-idents and Secretaries. On taking the ch rir the I'rc-idcnt returned thinks for the honor conferred upon - - - him; antl in alluding to Ins own po-i urn, re m irked that il vv is the lirs' lime in twenty years that he had publicly interfered with tho opera tions of government. The committee, also, presented resolutions that the Convention should be governed by the usual pirliani"iit iry proecdings; and al-o for the President to appoint a committee of seton, to prep ire an address to the people of the United Slates ; and a committee of two, from each State, to present resolutions for tho con-idera- "on 01 me convention. Also a com un.ee 10 f'y "tatistics for publication ; and another " 10 aueno, ai me nexi m?eung oi yonjiru to aid in the accomplishment of the object- of the convention, and to call another convention if this wis not efi'.-ctu il. These resolutions give rise to much dchite; and the second, appointing a committee on the addre-s, was tin illy laid on the table. The convention remained in sc ion until half past seven o'clock, at the time of tho closing of the miil; and I am, therefore, compelled to pre sent you a brier "ketch. A committee was appointed to present the n lines or perm anent officers of the convention, con-i.-ting of" the following gentlemen: Connecticut, J. A. Rorkvv dl ; Florid i, John O. Cunp; Georgia. Thoina- II. King; Indiana, S. C. Simple; Illinois, A. Lincoln; Iowa, A. L. Stout; Miine, M. A. Chandler; Mi-aclin-setts, Artemis Lee; Michigin, John ll.ddle; South Carolina. J. L. 11. Cross; Mi ouri, Al bert Jack-on ; X. Hunpshire, F. L Fi-li; New Jersey, Hon. I. Fttzpatrick; New York, Hon. J. C. Spencer; O do, Hon. R. C. Schenck ; Pennsvli.ini l. A. G. Ril-tnu; Rhol I-lmd, E. C Graves; Wi-consin. M irsli ill M Strong. The conitu ttee returned, and the mijorit,', through their chiiruiau, John BulJle, retorted the n lines of officers or the Convention, a fol lows : I'reilJiit Edwahd Bates, or Missouri. Vice 'residents John A. llrnckwiy, Conn.; J. G. ('.imp, Fa. ; Thorn n 11. King, Gi, ; E. W. II. Elli-, lod.; W. Woodhridge, Mich. ; I'.. Corning, X. Y. ; L- Kirkp itrick, X J.; Guv. B'bb, Ohio; A. W. Loomis, I'.i. ; II. Iloppin, R. I.; J. II. Twoddv, Wisconsin; A. W. Wat kins. Mo.; Mr. Willi un-, Ij.v.i: Clus. Hemp stead, la.; M. A. Chandler, .Maine; W. T. Eu-tis, M i-s. Secret triei Schuyler CoTix, Ii. ; W. E. Edwards, III.-. F. U. IVnno, Xew York; A. B. Chambers, Mo.; A iron Ilobirt, Ma.; Divid E. Noble, Midi.; Peter Mc Martin, X. J : X. W. Ons, O.iio; Frederick S. Lowell, Wi. ; II. W. Starr, Iowa. Tne minority iff tho committee, through .Chs. King, .New Jersey, p cscnted tho turnout loos. Corwin, ol Uhio. in pi ice ol bjwjni nates. . , - .. - , , . . i ,i. . -r- Corwin declined the nomination, and the iL-puii ui inu lllijorny was mi uiiiiiuiisij aius-u to. The President, under resolutions of the Con vention, appoin'ed the following committee; O.-i Resahaiont Ohio, J. C. Wright, J. W. Gray ; .Mass., Gen. A. Keen, Art -in is Lee; Mich.. W. WoodridL'e. Calvin Brit tin , Indiana, Diniel Mace, Ami. O-bnrn ; Xew York, Alviu BroiiMin, John C. Spencer; Mo., John 1). Cook, Fletcher M. Ha-sler; Penn., I. J. Bighim, J C. .Marshall ; III., Jesse 11. Thomas, David J. Baker; Wisconsin, Xathl. P. Tallin nlge, J. D. Kinsman; Ct., X. O. Kellogg, Joel W. Whito; .Maine, M. A. Chandler; Florida, J. G. Camp; Georgia, T. B. King, W. B. Ilodsdon; Iowa, Geo. W. Williams, X, L. Strout; Kv., H. C. Blackburn, T. II. Crawford ; R. I., Edward Sea grave, II. Hoppin; Xew Jersey, Charles King, Roswell Scott. Tho following letters wero then read: Letter from Cohmrl lienton. Sr. Lons, Juno 20, 1817. To Messrs. W.iymin ami others: Gentlemen In mv brief note addressed to you on my return from Jeil'-rson, I expressed the gratification I should have lelt in going with the St Lnuls delegation to tho Chicago Con vention, and made known the reason which would prevent me from hiving 111 it pleasure. The Like and River navigitiou of the Great West, to promote which the Convention is call ed, very early bail a shire of my intention, and never had a doubt or tho con-lilutionilily or cxiKdiency or bringing tint navigitiou vvilhin tho circle of internal improvement by the Fed eral Government, vvheu the object to h im proved should bo one of general and national importance. Tho junction of tho two jzreat sy-tems of wa ters, which occupy so much of our country the northern l-akes on ono hand, and tho Mississippi River and it tributaries on tho other appeired to mo to be an object of tint character, and Chicago tho proper point lorcilecting tho union ; all near thirty vears ego. I wrote and published .),. j a yA. l,oi, newspaper in fau.r of that object, indieiled, and almost acromnlished bv n itnn; liersnir, and wanting from man but little to eoinnlefo it. Articles in tho St. Louis En quirer or April, 1819, express tho opinions which I th"n entrlaln"tl, and the "report" iff tint pe riod, pnli'lslm! in the same piper, to the Secre tary of Wir, by Mossrs. Graham nnd Phillips. In fivor of that rauil, (and which "report I wrote.) was prohiblv the first formal communi cation, upon authentic tltta, in favor of tho Chi c ito rami. These gentlemen, with John C. Sullivan, of Missouri, had b-en appointed by the Senrrtary iff War to run a lin" from the south end or Like Michigan to the Mississippi River. I proposed to them to examine the ground be tween Chicago mill tho head waters of the Illi nois river, with a view to the construction of a can il hy tho Federal iiovernment. They did "ii, ami on their return to St. Louis, submitted all their observations to tne, ami hence flic pub lications in the newspapers, ami the report of the Secretary of War. I mention this tn show that my opinions on this subject are of long stand ing ; and that the nationality of the Chicago rami, antl, of course, of the harbor at its mouth, are by no means new conceptions wilh me. Hut I must confess that I did not observe then what I havo since een the Falls of Ni igira nr- mounted hy a ship canal 1 and a schooner clear-) nig from Chicago lor Liverpool Tho river navigation or the Great West is the most wondernil on the globe; and since the ap. vessels po,sPs-es the essential qt, Ilitios .,r open navitrit on. Sneei . t -t.inee. cbe.iuoess. ,mmi . mi. muii in Mi-iun power i o mo ropui-ion oi tudu iff cargoes, aro all there, and without tho turns ol the sea from storms and enetn es. The stoainlioit is thu shin of tin- river, and lituls in the Mississippi and its tribtitirios the amplest theatre for tho diffusion of its use, and the dis- pity of its power. Wonderful river, connected with seas bv the Imnl nnd bv the m.mili re enmg its arms towards the Atlantic and the ' 1 . , " ..in- i lain,!, "iiivtii i -j . v i . from the Gulf of Mexico tn Hudson's Biy urawing its nrst waters not Irom rugged moun tains but from the plateau or the Likes in the centre iff the continent, and in communication with the sources of the St. Livyrence and the streams which tike their cour-e north to llud son's Kiv training the larg'-t extent of the richest land collecting the products of every clime, even the frigid, to heir the whole to a g'liiri inirket in the sunny so ith, and there to meet the products of the entire wo-l I ! Such is tho Missis. ippi ! And who can cilculale the aggregile of its adv.tntigos, and the inignitudo ol its future commercial results ? M my years ago, the I He Governor Clark and mys-ll undertook to e.ilculite the extent of the h i liable water in the villev of the Mi-sis-ippi ; wo in ide it about 51,00) miles! of which 3J,. 0 ) ) were computed to unite above St, Louis ,im 20,000 bMow. Or course, we counted all the iiif mt streams on which a 11 it, a keel, or a bit te.iux could be floated, and justly ; for every tributary of the humblest boatibfe character, Ileitis to -well not only the volume of the cen tril waters, but of the commerce upon them. OT this iinmen-o extent iff river navigation, all combined into one sy.-tem of w iters, St Louis is the centre, and the entrcpfit of its trade I pre senting, even now, in its inftnev, an astonishing and almost incredible amount of commerce, ties tin d to increisc forever. Il is cou-iderod an in,..,. , town, winning oy nine .urn mono,, im I only true commercial measure of di-tances, and ht. Loin- I Loin- i- nearer to the sea than .Now Orleans wis before the steam tow-boat abridged the di.s tance between tint citv and the mouth of the Mi issippi. St. Louis is a se i-port as well as an inland city, ami is a port iff delivery by law, and has collected $50,000 of duties on foreign imports during the past year; ami withti liberal cii-tom would become a great entrepot of foreign as well a- of domestic coin norce. With the attribute- and characteristics of a sea-port, she is entitled to the benefit of one. as fully and as clearly as .Nor.- lorK or ,ew Urleans. About twenty years ago, I m-ived in tho Sen ate, anil obtained un appropriation for a survey of the Ripidsof tho Upper Mi I ippi ; it wis prnbibly the lirt appropriation over obtained for the improvement of the upper put of the rircr. About twenty-live year- ago, I moved, and -tic-ceded in tlie motion, to include the Missouri river in a bill for the improvement or We-lern rivers it was tho lir-t time that river hid been so included. Tuns, on lip iin,iirtant items of the Chic igo eanvl, the rapids of the Ur.per .Mis. si ippi an I the Missouri river, I was am mg the fi--t to propose to include them within the. circle of intern il improvcm 'tit by tli3 floral govern ment. I hive always be mi a friend iff tint ys tern, but not to its abuses: and here lie the diffi culty, and the dinger, and tho tiimhliiig-bloei; to its success. Object of gen -ral an I n itimi il importance cm alone clii n the attention of the fe lent govern n nt ; an I in favor of such objects I believe all the depiitinents of the government tn be united. Confined lo them, the Constitu tion can reach lliem. mil the tre.i-ury su-lain tiiem. Esten led to locil or section il object-, and neilh 'r tho Con-iitiilioti nor the tre.i-ury c mill uphold them, Xitionil objects iff im provement are fow in number, definite in clnr acter, anil minage.ible by the treasury; local I and section il objects are innumerable, and in .definite, ami ruinous to the tre.i-uiy. Near twenty years ago, the treasury was threatened with :I item in J I'or two hundred millions iff dol lars for objects iff internal improvement, then applied for, au 1 many of them of no nit'on.il importance. The enormity of the sum bil.ie l tho system; and so it iiiu-t be again, if the proper disciiuiinition is not kept up between local and national su jects. It is for Congress to m ike that di-crimiii ilion : the President can not: he iiiu-t reject or approvo tho bill as a whole. Here, then, is the point at which the friends of the system, in Uongress, mu-i cxen all tueir care anJ vigilance. No arbitrary rule can be given for the adiniion or exclu-iou of proper objects, but really national objects admit of no dispute; and, confined to them, I appro hend but little danger of losing a bill, either from executive vetoes, or for want or votes in Con gress. Very respectfully, gentlemen, vour friend and fellow citizen, ' THOMAS 11". BENTON. Silas Wright's Letter, Cantov, 31st May, IS 17. Gen'Tltmen : Your circul ir, inviting me to attend "a North Western Harbor mid River Convention," to bo assembled at Chicago on the lir-t .Monday of July next, was duly received. forwarded by .Mr. W Idling, of your Committee .My attention li.ul been previously r.illeil to the same subject by the invitation of a friend, at your city, to attend the Convention, antl gener ously tendering mo quarters in his family during its sitting. 1 was forced, from the stale of pri vate business, to inform him tint I could not in ike the journey at the time named; nnd the period which ha- elapsed since 1 declined his invil ition, his only tenJii.l to confirm the con clusion pronounced to Inm. Wero it pos-ible for mo to a tend the propped Convention, with out an unieasoniblo sacrifice, I should most gladly tin so, as my location gives ma a strong fi i'lin in reference to the prosperity and sif-ty of the com nerce of the lakes. Tho subject of the improvement ol" the lake hirbors is ono, wh'ch in v service in Congress has renJered i nnewli .t t'uniliar to ine in a legislative aspect, whilo my persoml travel iipm the two lower " ''"t m me accomplishment of it, if it wero lakes nas mule the necessity for these improve- P '"; I""". ' 1 regret that ! cannot come nieiits nniiir.-t to my sense-. I an aware that """ -nl Hv r,r,o,.ii.,n. Wi.-ldn; Hut quest ons or constitutional power havo been raised In rcfrronce to appropriations 0r mont v y Congress, for the Improvement or the laV.. harbors, and I am well convinced that hone-t ni"ii Invo sincerely entertained strong scmpli 4 upon this point, but all my observation and cx-nori-nre have induced me fo believo that thev scruples, wherj the individual admits the pom r to improve the Atlantic harbors, arises from th. want nf an acquaintance with the lakes and tho rommnrce upon them, and an inability to be lieve the r.icts in relation to that commerc. whn truly stated. It is not easy for one, fo ml'iir with tho lakes and the lake commerce, to reilizo the degree of Incredulity, ns to the tna niludo and importance of both, which is found in the minds of honest and well informed men. residing in remote portions or the Union, at,d having no personal acquaintance with cither; while I tlo not recollect an intanceor a mcmls--or Congress, who has travelled the lakes and ol "ricd the commcrco upon them, within the last Ion vears, requiring any further evidence or nr gument, to induce him to admit the constitu tional power and tho propriety of appropriations for the hike harbors, as much' as for those of tli" Atlantic. 1 0 1st. I have long been of the opinion, pie ofall portions of the Union with a realizing ' ses0 n the ficls as they are, in relation to these inland seas, and their already vast and rapidly increasing commerce, would be all that niiTeinre, mat to impress the minus ol the pe, is required to secure such appropriations as the latoV,l .im .. .i. .- :. . J , , . . I'rl""1, ' nil-- mi irutuiiiuiH oi me lamr uiruors. I mean the improvement or such bar- bors as the body of the lake commerce require ior us convenience and satety, as contra distin guished from the numerous applications farthest; improvements, which the various competing lo cal interests upon the shores of the lakes may l'"""'l , Mil 1 II piompi ; ami i m ikc una distinction liecauso my own observation has shown that applications f.'r jniade nnd passed, within distances of a very lew ii i rim r iriuirnvninniiTa nt nn nn h'tn nvunnuA .. tunes, ami at locations where, from the natural I position of tho lake and coat, a good harbor at j either point would secure to the commerce of I the hike all the convenience and safety of du plicate improvements. Much of tho difficulty of ' obtaining appropriations grows out of these con , flirting applications, ami the sternness with which all aro pressed as necessary to the lake commerce, impiirs the confidence of strangers to the local claims and intcrerts in the iinpor : tance ofall. It ii tho duty of those who urge these improve I ments, for the great objects for which alonu they should be mule at tho expense of the na tim, viz : the convenience and safety of the lake cotnmrce, to bo honest witli Congress, and to urge appropriations only at points where these considerations deinmd them. The river im provements con-tituto a much more difficult sub i ject, and the connection ol them with the lake ilnrbors, has often, to mv knowledge, fatally prejudiced the firmer. There are applications for improvements iff rivers, about which as a in titer of principle and constitutional power. I It ive no more d mbt than about the harbors unou t'ie laks, or the Atl.ntic coait ; nnd there ara tho-e, which, in my judgment, come neither within tho principle nor the constit-itional power; but to tlraw a line between the two clas-es. of case, 1 cannot. I have witnessed numoroui at- , , , - , f , b ,' , ' , ... '. . , ... ' ' ' ed lo my mind tn bo very sound, or very prac tical. The facts and circumstances are so verv variant, between the various applications, that I tiotiDi whether any genersl rule can belaid down, which will he found just and practical ; and I think the course most likely to secure a satis- nciory result, with the least danger of a viola tion of principle, would b for Congress to act sep irately and independently upon each applica tion. There lias appeared to me to be one broad distinction between these caes, which has not , always li-cn regarded, but which I think always should b It is bjtween the applications to pro tect ami secure the nfety of commerce upon rivers, where it exi-ts and is regularly carried on in defiance of tl e obstructions sought to b removed, an I in the face of the dangers thev pi ice in its way, and tboj; applications whicfi ask for improvemint of rivers, that commerce in ly bj extended upon them, where it is not. Tii ono cl iss appear to mo to ask Congress to regulate and protect comnnrre upon rivers where comm-rco in fact exi-t, and the other, to creite it upon river-where it docs not exist. This distinction, ifcarefully observed, might aid in d termiiiing-om? applications of both classes, but is not a sufficient dividing line for practical legi-l.ition, if it is for the settlement of the prin ciple upon which all such npplicitions should re-t. I us- the term " commerce" in this defi nition, as I do in this letter, in its constitutional sense anil scope. I must a-k your pardon, gentlemen, for tron h'ing yoti with so long and ha-ty a communica tion, in reply to journote. It is not made for any public use, but to express to you very imper fectly sum-. f mv. views upon 'the interesting subjects you bring to my notice, vveich I shall not have the pleisureof rnmmunicating in per son, ami tn s iti-sfy- you that I am not indifferent to your request. il; plea-c.l to accept my thanks for your po lite Invitation, and to believe me, Your very respectful and ob't. serv't. SILiS WRIGHT. .Messrs. X. B. Jupd and others. The Letter from Gen. Ca$3. DETiioir, May 29, 1817, Di:ar. Fir : I am much obliged to you for your kind attention in transmitting me an invi tation to attend the Convention on internal im provement, which will m.vt in Chicago in July. Circumstances, however, will put it ua of my power lo be pre.-ent at that time. I am, dear sir, respectfully vours. LEWIS CASS. Mtrtin Van Huren's Letter. Limienwald, May 21-t, 1817. Mv Diuu Sik: I thank vou kindly fir tho obliging terms in which you have been pleased to coininunicite tn mo the invitition of the com mitteo to attend the North Western Harbor and River Convention, and beg vou tn be assured tint you do mj but ju-tice in' assuming, that I am by no means indifferent tu its objects. Hir ing visj.ed most parts of your interesting cnuu. try, ami witnessed, with' admiration ami high hopes, its peculiar capicities for improvement, I cannot but wi-h success to all constitutional efforts which hive tint direction. Regretting that it will n.it 1 o in my piwer lo comply witli your reque-t, I beg you to mike mv acknowl edgements to tho 1-o.ninittce, for tins proor of their respect. I am, very respectfully and truly vours. M. VAX BURE.V. E. W. Tract, Es, letter from the llta, Jhnry Clay. Ashland, 1:1th May, 1817. Dear Sin : I received your letter accompanied by the circular nf the couiinitlre, renuo-titig mv attendance nt the North Western Harbor anil River Convention, proposed to be held at Chi cago, on the first Mondiy in July next. Cor dially concurring in w-lnt is ainJuuceJ to bj tho object of the Convention, I ehould bo happy

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