Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, August 13, 1847, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated August 13, 1847 Page 1
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4 Vol. XXI. Whole No. 10.70 Burlington Free Press, Published at Burlington, Vl.,' li y D. W. O. C IA It ICi;, Uditor and Proprietor. Tcrmst To Village subscribers who receive llic paper by (he carrier, QifiO If paid in advance 2,00 Mail subscriber and those who take it al (lie Ollice, invariably 2,00 II paid in advance, . ' 1,50 A M'tRTisKMLXTS inserted on the cuslomaiy terms. Keep Cool. tWtiiicn lor the Young American's Magazine.) 1IY (1. w. LHlllT. Arc your matters all awry t Keep cool ; llut consider w-cll ihc reason : If iou arc but right yourself, Tilings will come nehl in (heir season, JCl't'p COol. Though your case be desperate, Keep cool : IVsperatc evils may be cured 'I Vy cannot withstand a J',', Whdt have true men not endured ( Keep cool. Has a villain cheated you I Keep cool ; Jli't the loser don't despair: .uw your eye-leelh have been cut, Keep your temper i grin and bear. Keep cool. Ha? a maiden proved unbind 1 Keep cool : II nn'd haieynur heart's d ire, Tc.ii h votins Cupid's golden bow You can stand its keenest Inc. Keep cool. Can jrvti not reform the world 1 KVep cool : Onlv one thing you can do tinea hnite heart to the work ; Heaven want no more of jou. Keep cool. Pees (he prince of w rpents hiss 1 Keep cool : Show vonr stillest upper lip : When he sees that you are linn, You will find that oil he'll slip. Keep cool. l.rt your ills be v hat they may, Keep cool : Jei7e tins ttuili w ith heart and hand lie that rnleth well himself, Can the Hnncrsc withstand. Keep cool. iTavm. l'roni the Vt. Agriculturist.) The Study of Agriculture, We have till heard of Weathers-field onions. Somo parts ol Lex Co., Ma., have become famous lor the production ot me same article. Tho crop is made very profitable; and many have accumulated respectable sums for farmers, folcly bv the cultivation of onions for a few years. This results, we suppose, not from any pecu liar advantages of t lie crop o much us from skilful cultivation and management. When ono devotes his attention to a single crop, he stands a chance to understand it from beginning to oiid the prepatatioti of the soil, the choice and application of" manure, tho selection ami sowing 1)1 1110 Seed, linpit'llieins, ciiilivniiun, naic.-tni, selling, every thing connected with tho crop till he pockets the avails. I ho subject is Inn ited. and ho can master it. Well, the best mm agement ol' the onion crop requires as much study nnd skill as half tlio trades at which boys serve a long apprenticeship in order to perfect themselves. When one has mastered tho onion crop, how ever, he has advanced but very liltlo way to wards a complete acquaintance with the bu-i- noss of a .New England farmer. Ho has a dozen other crops, each of winch require equal J It often cracked, and the cheese became spoiled i-tudy and skill. And this is ono reason why wo . from that circumstance. This be considered as sc3 so little really first ralo cultivation, r 'arm- o ing to the cheese being too rich ; if mi, it is a rrs do not master (lie subjects that come before fault which may bo remedied. Tlio English them that is, liio knowledge nf their crops, I cheeses soon acquire a great firmness. I think from seed to sale and hence their crops are proper, however, to add tho directions of a mo-t unskilfully managed and of small profit. They experienced and successful dairy farmer in re try tn nuke up the deficiency by harder work, I spect tn this matter. He says tliat the rind may and by more hours in tho field. Hut ill that, thev lire wrong. TIlOV spend hours CllOUgll ill the field and work hard enough. It is the mind that needs to be taxed more ; the muscles less, j And our farmers, to a certain extent, know this vrfuclly well. They arc all familiar with tho tact that a live Yankee with his wits about him, I is worth threo stolid Europeans who never really understood a single thing thai thev were doing. 1 It 1 (rim tliit it'n must n;.t n.ir hrn.ul ltv llii. sweat of the brow, llut then it depends on the , use wo make of other powers that (Jod has giv- ll.(ai..i v..-.. .. w ..... . b... w... u....". ... . en us, besides our muscles, whether a gallon of sweat shall givo ns a hundred uusiiels ot corn or only twenty. It is as much the ordinance of Heaven that, man should observe, inquire, think, in order to get h daily bread, in order to suc cess, an that ho should work with his own hands. Tho following remarks on this subject, from the Genesee Farmer, are to the point : Extract. Undoubtedly tho Creator could easily have formed every acre of land, so that the most ig norant man alivo might plow and sow it, and n ap ono hundred bushels of wheat on tho same, Vear after ear ft lii udioln lli'tiiin miilwint imp-iinn" its fertility. Uut such abundanco would have been an enduring bounty on igno r.ince, if not on ico and crime. Knuwlcuqf. is nece-sary to renovate any largo tract of coun try, which has been much" injured by unwise tillage; and this knowledge can bo best ac quired by uniting the tty with the ;r!CliVe of iigriciillitro Tho study of agricultural science implies no mora nor less than tho investigation of tlio laws of our own being, as social, physical, moral and rational creatures. It is only a question of lime when wo shall begin to learn ichat it is that forms good bread, milk, butter, cheese, potatoes, beans, peas, lean meat, wool and bone. We cannot go on forever, increasing hungry mouths in bo fed three times etery day, and wasting, to tlio tuno of untold millions, the constituents of our daily food, anil not mil for our foiiy, Every body knows that there would bo somo dilferenco in a loaf of bread, whether it was mado out of a pound of good wheat Hour, or a pound of oat straw ! We aro wonderful nice about our own food, but wo expect our wheat plants to elaborate fat, muscle, brain and Iwno for us, and uso materials as foreign from human leh unil blood, us copper, arsenic, and lead ! Wo aro all exceedingly fond of good bread, milk and potatoes, while we heartily despise tho pa tient study that will Inform us what are the siinplo elementary bodies that unite to make theso articles of rood. Wo greatly magnify the i.Mimriaiien of blind hard work, as though man liad tho power to create a bushel of com out of llOtllill", by tlint Ol pruuuuiuu aim iiiieusu inim- t7.il. 'I'o study the naturo and proportion of the substances that nature muil havo to form eighty bushels ol tins grain on an iicio, i a per feet waste of l"o ! A knowledge ol Hick things can bo of no possible use tn tlio practical i In all tlmo past, and all the world over, it al farmer ! Who cares to know what there is in ways lias been tlio case, and it always will re n kernel of corn, or a sound, mealy potato ? main to bo so, that, wherever a local market is These things can be made out nf nothing, only 1 created, the farmer is more prosperous, and his work hard enough I A gallon of human sweat, spread evenly over an acre of land, is bettor than all the agricultural science in tho world, becauso it can bo sold any day in August for Jijlij cents ! If it were not for tho indifference of farmers to tho spread of agricultural knowledge, rural industry would rise at once liltv per cent, in productiveness and valuo. So long as the tillers of the earth shall work twelve or fifteen hours in twenty-four, to make something out of noth ing, the balance of the world will give them but a precious lilllo for their service. And why should they 1 If a f.trmer gives as much labor for one bushel of corn or wheat as he should for three, ought he not to exchange his badly di rected industry, by giving threo day's work lor one Willi tiiosc that study llicir business, and make every hour's work tell to best advantage ? Wo cannot blind our reasoning faculties, and then plead ignorance of the things that form our annual crops, as a reason wny we hiioiiki uiivo more man tlio tnaruei vaiuo inr our pro- luce. There is no alternative but to lessen the hard work now expended in growing all our agricultural staples, by tho aid of knowledge. II we cruelly withhold tins Knowledge trom onr sons, we indirectly give a bond that they shall bo the hewers of wood and drawers of water for tho better informed, and that, too, at liio smallest wages, all their days. Kind reader, if you have a son, and believe with u, that tho i-tudy of the laws of Naturo will do him no harm, purchase for him Mr. Junes V. W. Johnston's "lectures on Ag ricultural Chemistry," latent edition, which will cost you but SI 25. Let him buy, as soon as lie has thoroughly studied Johnston, Boussin jaultV "Rural Economy,"' which will cost a dollar and a quarter more. Theso invaluable works should he in every common-school library in tho State. We commend them to the atten tion of all leachcts of young men in academies and other seminaries. There is scarcely ten farmers in the whole State fof New-York) that feed all their cultiva ted plants, including fruit trees, grape-vines nnd strawberries, as they should be fed. The same is true, to some extent, in regard to feeding, with the most annroprialc and economical food, all domestic animals. How important, as well as interesting, is the study of the organic structure of all the living tilings kept on tho farm ! These organized vegetable and animal beings possess many organs, and each organ has its jicculiar olliro to perform. Do we work with or against the purpose of nature, in our treatment of these vital functions . Are we sure that wo obtain the largest possible crops of peas, potatoes and corn, from any given amount of land and labor ? or the largest return in good pork, for the corn, peas, and potatoes, consumed by our swine? How is it in regard to the production of grass, carrots, beets, beef, uuiicr, encese anu wool wnoso wool, worm thirty cents a pound, cost him the least money in land and labor ? Whoso cheese and butter yield him the largest profit or compensation for his Industry? When we export 1000 tons of clicese to 'England this fall, how much truly valuable mailer have we drawn from our pas tures ? Where are the urease thine, in bound less quantity, that make cheese, wheat, and woo! WJnt madness to rctist the sti'dv of these things. .linking of Cheese. In conversation with one of tlio largest whole sale ehee-enioiigers and nroiisiou dealers in the country, ho suggested that there were two groat faults of the American cheese, which somewhat prejudiced its sale in tho English imrkets. lie i a person in whoc character and experience entire confidence may be placed. Ho was pleased to say that ho had cliees fiom the United States, as good as any lie ha1' ever seen, and that tho general character of tho artieiu was greatly improved since the first im. poriations, lint the first fault u-.ns tbo soilness nf ibn lind. be tivule of any desired hardness, if tho cheese , bo taken from Ibn nrnss and nllowd In riMiialn : in Inino so strong that it will take up no more alt, for four or five hours. There must be great care, however, not to keep it too long in the brine. The second fault is the acidnes, or peculiarly smart bitter taste, often found in American cheese. Ho thought this mirdit ho dim. in m,n. ,.. ......... ...tl... ... .. - ..r .1 . iij nwillu MlllMIMIi;! Ill L'll'll ItllUIl III IISMIII I ! 1 1! mil I net, and in p irt to some kind of food which tlio cows found in the nistures. l!tl, n,, m.,ii.., I are well worthy of investigation, and that alone C'in ilptnrrnilm He was of opinion, likewise, tliat American ciiceso would sell better if it were colored like tho English cheese. Tho market for it was last becoming more extensive. In respect to American Ilutter. ho considered that which usually canio hero as a most inferior article. Most of it, I believe, is used in tho manufacturing districts, bolcly for greasing ma chinery. Salt butter, or butter strongly salted, is not saleable in the r.nglish market; and es pecially tlio salt must not appear, 1 cannot doubt, however, that presently sumo of our best .iiino or tipnteinuer butter, nut mi in luinns. would find a good market hero, if, m truth, we have any to export. Tho very best fresh butler in London market, however, docs not bring so high a pneo as 1 havo often paid for tno best article from tho county of Worcester, in Boston market; and I nave Ireqiicntly known the best butter to bo sold in Baltimore, and even in Cin cinnati market for half a dollar; a little moro than two blnllngs sterling nor pound. I have seen in England none nf tho admirable spring-houses which aro to be found in l'enn sylvaniu. Caiman's Tuitr. Hailroiuls nnd the runner. Tho introduction of canals and railroads, and their extension into all parts of the country, is working a chango to which many farmers in ol der portions look with evident alarm. By these fa cilities for intercommunication and transporta tion, tlio growers of breadstulls and provisions on the fertile prairies of tlio vast West are bro't into direct competition with Ihoso ot tlio sea board and interior of tho Atlantic States. Tho alarm is given, that our farmers cannot stand such competition, that their business will bo ruined, and thu value of their real estate des troyed. In theso fears wo do not participate, ihero maybe somo inconvenience, and some apparent present loss, in accoinuiouatiugourselves tome chango of circumstances, but we must do it, whether wo will or no, and, in our apprehen sion, it will bo dono so gradually us to produce very trilling iiiconvenlenco or loss. When it is done, wo shall find that railroads havo done mure to promolo tho agricultural prosperity of. New England, and toenliaucu tho valuo of the farmer's property than any other cause of recent date, estatos boar a higher value, than whero he de ponds entirely on a distant market for tho sale of his products. In the vicinity of all great towns, land always bears a comparatively high price, because it will pay a profit on such price. Now, tho tendency of railroads is to build un towns wherever thoy go, ami to create a local market in tho vicinity. Thov afford such facil ities for carrying on almost every kind of man ufacturing and mechanical business as to brim? theso establishments to the doors of the farmers, instead of compelling the farmers to send their produce a great distanco to them a distance which would absorb a considerable portion of tho value ol the commodities in tho expense ot transportation. As evidence ot tills, wo need but look at facts. Every where in Now Eng land that railroads have been constructed long cnongli to Imto Iholi legitimate ellects, villages have grown up on their line, new kinds of busi ness Tiavo been Introduced, and property, in their immediate vicinity, lias been appreciated in valuo. The area over which this influenco extendsoveryycar, widens as lime is given for tho change to work its way. The change, then, to which farmers must bo subjected, is, to cultivate for a homo market, instead of raising the great staples for ono that is moro distant. Prime lump butter, anywhere within ten miles of tlio villages and towns of tho railroad, or whero they can got it weekly to market by railroad, is worm nearly twice as much ns it is where tliev are comnnllnd tn lav it. iiown and Keep it torauisiatu tnaruet intlie win ter. Lambs, veal, vegetables of various kinci. and all doscrintions ot fruits aro comnarativclv more valuable. J lie ellect, men, ot the rail roads eventually will be, to give tho vicinity of me places tney pass through nearly all the ad vantages they would possess if located near it nomuous city. With tho culture of many things adapted to this change of circumstances, especially of the moru valuable fruits, a considerable portion of our agricultural community are not very well acquainted. Tho sooner they acquaint them selves therewith, so as to adapt themselves to the change, tho more to their interest it will be Seia England Farmer. From the Doston Courier. me Celebration of the rifth of July nt -uomcrcy A correspondent of tho l'icavuno furnishes an account ol the celebration ol the oth, at lien Taylor's camp, at Monterey. Under a wide prcad awning, woro Uen. Taylor, Ins stall. and tlio army officers. On the right of the awning the soldiers of Maj. Bragg's Eight Ar tillery were drawn up in line, on the left tho 2d Dragoons, and in front tho Massachusetts regi ment. As soon as the latter had formed into line, Uen. dishing mado his appearance, and uen. i ayior and his olhccrs all rose. Ueneral dishing then proceeded to address him as fol lows : General Tho veteran officers and soldiers whom you have so many times led on to victo ry anu to lame tlioso yet untried in the held, who ardently long for the day when your voice shall bid them also troad triumphantly in tho same noblo path of honor and of duty and oth ers your fellow citizens present, who, thongli not called to light the battles of their country, ire not the less animated with the samo devoted love towards her which we feel have desired on this anniversary of our separato existence as a sovereign people, to present their respectlul sal utations 10 you, as thooincial representative here of the pciver and authority of tlio United States. Wo come tn reioico with you on this day of glorious memories, in tlio prosperity nnd great ness ol our country, and to rekindle in our hearts that sacred tiro of patriotism, by remem bering together tho virtues and the sacrifices of onr wise and bravo forefathers, who have trans, milted to ns tho splendid heritage of the land hallowed by their blood, of the institutions they founded, of their own immortal names. It is indeed a day never forgotten by an Amer ican ; for, whether in tho homoof ouraffections and interests, surrounded by all that is dearest to the human heart, or on the broad expanse of tho fathomless ocean, or wandering over some far distant land, on this anniversary, wherever wo may be, our thoughts are turned pontane- I oiisly to the same point, as truly as the needle ' , , , VI I" ' as devoutly us the .Moslem to his Ho ly .Mecca. And well it is for us that it is so, since no warmth of gratitude is intcuso enough to be commensurate with the debt of thankfulness we owe to our patriot sires, no language of elo quence is powerful enough to express adequate ly the emotions of prido which our country's ca reer awakens no homage ol me soul is pro ""l" C"""P run,Ji:r a'l"'n - gracious l'rovidcnco winch lias continued to .. . . . ... . 0 "'"'.V? ,"ari1 "jo "e-tinies ot the Union. .HCilllwilllu lei lis uu lust lu luu ini.-iiiui w. bo just to tho memory our forefathers, and just to ourselves in the measure of regard which wo bestow on tins dav. Men who have but superficially studied the history of the United States aro accustomed to speak of this day us the anniversary of our emancipation from bondage, and vague ideas ol that vaguest ol all things, caueu nuerty, are attached to tho very name of our national inde- i i. .. i. i.i.. iL:tJc.,n. IICIIUCUCO. IMll liio peoine ui uie unueu oiaius were never in a state of bondage. The war of tlio revolution was not a war for liberty. On tbo contrary it was but a ctrugglo in arms to dctorm.no whether tho two great subdivision 01 uiu uriusii lace, unu iiiiiautini rjiiruu uuu the other inhabiting America, and both equally free, should continue to constitute a single em pire, or whether thoy bhould bo reconstituted separately into two independent empires. Tlio Clod of Battles decided tiiat we, the American Colonies, were as competent for independent self-government as tho mother-country ; and England, with that practical good sense which distinguished her from other nations, manfully acquiesced in the decision that split her power asunder, and gave to us separate dominion in America. And tlio mysterious orderof Providence seems to have predestined the American tn surpass the European subdivision of tho original empire, for, of tint high-minded, bold-hearted and strong-handed British race, which, whereso ever it appears, appears but toicommand, the more numerous part will cro long bo found in America ; and tho British Isles havo already reached that fatal term in the history of nations, when their native land can no longer feed its sons ; while tho peoplo of tlio United States are still expanding with a rapidity and strength of possession which ueues calculation, over the rich virgin soils of tho New World. This reflection acquires new force from the circumstances under which wo this day meet, a conquering American army, here, in the heart oi tho Mexican Republic, in sight of the cap tured redoubts and heights of Monterey, amid tho vencrablo trees, and by the sido of theso living waters 01 the wood ol can uomingo; which occupied by you, Ueneral, and your vie turious troops, has ucuuircd a nlaco in history as enduring as poetry ever gave to tho fountain ol Vaucluse, or eloquence to the grove of Aca - ds'i'i". IHJItLIiXCJTOIV, FRIDAY MORNING, Ye.i, millions of men will have assembled to day within tlio broaa limits ot the United States, to do honor to tho traditions of tho Ilnvnluilnn to ponder on the excellent beauty of the Federal constitution, to congratulate ono another on tho happy condition of our country, and to look for ward with inquisitive eyo Into the sublime fu ture of the American itepuunc. They will call to mind tho names of the stricken fields nf (lint first war of independence, which vindicated our national rights on tho land ; of that second war of independence, which vindicated our national rights on the sea; anu oi mo heroes who illus trated each ; but while Bunker Hill and Sara toga, and Yorklown, nnd New Orleans will nni bo forgotten, Palo Alto, Uesaca do la Palma, Monteroy, Buena Vista, Vera Crur, and Ccrro uoruo win yet more " Bo In (heir flowing cups freely remembered." and earth and skv will frcclv re-cho with shouts of enthusiasm at tho mention of tho names of ocott and Taylor, and ot me brave men who un rtnfliA!(.tnn,l l.n,n tlin banner ot u. .. in triumph over the wild plains-" '('rough the mountain passes of Mexico llut we, u i . u. this g'andcr than all human temples, the outspread sky ol the bright firmament of heaven, treading with our own feet the conquered savannahs of New Leon, sur rounded by that lofty Sierra, which rises on ci ther hand, as though placed by nature to be the boundary of empires; we, I say, can best ap preciate, with tho sober but strong conviction of tho palpable reality, how vast are the strides which tho United States have made in greatness, since tho day, not yet remote, when wo were humblo colonies scattered in a narrow lino along the shores of tho Atlantic, until now ; . when we have swarmed across tlio great central valley of the continent, have struck over to the shores of tho Pacific, and unembarrassed by the burdens of a foreign war, which has already given tons the possession of two thirds of Mexi co, are yet able, from tho superabundance of our overflowing prosperity, to nourish at will the starving nations of the Old World. If Mexico shall continue in the blind obstina cy of her fatal infatuation, and still rcluso the proffers of peace which the President of the Uni ted States, with honorable solicitude to termi nate the evils of war, has at all times been rea dy to conclude, then wo look to you, sir, in the uudoubting confidence ol perfect faitli in your generalship, your wisdom, your courage, and your fortune, to conduct us in similar tri umph along that lolly table land before our eyes, and to complete, on tho plains of tho Bajio, that which you so gloriously commenced on those of the Kio Grande, namely, the total subjugation of Now Spain. Once moro, General, in tha name and as the humble instrument of your fellow soldiers and fellow citizons, whom yon see before you, I ten der to you their felicitations on occasion of this auspicious anniversary, with sentiments of ad miration for the high achievements which have marked your life, of deep respect for you per sonally, and of the sinccrest aspirations lor your future happiness and honor, in whatever else of danger or duty you may hereafter be called to by the providence of an all-wise God. General Taylor briefly responded, thanking General Gushing in the name of himself and his command for the compliments that he had paid them, adding The existing war may show the world that in (rreat national enterprises and interests wo aro lirm nnd united nnd thatithe. Ilowcr of our country, without distinction of party, is always ready to vindicate the national honor on tho bat-tle-licld. Should it be our lot to resume offen sive operations on this line, I shall move with every confidence in the gallantry nnd success of the forces. I havo but little doubt that thn-e who have but recently come into the field, and have not been able to participate in active ser vice as yet, will distinguish themselves as great ly as thoso who have gone before. That thou sands of volunteers who have, many of them, been brought up in allluoncc, have left their pursuits and comfortable homes, to encounter the hardships of an active campaign, is a suifi cient guaranty tliat the rights and lienor of our country will always bo maintained. The Declaration of Independence was read by Col. Wright, and tlio party partook of a lunch. In the afternoon, Gen. Taylor and his Staff, and tho officers of tho Massachutt.s Regiment, sat down to dinner at Arista's house. General dishing presided and read oil' thirteen regular toasts. Volunteers having been called for, Lieut. Fuller, of the Massachusetts volunteers gave tVcn. Tailvr Wo hail him as tbo next Pres. idenf, may his civil be as brilliant as Ins mili tary career. (This sentiment was drunk with

three times three.) Gen. Taylor rose to respond to this sontimcnt, and said jllr. 'resident and (ientlcmenl havo never had the vanity to aspire to or look for that ele vated situation which has just been alluded to; but if mv fellow countrymen think proper to elevate, me to so distinguished and honnrablo n position, I certainly shall do my best to ills. chargo tho duties of tliat respon-iblo position faithfully, lint it any other canuiuaio is pre ferred und offered, who may be moro competent than myself, I need not say that I shall acqui esce most cheerfully in their decision, and shall rejoice that there is one moro worthy to repre sent them in the highest office in their gift. He then gavo as a toast The State of Massachusetts and the City nf ttoston -Tho place where onr liberties were cradled ; whose sons havo borne so conspicuous a part in tho establishment and maintenance of the principles of our independence and tlio con stitution, ana nave gauaniiy iiraiuiaineu mo same by sea and land. Col. Wright responded Massachusetts and the City of Boston It is my native state and my native city, and the state where many of us who havo been complimented this day were born. We have just received a compliment, and a great one, from tho com manding General. Massachusetts has hereto fore dono her part ; her name reads well, her star shines brightly in tho national galaxy. In lonner limes sue was Known wen, aim uiu wen. i She then held, and doe, now, as her most sacred . spot, what ice call " tho Cradle of Liberty" old I' anettil Hall. Wo may all securely praise the past becauso it cannot bo changed, and now may it bo our lot to m ike the future as brilliant as the past has been, and perhaps more so. We are here with our arms in our hands, her colors, bearing tlio figuro of that proud warrior and tliat good o7d shield witli its lone star, a twin star to that of Texas. 1 do not believe, gentlemen, Massachusetts has a ton on this soil but who comes with the samo feelings and sentiments that inspired their sires of old ; whoo wholo heart is not in the cause, and who will not do all he can in supporting the i.amo and tho honor of his country ; in maintaining that bright chiv alry of which she is so proud, and displaying courago and good conduct when the foe Is in bight. I will give you, gentlemen : The Past and Present Palo Alto, Resaca, Monterey and Buena Vista, tho Bunker Hill, Princeton and Yorktown, of the present cen tury. uen. Gushing having been called out by a toast from Capt. Montgomery, made a short speech, and gave 1 1 1 Vmiyl nates uapusea in mo wood or l'ic "evolution, consecrated by the tacnfice of AUGUST 1, 1847. our fathers, rendered glorious by the courage 1 l r .!.-! - , i. nun giory ui muir sous may nor ituttro pros perity correspond with her present frrandotir. By Cant. Montgomery, A. Q. M. U. H: A. Henry CluyUo has devoted a life to his coun try, and a son to his country's glory. Chicago Convention Mr. Webster's Letter. Marsufield, June 213, 1817. Gentlemen : I had tlio honor to receive, some weeks ago, an invitation by you, as a Commit, tee of Correspondence, to attend a " North West, crn Harbor and River Convention," to be as. sombled at Chicago on the first .Monday in July, without regard to distinction of naitv. If cir- cutnstances had allowed me lo fulfil my purpose of being ititho Wertoin country, at this season of the year, I should have complied with that invitation. But events occurred, to defeat that purpose. Understanding that I should not bo able to be vcnridhV mti I'x'jifK.VsoiY aVisi!,' ' Hi.W I'Si.WM; nevertheless, communicate mv sentiments nnnn tlio important objects which have called them to gether. A willingness to comply with that wish, as well as adesirc to treat with just respect tho invitation received from you, induces me to address to you this letter. i no improvement ol rsortli western mvers and Harbors has become an interesting subject. not only from the augmented business and po pulation of that part of the country, but also fiom recent Legislative and political occur rences. I do not understand, however, that the North Western Harbor and River improvements aro to bo the exclusive objects, of that descrip- tion which shall engage tho attention ol the Convention. I take it i-ir granted.that those who propose the Convention regard such improve- mnnts nil n.-nr U ll!n mUnir nil till! same ground of Constitttlionar authority, and haibors, and light", and break-waters. And the samo principles of public policy. Although ) were these lawful objects of National Legisla tho necessity for making and improving liar- tion ? Tome, certainly, they have appeared liors, and for tho clearing out of rivers, may be to bo such, as clearly as if thoy were on tho At felt to bo most pressing, at the present moment, . 1 intic border. In most of the how States of tho on the North Western frontiers, and the greatest uisappoinimem ieu, in mai quaricr, ai uiu recem and repeated failures of measures adopted by Doth nouses ot Congress to provide tor such tie- cossity, yet it hardly needs be remarked that tho unil 1 1 in Sint tiifi.Et ntiil tlm Sli.lllli. tbn iorm, and the l.ast, are nil deeply inieresieu in the fate of sucli measures. Tho question is general, not local. It allecls every palt of tho country, and every State in the Onion. Any proceedings, therclore, ol Conventions or other public bodies, called to deliborato on such sub- jeets, and to express opinions, cither on points c ... ; 1 i .... ..i.t: i:.. mj i u vu...-ii....iuil.,l HI,,, Sll jluuill. Jiu.ll,j, nuns ... jniu.ui, I ssuilll HIV UCIII'llllUII UlUSU IIIIUIUVi:-! meet my concurrence, bo as broad and coinpre- incuts, 1 have felt no difficulty in voting for tlio honsivo as the questions themselves. They ' appropriation of parts of these lands as a reason must be such as aro fit to bo adopted by the ! able contribution bv the United States to these Government, for the good of the whole country, general objects. Most of tho subjects to which and the equal advancement of the interests of all I have referred, aio much less local in their in-1 its parts. And I have entire confidence, that no ; :e, that no! i of Cons-' moro limited or restricted construction tifnllnnfil nnu-pr. nnil nn nfirrnn-'pr nrlnnrnlnr.nl ,vcr or more local ve the sanction of ssemblc. i ... . ... ... viewot putilic policy will receive I mo convention now about to assemble. Gentlemen, it is an easy task to communicate to the Convention mv opinions, upon the sub-, jeets which arc to engage its attention. I have only to refer to my public conduct, to tlio inea-1 sures which I have supported, and toiny public speeches in and out of Congress, for the last twenty years cs, l this live mode vention advantage. It will show that my opinions, whatever they are, aro not nf recent adoption. , They have not been recently espoused by me, ' in consequence of anv new degreo of favor or popularity attaching to the cau-o of Internal Improvement emcnt. On tho coutraiy, thoy have been f maintained for a long course of years, y against able and ingenious argument, steadily not only on the oppoito side, but also against the mn-t ujipijsiiu sins-, uut iiisu ujjauisu 1110 llin-t ul parly influence, and the tno-t vehn- powerful party influence-, and the tno-t vehn- ,. ..." . . incut denunciations of their alleged tendencies towards consolidation. VI..... . . . ... . . . i uu iwinicis irom inesu speecu-, uieir miuil'n are uio more ri-auuy uuu i-uuupiy nis.de, and me waters of tlio if ssissinni will I :-.all now proceed to transcribr. Although approached b) 'bo products nf the lactones and roll over snags, nnd snans, and snags tar accn may not bo the most interesting or attrac- the Fisheries of New England. It is mv opinion,' tnrv to come. These imnrni-nmn..,) 1 of presenting my opinions to tlio Con- f .Mr. President, that the present Government from the Government of dm lTni(.t ..-.. , u twn, ai il'jsl, ie uueiiucti wiuiuiie i;auuui uu uiauiiuuicu inn nv uuiiiiiiisil-uo u un in ine iiaiure oi in hits. :. ...:n i - . -i... i. i ...!.!. ' . i.. ....!...!... i i... I'. ...i. !. , .. .... . .. uuucv, ur ,'T- , """! mans m say, in June, iur; a is ircrsiry uiai us oe neius snoiim ui; ' autlioritv over them no power of improve 1823, it pleased the citizen, of 11 iston to gnu me practically lelt, by all parts nf the country, and , , ' Whv, that n ill bo thought tho most in. II nilltllP (Toil, nr. On , It-., ......i ..int, 1 ... .. nil tntnrnclf In lli.. ..nni.tr,' TI..- V . .1 .. n.I tl.n 1 n .. " V ill"-. Ill ., . , . . - I ' s.. w.. ... ui.,,.. -.....,. ... ... peech containing the extracts which I now transcribe from a printed volume g exceedingly .presented to ' Another siiliject, now becomin; interesting, was, in various form congress at mo iast session ; am . . regard to sent occasion. It was evident to all persons ol is hi nil. I hnltnvn. 1 1 mm is unli-t.i tilin II. ,,t.mr- I in. I 111 it thn r.iirinti li.iv. mil tin A Infrlmlti- shmilil i -.'."--' "v t,s '.- ,;,'' -: raises a vital question, tins qne-tiou was put iiiiisii, sii iijMiiisHi ainuii; uiu inunius-ln liuill una iL-ssttu i. in ssiii-ius-in.iuiu.unii-iiu.il aiis-iiinii, U;0,rnss , jt Ii:lS bOCtl put slllCe, it WHS put at til ii i .ir r c""ln""" !" "uy . "j. Li.so, po.mu ii,p,uti-ii,s-,u, iinsis-si- put it, now, lo bo Ihe question, s.....s ; .iiisiii.ii iiii.iiu.i iiisiiis. ,,,s. K.u.u.aii.1 ,K ... ..-v.,, ...... .,..,. .m. ,...TV p,,s. . t(,..0 illtorin improvements olthewaters H.s....,.;; impsnsamuu, mis siii.jesi nii,,i i.ops-, um ... .s-,i.ii-m. , ;iu.-c su, ...s-, .,, u..si, ; i,., all, Kjvers, shall bo made ; and tho- jiisui. u is.iv is.-iu.uns, is-i.unsi in u, un uie pie- ksu.-i.ii in-., s u, li.isii . i...i- ...s.. w...s...s.,, . . . . . , ,.,,!,, ,,,. rf ,, ,,. .,,1 much observation, at tho close nl tho late war, such as tins meeting does not disapprove, that the condition and prospects of tlm United 1 Gentlemen, live years afler tho expression of States had become es-entially changed, in re- these opinions, that is to say, in July, 13:13, I gard to sundry great interests of thu country. ' had occasion to repeat them in .substance, in an Almost from the commencement of tho Govern-! addre. to the citizens of Pittsburg. Extracts incut, down near to the beginning ol" til it war, ' from th it address, taken from a printed volume, tho United States had occupied a position of sin- I take the liberty to insert, gular and extraordinary udvantagu. They hail , " Geiitlcnieii,"yoiir worthy Mayor lias alluded been at peace, while tho powers of Europe hail I to the subject of internal improvements, llav been at war. The harvest of neutrality had . ing no doubt of the power of tho General Gnv- been tu them rich and ample ; and they had reap - ed It with skill and diligence. Their iigricul - Hire ami commerce hail both felt sensibly the benefit arising from the existing state of the my ability, by means ot reason idle government world. Bread was raised by our farmers, for aid, It has seemed strange to me, that, in the those whoso hands were otherwise employed progress of human know ledge and human vittue, than in tiio cultiiatiou of tlio field ; and the seas ( for I have no doubt that both are making pro were navigated by our sailors, for account ol gress,) tho objectsnf government should so long such as, being belligerents, could not s.ilely na-l have been principally confined to external nl vtgato tlieni for thein.-olves. Theso oppnrtuui- j fiirs, and In tho enactment of the general laws, ties fur useful employment wura nil oi.d and without considering haw much may be done by enjoyed, by tlio enterprise of the country ; and a tha government, which cannot be done without high" degree of prosperity was tlio nitural re-'it, for the improvement ol the condition of the suit. But with general peace, a new state ol people. There are in my object-, of great value things arose. The European States at once to man, which cannot be attained by uncouiiect turned their own attention to the pttrsiits pro- cd in dividual, but must be attained, if attained per for their now situation, and sought to extend . at all, by association, l'or many of them, gov their own agricultural, manufacturing, and com- eminent seems tlio ino-t natural and most elli mercial interests. It was evident, that, thence- cient association. Voluntary association has forward, instead of enjoying tho advantages, pe- done much, but it cannot do it nil. Tn the great collar tn neutrality, in times of war. a "vnnr.il , honor and advantage of V our own State, she has competition would spring tip, and nothing was, , , ..,,i .;,i, , " . .WJ ' T'.i " lo. Other na tions would now r.iiso their own bread, anil as far ns possible, transport their own commodities ; and the export trade, aud the carrying trade of this country, were, therefore, certain to receive new ami powerful competition, IT not sudden and liolcnt checks. It seemed reasonable, therefore, in this stato of tilings, to turn our thoughts inward, to explore tho hitherto u.iex- .... w.ss..,.. cssn.s.. it..wun , plored resources of our own country, to Hud out, f wo could, new diversifications of industry new subjects for tho application of labor at home! It was fit to consider l ow far home production ",,.i. nnnri,, I... ,nl .,, fnmisl, ..ntifitv-1., operly l made to furnish' activity to p dyiand since the country st.clcl.ed any parallels of latitude at, Jlongilude, ' ir1 i... i i ..i.r.i...... home tin over so many abounding, of course, in the natural production: proper to each, it was ol tlio highest linnoi to inquire what moans existed of establish'u: and chean intercourse betwoen those ing free .. .'u. 8: thereby bringing tho raw material, abounding in one, under mo action oi uio prumicutu iaoor which was found in another. Roads and Ca nais, therefore, wero seen to bo of tho first con konuonco. And then the interesting question arose, how far was it constitutionally lawful, and how far expedient, for the General Govern. ..... r..- i ... .1. l....: . r 1iclt lo ive a'l(j anj succor to the business of )nM,, hroi,s a,j canals, in conjunction with ln.t!..M...I . ! . ... am among thoso who hold tho opinion that If any objectof that kind hoof general or national im portance, it is within tho scone of tho powers of i.jui.iuuai uijuuiiusi;, ur oiuie unflnM.n k intra T t t 1 1 i v"""ij" ' 'lL"r"'i mo 03 a power ...tiii snuiiiu uu u.eitiseii wim very great care and discretion. Congress has power to regulate commerce, both internal and. exiemal,and what ever might have boon thought to bo tho literal interpretation of theso terms, we know the construction to havo boon, fmm ibr. vm- assembling of Congress, and by tho vcrv men who framed the Constitution, that the regulation oi commerce comprehended such measures as woro necessary lor its support, its improve ments, its: advancement ; and justified such ex penditures ns Piers, Beacons and Lighthouses, and the clearing out of harbors required. Ins tances of this sort, in the application of the gen eral rcvenuo.havo boon frequent, from the com mencement of tho Government. As tho same power precisely exists in relation to Internal as ".exlernalJrad;, it wns not easy to seo why ..,,.i"""l"."J.'' , .-'-A not bo illstilicil. wlmn .aw; un imernai oois tho West tiru iiuuelr; "ii imcniai uui- m, - , ; - We.sr iiru penetrated tff1 riving -or'wincif thoso of Europe are but ss tills and brooks. nut the navigation of these noble streams, wash ing, a.s thoy do, tho mirgin of ono-thirJ of the States of the Union, was obstructed by obstacles, capable of b3ing removed, and yet not likely to lie removed but by the power of the General I ififfifli rnont V act true ItlcTlfilliln rtliiil r.t Government. Was this a justifiable object of expenditure Irom the national treasury t ith- out hesitation, I have thought it was. A vast chain ol laKcs, it it bo not more proper to call tiicm a succession of inland seas, stretches into the deep interior ol this Northern part of the continent, as if kindly placed thereby Proti- donee to break the continuity of tho hind, nnd afford the easier and readier intercourse of water rnnrarmm. 11.. I ll. .... .1 UlM ,,l 1s ( West, tho United States are yet proprietors ofl I vasi uouics 01 ianu. Through some oiiueso, , Slates, and sometimes through theso same piilihc lands, tho local authorities have prepared to carry expensive can lis, for the general hone- . Ill nf llm r-mtnlr,. S,,.,,,. .Cllmci, ...i.tn.f tiL intra iniitry. Some of these undertakings attended with great expense, and navo neen atle; , have subjected cicu 1110 mates, wnose enterprising spirit has begun and carried them on, to largo 1 debts and heavy taxation. The lands of the ( United Mates, being exempted Irom all taxation, of course boar no part of this burden. Looking : to tlio United States, therefore, as a landed pro-1 j.i.. .,... :n. . i i i... .i : fluence and importance than they might seem Tlio break-water in the Delaware, useful to Phi' Inilnlnbln. in n.nfnl nlsn In nil tl.n cli1n.nit.nnrs ladolphia, is useful also In all the ship-owners in the United States, and indeed to all interest- ed in commerce, especially that great branch ed in commerce, especially that great branch 1 tlio coast-wiso commerce. " If the mouths of the Southern rivers be deepened and improved, the! neighboring cities are benefitted, but so also are ihe ships which visit sippi and Ohio bo run them; and H tho -Missis-j jo rendered more safe for n.uiga- markets for consumption along tion, tho great principles as wide and broad as the country, over which it extends. exten-ion of the power I mean, of course, no which it confers; bull speak of the spirit with which thosi should be exercised. If there be any .. ....... v , f there be any doubts, whether so many republics, coloring so great a portion of tho globe, can b-long held together , under this Constitution, there is no doubt, in ; mv judgment of I'io impo-s bility of so lid ling' . - . . . niy juiiiiiL-m ill h lu iiiijio-s mm ui so mi them together by any narrow, contracted, 1 them together by any narrow, contracted, local, or selli-h system nf Lngi.-lalion. Toreutic ('institution pnrpetuil, (which God grant it I . !. : . ' . .1. ... I. i 7. 1 I lion, l o render mo lch God grant it may i .. ' ' .i : . i . ... i .i i i .... .....v .,. ... .. . ..in. v..,. , West, the North and tho South, must all see ., . ,:. ..lii n ., '.'J0"-.'1 ":'1':'ru protected and advanced by i . Inle the Eastern frontier is protected by foili- l.cations ,t, harbor, imprmed, and its com- , .. lit ir .... i . t inerce defended by a tiava force, it is right and on que-tinus of this kind ; and I trust thoy are 1 eminent over various objects, comprised in that '. denomination, I confess that I h.uo felt great ' pleasure in forwarding them, to the extent of been forward in applying the agency of govern ment to "rent obiects ol Internal utility, tint even States canint do every thin. I Tnere are somo things which belong tu all the States; and if dono at all, must bo dono by till tho States. At tho conclusion of the late war, it appeared to mo tho lima had come for tho government to turn its attention inward ; to survey the condi- , .... ., - . . - ; - lion of tho country, and particularly tho vat We-tern country ;to take a comprehensive view I of the wholo ; and to adopt a liberal system ol I internal improvements. There are objects not J naturally within tho sphere of any one State, ' which yet seemed of great importance, as cal- , ,.l.,tp,f tn nnitn ihe dilVereiit iiarts of tho coniitrv. , culateif to unite the different pans of riie country,' to open a better and shorter way between tlio ! I producer and the consumer, to'be also of the .:..i..,i ,K..., tn n-nvnrnninm it.nl. s Ihealre for sttd, Imp rovement ncrt mainly in .a 5'.-. ML wil, ?! . i i n.V ;, . i ' "'.,u,"""i p hei to faci it es for foreign trade, does not ex peopled. Our rivers can be, nc..sured-your. nJ t tl,0 making of bacons, piers and light t "v i , Hmrii' r 7J T ik"s- houses ; but his wfiole message attempts to run 1 he Wwa. the elore mo.t deeply interest- JiHMCilon between foreign trade, and trade oil in this system, though, certainly, not alone i,,....,,.. ,m, outpS s iuterestwl even in such works ashad a Western, w cu tht bux"' , locality. To clear her rivers, was to cleartheni for the commerce of the whole country; construct harbors, and dear entrances to cxi ... . ex'ist- New Scries, Vol. 3-No. 7. Ing harbors whether on tho Gulf of Mexico or on ho Lakes, was for the advantage at wholo commerce. And If this wenFSJ -l i. is but a poor public man who Kffi governed by tho cardinal noints, " against a proposed measure, according to lu in dication by compass, eras It mny fcimcn U, lend farther from. mMii, n...V VV11" 10 immediate connexions. A.,,1 i. ...V. .?.vtn. - ' ' '"7 see what a moder a o expenditure has done, for tho safety ofhu. man life, and tho preservation of property In the nav Italian of the Lake, and dSnef ka m" add, in the face 0f a fixed and ar,),n. '"J lion." v,.v yjyyvSi' . j wmi i nave sa d on fcrnf'0'? '" s"Wrt o-metsnre. for Har or and Rlu-r improvements, and in defencf of the grounds of right and policy, on which W poso such measures to ret ; and I JmVi Jl tain recent and most Interelng occurence" It is well known, gentlemen ti,,. . u? i , ?J . fines mi T !,. . , ' nil .. r- , .... ... a uiu lor 11 n , "i .v..... . .miuuis, and mo naviirflflnn ..f rivpi ,l,ntb l,,,,,,- !n r"l J., V" eio message, as it is called, was sent to Con gross on tho third day of August This message, the first of it, kind transmit Jcdto Cengross.by the present President of the I'liihjd States, may well be snnnnto,! been drawn up, not only with care but Un , nnnn nsnnii ... ... i . I .'. J.,.., i-unj,,,.,,!,,,,, ,U ins usual advisers, the heads of departments, whose concurrence and support it no doubt received ; at leart it is hot known that any dissent was expressed in the trines were supported hv a tnaioritv'of tbifn v.aun.v;., w. ,i nuj i us mcmDers j and its doc- sident s friends in tho House of llenresentnili.n when tho bill was again put to the vote tier'' , according to the forms of tho rnn.iii,.ii i.' !.,, ..f 1... .1 ' . . SlllUll0tl- " . ",u s-unsiuuiion. it was lost, of course, bv the want nf of tho votes nf two thirds of the members. This veto message, as it is the most recent, may also us- ..aiuou uiu mosi authentic exposition of tlir, tirinrMiiloa n ...1 n..:..lr. r .1 ' liticiins, who are opposed to grants of money for improving harbors and rivers, and for works I ""I .w ,ii.is 01 inoc leading po- nf simil-lr i.i-i,inln. 'f-l . body's hands, and has, 0f course been univV sally read. It is not my present nurnoso l comment on ir, excent so far not,, i..t! I , ..!. f 1 1 r.l.f it .1.. . -I. if. . j what light its doctrines and its character struck ,1110, nnd how widely it ditl'ered from mv own opinions. 1 hree or lour months after thedofeaf of tho Harbor bill bv the veto message on ti b '.'dday of IJecember.'lS 1(5,1 made k snepch in 1 j meeting of merchants and other citizens of Phi ladelphta. On tliat occasion so interestin matter as tho loss of this' bill 'rnnM .'i ... .a . ... .' vu.u'u noi out at- tract attention. From mv nrintn.1 j.y... ercd before (hat assemblage, I transcribe tha following extracts : . ".I'.t co'itemplate. for a moment, tho Mis sissippi. J Ins noble and extraordinary stream, with scenor eight millions of peoplo on its banks, and on the waters fallinrr :. i. l...l.. li. (U- I...U , -- (''"" .., ausu- ' Fnr f. ,1 r . . .. " . "Vers, for the removal of snags and otherobstacles to safe navigation. Whcu's to do this 1 Will anv one of the Slates do it 1 Can all the States do .nis-iv i.'n i'ii iiiiuur, ior cieann ' one of the Slates do it 1 Can all the States do ' it ? Is it the duty .innmnrUtn r any number of States? v 'i . t is not. We know that unless this Government be placed in the hands of men who feel that it is their constitutional authority and duty to J make these improvements, they never will bo tney cannot come at all ; and I say tint every steamboat that is lost by one of theso sn-rgjt every life that is sacrificed, gm-s t mako up a great account against this j.inuii. linn. ..ii, wnata world is t hero - What rivers, and what nitln- .... .!,!. i.. ...... Cincinnati, New Orleans, St. Louis Louisville' atchnz, and others that sprim' un while wo' ;iro talklll" of them, or, indeed, before wo bcitl in nhn( them gin ...,,..... . , ......s. bim unil L s. I'rifiiL commercial marts, great places for exchingo of commodities alonir thes rivcri wlici, are so many inland seas, as it , .,., , ,i what ! il, fin.,-..i n "ui- -- ...s. ..si.uiai vjunernuieiii no nr.,. i i n Tin 11 n. lirtv-n (if-i tliAf i i nfi It;viM r,t bo believed, that it ever had en- oi, ii w in un. "i; ueni-ieu, mat it ever had e , , j . t t,,0 ,e., o- administration, th Uli0 wer0 not objects de.eivin.r the care a !m(.nli nf the Government. 1 Think therefo that and .ins-ilium in .ns v...,.iMiii'jiH. i uiiiik u ere. ore. ., . ,lr jti, no:r.ttivci b.. .,. lrni,lnT, . I.'. I. .1 . . r . . . in o whether of I he a here to Mr. Polk ; and thoso who say they shall be m ule, aud must he nude, and thoy v ill havo them made, why then, I hey have the work in their own Inn K and if thoy b. a majority nf tho people, w ill do it. I do not know tliat we, of the l.ast nn i .orth, have any especial interest in this ; but I toil you that we of the East think that wo have an especial interest in it. 1 havo thought so, at leit, ever since I havo been in Congress, nnil 1 believe all my associates from Ma-.sachiisetts have also thought so. Wo think wo havo an interest, an especial interest, in ma nifesting a spirit of liberality in regard to all ex pnes for improvements of theso parts of the country watered by tho Mississippi anj the Lakes." We think it belongs, both to our inter est am! our reputation, to sustain improi omenta, on tho Western Waters." Now, let ns not be carried away by a vague notion that the Constitution of liio United States has un power to make internal improvements, and therefore dies not authorize expendituren on a harbor. Wo are speaking of things not by any general name, not by classification, nrclas. ses, wo are speaking of things by phrases des. criptive of the things themselves. Wo call a harbor, a harbor. If the President of the United States says that it is a mailer of internal im prove ment, why then. I say tint the name can not alter the thing, tho tiling is a iiarbor. And does not every one of theso harbors touch navi gible waters 1 Is not every one of them on Ilia shore ot the sea, bay, gulf, 'or navig-ibo river ? and are not the invigiblo waters of tho occcan, and gulf, and bays, and rivers, nro they not all tor commercial purposes out of the jurisdiction of the. States, and in the jurisdiction of tho Unh ted States J How can it be said that these are within the pajlictilar jurisdiction of the States J II li.WOlr hn inmini. . .n I.. I. I ...... ...... . . r j Vr 1 " tJt''Vl?,t,y.!'' ' 7, , . , , "l' in ititi,!t?y'l STiJZ j " Taital from e , ' 'J' ?J ft Vcr,Vn, 'r ',' ".'iTftt l T,i. m ' "I'1"'"' - " -ho President nf tho United b ate. to T S Vh Con n. ,n, 1 f, ' "l I M I. t,v thi, r , Ur "1 ? , U' Z'ZlTLi - pouxrto regulate commerce with foreign ' 'l u wod. I g7i WciI'mTpI uilmits that the word regulate, a. arv , "" PP" ", i ' .iicr.i.,K liailSt; Ul UIU V.UIIS1.IUIISIII, III Ills. t(.J ruins' "Wl'i alJ I CA.ctly of equal length ud