Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, January 21, 1848, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated January 21, 1848 Page 1
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Vol. XXI. Whole !'(. 107. IM Kl,ls I O, IIUMAY MOItiM,, JANUARY 91," 181S. 7Vfur Sniiiim. V.l i - - - - - - - - ; . - - mi, fir. Burlington JTvcc yvess. l'uMMH',l.Hllurliii!;tnn,Vt., II y I). O. V, I, A U li I! , l'.ditor and J'tujaietor. Terms: Ti Villa?!- subscribes who receive the paper by Cite cu trier, If paid ill illlvillll'C - HI ..11 ...l....r.1,..r.i !ti.l ilt.m. who take it al lllC Vn,-;: a."" II nnlil in advance . '''" Ativuinn..Mi.-rs in-crlcd t 1 1 1 1 -cu'toniary terms. Son? of the Will it l.rinl.or. Oil! waii-r lr nic ! luis-lit water for uu', Ami wine lor ihe irt'iimlmK tlclmucln'C ! !l cook-th lln' blow, il coolelh tin' lirnin, It nuikcth the Ininl oiiu stioutf again ; It comes uVr tlif sense, like " biecc limn llic sen, All lu-Jiiii'iN, like inl.tiit purity i Oil! u.ncr, lnlilit wnler lor ine, fur mi-1 ttine wine, (rive wine to llic debauchee ! Kill mill.' brim' fill, nil lo tie Wini. J .i-t III.' llnwina cliry.-tal ki- the run! I'or inv hiin.l is Hemly, my eje i- line, I'm I, like the lloweis, ilrink iiiiulit bnl devv i O ! water, origin wntei's a mine ul wealth, And the ores it )ielilelh are viitornnd heallh. So water, pure water lor me, lor me 1 Ami wine lor the ticiiiulous ikbauihcc! Till iig.iin lo llie brim: n"ain to the brim! I'or water s-li i-nullii ii'-tli hie "nil limb I Til 111.' ill!- ul llie lljjeil it llddclll l.-iml II . To the imlil ul" llic strong il mMelli -trcmjth, Il heshens th- healt, il brightens llie sight, 'Tit l.ke quailing a goblet til'tiKiiiiiii hu'lit! So water, I will ihiiik nought but thee, Thou parent ul heallh ami eiieiay ! When u'er ihe lull" like a gl.nI-.onie bii.le, Alomiii" walk" fiirlli in her b.-auly's pri'le, And, leading u baml nl' laughing lioni", flni-hc- llie ilew hum the nodding ll.iwers ; 'li ' cheerily the v voice is lieanl Mingling wilh lli.-il "I llic Miami!.' bud, Wlui llmi'tli abiinil his malm luml, As he lie-hens Ins wins nitlic culd,gicy tloinl. Hut wli-n eieniiM Ins quilled her sheltering )cw, DinwMly llyini! ami weaving anew Hit Ju-l.y nir-'.ie- u'er laml ami '.-a, How gentle, 0 sic. p, fall thy poppies mi mc! t-'or I ilimk water, pure, r;uUI, and bright, Soliuriah! lor tli''c, Water 1 buiiali, hurrah ! Thou art -dv.-r and gold, thou an nh.mil ami sltir 1 Hurrah! for bright water I huriah, liurrali ! Angry Words. Ansry wonls are lightly spoken, lu a rash and llmujlille. ' hour J llrlibli st hnksol lile ale lunkell My their deep msldiou- power. ll.'.irt- inspired by warm.'st leilinj, Ne'er In lure by auer lirri-d, OH .ire nun pi-riiniiiJii healm,j fly a Mule uury word. l'oNou -drops nfeaie and soirow, llnt.T poi'. ni-iir.i- aie tli'-y, Veani'4 lor the enniiii nmriuie Siddest memories ol to-day. Auiiiy words! oh let iheui ii.wer fioltl llic Intiiftlc unbridled slip : M.iv llie be. Ill's best uupills.' ecr Check lliem, ere ihey soil the bp ! lovi j much too pure amMioly, !'rieiiiMu. is too s.tcrc.ll'.ir, I'or a inouieli''-. H-eklcss folly Thus tode-oluie and mar. Aury wor.U arc lightly spoken, l!uiere-i ihoiyhis aic ra-hly stirred; Itnahle-t link ul Jile ai.- broken lly asiulcliui) wuiil. f Fi mil the Xaliuiml lnteHicuei'r.l riiijsiim.vr's .m:nsa(:i:--xu. iv. Vn resuino our task of rcwewin": the posi. turns and principles ut tnai pari ol mo l ru-i- , .. M ... ...I.1..I. rn ,,, ... lent s Menage which relates to tho w.u Willi M- I in ,. ,,1,. d, i , J ., Yni.1 .hi. .iv'i.n. exieo; and, in doing so, shall avoid tlioex.un- . shall aMiid the i ..!.. I... II,,. n, Ml ,,f I IO I . V iV 111 i V I', f.f Ml I. ,u r.i .n ..j ..." ........ ...... ..... , . - stunting mere vituperation io. air argument, as our i)t,c,lr.,tiul, Independence, the 'lint prop being equally unworthy of tho gravity of tho .,..;;,, ... to i.,-. I.I....I ,... uih .i l." u "Vn htibiect and of the dignity of a government pa. per. Wo shall devote this number to some remark.-, which appear to us pertinent lo the occa sion, on LOSQL'USf, It's ros-IIUMTir.s, AMI ITS ADVAXTAliKs io Tin: uiMjirKKor.. If the People of the United Slates de-ire to he tlio wi-e Natron which they sttppo-u them-elie- to he, it certainly behooves them maturely to con-ider inWthov are to embrace, if thev do- ride on adopting llm-e projects of compul-ory , dominion winch the President and lus followers our own great .National ISill ol ItiMlits is not the slaughter and enslavement of whole coun are now urging upon them. Ami as, iiiique- found there only. It has a still lollier source ; 1 tries, f lie soil of .Mexico is already appropri tiiin.tbly, the new career iu which il i meant bec.iu-e that .source is one which the degeneracy ' ateil entire; there is thereioro little scope for they should cinb.iik implies by its ambition--- and infatuation of no one people can turn from land-appropriation there ; and they who ply our hovs, its violence, it- aggressiveness towaid- Ihe ( veiieintioii into scum. The doctrine itself was 1 people with lea-om for this war do not try to weak, its exchinge of Ihe purpu-o of good lo bo deiived into our Declaration of Independence ' lire them with examples of persons who success nchieved at homo for glory ami power lo be Irom the Philosophy of Popular Highls, then I fully stole lands, but inllato Ihcm with notions erected abroad a reversal of tho main public I iu-t beginning lo spread over Prance, and from of national grandeur and power, talk battalions maxims upon which they became and have thus Prance over the continent of Europe, llut this , ami armies (not agricultural implements) to far lived as thai great moral being, a nation, it j philo-ophy had itself borrowed iho truth from a 1 ihcm, and llourisli away, like boy-historians, is most nece-ary that, in cnn-idertiig what lliry system nobler and more solid from .National ' about that mighty ltepublic of old, Koine, and inn In rmhran; they should also consider what Law, ami the wi-o and liberal friends of man- bow she was the mistress of tho eaitli ! Plea thnj will ham lu ahandon, and ic'ial consent to bet ' kind who led the way iu the great science which , ,sanl statesmen ! Most profound historians ! ul hazard. I enlightens nations as to their rights and duties l Was it Knmo herself that U, ihe ;7iv, the When a mere nngi-tr.ile, a"iiniing the an-' in society, ami is, as lo them, what ltevelation I common people, tho " bone and sinew" of tlio thurify of kings, pnlly by secret devices and iiari v hv oDOii usurpation, urin.'s on a war, ami 1 then, bv artful appeals to tho-e human inlirini-' ties which aru common alike lo iho breastsoflgre.it principle: ami ho who will consult its ill Miverei.'ii-, (whether mouarchsor miillituilo,) , . :.. l !..:..:.: ... !iiipini,N to Kindle up, in tho plain citizens of a ltepublic, tho-o fatal passions the love of arms and triumph-, ll'u extended empire, tho appetite lo tale became ijoa can w hich have so often converted king- into scourges of tho eartli and of their people, it becomes Iho indispensable duty of every man who love ihe juiLlic surety tu warn his fellovv-citizeiiS of their impending ilaifer; lur that the President of the U. States, who in this day, when Liberty and every coun try's' ri'dit to it aro so well understood, aims tn bo the iTo"lrnycr of another land's freedom who would lav it wasloiu order to seize its territories ..r.M.iriiiVn its independence, and, for such pur poses, breaks over all Iho.-o fences of tho law which havo lieeu set to limit bi own hxcculivo powers then such a magistrate as this must lie looked upon as not moro tho Wend of the people whom ho command-, than of that which ho at tacks : and as, in a word, hostile, in ell'ecl, to tho well-being and lo the constitutional or mho lout poUticufpiivileges of his own country, as well as ol lli.il whose independence he invades. There can, it is clear, bo no principle upon which lu establish, in favor of any onu society, tho right to govern itself tn choose its own po litical in-tiluliims lo consult, independently ol all other nations, ils own public wants anil will which dues nut equally apply to all other sep arate societies; and it is only out or the com mon right or each nation thus to act I'or itself as in Ihn lawn and authorities miller which it shall jive within itself, that uny particular right of that sort can intiero in nieso muled Stales. To tpuvor. then, under nu matter what lireli'iicn or bv what agency, to depnvu another people ol ll,i ils indole.isii.io privilege, is u. l the general' ciKinij i') "" 'uierty .i... ......t nrecioiis oarlol the nlo ol lutum-i 1H lliu I . . ... ., . , .. I thus to invade it u to uo noimiig less ti,a ,, liumani generis, tlio couiuiou loo ol mankind uud ' Ilu Inii, kni'ln li., iiiiIiiiilb of whatever makes lis irue social napp nuss. Kxccpt Ibis, the legal, rational, and popular theory oi !iu - , - : . i ..ii.M,- ihn uibitratv and persona , ,s lull one uui. . r which holds nations to bo. not iiicir own pioper-( " ... ,.i., ,.r ulioovcr can, hy ,orce or, l.ul'rirri .nvonlor master them. That done,! fraud, circiinne.il. u. .- -- . y lie or they the nil's ---- nguint their own snlijcct people, or, in a De mocracy, the. ma-a of one ii.ilioii us against an other nation whom il had reduced to subjection, fan, iiinlcr this latter theory, treat tlicni us its personal chattels, and ili.-no"o of fheir lile, lib erty, uiul yoila entirely for its own pleasure ami down the (iovernmenls of lluropeau States that owcil it no obedience, cl.nmcil no riolit wlucli our President iloes not euuallvasselt lur him-olf, when lio would oerthrow the (luvcrninent of .Mexico, in order " to give her a more republican one," or ttrip her of near half her territories, in onler lo force from her indeiunilies which he hiui-elf distinctly admits she had and lias no means of puyin"-, othenvi-o than by a l.irpo alienation anil Iran.ifer of her poople and soil. To compel this puilial mle if hrrsrlf, ho now urL'ca that wo should continue the War, Mill more unrelentingly ns lo her blood, more rapa ciously as to her tii iMire.", and strike "at the, vital parts'' of a mtioii unable lo icsist us I How lo I hose States of our own, owiii'' a foreign debt, which thev too are utterly unable lo p.iy, una it lur mini' mimmr, iihu inis hiiiuik inuuui Are they also paitust.is of th war and of its mini' objects subject to bo justly called upon In nil tlirir inlialiilanls and llndr mil, in order to liniii dale IioiiiU which they can just as liltlo meet in iny other way Ur shoulil llollanil and l.ng land, asMin.ii.g as we .lo to act for their wronged , cipitahsts, proceed, upon our example, to extort ' ., 1 . ! . 1 I .1 , I by war the only sort of payment which the les- ser ol tho.-e indebted btatcs can tender, with wh it pos.-ihle countenance can the rest of this Union gainsay the demand, while bloodily pros ecuting a precisely like one against -Mexico ? livery writer who is of the smallest authorily in that great system of reason and of right called .National Law lhatsysteni ol' humane and prac tical truths, the gradual development and recog nition ol' which make up every thing which is, Irom nation lo nation, worthy to bo entitled civ ilization every such w riter (wo say) holds that, , . , .... " . - " , , niake, vvith any validity, such a transfer ol their subjects So that, by tho consent of all respect- able authors, dominion camiol be acquired, even Irom or to arbitrary rulers, by any such comptil- sory means as those winch the I'residont and liis abettors propose to employ in Mexico. fM.Tii neiug tlio plinciples which have come lu he received even in the Old orld, among .Males whoo instiliiiions and practices, as to public right, still retain, in many particulars, rules originating in ancient and arbitrary ages, Imvv shuuld ice pretend to set them aside ? mc, who boast ourselves the favorite progeny of Ju-lico and of Freedom, banished so long, but now once mote descending to bless tho earth? Is it tho ".Model ltepublic" which is now to subvert what Kings themselves havo boon at la.-.t taught to respect? Aro we, the refuge anil the hope of Humanity, the ga-z.o and tho guido of every thing Liberal, tho morning btar of a new day of Klght ami ol Peace, belore who.-o risiu isingbe.iui Tyranny woj to bkulk away and j ho oppressed r -joice ire .re tj r.dl oatk tho .(lie wrongfulness ol llio-e iron times which seemed 11,1 IIM IMVII III rpOst'S. 1111 IILTU PLillLUO o. wtl'w.tl.. iu l.u. IN lO!. UU lill It'll I II 1U J US! I V. WClt UIS ! .Illll nrPPIll llinmr..n Ml that the lirst oftleso thcoriui h that of on? own , . Jl..i I ifj,. ho alleged that there, wa, nieces- .ion, for n V U I ' 5 2 Declaration of Independence : and that the fcc- city fur jjoinfr to war with AIe.ico, eilher be-1 leader, but the L-overne. "infl I i ,m 1 1 , , i , ond is that upon which sta.nls that precious I caiie she had invaded a disputed territory of the small, can ilraw from mar tial itSnri ea.rue.tlie Holy Alliaiu'e, winch, in its assumed j which tee were in previous possession, (and the . wbell.er such a, aro to ,hvS I trir ZZlll pi.. .1 I .,:,! ,l......il I ..it! no ill mill 1 l.ii'l id im, i, wiili. Ilm A I.... in. it'll!, ftlillliutir iiui.iuiu nirever i .ire we, uie cmaiicipaiurs, tu mal iney would aliord a lisclul topic lo cxcito relil tho cast-ofl' chains or tyrants and conquer- nient against Mexico and in favor of annexation) ors, and re-manaclu each weaker nation that wo nor any improvement of our government, or can kidnap I laws, or freedom, or wealth at homo ; but thev Jlus principle oi a nations Irec-vvill its ri Ul , )0 .overueil only be its own con I ' r J -J ...... ...... , . , ,.,.; .1;,.. .,,,,1 iii,.,.ii ,,r ,.11 . ........ ... . ,.ns v , . f, .,,,,,., .,.;, ,,,, .,lrh . . . ...... Manns our ow n exisience as a society ; lur, in lrcoandequ.il" to each other individual: and lUajinl propo-ition as to men usociatcd in so ciety is, that they havo an inalienable right to choo-e how and hy whom ihey shall be gov erned. Has this principle, heretofore an eternal ami a " sell-ev uleut truth, become f.il.-e ever since the President iu his Mes.-ago proposed by force of arms to deprive all .Now .Mexico and California furover of any right not to lie gmcriuil '"" l"J llirir men eonn-nl ! Jlnt the principle thus made the capital one of and .Morals aro as to individuals. J hat great science nan lad already taken, lur its neccs-ury u. its first imli-neu-ablo idea, tho same foundation ablest couuicndiarv, allot, will hud tliat, iu Ins I: l. . 1 ....e. preliminary chapter, ho a.-siunes am! enforces, as tho necessary basis of tho whole system, those truths: I That man, in his natural stale, is a rational and responsible being ; thai, as such, ho is tie-; ccssarily possessed of a free will, that ho may pursue bis own duties aiul happiness iu oilier word, his teir-prcsorvation by obeying tho laws ol' bis nature; and thai, until he becomes tlio member or a society, ho is free ami indepen dent or all other men : Tliat when ho enters into a society, ho only vests iu it tlio natural rights which, in common with all its other member.-, ho held : that tho collective society is, therefore, in- iippiucss ami sell I indeleasihlu and perpetual to bo governed only wilh that another sociity, however strong, has no ri.'bt iodi.nriv.i iti.rilii.se its indisnens-t- more ri bio facultie has an individual man lo lake eavvay tho fe of shoit.has no more ' .. .. his fellow-iuau. A nation, in rti.l.i .,,,,,1 r en-lave i.n.itber nation, lhan has a piivatu person to murder or enslave an , . , i..' .. other man. Such, then, are not merely tlio inherent piin-, pie always retaliates am! helps lu make slaves ol' nations, the blood ol' her ' thrice-lhiee-hundieil ciples of our own Covernuient but llie sacred them, llut, lo proceed with examples: Cyrus triumphs." Theso wild invasions lelt empty ami universal ones of all public law, freedom, found Persia a dependency of .Media and lelt il iho lauds rrom which they went forth, and car and humanity, which tho Piesideut would have llie head of a gi eat empire; but meantime his ried desolation and slavery lo those upon which us set asido ami abolish forever, hy Iho conduct , army became iuqiortant, his mere peoplodca- they were directed. They till, however, served that bo urges us to pursue towards Mexico. 1 lo j ni-ed ', so that they sank almost at once to tho (as conquests must cier do) to iiiako more do- I vvoiibl liavu ns rescind our leclariiion oi lnuc- peudence, abrogalo the great Code ol Nations, I ami dissolve all tlio greal principles not merely , of our own Con-tiluliou, but of Free Institutions, would liavu ns rescind our Dectarilion peudence, a "twill inui , overywliore. lie would have us make war, not only upon Mexico, but Iho highest social truths ; . . . 1 . .. . . . nolonlyuponlbosanclityofanotherandavvrakor nation's life and liberty, hut upon whatever can ,u u.uv uum mu snoug iuiv vvuero ; nnt n,.i i : i . .- ,; ; j i.iiuu tiiiiiiauiiy aim in Slice, out unou an iu oiir ow u Government which was. meant lo cinboi v i ipm, And now, to justify or to induce aconlradic. aa'iii,., , j i J" tuiiiranic - -..v. v .piui ui uur uwu auu oi all other'good principles', what is or can Lo al legCll ? T.i in-tiry II, nothing- short nfan invincible necessity wonhl sullice; and, of course, no in - .Inccincnt, no inere a.lvantaKo to ourselves, can extenuate that which necessity only the want owed ns, for our citizens, indemnities irtiVA ic ciimik,i ;w cxcc,,l by the alienation i,f jtrl - I'.'". rr,l,'7,.!l".'J T'X"0" 11,0 ll!"tt:oM "rc. clear and easy : lirst, that the neccs-itv to repel a weuii invuuer irom voursoil, w lucli you are able w ith ciibetode'enif, is no necessity for tinn ing invader in your turn, over-running wide ter ritories, and stripping of his legitimate posses sions an adversary so weal; that joiiluuoiio need of hall'-dcstroviiiir. in order lo leiulnr him hurtlcss lo you. The only justiluhle War is that .i' I, ir ..... !.... -. , , .. . .,.1.M.-i;,,-1M..l;1., hi m lines; aim wnen inai is atta,.,.;. , ycur ng.it or war ceases. .Such is !" ' h?:" ?" f,,:!: r r ". ""i,f!-i"iioiy!ii the war is 1roscctile.l for indeinniHes u-hd, Mcvtctt rtni mini ihih in Stat m,l ,..i,.o .......... ..... , - j ... ..... "-y-'M '.".. !- nave aircauy snowu mat llie UIIIlcU la.lcs pos- 6Css no right of oMorllng payment in any such way. - -"-' .. ti.i .iui i.n.A - ico lose, any liileiu llial inanner. J lie alleged necessity is, then, first, no neccs- sitv at all ; ami. secondly, there can. inn fiimi. war with a people utterly incapable or defending tlicmse ves nine 1 ess hurt im v.ui m ln.inn . , . . n J bo 110 shadow of a pretence, not to sav necossitv. ..r,. r ,,. I... lt... I I.....:..... !r. .. ' iu, miii.;:., ciiuiiiioi. Cor vour abandouiiiL' not onlvvourown iIoIiIio-immmjI rale iiistitiitions, but fho essential principles of all public liberty and national right whatever. ..i"iii iiiuoi. iie.xu uu coiisiuereo , lor, surely, where tlio conduct is of choice, not necessity, mere- must be inducements at least, just or unjust, adequate or inadequate. nc re 111 igui 1 io personal , mere might uc parly I,.. ,.. , I. '.. .lr ...... .1 iiiiiiiiuiiviiio lu Lliu lisi-li, U LU LI1U IIIUIIIUI1.S in which the l'residcnt has waged or proposes to wage it. His own power to have avoided it ; J ' ..... ...... not bo questioned. Hut all these, instead or being inducements to them to whom wo aro ar- guing to tho free and intelligent People of this country should manifestly bo ju-l the contrary, It belongs to the President alone to wi.-han en- I Jargemcnt of his official powers ; and this just m proportion as he is otherwise, a weak one: it is for him not tho people to court a war as tho moans ol swelling Ins prerogative, and, as for going to war in order lo fabricate popularity for a Chier MauMralo who has but little, that can bono motive to affect tho good coplo of the uinicu .Males, We shall not consider, then, of I tho motives personal merely to the President or lus followers wlucli may bo connected with tins war: our present business is only with tho in ducements which it lus for the I'iode. The suasives obviously reckoned on (by liim who has made and those who favor this bloody experiment on our own institutions) as those vchii'h wnllld tons! nrpvail with nor Mf.ioiln nm not tho expectation of yetting justicu done to our claimants of indemnities -(tor towards these a complete indifference reigned until it was found aro the national vanity of successrul arms, the miucu IIOIIII Oll'll, illlUlllO US 1 1!.'!. Illl 1IICI IUI Ullll'l , ... i i i. .1. 1 1. '. ...m.....i uuiipiu s lamia which lias ueen uv suiiiu uiii.uuieu . -1... : ,.r lU IIS .is a UII,ll.l!.iCll5llU Ul Ulll lillU, In tlio lu-t, as a particular passion or our couutrj men, wo do not believe. Of tho.-e w hom it is suppo-ed lo infect not one iu fifty expects any part iu the spoil, llut who cares to steal for another's benefit I It is a personal not a na tional cupidity, if it exists, lu a word, what has been as falsely as immorally called "love of land-stealing," by way ol giving it a gayer and less severe nainethan (he stem old one ol laninc, is nothing else than that ruthless vanity ol em pire ami military glory which has besotted so many nations, ami made them mere beasts of Ir.iught, ever ready to harness themselves to the triumphal car of hiuiwho could lead them on to city that rcso to all this glury and dominion ? Or was it only Consuls, Senators, Generals, and l.v-.-i n.l.hv siiu.ruimirv llmneiors a 'I'lL.riu Nero, a Motnitian who reaped all that harvest of splendor anil command which tho mere peo- , f . t .. I...!.. , I , - ' nlo li.ul faltened with their blood ? To the leal People, tho plain, solid, quiet mass of citizens, who, in a free Stale, havo nothing iu store but to live as private men under "nod laws, what possible advantage iu extended em pire, a Himpous(ioverutuent, a national name at which olbcr countries tremble f Is it in such t state that tho mere ciliz.tii can expect to bo icguided I No: tho larger the (lovorniuent tlio more must he become insignificant. When tlitit , coiujuci-t from the midst of its market place, lit first ul' conquerors, Nimrod, tho inan-hunler, had tie moio need bo said than to remind our rea turned his subjects lo a pack of hounds with ' dors of Tliucvdides and Plutarch : tho vain pro- which to worry and Kill other nations, is it to bo supposed that, at his return from his victories,' elf nrescrv'ition an iJu iniiiiiiuiiu, wneu uio nuguiy oesusuia urovo niU paid lor attempted empire ; lor which, in il ri.'lit therefoio 11 ,l'al" r ",iir';ll to his chariuU Tho more deed, by tho most obvious reasons, free and Cs its own 'consent' to "l;,r.'llilk't,nt tlla d'o eminent, the lower sinks pecially popular (iuvernuieuts are, of all others, !.'.... the People always into wielchediiess anil servi- iho most unlit. It is armies that must make l"'ltf '"'Oiuw, aller Having helped lo strenglli- i -'"," ', , ," 'V , '.'. ., 1 J" tllu 1 1,01,0 10 bu " ! 0 l. mi," 1 I I liion can bono luster relribiitioii liuii llmt 1 11 l.J" uu "" ' . r.V "uu 1 m llKl" I"1" winch llie unerring order ol Providence pre pares for Iho nation which assists an ambitious prince y, nor any or those savage conquerors who to to reduce another people to bondage : that peo. 1 ven.'cd noun Itiuim Ihn ilestriirti.m nf so m inv level oi ine oiranger-iiaiipiu thai no had suhju- gated. What advantage did the conquests of Alexander bring lo Macedun 1 They carried' her up to bo the sovereigu-Slato ol" the world,1 in order only to share presently the civil wars that tore that vast empire to pieces, to suller tho couiuiou degradation and exhaustion that fell i upon iu parts, and, after a few reigns or weakly ; dcsiotic princes, to sink almost witboula strug- glo under the iioman nonunion, and become a inrro piounce lo a ftcthet-nson uvvay of Iho bunrd. i mrro piovnuo lo a ftcthet-nson uvvay of Iho ,' ' 1 oo inucii lor ine main cxampiesoi tlio ancient So much for Ihe main examples of iho ancient , t r ., . : . i ' . . ..!...... world audol t!ioo who in It joiuiucd or aiiiiujn- - cd empires: wo liavo passed over butl xidltftlhln vv I, ,i u"X'.""?-u,',n ' ail AxlhMrTTX special attention. All three were? durln Ml o belter nart of their r...,....V. " " ' couunis .' great naincs, or iiour upon a iiodv of ravaged kingdom or a pillarred nrovl...... .-.Mi,.! ...triMi.iiit inn irn i pi, crif ill fi ,1 I .. N,,,,liK i3 ll'-' k"wii than that, .tninnrrlhn Romans, the oppression, t in wr..i..,n,l.., t at last the degradation, the corruption, and the ' "lienor timers grew in propor tion totho.'randeiiroftbo expulsion of their kings began those 'incessant wars upon their nei'-hbora livwhleb il in U ri'ilt li :lll. nr r.tttini. i.l i ' '",u 1,1111 leuisi.neu in peace inu i.urii-iau Cid'.-. w io in s .ilo. in ,i.,!i..m.i, Itr!..;.... .. .1 .. l. ,. .-! , .... I 1.. commani ei in itTie , .-.vMrn n,.rrin.l . r., .i.n the people, c.iutartly called out to 1)11 the'ranks, I lhcir famillc InlmliBcnco, and became lit- , no ics man mo slaves ol the nobles, who, lend- ing them monev at exorbitant iiiterJsl,sci.ed on - '. - ineir .ersuiisor sirippeu inein ol uiopari ot con iiticrcil lands assii'neil to tlicni lie mil bv -it such distributions, they diverted fro,,', the Veo- , jhi;, nun even irom llio solilirry Who had con fiucrod them, all share in the lands thus n.nrei lessly wrested Irom some unhappy ncighlwr on I l,.,. ,i, r.n ... 11 i . ..... ... mults and seditions, especially such as'iiad foi ii,n; !.:. ,1 ' 1 r ....11...1 .. j ...... lllU llrtSSillJU Ul PI,-!.ilULll illJIilliail 1 Laws;" whirl, i ,,i;i. ,, i., i;ii,. .i;,!.i.. rn 1 1 ..i! 11 ,ir u-farni" notions but only legitimate e"librts to recover by law for the people their fair propor- 11011 111 cacti distribution ol coniMicrcU (tliat is, annexed) territory. All this w as, however, foil cd by the superior policy and steadiness of the few the rich, the nobles; until, at last, lelt I powerless ainid-t tho wide military ttrenglh , 1 .. . - rless amid-t tlio wide military ttrength 1 ed originally in their blood, the people of , , h . . , . ., ,1, ',. 1 ,. i lost every thing but the right ol voting uusuls (their one-year Presidents or rais- lOUHUl Koine for Consuls (tli vit iuiui iiiiw; IIIII.UI IIILIUII? , Ul uuiivio iv iiumio spread terror through their streets with armed bands or gladiators and slaves ; or witnessed the almost successful conspiracy of a Catilinu to mve Home to nillaoe and to llama: embraced Willi deli'dit Iho usurpation of Julius Ciesar; drove out tho patriot llrutus who hail struck down the sclf-inadedictator-for-life : andbecom ing, under tho Emperors, beggars as well as slaves, sought nothing of tho tyrants whom the Pratorian uuards made or unmade at will and I'or largesses, hut " panem el circcnies," gifts of bread ami itiiblie. nbnws. Sneb wnn Ihn tionuhir happiness and greatness under tliat conquering Uoinau ltepublic wlioso name and example aro iho main ones now held up by tho Conquest Par ly to allure our people to tlieir own enslavement in that of other nations. llut why do they not tell us of Carthagc,wbich, guided by a commercial rather than a military spiiit, long pursued, not for glory but gain, a nearly like career ? She, too, had stretched her Kyj'py fir and v'v'o-' nirctchc.l it til! it iii.i ied. Meantime lifiTpeople at home became the mere subjects or a (rumincrcial Oligarchy, am! in siiiijiigating foreign htales, tlio Carthaginian orgoi, in inoseiieiu-ivopa-ions, his jealousy ot, ...s u,.i. ii.iuis. nivuroi aggrandizement no- in;: pujiuiar, inu vioveriuneni could, without pun- lie harm, assume, as necessary to its succc-s ami as merely icmnorarv. novvcrs never he ore permittcd. These the continuation of tho war .i . wnuld alrtiivs sauclion. Perhaps it was long and hard contested ; in winch case (as in ours now pending with Mexienl tho d'overnment W.illld Il-L- rllLnnnr Ur...!.! ...,'. ..HI I... .11 " :'" sun inn mci ins- cretion; and iigaiu it would bo ielded, as one ol the neces-ities ol war, or even tho means of liororable (that is, succe-sful) " peace." All this would bo done, as a more momentary cu- l.trgeiucnt .ot the Lxecutive authority : but it is never such. I ho powers lent to make a con-' quest must be continued, in order to retain it;! ami where the struggle against your invasion coii'i.iracies and rovulls lo shake il off will le n. m uvi-u iuhl: .iini iiLTce. ii u.iiuoi lion iiv. main behind, to foil and finally to tame which your Executive must besullored to exercise lor years absolute powers in his new dominion and nearly the same in his old. I'or, when a na tion has staked all that it must stake ill a war or cm a conquest, its usual care of ils own free dom is always set aside; so that iu long wars lb,, -mrit nf pn,,.lt. n. In, frPI'dltU. COIl-tailtlv decays, and must at last cca-o altogether among a people who are always attacking and subju gating somebody or other. Nothing is moio in-. evituhlo than the process wlucli wo aro tracing especially when, after you have, a above, governed a conquered country for years by Iho anus and at tho discretion of your I'Aeeulive, its spirit becomes comphtely broken, ils people mere slaves : then vour (lovernment, to which you just now gave arbitrary powers ami inlhta - I V strength tn bo wielded against iho conquered nation, receives Irom them in turn arbitrary powers to bo wielded against you; and a- you formerly helped your ruler lo make them slaves, they will help him trjtnnl.c you slaves, ( )f Athens, wlucli, being a democracy, grew .ambitions of comniandinir armies and tnakiin' jects of tho l'eloponcsiau war; the gay ami Mr,u expedition to Sicily; its total defeat ami conquests ; and, where largo am armies aro con- (jovcruiucnl itself must oecoiuu iniuiary. 1 Su '"" for 1 1..... ,!.... antiquity: let us now survey , modern times. vv ,.i i..:.. i: a,.! pulic the Kings who conducteil them. .Next, rising up amongst o;io of tho races ol'tbo world llie most indomitable to arbitrary power tlio Arabians comes the conquering Mahoinuu'd and his successors. They overran vast regions and established despotisms, religious and civil, cverv where. What is left or them ? Arabia has shrunk back ugain into poverty, barbarism, ami insignificance. Her wretched tribes aspire no longer to piaguo or puiage realms, mil aro quite content when they tan plunder a caravan, Next comes Charlemagne, an ablo and politic, quite content when they tan plunder a caravan J. . ei...i., n . ..... we may even ?ay virtuous, prince ; but all whose 1 . . !l.. Ill .... ..mm 1.1 Tni mil ..nl.. .. .. ........... we may ivco snj . ..!..."., ..,,nu , um an ,iiusl. military aoiiinct. mum .uu.m uiuy an empire which foil to pieces under his immediate mice sors. 1 lien succeeded the Crusides; thou the cnitian ant! l.cnocso conquests in Ilia Levant, out or which grew, for tho former Slate, that tv (..'iMMl'r. .Jiir.ir.l.t, i....l. ...1.ll. I J "'"","""""! :w,c" nor people groan ed SO lOII!'. 1 IO Turks nmn mm. I . ...T... 1.. , , l" , v...... M1..1V , IIU, III their native deserts a free tribe, have, bv dint of uuiiiiiuriug, uecoiuo uner slaves, l'rom Iheiu wo may ilesceml lo the wily ambitious IJinno- ror, Charles Ihe 1' illh. What heller was Spain, iui oven an iiisiaui, lur nil liequi-illoin I t hev tumid her King only, in the Cusliliau Court, 'ihe lirst of her gentlemen ;' thev left her as mere a tyranny as could well bo. T!,0 same is Irue of I'ortugiil, with dominions that onco ahnot gird ed the earth. Wo may place. next the maif ca reer of Charles tho Twolllh id' Sweden, who (very naturally) ruined his own kingdom much mora than any of those ho attacked. Coming next to Trance, under Louis tho h'oiirteeuth, it is enough to repeat what the great .Montesquieu says, that it was nlost Ibrtunalo fur her that Lou.s spioject fur coiupu ingall Kuroiio failed : for lhi lis success would liaxo r'uineil her foi ev er. 'J'hosamois no doubt equally true of her late.-t and uiiht terriblo conqueror, who, after countless victories, saw itussiaus crown a King in I'liris, I'Vanre reduced back to her original boundaries, ami himself a sort ol imperial con Vict transported to another hemisphere to die. AlwaVS bellicose atltl tllllliilimts. il rniM-,rl.:itth, how little I' rauco has heell lllih, In I:ppii nf nil inai sue ever won lieyouil lier natural limits ''.il... , .. , 1 alio Italy, for instance, which olio of her great nine several times : she hits since then entered L.MMI.M3 ic-iuaiKs uiul sno nan a re u v i uvuoeii it again under Napoleon, aiul now she has not an inch of it in her possession ! SPKKCII OF Ml. CALHOUN, the Stiinti' if Ihe I'nilcd Slain, January A, lOlB, IfDDI ns liCHltUtlonS. ... ' . I . , , " ' cither ns ii provmeu or lo incorporate it m the I nion, would he im on-Mcm wilh llie avowed obj. ct for w hu h CA','. i Oil! I o mini iit I r r I inio in oooi 11. would ! niiuniicnt with ihe avowed ohjiv i!,;M'r, T, 7'. "r?""'11 ' '"I' l"'"", willed policy ul llic liuvcrmiic lit : m emil charncir imd "cuius ; ami m thJend, sn our Inc and popular i ii-timticiw. i rill re (foul tilt uilhct with its mveisive ul linn.. iiAl.n.li,,, I... I .n .......... ...I.lnl. ....I I to oppose the war, am! by the .,,,,0 coiiMdera- in.1.11 uiinti. u iiiuiu.iuii iiii.ii 1 1 iu ML! II 1IIU tion 1 havo been ever since guided. Inalludiu to.my opposition to the war, 1 do not intend lo notice the reasons which "overncd 1110 011 that ""il":'.. I'" ' I1:!." I'. "Cr:"N,,ry."J "P1?,"1 iiij "u picseiii. . .i. .ii-ei. inu war then, not only becau-e considered it im- necessary and that it mioht have been ,.:,,ilv avoided, not only because I lliougbt tlio Presi- out of the li't of nation-, for (ho President is dent hail no authorily, to order a portion of tlio emphatic, in the expre-sion of his de-ire to main territory iu di-puto and in possession of the tain Iho nalionality of .Mexico. Ho desires to .Mexicans, to bo occupied by our troops; not son l.r an indenpiident and llourisliiiu' couiinu- uiuy oeciiiiso . uoneveii toe aneiraiious 1.. 1 I I ...I ! ... . ) .1 . . ,1 .! , . , . , .,,., ' which It was sanctioned by (.ongre-s vvereun- upon loiiuuen iiiiruin, out irom nigh con-iueratioiis ought to lw dotin ! Wo are now coming to Iho s0el0 jjt.a, and that we may now inanufac-orreasonandiolicy-becausellelioveditwould practical question. Shall wo aim at carrying Uirc republics to order, by authority of a con lead to great and serious evils lo the country and on another vigorous campaign under present querim'-'ovoriiiiiciit greatly endanger ils free in-titntinns. circumstances lulsupposc, sir,' all thec diilioultic -nr- hut alter tho vvar was declared, and lnd re- f .Mr. President. 1 have examined this question , mounted, llovv can you m.iko A frco govt-n-.-ceived tho sanction of tho government, 1 acqui-. ji care, H'd I rei-t, Ural I cMiinot ivntrlt ,,., i.. Jm,,co7 Where are vour inaterialaii estcJ iu what I could not pievent, and which it wasimpo-sihlcforiue tn arrest ; and I then felt it to be my duty to limit my course so a.- to give that direction to the conductor the warns would, as rar as pos-ible, pievent tho evil am! danger with which, in my opinion, in threatened iho country and its in-titutions. i'or this purpn-o, at the last session, I siiL'";estcd to tho Sena'o a I defensive line, and for that pimmse, 1 now oiler tbe.-o resolutions. This, and this only, islliolfivo thoie-and troop, rai-ing the number of motive wlucli governs inc. I; im moved bv no llPrsOltal linr Ivirtv- (-r.nst.tiir i.Imm l .. ..I.in.., Ij My object is neither to sustain the Incentive m nor to strenglh- i nn Mm mm.,..; ., . i..,, .! 1.. ,.. ir ". ii" ,". r...i .ij iu 1 important duty to 'the country, llut I shall e'- I press my opinion 111,011 all points wilh boldness and independence, such us becomes a Senator w ho bus ,,il,l tn n.t- iii,..r .-. . .. . r V .' 1 'V" ineni or irom tue people; uiul vvlio-o only aim Is to diminish, to the smallest pn-.-iblo iiinnunl, tho evils incident to this war. llut, when I come to notice tho-o points in which I ililler from the President, I shall do it with all the decorum which is due to tho Chief .Magistrate of the Union. Wlieu I suggested a defeii'ive line.at Iho la-t ( session, ibis country had in its possession, iiiroi.ir i ii o means nl 1 1 s ii rni .i. ri mi, I'm lore. and stood iu a condition lo lurce indemnity. He- fore then, tho successes of our arm- had gained all tho contiguous portions ol Mexico, and our ltrilih merchants, or other caiiilali-ts there, our view of vv h it a jioaco ought to Ik', tho very army ha-ever since held all that it is desirable , vvliich mii-t bo cashed here and al.-o transmitted moment wo withdraw, it would all bo over tohold that portion wbo-o populalion is sparse abroad. Now, sir, whit will bo the operation of thrown; ami what then? Tho very country and on that occount tlio more desirable to bo ibis slate ol" things ? How lung can tin- contin- assigned to u- by the peace for an indemnity, wo held. I'or I hold it in rel'eienceto this warajuo? What is the pre-ent price or tre.i-ury Holes niu.-t either hold defensively and bo brought fuiid.iuieut.ll principle, that when we receive and of stocks in tlio market? Are ihey above back ultimately to Iho ilefe'ii-ive line, which territorial indemnity it shall bo unoccupied tor-1 par ? No sir. I sec them quoted Mow par. 1 would be the end of iho w hole of it ; or, return ritnry. understand the treasury notes are sensibly below and renew this war till it terminates iu the con- lu oll'erini' a ilcfpiisic,, linn I ilbl it lioriiiisp 1 1 i.ir uiul -tucks still lower. Now what I- to bo oue.-t of tho country. believed that iu tho first place it was the only , c. rlinn mode ol terminating (In, war success. fully. I did it also becau-o I believed that il J would be a va-t saving of iho sacrifice of hum in . life; but above all, 1 did so because 1 saw that any other lino or policy would expose us lo tremendous evil, which these lesolulion-were , intended to guanl against. Tho President look a uuieieui view, lie recommended a vigorous pro-ccutioii of tho war not I'or conquest that was di-.tvovvpil hut I'or Iho purpose ol' conquer ing peace; that is, tn compel .Mexico lo -ion a treaty nuking a snuieicut ce.-.-ion or territory lo indemnify this lioverniueiit both lor tho claims of its ciliz.ons and lor the expen-es of the war. Sir, I oppj-ed this policy. I oppo-ed it among oilier reasons, because I believed that if the war should bo ever so succos-ful, Ihero was gloat haz.anl In us al lea-l, that tho object intended lo bo cll'ecled by it would not bo accoiupli-he.l. Congress thought dill'ereutly ; ample provisions in men and money woo granted fur carrying on tho war. Tho coiupiigii hi- terminated. It has been as successlul us tho Kxectitivn ef tho country could poibly have calculated. Vic tory after victory ha- billowed iu succession, witboula single reverse. Santa Anna wa-repelled and ileleated with all forces Very Cms and the Ca-llo were carried Willi it. J.ilapa, Pernio, and Puel.l.i fell, and alter two great triumph of our army, the gates of Mexico open ed to us. Well, sir, what h is been accomplish ed ? What has been done ? lias the avowed object ol'tbo war been attained ? Have we con quered peace? Have wo obtained a treaty? Have wo obtained any indemnity.' No, sir; not a single object contemplated has been effect oil, nml what is worse, our ilillicnlties aro greater now than thev were then, ami the objects for sooth, more Jillicult to reach than ihey weie bolnro the campaign commenced. Now Senators havo asked what has cau-od this complete discomfiture of the views of the l',eciitivo for which men and money were grant ed ? It is not tola charged to our troops; Ihey have done all that skill and gallantry was capable ofcllecting. It must be charged some where, and where Is it to lie charged, but upon tho fact lhatihe plan of the campaign was er roneous, that tho object pursued was a mistal.o. We aimed at indemnity in a wrong way. Il we had aimed directly lo it, we had iho means to accomplish il correctly ; ihey were in ourhands. llut sir, we aimed.it indemnity through a treaty. We could not reach il by a treaty with .Mexico, ami Mexico by refusing In Ireat simply, could defeat tho whole object wo had ill view. We put out of our own power ami in her hands to say, when tho war should terminate. Vc havo for all our va-t expenditure or mo ney, for all tho loss of blood and men, wo have tiuihing, hut tlio .Military glury which tho cam paign has liiriiished. Wo cannot I presume estimate tho expenses of the campaign at less than ll,l)UO,IJl)l) of dol lars. (I cannot compute tho sum w ilh any de gree of precision, but I believe I may say about that sum,) and between the. swnid and disease, many thousands ot lives, probably live, six or sc veil thousand Have ueen .-, iui ii-.Miiiii- HUU-. all p.Asible deleronce, Ihey are lo my mind utter- IV lallacious. I will put the iinr-tioii in a .'on oral point of view, and satisly tho minds of Sen- ilors Unit sucli l Ihe case, Tho line prupoH'd bv nivself, exleniling from llie Pacific Ocean to Ihe I'.i.-o del Norte, woulil have been covered bv Ihe tiulf of California, and wilderness peopled by ho-tilo tribes of Indians; ami lor Us ilclencc nothing would have been iiufuvn ov, ..mi il iu,v I v. . ! I in w.ii oiivii.iii.j il t1L, (;uf, :,nj ;l j,,u rt-jritneiit. Trom tlio l'a neeiletl bevonda few vessels of war stationed in so del Xorte to its moiilli, we can readily esti inato tbecmuunt ol lorce necessary lur its do fence, it was a Ironlier between Texas mid ,. . i it . , ir,,M,.i, Mexico when 1 cxas had not more than lfiO.niK), ol a populatiun-without any standing army whatever, anil very lew troops, let lor seven years Texas ui'tiiilaiiicd that Ironlier line; ami thai, too, when Mexico was far more con-olid.t-ted than she is ntiw,.whon her revolutions were ' ..., t .... .ai.u im ........ .. MO! I'M .ILIJ1IV.OI, I IUI I ! 'M I t ! - I.l IIIUlll'V H'lU .,,..-.1, ..,.. .,,,,1'P,,,.,. i.,,.,.,,!., mumooi ( Cm IH"C" Ker,.ui. ex.is lier olilv nppo lie 1. L.iu ,J mnu nunutu u.u jiuaiiu. vj-mi.iu.-ivvu u; rut,- now 's-"prostrated as she has heen-deleated call anv man bebeve that it will co-t a nine i to . . .' . - ... . . i . .... I Im ,, iillii.i,tt ,11 ilnlnni I it . , So much for Iho as,; we now come to the cotnnieiiceinentofanolher cainpaigii ; atid tho question is, what shall bo done ? Ihe same locution of the war' The measures aro iden- ttcally tho same. Il is not lor conque-l llial is i now its eumluticillv di-owned as t was in tlie1 i.' ' . r i "o . .Vio x " . " nilv. anil iihsiiru strnuir uiul cooent. reasons tor ...' . " I -n ' all tint. Well, sir, Iho question i now, what the recommendations of tho President. There arc many and powerful reasons, stronger than tin-c which ousted altlie commencement of the ' 1,, campaign, to ju-tifv my oppu-ttion now. The co-tin monev will lie v'a-tly greater. There is a bill for ten additional regiments now before tliC. Senate, and unolher bill providing for tvven- ic rciiiiiniis of volunteers, has lceu reported, makin" iu all. not les-. I supiiose, than twentv- trnmw in il. -prvicp. as. f nresiune. the Chair- I . r.l... , I Miltt.ir,. AlVitr. ivi .10 of iho Committee oil .Military Affairs can Hut it is san hat tho occup-mcyora i!ereu.Wil k. ,u dmr ., jJvilil,!(. ,TSuIl Jllt sue hue would have been as expensive as theiw,,.lt yi, Ilf,lnlllMl , 'Vj y , t campaign itseir. 1 he I'resi.lcnl has reigned whwh yil ti..,,uw j j.r irii. J , , many reasons Tor that iquni.ui, and the Se.'i.darv Sl, pu.culed. whole will bo Iho nalionality of ol ar has done t,e same. I liave examine.! Mexico 1 Where hersepaialeexistu.ice ? Wbeio these rea-oiis wNh care. his is not Iho pioper lUU fri.e r( ,, ; v ,esir(1 , 0l,t , occasion lo nifi n iliein ; but I iuul s.iy, with Cm,... . U'l,., i.i..n i i...; ..r ..... ... inform you, lo not much le.-s lhaii seventy almo-t all the remaining nia-s of intelligence, tliiiu-aud in the whole. Well, "ir, the expen-o are without opportunities of concert and de-li-will bo much more than that of tho la-t cam- tute of Iho means of forming such a govern paign. It will cost not much short of sixty mill-' nient. Sir, such a government would bo un ion" of dollar-, pos-ible and if put up, would tumble down tho ' ... I- .. I.... t . ....... liltm, nf dm ninnn,' .!, .ill.ir ..,,r nr. .tiu'lim, W,W with. I I J WILH I inu . ..w market at present ? I.i-t year it wa-mo-uiour- Miin,.. An unl'ortun ilo lUinino in r.urope crea- tela great demand for our agiiciiltur.il product-, 1 Tho balance or trade wa- iu our favor. If mo- I ney mured out at one end ol'tbo siib-trea-urv, it mured iu at the other, llut how stauds'thc lease now? Wo stand now witha drain both wavs. The exchanges are iu our favor, and ' therefore, in-tead ufguld ami silver, drafis round- ...I m, n v tinrl.- w l lie rem lieu . i lie ecnaiiLres in Mexico must bo met eilher hy reiniHinces iu mild and silver or by drall- drawn iu favor of iho result So long a- treasury note.- aro he - mv par solong ns they are Iho cheaper mo- ilium iho end nf it will bo. that treasury notes mth tho pledge ol protection. 1 no pally pi iced vv ill "o into the treasury ami specie como out of iu power mu-t be inev ilably overthrown, and u it. "There is very great d inger that al last your ( will bo under Ihe - Oeiiiii obligation to return treasuiy will be drained to tho hotlom. land rein-late tbem iu power; and that would Now, sir, in ibi.- stale ol' things, vvh it can po-- occur again and again; till tlio country Would sibly follow? A great coinuierci.il cii-is a fall into our hands precisely as lliiulo-tau fell greatlinanci.il crisT even po-sibly, a .-ii-peu- into the hands ol' the llngli-h. This very con sion of the hanks. I do not pretend to deal iu quest of Hindustan which we havo been cen-ur-iho language of panic, lint llieie i- danger of , iug for vear.- ami vears, ever since 1 recollect, all ihirnl" whiel. lluiro w;m not the slightest up- was lb' rcsiill of mistaken )K!iey, leading en prehension al the coiuineni'emenl ol l.i-t Ses-iou. fioiu step lo step, each one deeper and dee r At pre.-ent there is groat danger. The gi eat 1 scarcely any de-igu of conquest being enter ihtliculty in prosecuting )o"r campiigii will he j laiued.'but ultimately conquest became unavo'ul lo obtain inoiioy. Men you may raise, but iiion- j ;iblo and it wa- ncce-surv not only to hold thu ey it vv ill bo dillicult to get. I lately conversed country, but to con pier tho adjacent territory. Willi a gentleman who ought to know tl.o.-el Well, sir, if this contingency follows if "tlio things, lienor linn myself; and be suppo-i'il that 1 Uxeeulivo l.nU iu establishing another govern forty millions nl' dollai-would bo lequiied either nient there under our eucouiagoineiit and pio iu Iho shape of treasury note- or stock- to cany toclion, ami il liio government it-elf sliall reliise on tho campaign. I a-ked at what price money to make a treaty with us on such term- as wo could bo had; and the reply vva, Ih it it would will accept in regard to indemnity, then Iho bo at llio rate nl' ninety fur one hundred, which President hiui-elf agrees that ho nu'i-t take the would be rather mure than seven percent; 1 be-1 very course which I have said would le tho in lieve. oi liable consequence ol" a vigorous pro-ecution llut, sir, tbe.-o are nut the only objections, for- of the war. The President savs, in sub-lance, luid.iblu as they are. Tho lailher you proceed, ) after having iitlempled to build up such a gov iho dillicullte" will iucrea-e. 1 dn nut see the eminent; after having employed the best efforts slightest chance that can lead tu llio realization , io secure peace upon tho most libera! terms, if of whit it i-avow ed, the pro-eculion of tho war , all fail; 1 now give his own word -if all Mil, I.- intended to accompb-h. The object is to ob- mo mu.-t hold on lo ihn occupation of llio eoiin taiu a treaty. Wo no longer hear of conquer- try, we must lake the measure of indemnity into ing a ie.ice, but of obtaining an honoiablu irea-1 our own hands, and eufoiee such tonus as the ty" tho meaning of which is neither more uon honor of the country demands, les-, than tint wo are lo obtain a treaty from Now, sir, what is this I Is it not an acknowl- Mo.sieo, giving us a ce. ion ol land equal to iho cuteil. If tlie war lie unsuccessful, I need not. argue tho jHiint. It we should bo ballled iu our arms m i trust wo will not be, and I think is nut very likely to bo the case but if circuin - stances should prove unfortunate for us, and wo should not lie ablo lo accomplish, iu a military whole indemnity aueauy si.ui.-ii in mu loriuer is aimed at, canuoi uo ouiii up, nu umn m. pari of my remarks. Well, sir, as it strikes me, j A conquest of the whole country and occupy it ?( whether the war is successful or uusiicce-slul, m words lie stronger ? Occupy tho country, il mu-t certainly end in tho defeat of the object, i Take tho roll measure of indemnity j no deleu . i. .,,,ii,i,,.it of which it is avowedly nro-o. I II, ,n ,,n ireatv ! and enforce the terms ; point of view, what is characterized as a Igor-1 mm, the contingency si uu... , -ous prosecution of tho war, iheu, certainly, there ! f it, fuiluroare many .there will bo no retrcaling. will bu no licaty. I tako higher ground. 1 in-l Kvt-ry argument again.t calling back the arm. upon ,l that the n.oie siu'cl'iiUy this war as ihey designate -fF ''IV.ve don lo rs moUcuted, the more certain will bo the de-i ,ne, which is now advanced, will have rtounni eaVo the objec. designed to be accomplished, mre'e after o have s,km.i six y m llio m of doh wh.Ut the objects disavowed will bo accomplish- a, and lave acquired potion of the wnio cd. How is a successful war to bo carried on ? What is Ihe object of it ? What is It intrudcJ to effect I I can see but olio thing to bo tlTectcd. It is to Fiippress all resistance in Mexico, tn ovcrOvver ami disperse lier army, to overthrow her eiill government, ami to leave her without any farther power of lesistauco. Well, Mi. I'residont, if that ho done, what is tho result How are you to get an honorable peace ? It takes hut one parly lo make war two parliiM lo make peace. If all authorily in .Mexico l o overthrown, iT there bo no legitimate power wilh whom lo noL'oliale. how urn von to nceiuoiilivh 1 ' "I ' i , ,i 1 t,,0-e ol,:cls whi, 11 is proclaimed lids vigor .u nhced ; and all this , olls pro.cu,,,, r ,IC w.,'r h im,(.,i lu c,l;rrt 7 S r. nti !iri KHmiIi.. .t- , M'l... uMn,, lSle ,,.ls b.. ' r . .. viduals without any political existence, and tho sovereignly of the country, at least for Iho timo being, is tianslerred to us. Now, .Mr. President, this is nut only a conclusion from reasoning up on tliii subject, hut it is one to which, if 1 under sianil Ihe Provident aright, he comes with a. sin gle rxception, uiul that, a ineru contingency not likely to take p!rp. Thy President has vcrv much, the same conception of the object of a vigorous war u I have pre-enteil. Ho savs lh.it the great difficulty of gelling peace result's from this, that the people of .Mexico are divided under "'-llu", Ullivo-Hlll-, Hill! 1IHU lli'J ciiicitaiu in r ot ivu because his rival w,)n, ,,nll bo able lo turn him out ; and tliat me omy way io remedy uns evil ami obtain a treaty, is to put down the whole or them. Well, what is to bo done then .! Is tlio thing to slop there ? No. Wo aro then to build up again and establish under our power and piuteclion a republican form nf government from the citizens who are well ihspo-cd, which ho savs are nil- meroll, , ata nruVente,I from obtainin,' It nnlv i. r. ,i i r. . . i i. . ..r. i M-i.l mi 1 1 U IMIIIIUI V 1.(1 L'Oi IIU IL la Mllll 1 ... . .. , .. . 1 ZI TU IZ.n .llZ'E' taWi-Iit-.I under Ids autiroritv. I can readily ,jerstanj m. a aristocracy how a kingltf hy n t,.llerr. '(! how a free a.idn.le'pou- dp,,, renitblic can crow on under such circiim- ,.. , ' i , P ! n 1 slallCP,i' U t0 .m.e '"cmnprehenblc. 1 had al- ways siinno-ed that republican Government wa tho spontaneous work or the people that it came Irom the people rrom tho hearts of the people; that it was supported by the hearts of me people, and lint it required no support no r. ...I. 11... in uil.1.1 lull ll Ulll .illy OUUI Id W IIUIU.UI Jllll, Sll, it scorns that these are antiuuated notions ob- u is to be, I presume, a cnufederatcd government like our own. Wliero is Ihe intelligence in -Md- ico adequate lo the construction of -itch a gov- eminent? That is what she has liecn aiming :lt for twenty odd years, but so utterly incompe- tent are her' people fur the work, that'll has been a complete failure from beginning to end. Tim ,-reat builv of tho intelli.'enco and wealth of .Mexico is concentrated in the priesthood, who aro altogether disinclined to that form of gov- eminent. l'hen the owner- of tho bacienda-- ,1... I..... the lar '0 planters of the country, who comiiri-o ,n .x j ...... v... ,.. drawn. It appears to rno to bo a far more pi iu-ib!i plan, il it is determined to have peace, to sii's- uuii the government that now exi-t- in Mexico ; or rather to lelrain from putting it down. Let it grow up and m iturc it-elf. 1 have conversed with several or the officers ol the army men of intelligence on this sub.ect, and all agree ill the opinion that Ihe inero shallow of a govern- iiienl vilncn now rptii'iin- nl izuereiaro. win have no authority whatever, and that ir we were lo make a peace" iu anv decree conform itory to , I prole-t iiltrrlyaguin-t ibis government nn derlaking to build up any government in .Mexico edgmenl that if this factitious government vvmcii terms on whom ! on the government ? no. 11 Is io euiorcu mu u..n.. r--. .livi.lu.illv : that is to say, to csuiuusii a owiei.i- 1 nient over them in the forni ol province-., j Wellho president is right. II I in tho v prosecution ol'lho war, as the Presiden

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